272 Matching Annotations
  1. Sep 2021
    1. argued that the design or intention of the author is neither available nor desirable as a standard for judging the success of a work of literary art, and it seems to us that this is a principle which goes deep into some differences in the history of critical attitudes.

      From the start, we may notice that B&W are continuing a conversation they assume we're privy to. Throughout they will refer to larger and ongoing debates and we will want to try to piece together the conversation from what they have to say about it. Here, they begin with a few key questions: how do we access what they author intended when they wrote a piece? And how is this connected to whether or not a work is to be considered "successful"?

  2. Feb 2021
    1. Minds with such Graces as really deserve it. And instead of the Fustian Complements and Fulsome Flatteries of your Admirers, obtain for you the Plaudit of Good Men and Angels, and the approbation of Him who cannot err. In a word, render you the Glory and Blessing of the present Age, and the Admiration and Pattern of the next

      This is my annotation for this section.

  3. Aug 2020
  4. Feb 2020
    1. What are the most important passages? Why? How might you encourage other students to find these passages and think about them critically without literally just highlighting them and saying

      this is my very smart commentary on this passage!

  5. Sep 2019
    1. exegesis

      OED: "An explanation or interpretation of a text, esp. of scripture or a scriptural passage. Also more generally: a critical discourse or commentary."

    2. To make the geocentric and heliocentric antithesis the core of the metaphor is to disregard the English language, to prefer private evidence to public, external to internal.

      In the sections above the authors showcase their methodology for close reading--unpacking the structure of the poem and its central metaphor

    3. We next present a case where preoccupation with evidence of type (3) has gone so far as to distort a critic's view of a poem

      The authors now have moved from presenting their argument to showcasing the need for this new focus (on aestheticism)

    4. And a critic who is concerned with evidence of type (1) and moderately with that of type (3) will in the long run produce a different sort of comment from that of the critic who is concerned with (2) and with (3) where it shades into (2).

      Difference between critics who focus on structure and meaning vs. those who focuses too much on the author's word about their work

    5. All this, however, would appear to belong to an art separate from criticism‑to a psychological discipline, a system of self‑development, a yoga, which the young poet perhaps does well to notice, but which is something different from the public art of evaluating poems.

      This is a crucial distinction the authors are making here between the poet's process and the critics.

    6. that it is emotion recollected in tranquillity.

      This is a quote from Wordsworth (again, referring to the fallacy as a Romantic notion).

    7. a romantic one

      "romantic" here refers to the literary period, Romanticism

    8. short lyric poem is dramatic, the response of a speaker (no matter how abstractly conceived) to a situation (no matter how universalized).

      Authors' definition of poem.

    9. It is only because an artifact works that we infer the intention of an artificer.

      Do we agree with this statement? How can we tell a poem "works"? [note: this is a question you could bring into the forum]

    10. If the poet succeeded in doing it, then the poem itself shows what he was trying to do. And if the poet did not succeed, then the poem is not adequate evidence, and the critic must go outside the poem‑for evidence of an intention that did not become effective in the poem

      This is the "fallacy" as the authors of the article see it.

    11. he intended

      Authors are assumed to be male. Consider the implications of this.

    12. number of recent discussions,

      Authors assume an audience familiar with this debate. What does it mean to enter it without such familiarity?

  6. Apr 2019
  7. freedomdreaming.commons.gc.cuny.edu freedomdreaming.commons.gc.cuny.edu
    1. The material you submit to the site will be made public.

      you're also collecting and storing this information, correct? Do you reserve the right to write and present publically about this project? Does the privacy term authorize the developers to quote from any content posted on the site?

    2. Site

      no capital S

    3. contact us at (email address).

      don't forget to fill this in!

    4. hateful content

      "hate speech" may be the preferred terminology

    1. Home About Freedom Dreams Resources

      Considering how important social media is to the project, the Instagram button is rather small and tucked away. A "follow us" or "social media" menu link might help.

    2. privacy policy

      this can't be a hotlink?

