32 Matching Annotations
  1. Jul 2021
    1. A proper noun names a specific person, place, or thing, while a proper adjective modifies a specific person, place, or thing. Proper nouns and proper adjectives are capitalized. These include the following:
  2. Jun 2021
    1. 19ONE“they say”Starting with What Others Are Saying

      This section addresses how to introduce and discuss academic conversation. Review this source for strategies on how to paraphrase and interact with other individual's work.

  3. May 2021
    1. One of the challenges of writing a research paper is successfully integrating your ideas with material from your sources. Your paper must explain what you think, or it will read like a disconnected string of facts and quotations. However, you also need to support your ideas with research, or they will seem insubstantial. How do you strike the right balance? In your essay, the introduction and conclusion function like the frame around a picture. They define and limit your topic and place your research in context. In the body paragraphs of your paper, you need to integrate ideas carefully at the paragraph level and at the sentence level. You will use topic sentences in your paragraphs to make sure readers understand the significance of any facts, details, or quotations you cite. You will also include sentences that transition between ideas from your research, either within a paragraph or between paragraphs. At the sentence level, you will need to think carefully about how you introduce paraphrased and quoted material.

      Integrating source material into analysis adds credibility. You can do this in a variety of ways: direction quotation, in-text citation, and paraphrasing.

  4. Apr 2021
    1. But the main problem with quoting arises when writers assume that quotations speak for themselves. Because the meaning of a quotation is obvious to them, many writers assume that this meaning will also be obvious to their readers, when often it is not. Writers who make this mistake think that their job is done when they’ve chosen a quotation and inserted it into their text. They draft an essay, slap in a few quotations, and whammo, they’re done.

      Rule of thumb is that anytime you integrate a quotation into your analysis, explain that quotation to the reader. Now rules can be broke, but early writers should try to follow these conventions. Make a quotation sandwich! Analysis, quotation, analysis.

  5. Mar 2021
    1. Run-on sentences, also known as fused sentences, occur when two complete sentences are squashed together without using a coordinating conjunction or proper punctuation, such as a period or a semicolon. 
    1. In a way, quotations are orphans: words that have been taken from their original contexts and that need to be integrated into their new textual surroundings. This chapter offers two key ways to pro-duce this sort of integration: (1) by choosing quotations wisely, with an eye to how well they support a particular part of your text, and (2) by surrounding every major quotation with a frame explaining whose words they are, what the quotation means, and how the quotation relates to your own text.

      Avoid dangling quotations. Review strategies for integrating quotations effectively. Make sure you explain the meaning of the quotation to the reader. See section below about the hit-run quotation and why you should avoid it.

    2. Quoting someone else’s words gives a tremendous amount of credibility to your summary and helps ensure that it is fair and accurate. In a sense, then, quotations function as a kind of proof of evidence, saying to readers: “Look, I’m not just making this up. She makes this claim and here it is in her exact words.”

      Quotations are a great way to add credibility to your analysis. As you read further, you'll see integrating quotations is sort of like the porridge in Goldie Locks and the Three Bears--usage should be "just right."

    3. THIRD EDITION“THEY SAY I SAY”The Moves That Matter in Academic Writing

      This is a tremendous resource that will help to refine strategies for making and supporting written arguments. Check it out!

    4. but also serves to demonstrate the writer’s interpretation of what Bordo is saying.

      Rule of thumb: When integrating a quotation into your analysis, explain to the reader what you want them to get out of the quote. Brainwash your reader. Don't allow them freedom.

    1. To understand the powers of the press, we should look beyond the tumult of the quotidian. We should think of reading the paper and watching the news as acts belonging to the world of ritual as much as the commerce of information.

      What about the discourse that takes place, even if journalistic reports don't have the sanctity of the fourth estate? Absence of discourse seems even more problematic.

  6. Jan 2021
  7. Oct 2019
    1. After having his entire estate confiscated by Parliamentarian forces during the English Civil War, Nicholas Fussell, a bookseller of London, was "reduced to such necessity that he was forct to send two of his Sons [as] Comon Servants to Virginia." James Collins from Wolvercot, Oxfordshire, moved to the city sometime after his father died, where he was taken up from the streets as "an idle boy" in the summer of 1684.

      Great example of the overlapping of motives and factors that contributed to English emigration.

