42 Matching Annotations
  1. Dec 2016
    1. .

      In general, I think more should be said about what you will write about later in the essay (roadmap). Perhaps describing your main points and answering the "so what?" question Dr. Wharton talked about could improve your introduction.

    2. arguments made by city officials

      what are these arguments? which side are they on? what is their main point(s)?

    3. largest in the city of Atlanta

      consider including a statistic here involving its size and influence on the city. more background on the shelter itself would also provide more context.

    4. poses significant threats

      maybe introduce what these threats are and explain briefly why they are significant

    5. spearheads the crusade to terminate its utilization

      perhaps this is too wordy

  2. Oct 2016
    1. participatory planning has been practiced for more than three decades

      I find it fascinating that a country that is considered to be more socialist than the United States has programs such as these in place that are vastly more democratic than anything we have in this country.

    2. A spatial dimension of social justice

      I think this subtitle is very interesting. It makes me think of how in both English and Perspectives we discussed how the built environment establishes gender in ways that are not necessarily blatant. The fact that the writer refers to the "spatial dimension" as a place that needs social justice reminds me of sexism in the built environment. Humans inherently are discriminatory, at least they have been in history. The fact that we have built buildings and environments that are also discriminatory should not be surprising, yet it kind of is. How could the construction of four walls and a door lack in providing social justice? Well it does, without proper awareness of the builder.

    3. equal access in spatial planning and building processes

      I never thought about the design of doorknobs and sinks until I googled "universal design" and these images came up. I wonder if disabled people look at mundane fixtures such as these differently than able-bodied people.

    4. My analysis of the urban redesign project indicates that recognition is expressed both through the design itself and through the participatory political processes

      The author's analysis can be applied to any type of urban design construction. Thinking of the Atlanta Beltline and other urban design projects based here, it's easy to see that not only is the design itself a complicated and extremely important aspect to any project, but more often than not, politics plays a huge role in the success of the project.

    5. it is of democratic importance to include disability advocate organizations in planning and building processes and to find ways to discuss accessibility and UD at a concrete level

      This whole section reminded me of the neighborhood planning units (NPUs) that exist in Atlanta. We learned about them in depth in our Mapping class. They serve as a way to establish a more democratic way of changing the city in the ways it needs to be changed, much like the disability advocate organizations mentioned in the work.

    6. The city, as a public space, belongs to all citizens

      In government, we discussed the difference between private discrimination and public discrimination. Certain businesses, despite being privately owned, would be considered public such as hotels, restaurants, and transportation facilities, and therefore, cannot discriminate. I wonder how the Supreme Court could interpret the same part of the Constitution, if someone owning a private business claimed they did not need to have full access for their business. For instance, if someone owned a very small store that had a small door, one too small for someone in a wheelchair, is that considered discrimination against handicapped?

    7. civil rights and human rights

      I think it would be interesting to compare the movements behind equality and civil rights to the movement mentioned in this reading. While minorities such as non-heterosexuals and racial minorities have fought for equal treatment throughout this country's history, the idea of disabled people fighting just to be able to move around in their environment contrasts. While I don't believe anyone is refusing to give business to disabled people, or yells degrading comments at them (unless you're a jerk or a child), the fact that disabled people cannot even leave their homes comfortably and live in a world where they can transport themselves is an eye-opening one.

    8. Access to urban public areas involves both political processes and architectural design

      Clark, Anna. "Suing for Sidewalks." Next City. N.p., 13 June 2016. Web. Oct. 2016.

      The above supplemental reading discusses a specific built environment issue that occurred in Cedar Rapids, Iowa. Clark describes how a flood nearly destroyed the entire city, and she goes on to explain how this disaster influenced the city's need to create a more accessible built environment, specifically sidewalks. The article goes in depth with the subject of sidewalk construction in the country, and it explains how sidewalks are a necessity to universal accessibility. Another significant topic of the article is the idea that progress only occurs when legal threats are made. Clark gives examples of when the Department of Justice threatened the municipal government of Cedar Rapids, the city decided to make a change. Movements such as the Complete Streets movements and a generally understood importance of universal accessibility are no match for progress compared to suing--thus the title, "Suing for Sidewalks."