    3. Post Category

      consider adding Neurodiversity

    4. other means

      worth stating IG and Twitter with handles since they are not always easy to find given the use of underscore ("_")

    5. Freedom Dreaming is an opportunity to visualize the future that we want to live in, and harness the necessary tools and resources to actively move that dream toward a reality. It begins with addressing inequalities within ours and others lives to build awareness and then taking steps to enact change.

      given that the call to contribute/post doesn't show up until we scroll down (this might be specific to my home computer?), is it worth adding something specific here about user contributions? I think some of the copy in the "about" page conveyed these ideas in ways that could be centralized here

    6. Reflect on a prompt of your choosing or one you created. 

      Suggested edit: Respond to one of the prompts below or create your own

  8. freedomdreaming.commons.gc.cuny.edu freedomdreaming.commons.gc.cuny.edu
    1. Organizations

      If there is time, I'd consider a short descriptive line for each of these, otherwise your user has to click on each one to find out what they are. Also: is it worth adding some organizations that take donations (a potential call to action)?

    2. Who’s

      spelling error

    3. Zines

      Do you want users to consider submitting suggestions for further resources? Could they do this via email?

    4. Books and Zines

      is there a reason why the authors aren't cited below?

    5. Freedom Dreams: Black Radical Imagination

      is this PDF shared with permission?

  9. freedomdreaming.commons.gc.cuny.edu freedomdreaming.commons.gc.cuny.edu
    1. ability, gender identity, sexuality, age, stages of healing, and socio-economic class

      consider adding neurodiversity here and in the checkbox at homepage, as that is a separate issue from ability worth singling out

    2. os/as/x

      I imagine the group has debated this already but: X to me communicates the other more gendered option. Of course this is a matter of preference and worth getting input from more than one Latinx person :)

    3. as connections, resources, and action steps to move their dreams forward.

      worth moving this last sentence to the call to action above (in "about")?

    4. his digital campaign builds on the community program

      in regards to my comment above: it's important to acknowledge the connection between the two. Do the Fellows know about the site? Are they contributing to it? Or did they provide the inspiration after members of the group participated in this workshop?

    5. The seeds for this project

      what is the connection between the Fellows and the FD group? The implication seems to be that you're directly or at least indirectly part of this first initiative. If that's the case, I'd recommend it to be stated more directly.

    6.  programmed

      designed? planned?

    7. distinguished U.S. History Professor

      why is this full title here and not at first mention above?

    8. originally put forth by professor Robin Kelly

      I know it's in your list of resources, but is it worth mentioning and linking the book here too?

    9. We hope to inspire individuals to take action against these injustices by recognizing them to move towards a  more just and free society.

      The phrasing here could use some clarity. Is "recognizing" the action you expect people to take? Or is recognizing them just the first step toward taking action and eventually moving to this better society?

    10. individuals lives.

      missing apostrophe

    11. etc.

      feels like you’re privileging some and dismissing others. How about “and all forms of discrimination”?

    12. Our vision of Freedom Dreaming: A Call to Imagine envisions

      The phrase uses the same noun and verb--consider revising

  10. Jan 2019
    1. As to the Parts, I have observed such a nice Impartiality to our two Ladies that it is impossible for either of them to take Offence

      hello world!

  11. May 2018
    1. The reader can be assaulted by a menagerie of different signals and messages and receive a small taste of what is to come without even opening the novel, the cover serves an undeniably monumental purpose in aiding the novel.

      Vague. Address the specific value of your particular analyses.

    2. how the letters are printed and the messages depicted in each.

      revise sentence for clarity. Is this really going to be a separate paragraph? Won't this show up in the paragraphs above?

    3. The third cover representing The Castle of Otranto that appeared in 2001

      Same comment as above

    4. which varies from cover

      you need to explain these in your thesis, which should map out your core points

    5. he second cover that’s being analyzed surfaced in 1996 with

      You don't need this. Start with "The 1996 cover is ..."

    6. this cover mirrored the common method of illustrating covers.

      not sure what this means.

    7. and by looking closely at the covers we can discover the themes the novel tackles such as gender roles and tragedy.

      This is a new clause (so we have a comma splice issue here) and closer to a specific thesis--try to revise this further or at least add a so-what factor

    8. Each cover aids with visuals to impose an impression

      This is rather convoluted. Aids whom? Aids in what? Does "impose an impression" work better than simply "make an argument" or something more straight-forward?

  12. Apr 2018
    1. It sort of reminds of the times when I would play my Nintendo advance late in the night. I eventually had to buy a portable light for it but it was still a hassle just keeping it straight.

      Alejandro, I would have liked to see more reflections of this type, as well as reflections on how you can extrapolate this experience into assumptions/questions about the 18c reader in relation to how the body and the senses affected the reading experience. *grades are on BB.