    2. Particular reasons that prompted servants to emigrate are obscure, but occasionally there are glimpses. Thomas Constable of London was described simply as "a poor man" when he emigrated in 1618, and in social rank only marginally above the likes of Robert Kinge, John Bromley, and Jane Wenchman, vagrants plucked off the streets of London and transported as servants of the Virginia Company in the same year. On board the Ann, which docked at Jamestown in September 1623, were artisans and laborers-such as Owen Dawson of St. Martins in the Fields, London, a joiner, Edward Rogers of Purbury, Somerset, a carpenter, and William Kelloway, "aged 20," from Portsmouth, a husbandman-sent to repeople the colony after the great Indian uprising eighteen months earlier had reduced the English population by a third. Thomas Jarvis, a tailor from Bishopsgate, London, was given a Ł1 "towards supplying his wants" by the Drapers Company when he left for Virginia in 1635, and later in the century John Brery of Ottley, Yorkshire, contracted himself for four years, "Being lately disbanded out of millitary service." (3)

      What was the prototypical demographic of people immigrating to the Chesapeake?

    3. For many poor, taking ship to the plantations was a spectacular form of subsistence migration, necessitated by the difficulties of earning a living and the lack of any immediate prospect of conditions getting better. Across the century, about three-quarters of all English settlers arrived in Virginia as indentured servants and served usually four to five years in return for the cost of their passage, board, lodging, and various freedom dues. They came from a wide variety of regions and communities: London and its environs, southern and central England, the West Country and, in fewer numbers, from northern counties.

      What were people seeking by immigrating to Virginia that they had little prospect of in England?

    1. Strict uniformity of religious worship among the people was a vital political priority during the 17th century. Those who did not support the Church were seen by monarchs and their advisers as a threat to the state and the social order. Striving for uniformity After the Gunpowder Plot of 1605 Parliament passed a series of oppressive measures adding to the restrictions imposed on Catholics during Elizabeth I’s reign.  Large numbers of laws aimed at enforcing membership of the established Church were passed. But the House of Commons was increasingly made up of extreme Protestants, so there were arguments about what form that Church should take. For example, in 1642, in accordance with instructions from the Speaker of the House of Commons, returns were made to Parliament of those who made the protestation ‘to maintain the true Reformed Protestant Religion’, which was in fact a veiled attack on the King’s Anglicanism. Ultimately religious conflict within Parliament led to the English Civil War.

      What two groups of Englishmen would this potentially encourage New World migration?

    1. The Company was forced to renege on its cash promises, instead distributing 50-acre lots in payment. The next year, the Company instituted the headright system, a way to bring more settlers to Virginia. Investors and residents were able to acquire land in paying the passage of new settlers. In most cases, these newcomers spent a period of time in servitude on the investor's land. Sir Edwin Sandys, a leading force in the Virginia Company, strongly supported the headright system, for his goal was a permanent colony which would enlarge British territory, relieve the nation's overpopulation, and expand the market for English goods. Sir Thomas Smith, as the Company's Treasurer, had a different dream: the Virginia Company's mission was to trade and to make a profit. In the end, it was Sandys' vision which prevailed. When he became Treasurer of the Company in 1619, he moved forward to populate the colony and earn a protective status for the tobacco crop which had become the cash crop of Virginia. At the same time, he urged colonists to diversify their plantings and thus become less reliant on only one staple. The colonists ignored this advice, to their later dismay.

      How did the failing Virginia Company of London seek to turn around the companies outlook under Sir Edwin Sands?

    2. Unfortunately for these new settlers, Sir Thomas Gates, Virginia's deputy governor, bound for the colony, was shipwrecked in Bermuda and did not assume his new post until 1610. When he arrived, he found only a fraction of the colonists had survived the infamous "Starving Time" of 1609-1610. All too soon, the Mother Country learned of Virginia's woeful state. The result was predictable: financial catastrophe for the Company. Many new subscribers reneged payment on their shares, and the Company became entangled in dozens of court cases. On top of these losses, the Company was forced to incur further debt when it sent hundreds more colonists to Virginia. There was little to counter this crushing debt. No gold had been found in Virginia; trading commodities produced by exploitation of the raw materials found in the New World were minimal. Attempts at producing glass, pitch, tar and potash had been barely profitable and, regrettably, such commodities could be had far more cheaply on the other side of the Atlantic. Increasingly bad publicity, political infighting and financial woes led the Virginia Company to organize a massive advertising campaign. The Company plastered street corners with tempting broadsheets, published persuasive articles, and even convinced the clergy to preach of the virtues of supporting colonization. Before the Company was dissolved, it would publish 27 books and pamphlets promoting the Virginia venture. To make shares more marketable, the Virginia Company changed its sales pitch. Instead of promising instant returns and vast profits for investors, the Company exploited patriotic sentiment and national pride. A stockholder was assured that his purchase of shares would help build the might of England, to make her the superpower she deserved to be. The heathen natives would be converted to the proper form of Christianity, the Church of England. People out of work could find employment in the New World. The standard of living would increase across the nation. How could any good, patriotic Englander resist?