    9. who is able to enjoy the urban life

      Godden, Rick, and Jonathan Hsy. "Universal Design and Its Discontents - Disrupting the Digital Humanities." Disrupting the Digital Humanities RSS. Punctum Books, 06 January 2016. Web. Oct. 2016.

      In this essay, two authors, one disabled and one not, present significant counterarguments to the promotion of Universal Design (the topic of the selected reading), but it also highlights the concept of Digital Humanities. The disable author, Godden, makes the claim that Digital Humanities and Universal Design are concepts that need to be meshing together to make more progress. With access to both technology and the built environment, disabled people will gradually become more independent. The authors conclude by saying that UD presents itself as a goal that does not help to include disabled bodies in society.

    1. two-thirds of the Cornell University

    2. Princeton University


      Princeton's "Campus Plan" according to their website includes several of the nature/green spaces discussed in this article.

    3. forging a campus identity, creating a sense of community, curbing escalating campus density, serving social and recreational needs, providing environmental benefits, and facilitating fundraising and recruitment of both faculty and students

      This reminds me of the class discussion we had in class about the "feel" or "identity" of the city of Atlanta, and what caused certain large cities to have a feeling to them. A campus landscape aims to create an identity and a community for its students, just as a city does.

    4. enabling their students and faculty to devote unlimited time and attention for classical or divinity learning, personal growth, and free intellectual inquiry

      According to the supplemental reading "How Slavery Shaped America's Oldest and Most Elite Colleges", the same schools discussed in the main article, like Princeton, were often greatly influenced by the institution of slavery. In the supplemental text, the author writes about how students pursued scientific research on the biological superiority of race, much like Thomas Jefferson wrote about in his Virginia notes. These universities created this idea of scientific racism, and therefore, served as the "third pillar" that supported the institution, behind church and state. The same schools that benefitted from the Morrill Act that granted land to universities served as active support for the institution of slavery. Juxtaposing the main article and the supplemental text, the history behind the most prestigious schools in the United States is a complicated and mostly ignored history. It is surprising that places of higher learning in the 1800s researched the theory of scientific racial supremacy and used it as a defense for slavery.

    5. Morrill Act of 1862

      The Morrill Act of 1862 provided 30,000 acres to each state for specific use to colleges and universities. This helped establish the present day university system in the U.S. The act was being considered by the Federal government for several years in the 1850s, but with the succession of many opposing states during the Civil War era, the act was able to pass under Abraham Lincoln's administration. The act excluded any states that had succeeded from the Union. The second Morrill act (of 1890) made it illegal to prefer any specific race toward admission at a higher education institution.

      "The Morrill Acts of 1862 and 1890." 1890 LandGrant Universities. N.p., 2015. Web. Sept. 2016.

    6. a well-designed campus was an integral part of the educational experience of students

      This can be compared to the idea that the built environment affects the way we live. Urban landscape architects work to create effective environments that promote happiness and ease of living for the people living there. Just like how a university needs a campus that promotes student welfare, a city or town need to have a well built environment to benefit its people.

    7. ideal community that was a place apart, secluded from city distraction but still open to the larger community

      Georgia State provides a perfect example of a campus that combines these two ideas. The downtown campus is large community that is directly contained and controlled by the city. Perhaps the environment of the city provides a better learning environment for certain students, and a much worse one for others. Some may enjoy the tall buildings, pedestrian lifestyle, and constant busy nature of the city.

    8. hijack a student’s attentional resource placing her/him at risk of underachieving academic learning goals and undermining success at a university

      Perhaps articles such as this one are dodging the true problems of university students today. If students are struggling academically, wouldn't the academics be the problem? The point this article makes is a relevant one, but is it relevant enough?

    9. A wide range of natural settings in and around a college campus can play a role in student learning and engagement

      At what point does too much natural space/recreational structure hinder the academic mind? Do changes in campus environment such as the kinds mentioned here affect campus life such as partying and other extracurricular activity? Would badly kept natural space still serve as a positive aid for students?