    2. ,

      A semi-colon would work better here. Pay attention to minor (but important) punctuation issues throughout.

    3. The room that I chose to conduct the reading by the candlelight experiment was in my living room.

      Keep in mind that these are formal blogs, so you should aim to have an introduction that contextualizes the ideas/arguments of the post rather than jumping in to the setting.

    1. I constantly kept on saying “if you were poor and had to read a newspaper article with only one candle Jessica , it would take you forever”.

      It would be nice to follow this with a reflection on time and reading! Perhaps things more faster for us now, or we are more often in a hurry?

    2. Opposed to reading with the light on,I found this very difficult.

      Sentence fragment. Because these are formal blogs, you want to spend a bit more time editing and proofreading. Here, this sentence should read: "While when I read with the light on, I read quickly/easily/with joy, I found reading by candlelight very difficult" OR "I found this very difficult in relation to reading with the electric lights on."

    3. I’m not sure if there was a ghost in my room but the flame would shake at times which made it very hard for me to read

      Funny! We can image these tricks of the light played a huge role in 18c imaginations of the supernatural

    4. We even spoke in british accents to really get into it, it was funny.

      That IS funny! It would be great if this was followed with a reflection on what you thought this would add to the experience--perhaps make you feel like other people? Transport you in time and place? Contribute to the artificiality of the experience?

    5. While reading I assumed I was poor because I only had one candle. I associated being poor with being able to buy one candle and being in a room with people because the rich are often alone and can command solitary , also they use as many candles as they please because they have that luxury and simply just for a better reading experience.

      A good point! A note on word choice: you probably mean "solitude" here, rather than "solitary."

    6. ,

      a semi-colon would work better here.

    7. What and experience !!! I decided to purchase one candle opposed to a log candle which I was scared of using because I thought the wax would burn down to my hand assuming I had to hold it whilst reading

      A good start but remember to proofread! Introducing your ideas, rather than answering the questions one by one also helps deliver a more formal structure to the blog. For instance: "In my quest to read by candlelight, I started by purchasing candles..."

    1. I am definitely going to try reading by candle light again sometime in the future.

      Stephanie, I would like to see future blog posts include some reflection on how you see your own experience connecting to that of the 18c reader. Here there were some places to think about how bodies, the senses, and even location affect the reading experience (and might have affected particular readers). Additionally, I would encourage you to proofread and format your work more carefully--rather than answering the questions in succession, think of creating transitions, breaking up paragraphs, and offering critical reflections after your observations. *grades can be found on BB.

    2. I also found that the candles did not interfere with my reading instead they actually increased my concentration.

      This would have been a good place for a paragraph break.

    3. The 5 small candles i purchased for this experiment

      The structure here makes it read like a sentence fragment. Starting with the subject would fix this: "I purchased 5 small candles..."

    4. ,

      comma splice

    5. i

      Because these are formal blogs, we are aiming to have a clean and proofread text, as much as possible. This includes minor typos.

    1. From which then I realized that people in the eighteenth century weren’t as privileged as we are today (of course) if, I was having a hard time reading because the melted wax fell on the paper I could’ve just printed out another page also we have better paper and ink quality so it wasn’t that hard to read through the melted wax part. However back in the day paper quality didn’t seem to good and the script writings was already very hard to read so melted wax on the writings was probably very hard to read.

      Some more sentence structure issues here, but an interesting reflection. The issue of paper quality is arguable; we have enough books from this period and the centuries before to suggest their paper was actually more durable than what we use now.

    2. Which I was very surprised with

      This is a sentence fragment. Since these are formal blogs, we're aiming for standard sentence structure so that your ideas come through strongly and clearly.

    3. ,

      pay attention to misplaced commas that break up your sentence/claims

    4. .

      What happened to the images?

    5. I choose to do this experiment in the living room because the night before when I was thinking about where to do the experimen

      Keep in mind that these are formal blogs, so you should aim to have an introduction that contextualizes the ideas/arguments of the post rather than jumping in to the setting.

    1. I kept fidgeting and could concentrate for long so I ended up only reading in total for about 35 mins but only about 20 mins of that was uninterrupted reading the rest was very distracting.

      This ends a bit abruptly!

    2. But it was also difficult to get the reading started because my parents were home too and my dad loves watching tv downstairs in the living room, so I had to bribe him to go watch tv in his room.