      How did word of these early struggles for the Virginia colony affect the companies outlook in England?

    1. We haue to our great griefe receiued aduertisement of the mortality, which this last yeere hath there wrought vpon the People, to the consumption of diuers hundreds, and almost the vtter destruction of some particular Plantations. And although we cannot herein but with much humility acknowledge the iust finger of Almighty God, by this seuerity of chastisement, to recall vs and you from those grieuous transgressions, which draw downe, euer from clemency itselfe, such necessary punishments; and accordingly aduise you, together with our selues, to humble vs in due contrition, before his mercifull hand; and by future amendment, in better attending Diuine worship, and more carefully obseruing his holy and iust Lawes, to worke a reconciliation, and to entreate the renewing of his most gracious fauour towards vs. Yet obseruing on the other side, that this mortality hath proceeded from a disease in it selfe not mortall, and accordingly hath most wrought vpon the new Plantations, who (contrary to our hopes and intended prouisions) were destitute of those meanes, which should haue relieued and cherished them in their weakenesse and sicknesse, of which the ancienter Inhabitants being prouided, did recover: We therefore, according vnto our place and Christian duty, taking into our carefull considerations the redresse and preuention of these defects in all future time: That both the Colony may better attend the seruice of God, and that the people now sent, and which hereafter shall come, may be the better prouided against that, and the like sicknesses (seeing in the health of the People, consisteth the very life, strength, encrease, and prosperity of the whole generall Colony) doe with mature deliberation and vnanime consent, ordaine and establish as hereafter followeth.

      What were conditions like in VA in 1620?

    1. Objection IV — The ill success of the other Plantations may tell us what will become of this. Answer 1: None of the former sustained any great damage but Virginia, which happened there through their own sloth and poor security.

      Why does Winthrop believe Massachusetts will be different?

    2. If any such as are known to be Godly and live in all wealth and prosperity here, and shall forsake all this to join themselves with this Church and to run a hazard with them of a hard and mean condition, it will be an example of great use both for removing the scandal of worldly and sinister respects which is cast upon the Adventurer, to give more life to the faith of God's people in their prayers for the Plantation, and to encourage others to join the more willingly in it.

      Winthrop indicates that people leaving material wealth and comfort for a godly life would do what?

  8. Sep 2019
    1. Schwarz and 20 congregants returned from a 10-day trip to Haiti in December — the congregation’s third trip in four years to the outskirts of Port-au-Prince. There, they partnered with a pastor and used their bodies and their bank accounts t

      Write a question about this passage.

  9. Aug 2019
    1. created a flourishing civilization. The Mohammedans were outstanding scientists for their time. They advanced the process of extracting flower scents from blossoms and herbs and created distillation techniques to distill essential oils from aromatic plants. Later (around the 9th century), Arab physicians used spi


  10. Jul 2019
    1. Our only security, apart from God,”Cortés wrote,“is our horses.”

      Out of the three factors on slide 42, which do you believe this passage supports?

    2. Cortés had a talent for observing and manipulating local political rivalries. On the way to Tenochtitlan, the Spaniards gained the support of the Totonac peoples from the city of Cempoala, who hoped to be freed from the Aztec yoke. Following a military victory over another native people, the Tlaxcaltec, Cortés incorporated more warriors into his army. Knowledge of the divisions among different native peoples, and an unerring ability to exploit them, was central to Cortés’s strategy.

      Out of the three factors on slide 42, which do you believe this passage supports?

    1. Henry was founding upon his work of exploration an empire for his country. At first perhaps only thinking of the straight sea-passage as the possible key of the Indian trade, it became clearer with every fresh discovery that the European kingdom might and must be connected by a chain of forts and factories with the rich countries for whose sake all these barren coasts were passed. In any case, and in the eyes of ordinary men, the riches of the East were the plain and primary reason of the explorations. Science had its own aims, but to gain an income for its work it must promise some definite gain. And the chief hope of Henry's captains was that the wealth now flowing by the overland routes to the Levant would in time, as the prize of Portuguese daring, go by the water way, without delay or fear of plunder or Arab middlemen, to Lisbon and Oporto. This would repay all the trouble and all the cost, and silence all who murmured. For this Indian trade was the prize of the world, and for the sake of this Rome had destroyed Palmyra, and at[Pg 142]tacked Arabia and held Egypt, and struggled for the mastery of the Tigris. For the same thing half the wars of the Levant had been waged, and by this the Italian republics, Venice, Genoa, and Pisa, had grown to greatness.

      Which one of the motives of exploration that we have discussed does this passage support?

    2. new knowledge

      Does this attitude fit with a cultural movement we have talked about? If so, what movement?

  11. Jun 2019