    10. a student’s learning experience is not often balanced by unstructured or structured opportunities for drawing forth effortless, indirect attention that occur in human-nature interactions

      In the article "So you like the University of Chicago’s rejection of ‘safe spaces’ for students? Consider this.", the writer outlines the official stance of the Dean of the University of Chicago to disown the idea of "safe spaces" on the school's campus. This article shows how this specific university chose a different way of creating a more effective learning environment for its students. Instead of creating nature spaces or huge recreational facilities, they attempt to promote more enriched academic discussion through dismissing ideas of "trigger warnings" and "safe spaces". This statement, despite proving to be very controversial amongst the public, attempts to promote the "freedom of thought and expression". The article mostly discusses how the statement from the dean was unnecessary due to the fact that debate and freedom of expression are always essential factors in any learning environment, especially universities, and that the statement dodges sensitive ideas such as PTSD and rape. However, the supplemental article explains how censorship hinders the "educational mission" of universities, and that providing an environment that flourishes different points of view and debate is a better environment than one that does not.

      Strauss, Valerie. "So You like the University of Chicago’s Rejection of ‘safe Spaces’ for Students? Consider This." Washington Post. N.p., 30 Aug. 2016. Web. Sept. 2016.

    11. more than two-thirds of the Cornell University campus is open space; its ecosystem services are visualized along a spectrum of naturalness as greenways, quads and greens, streets and walks, etc

      Here we see an opposite example to schools like Texas Tech, LSU, High Point University, and University of Iowa. Cornell invested in more natural, green space for its students to create a better learning environment, while the universities mentioned in the supplemental readings created humungous, expensive recreational facilities to attract students to come to their school: a business move.

    12. resilient spaces in which the learning environment encompasses more than technology upgrades, classroom additions, and its academic buildings

      The articles "The College Amenities Arms Race" and "Lazy Rivers and Student Debt" both describe the recent excessive spending done by big schools on recreational facilities. Colleges that are not necessarily elite, but have a high student population, are becoming more likely to spend outrageous amounts of money on rock climbing walls, lazy rivers, and spas in order to attract students. In this article, however, the writers attempt to explain the importance of having natural, green spaces for students to experience in order to promote better learning environments. The supplemental articles show a different interpretation of this. Schools such as Texas Tech and LSU build luxurious facilities for their students that literally cost millions of dollars. The occasional park or peaceful green space for sitting and studying represent completely different priorities than the facilities mentioned in the supplemental articles. Rock climbing walls and hot tubs are being made to simply attract students, and are even increasing student costs significantly. However, the priority of the main article is to illustrate the importance of a holistic learning environment for students to perform better academically. Both also contrast the amount of student costs necessary to create better learning environments. While certain schools are spending millions to create club house-like campuses, creating green spaces and mixing the indoor and outdoor experience for students would not be very costly.

      Newlon, Cara. "The College Amenities Arms Race." Forbes. N.p., 31 July 2014. Web. Sept. 2016.

      Woodhouse, Kellie. "Are Lazy Rivers and Climbing Walls Driving up the Cost of College?" Inside Higher Ed. Inside Higher Ed, 15 June 2015. Web. Sept. 2016.

  3. Sep 2016
  4. www.histarch.illinois.edu www.histarch.illinois.edu
    1. property, built houses

      The New York Times article "Homeownership Drop is Bad News, but Not for the Reason You Think" describes the drop in American homeownership in 2016. The homeownership rate hit "the lowest rate in more than 50 years". The article also discusses inflated mortgage and renting rates, and describes the reason for these statistics to be that salaries and employment rates have not recovered since the recession. The article also points out that the greatest drop in homeownership occurred amongst African Americans.

      Juxtaposing this article with Parting Ways, it is clear that the methods in which homeownership occurs have drastically changed since the 1800s. Cato Howe and his fellow neighbors simply purchased a plot of land, built homes, and began to farm the land. Another thing to compare is the fact that about 200 years later, African Americans are still finding a struggle to own homes and to find success in the U.S.

      Citation: Baker, Dean. "Homeownership Drop Is Bad News, but Not for the Reason You Think." The New York Times. The New York Times Company, 2 Aug. 2016. Web. 14 Sept. 2016. http://www.nytimes.com/roomfordebate/2016/08/02/homeownership-at-50-year-low-so-what/homeownership-drop-is-bad-news-but-not-for-the-reason-you-think.