      I like the specifics here about your setting. This would have been a good place to reflect on issues of class--who could afford the luxury of uninterrupted reading.

    3. I decided to do my candle light reading in my dining room because I knew if I tried to do the reading in my room that I would get distracted and not get it done.

      Keep in mind that these are formal blogs, so you should aim to have an introduction that contextualizes the ideas/arguments of the post rather than jumping in to the setting.

    1. I think a problem could have been reading from very old sources and words not being in fine ink to be seen. 

      So, the difference between reading in print and in manuscript? This could be clearer.

    2. This made me think of how people were not always able to afford many candles and had to read or write with just one there. It is difficult to do that with just one light because it is not very bright.

      This would have been a good place to reflect on access: who got to read for pleasure, when, and for how long.

    3. It reminded me of the smell after blowing out the candles on my birthday.

      I like this--suggests an element of nostalgia.

    4. I chose my bedroom as the place to perform my reading. I like doing homework in my room and it is also very quiet.

      Keep in mind that these are formal blogs, so you should aim to have an introduction that contextualizes the ideas/arguments of the post rather than jumping in to the setting.

    1. This also brings me to the idea of light not only coming from candles,  but from fire. For example, if I am of royalty I would have a fire place in my bedroom.

      Great point!

    2. So I began reading , and it was a bit difficult. Since my candle is large with 3 wicks, I could manage but not for long. At some positions, being very careful I would put the candle on my bed and read. I used both my hands while I was reading . Flipping pages were not that easy as well because then I would have to turn and not seeing enough with the light would make me lose my place in reading.

      Some good reflections here, but the sentences need attention for structure and punctuation.

    3. By the brand you could tell that today, that is royal.

      This is funny, but worth explaining a bit further.

    4. This temperature factor added to the ambiance because it made me feel like a time when there was no electrical heat, just heat by fire.


    5. ,

      watch out for commas that break your subject from your predicate.

    6. I have read by candle light before. However, I have not read for entertainment by candlelight. Most of the time, I use candlelight for the scent and for when I am studying for an exam or having to write.

      Interesting! It would be nice to have one more sentence here explaining how/why you use candles for studying.

    1. I’ve never had to sit down and read from a paper with candles so I never thought that something as simple as the flickering from the candle light would affect my reading and over all experience so much. It makes me wonder, did people from the 18th century also have this problem or experience the way I felt while reading and having the candle lights flicker?

      This is a good reflection, Miranda, and I would have liked to see a bit more if it either here or throughout (even just a sentence added in other paragraphs).

    2. The candles are bright enough that I can see every thing clearly on the paper as if I had the electric lights on.

      Likely a result of lighting tapers instead of jar candles! Something to reflect on in terms of the changes in purpose for candles.

    3. I started by setting 3 new, unscented, tall white candles up, two in a tall glass holder and one in a small glass candle holder. I sat them on a wooden dinning room table, with my paper in the middle of the candles, one candle is to the left of my paper, second one to the right of my paper, and the third directly in the front of my paper. In the basement where I’m sitting there is two sofas and a T.V. to the left of me,

      A few minor proofreading issues here that nonetheless can deter from your argument

    4. To perform my reading experiment, I figured the best place to do this was my basement, where there was one little window that I could easily cover up.

      Keep in mind that these are formal blogs, so you should aim to have an introduction that contextualizes the ideas/arguments of the post rather than jumping in to the setting.

    1. The paper quality impacted my ability to see and read the words because at times the words were a bit blurry so it slowed me down in my reading. While reading, the candle did not emit any smoke just when I turned it off.

      Shakyra, The details about the setting here are good, but I would have liked to see you reflect further on the 18c reader and think through what this experience taught you in terms how bodies and the senses affect how we process information.

    2. The position of my body most of the time was in an arch position. It changed only most of the times because my back started to hurt and I just sat back up.

      A good place to reflect on the influence of the body and environment on the reading experience.

    3. The room in which, I performed this reading experiment is big.

      Watch out for misplaced commas throughout. Keep in mind also that these are formal blogs, so you should aim to have an introduction that contextualizes the ideas/arguments of the post rather than jumping in to the setting.

    1. When this experiment interconnected with my senses, it made me think about things in a different way.

      Cindy, What I love about these questions above is that they really help us ponder on why so much philosophy and new forms of thinking came out of these early periods--fewer distractions and more opportunities for quiet contemplation likely encouraged this sort of introspection.

    2. I imagined how difficult it would be for me, if I were to be in the 1700s with multiple assignments to complete. Candles and quills would be the only useful physical things to complete them with. The thought of dim lights from the candles being combined with the struggles of using a quill would result in agony

      This is an interesting reflection, as it shows how much you internalized this process. Of course, the 18c reader would be accustomed to candles as a light source, so perhaps their eyes were stronger in near-darkness than ours.

    3. The paper was on the desk and my hands were on either side of it. This action was interconnected with my sense of touch/feeling. Since my hands were on either side of the paper, the warmth from the rose shaped candles were felt. On the whole, being surrounded by candles at a close range gave off heat which was felt.

      Great description of the physicality here, but why are you writing yourself out of the experience with this recurring passive voice?

    4. My glasses were worn

      passive voice again..

    5. a study room was selected

      beware of the passive voice!

    6. A darkened room illuminated by the rays of candlelight provided a few of the sensory cortices with experiences that had no reasons of being explored, until an educational experiment had surfaced.

      I like this intro, though I find the word choices a bit overwrought.

    1. 8th century candlelight reading seems like much more of a compromise of one’s own body. Whereas today, we find that flipping a light switch on or increasing the font size on our screens are our choices of compromises when reading.

      Excellent observation. Of course, the 18c reader had never seen how might brighter things could be, so we might assume their eyes adjusted to the lack of light differently.

    2. This made a difference; I could now keep the page on my desk and didn’t have to hold any candles with either hand. This method also made it easier to take notes/highlight if I needed to.


    3. I guess not many people were reading in bed in the 18th century.

      That would be a fun topic to explore! As Trishanna mentions in her blog, the light from a fireplace would help with this. Also: candelabras.

    4. I decided that for comparative approaches I wouldn’t try to do this in an unfamiliar reading space.

      Why is that? With these kinds of highly-descriptive writing assignments, it's important to explain your methodology.

    5. My reading location…way too bright at 6:30!

      What happened to the images?

    6. For this experiment, the first thing I did was google some images to better get an idea of 18th century candlelight reading.


    1. Overall, just like making the quill, I learned something new and enjoyed the idea of reading with the help of a candlelight. 

      Alissa, I would have liked to see more reflection on the project, including its significance to your own reading body as well as how you projected the experience onto the 18c reader.

    2. Throughout the time I was reading, my body positioning went from sitting up straight to leaning on the table with my face in my right palm.

      A good place to reflect on how bodies impact the reading/information absorption experience.

    3.  In my experience, it was so clear that it was as if I was sitting next to a plug-in nightlight at the same time I noticed how dim a candlelight can really be and how grateful I should be for electricity and a light bulb

      Good, though the sentence structure needs attention ("it" does not refer to a specific subject; the sentence needs commas to separate clauses).

    4. lower class used a single candle at the time due to how much a candle might have cost

      And in particular, since they needed candles for lighting other activities, using them to read would have been a luxury.

    5. To perform my reading experiment

      Just one more sentence before this one would help set the stage for the blog post and make it a bit more formally structured. For instance: "This week my reading experiment required that I read by candlelight..."

    1. At the end I would say same experience for someone who have proper reading place with good amount of candles would have been different

      True! Another missed opportunity here to reflect more on the readers in this period, and how their preparation might have been different---a reading place, for instance, makes sense--but also they would have more places to set candles down as their only form of lighting.

    2. t times the words seemed to morph into other words, ‘if’ would turn into ‘it’ and ‘as’ would turn into ‘an’. It felt like the pages were conspiring with the light, and both of them, against me.

      This is great. Perhaps a psychological effect of your worry of setting the bed on fire?

    3. It was one of the most uncomfortable reading experiences I’ve had and reminded me of Pakistan. In Pakistan whenever the electricity would go out and the power generators would die, there were time I had to work under battery lamps, and candles.

      I appreciate the connection to your own past here, and this resonates with me too, having dealt with my share of blackouts in Brazil. This would have been a good place to add in a reflection about the role of class in reading in particular and knowledge acquisition in general.

    4. My room consists of two beds: one for me and another, smaller one for my daughter.

      Keep in mind that these are formal blogs, so you should aim to have an introduction that contextualizes the ideas/arguments of the post rather than jumping in to the setting.