    2. housing were difficult to come by

      In the article entitled "American Must Equalize Access to Homeownership and Its Wealth Opportunities", Carlene Crowell explains how mortgage and loan rates for African Americans and other minorities and American are statistically unfair in the United States. This fact inevitably prevents minorities from purchasing homes in this country, and Crowell points this out. She describes that despite the fact that many African American families seeking to own homes are wealthy compared to the average, they are given unfair mortgage rates and difficult loan rates. She says "discriminatory lending practices during the recent era of subprime loans erased many of the financial gains that Black and Brown families made since the enactment of the Community Reinvestment Act. Instead, these consumers were targeted for predatory, unsustainable loans". Comparing this very modern situation to Cato's, the ability of African Americans to own their own. nice home is still a difficult feat. Financial discrimination is still able to leak through the cracks of equality laws.

      Citation: Crowell, Charlene. "America Must Equalize Access to Homeownership and Its Wealth Opportunities By Charlene Crowell." Trice Edney Wire. Trice Edney Communications, 6 Aug. 2016. Web. 15 Sept. 2016. http://www.triceedneywire.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=7013%3Aamerica-must-equalize-access-to-homeownership-and-its-wealth-opportunities-by-charlene-crowell&catid=54%3Aurban-news-features&Itemid=208.

    3. inventory has survived

      It is interesting to compare the situation of Cato Howe to the situation of wealthy African American families today. Cato Howe was able to build a home, a community, and to have surviving wealth. Even an African American man in the 1800s, before slavery was abolished, was able to own property and a home. Today, African Americans find it extremely difficult to afford the rates at which homes are sold to them. This makes it difficult for wealthy black families to continue their wealth to their kin, and to grow their wealth. Owning a home is seen as a necessary factor in the American Dream. What if black families are given mortgage rates out of the roof, and cannot afford to own a home? Have they been effectively excused from the "American Dream"? Whether intentionally or unintentionally, African Americans are still experiencing financial oppression that is causing their lack of growth and impression in the community.

    4. Plymouth

    5. pressed glass objects

    6. in the woods around Plympton

    7. John Alden foundation of 1630

      The "John Alden foundation" is the only house the pilgrims from the Mayflower lived in that is still standing today.

    8. West African building

    9. Parting Way

    10. rheumatism

      http://www.arthritis.org/about-arthritis/types/rheumatism/"Rheumatism." Rheumatism. N.p., n.d. Web. 07 Sept. 2016. I was not sure if there was a difference between arthritis and rheumatism. Turns out, rheumatism is just a very general term for joint pain.

    11. New Guinea, a fairly common term used over much of Anglo-America for separate black settlements.

      Why didn't black residents name their communities unique names, such as Parting Ways? Instead they used a common name: one used by numerous other black communities.

    12. 1 Spider

      Is this referring to an actual Spider? If so, why? I find this very strange.

    13. The difference in square footage in a twelve-foot square as opposed to a - 202 - sixteen-foot square is appreciable, 144 in one case and 256 in the other.

      The square space of a home would drastically change the lifestyle of the residents. It could show details of how they lived, how crammed they were, and other important factors of living.

    14. it is a case of blacks stating their heritage through their building tradition in the face of the dominant culture.

      Architectural details of homes provide so much insight into the culture and lifestyles of different peoples. Here we have blacks literally using their home layout as a way of defining their culture. It may seem like an obvious fact that different types of people live in different types of buildings, but what is the significance of this? Could breaking down this idea really help understand and describe certain lifestyles?

    15. they still placed their houses close to one another.

      This is exactly like what we discussed in our perspectives class: how certain cultures respect private space more and others respect public space. The fact that these African American families built their houses so close together despite their immense space shows their respect for each other and their lack of desire for a privatized life.

    16. Each constituent element of the archaeological record from Parting Ways, taken alone, is not totally convincing, although powerfully suggestive. But - 205 - taken as a group, as an expression of African American culture as it was to be seen in early-nineteenth-century Massachusetts, they are indeed compelling, an expression of a worldview not only different from that of the dominant European American culture, but coherent in its own right, attributable to the African heritage shared by Cato, Plato, Quamany, and their families.

      I think this is extremely important for the entire article, because the writer picks apart very specific details about the area piece by piece, but the point of the article is to explain the significance of the archaeology behind the area, and how it explains African American history better than documents can.