    1. I connect this to be an issue where we find more people wearing glasses today then is noted of the time where candle light reading was more common

      Since we can't really prove this, it might have been best to reflect on the specific ways in which this experience affected your perspective of reading in the 18c, and why this disconnect with the text happened when you were in a dim light environment. *Grades can be found on BB.

    2. I found myself loosing place within my reading, skipping a line while trying to continue from the last, increasing more frustration made the reading challenging. Once completing my reading, a quickened second reading was necessary in order to notice anything I had missed

      This would have been a good place to reflect more on the 18c reader.

    3. At the start of my reading I struggled to make a decision to carry on the reading with or without my glasses on.

      Explaining this further might give some insight into how you made your choices for assignment and how they affected you (and would have affected an 18c reader)

    4. That being said one candle was a little difficult to read with. On my initial lighting of the candle I thought that this was going to be easy. I feel like it would have been easier if it was easier text that Ontranto.

      Be sure to proofread your work carefully before submitting.

    5. For the Candle Reading assignment, I chose to do it in my bathroom as it was free of windows and any natural light. 

      Keep in mind that these are formal blogs, so you should aim to have an introduction that contextualizes the ideas/arguments of the post rather than jumping in to the setting.

  13. Mar 2018
    1. A Gaming–House

      Macheath's company is planning a robbery to take place after a high-stakes game of cards. They talk of what and whom to rob

    2. I wish I may be burnt

      women in this period could still be condemned to death by burning, e.g. for murdering their husbands

    3. commit the Folly

      i.e. have sex

    4. bubbled.


    5. distracted

      i.e. confused

    6. the Perquisite is the most prevailing —— Your Father’s Perquisites for the Escape of Prisoners must amount to a considerable Sum in the Year.

      i.e. a bribe

    7. like great Statesmen

      Among other things, Gay uses this Opera to critique the corruption of government, particularly Sir Robert Walpole and Charles, Lord Townshend

    8. Garnish

      "Money extorted from a new prisoner, either as a jailer's fee, or as drink-money for the other prisoners" (OED)

    9. Constables.

      i.e. guards

    10. I have sent at least two or three Dozen of them in my time to the Plantations

      Take this reference alongside the "sold on Indian soil" in I.13 to think about how this play depicts or otherwise glosses over colonialis and the British invasions in the so-called New World.

    11. JENNY.

      in this conversation that follows, the women delight in the various ways in which they cheat and steal

    12. Mercers

      fabric salesmen

    13. A dance a la ronde in the French manner; near the end of it this Song and Chorus

      Gay mocking the dances in Italian operas in particular, and courtly dances in general

    14. lay on Paint.

      i.e. makeup

    15. Drury–Lane would be uninhabited.

      where most brothels were located

    16. Ball I hold

      i.e. bullet; gun

    17. A Lawyer is an honest Employment, so is mine

      Peachum, as we learn later, is what we might now call a fence, but he also makes a living turning men in to the law (impeach = give evidence on a thief; "impeach 'em" = "Peachum")

    18. Of try’d Courage, and indefatigable Industry! NED. Who is there here that would not die for his Friend? HARRY. Who is there here that would betray him for his Interest? MATT. Show me a Gang of Courtiers that can say as much.

      honor among thieves

    19. Conversation

      also a euphemism for sex

    20. at the Tree!

      i.e. the gallows. Hangings were public events.

    21. i.e. the criminal courts

    22. Those cursed Play–Books she reads have been her Ruin.

      Note the trope of reading as corruption; causing women to be excessively naive

    23. Of a Jointure

      something akin to a prenup.

    24. An old Woman clothed in Gray, &c

      These lines at the start of each air indicate the tune of the song. Ballads typically had lyrics set to commonly known tunes

    25. squeezing out an Answer from you

      criminals might be literally pressed into confessing by having heavy objects put upon their chest

    26. are you ruin’d or no

      ironically, Peachum means, is she married

    27. Slut
    28. soon be thrown upon the Common

      i.e. become a prostitute

    29. Ordinary’s Paper

      publication from the courts which printed condemned men's confessions (a very popular genre in the period)

    30. Hockley in the Hole, and to Mary-bone, Child, to learn Valour

      Popular place for bear-baiting and wrestling.

    31. Bar of a Temple Coffee–House

      another common gathering place for men--women would be allowed in these places only as bartenders.

    32. Mary-bone and the Chocolate-houses

      Gambling houses and places where men went to socialize and drink chocolate (a relatively new arrival in England). See http://www.history.org/foundation/journal/winter12/chocolate.cfm

    33. Rogue

      "An idle vagrant, a vagabond; one of a group or class of such people" (OED).

    34. Ballad

      https://www.britannica.com/art/ballad (see particularly the section on broadside ballads)

    1. At the time and circumstance it seems that, this technology was like an iPad for them. It helped them create classics (although some are boring).

      Some ideas here deserve unpacking: how does the ipad connect to the quill as a new technology? What do they require in terms of proficiency? Also, we have to be careful with that word "classic." Who makes classics? Who decides if something is or is not classic? Do authors plan their works that way?

    2. Let us not forget that this also impacted animals

      I wish you had said more on this!

    3. Quills could have even created jobs for those in high places who wanted people to take notes or dictation

      Absolutely. These people were called scribes.

    4. I am also curious as to what type of feather I was using.

      Goose feather! Sometimes people also use turkey.

    5. When I was younger I made Chinese fans out of paper.

      Well Chinese fans have been around for centuries...

    6. The first time I saw a Quill was in the Rufus King Manor near our school (York College).

      Cool! Why were you there? Visiting for fun or school?

    1. Basically, the use of pens enabled me to concentrate on getting my ideas out of my head without being worrisome. As opposed to pens, quills are like a nightmare to me because I end up being more focused on using it correctly than thinking about what to write, so it had a negative impact on me in terms of producing and processing information.

      Very interesting connection here between productivity and physicality

    2. In my opinion, quills made authors more cautious when writing due to the fear of having to start over with each mistake. This actually happened to me when I used the quill. I lost count of how many pages I used, since I couldn’t get to write properly or neatly with it

      Maybe, but this probably says more about our modern concepts of errors and clean texts. Also, paper now is cheap, whereas an early writer might prefer to re-use their sheet as much as possible.

    3. .

      I'm wondering what this says about our modern expectations of writing and its connections to hygiene.

    4. I tried to record the process of writing with a quill, the results were disastrous

      In what way?

    5. As for the ink, I dismantled a gel ink pen and cut it in half in order to pour the contents into a small container.

      Why did you choose this method?

    6. Also, it made me imagine what it would be like if I dwelled in the 1600s and 1700s

      I would have loved some examples here of what you imagined

    7. . This is the first time that a college course required me to make something then deeply reflect on it

      This is so interesting to me. Why do you think that is?

    1. I would think the quill would have been an easy tool for them to make so it was accessible to anyone and everyone, which is also great! This probably gave a lot of different people from different backgrounds with different ideas and stories the opportunity to write texts, which lead to great stories.

      Perhaps, but writing is not just about access to the actual writing instrument, right? How many people do you think were taught to write in this period?

    2. texts were very determined

      What do you think this says about what kinds of texts or ideas people chose to write down?

    3. how did they come up with the idea to use the tips of a feather to write with, who put the ingredients together to make ink and decided to dip the tips of the feather into it and write with it, and did the people actually like writing with quill?

      Great questions. Medieval professional scribes certainly got tired of it sometimes: https://www.brainpickings.org/2012/03/21/monk-complaints-manuscripts/

    1. ancient texts

      Because we want to be really precise about periods, we want to avoid this word. Formally, "ancient" refers to the B.C.E period.

    2. if we make a mistake while physically writing, we erase or use whiteout and keep going

      Although there were clever ways to erase ink in this period!

    3. I remember always being told that I need to press down on my pencil harder because people had a hard time reading my handwriting.

      What might this say about the physical act of writing, and what kinds of temperaments quill writing in particular might privilege?

    4. I would have continued writing with my quill to practice my handwriting.

      Very interesting! I wonder what this says about the pleasure of writing, and whether it reflects creativity....

    5. My mom quickly put an end to that so that was as far as I got with that project

      That's funny! Why?

    6. “Okay. But why?” It was an unexpected task to say the least.

      I wonder what this says about the connections we make (or don't make) between intellectuality and crafting.

    1. Ink is messy so it’s not hard to comprehend the possibility of messing up an important document and losing a groundbreaking idea

      this also suggests that writing might have been reserved for specific tasks/topics, right?

    2. back then

      Let's get in the habit of being really specific about dates and periods instead of saying "back then"

    3. There was some nostalgia present as well as if I had done this before even though I certainly have not.

      Interesting. Nostalgia popped up in other posts, as well. I'm wondering what this says about our modern relationship with hand-crafting and manufacturing

    4. Something as simple as soaking the feather in order to make it softer for them to handle was normal for them.

      Who do you think "they" were? Did everyone make their own quills, your think, or were there professional quill makers?

    1. fancy

      again, I'd like to see you expand on your definitions to help you think through our expectations and assumptions with regards to older technologies

    2. making a mistake in the writing and them having to start over.

      Do you think this reveals something about our own assumptions about error and "clean" texts?

    3. was a beautiful style of writing

      Why do you think so?

    4. It has been a long time since I was assigned to do an actual project where I was required to do more than just write

      Why do you think that is?

    1. However, when it comes to me writing with a regular pen, sometimes it’s pretty much chicken scratch if I am taking very quick notes and then there are times where if I am actually taking my time then I would write pretty neatly and legibly.

      This relates to your point about 17c/18c writers, right? They probably also had different hands depending on what and for whom they were writing

    2. It was definitely very easy to write the first word but then I think that’s where I psyched myself out and it got harder to write after that.


    3. I actually used a gel pen to get a lot of ink out, because I originally tried a regular black ink pen and it was quite difficult to get the ink out of the tube but with the gel pen the ink just ran right out of the tube.

      Why did you use this ink method?

    4. I am very heavy handed so I think that the problem was that feather kept bending or flattening when I tried to write with it, because I think that I was putting a little too much pressure on the tip of the feather by pressing to hard.

      I can relate! Do you think people in the period were just more used to this? I wonder, even, if people now how write on touchscreens a lot have a different "hand"...

    1. Now thinking about it maybe that is why the writing back then are a bit more creative because they took their time in writing their ideas.

      I like this suggestion! Also, from your comments we might consider that they only wrote something down if it was important, right?

    2. The had to be ready on what they were going to write about and how to use the quill because if they didn’t they had to constantly pause and doing that was not good because then you would loose your train of thoughts.

      For future formal blogs, take some extra time in revising and proofreading

    3. around the 1800s

      The period we're studying is 1660s-1780s. The fountain pen was invented in the early 1800s.

    4. Also if you have done a mistake you would have to start all over again and use another paper.

      Why would you say that? What assumptions are we making about how earlier writers felt about error and clean paper? Or even about who would be seeing their writing?

    5. It would be like childish projects but I believe it still counts because I made them with certain materials just like making this quill.

      I would say it counts! But I'm wondering why culturally we seem to associate hand-crafting with childishness?

    1. Stopping too often for that might cause distraction in their ideas/thoughts.

      I like the connection here between the flow of ink and the flow of ideas.

    2. during 1800s

      Keep in mind that the period we're studying is 1660s-1780s. The fountain pen was invented in the early 1800s.

    3. I also wrote my name ‘Aisha’ in my native language Urdu because it reminds me of my very first experience with a ‘Wooden Kalam’ or a ‘reed pen’.

      Excellent. Do you think that there is a connection between different writing/communication cultures based on the ways in which one learns how to write (and what technology they used)?

    4. scratched the feather

      I'm interested in how you adapted the process here--why did you cut out so much of the feathers?

    5. In my country Pakistan, we had “wooden Kalam” that were replaced by fountain pens later. Wooden kalam was hollow wooden sticks with a cut nib that we dip in ink too often to continue writing on a wooden board called “takhti”

      This is an excellent way to connect to the project historically and culturally--I wish you had added a picture to illustrate this technology!

    1. I say this because looking at it now their handwriting when using a quill looks neat and extremely fancy while mine on the other hand looked completely sloppy

      Did you do some research to find this out? An image here would have been helpful!

    2.  During this process I was a little frustrated because I have long nails so it was harder to hold the feather and write with it otherwise I was very focused

      I like the focus here on the specific physicality of holding a pen. It makes me wonder if this is something that would make quill writing more gendered (though I'm not sure whether women grew their nails in this period)

    3. From this project I came to the conclusion that I’m pretty useless and that my older brother is a life saver.

      It would be interesting to think about this in relation to how 17c/18c quills were made. Do you think they were professionally prepared, or people made their own?

    4. I didn’t know exactly how to get the ink out of the pen

      Why did you decide on this method for the ink?