42 Matching Annotations
  1. Apr 2018
    1. Overall, I appreciate this further explanation of Rheingold's online post that I read. Having read the shorter version, I didn't get as much of the reasoning behind the importance of "crap-detection" and here I am further able to see sources that will help me weed out information that I don't need and make smarter choices in filtering out the "crap."

    2. Page 17's discussion of "Publish then Filter" really speaks to the increasing demand for information due to our society's need for instant gratification. Everything has become faster-paced and so we need information almost immediately or it probably won't be read. https://masscommons.wordpress.com/2012/03/09/here-comes-everybody-publish-then-filter/ This post explains the mentality very well, but what I'm glad Rheingold does is he explains the need for us to filter our information and check it first. He offers solutions to getting more accurate information or a solution to the problem.

    3. I had no idea about the integration of search and RSS. I think this is so useful and eye-opening as I am someone who really gets their information from online sources. I was able to finds sites such as ctrlq.org/rss/ which is an RSS search engine. This keeps information up-to-date and relatively accurate which could be very helpful to me as I know I tend to be closed-minded and only read things that lean towards liberal perspectives.

    4. I absolutely love the image on page 15 because I really think it really speaks to he amount of information we get in a day and the process we can go through in order to manage what we take in and what we retain. https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwjXubiymMLaAhVB6lMKHcusDcAQFggpMAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.pbs.org%2Fwgbh%2Fnova%2Fnext%2Ftech%2Ffake-news-is-spreading-thanks-to-information-overload%2F&usg=AOvVaw0lCmMgQPuehVN5SbZFAqDN

      This is a site I found that briefly discusses the negative impacts that comes from Fake News being promoted by information overload. I find this topic very interesting considering that we are becoming increasingly dependent on technology for information and news.

    5. The principles I find interesting as they are described are the "stay skeptical" and "Keep asking questions" principles. I like these because they don't urge the readers to deny anything and everything that they see, but to have a healthy amount of skepticism and curiosity when looking at information. The idea of "fake news" is one that is extremely common today. https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=3&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwj0gpmLlcLaAhWHylMKHZe7AbIQtwIIMjAC&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.cc.com%2Fvideo-clips%2Fmn1zfl%2Fthe-daily-show-with-trevor-noah-project-veritas-creates-fake-news-to-expose--fake-news-&usg=AOvVaw3MNVXPHa6IVmo-oL4Cz9aG

      This video, while taking a humorous take on what "fake news" is, discusses the impact of this by. The video is titled "Project Veritas creates fake news to expose fake news." This section on page 13 reminded me of this video both because of Rheingold's more light-hearted tone in his writing and for the expression of the dangers of misinformation.

    6. In Rheingold's "Crap Detection" brief online article, it discusses how in our society more and more people get their news from the internet and take it as fact and can spread misinformation. I think he does a much better job describing in full the need for people to really make sure the information they're getting is factual. It once again mentions websites like FactCheckED.org and focuses on the legitimacy of medical information which isn't really done in the quick blog-style version of this chapter.

    7. The idea that there are people who regard search-engines as authoritative is one that I really haven't considered. Being that we are a very internet-based society, most students do all of their research online. This guide gives some pros to using online sources for research but warns not to use only online sources as well as offering the pros to using more traditional sources such as libraries to conduct research. This reminds me of the times in class we've discussed using librarians and library databases in order to get sources.

    8. When Rheingold talks about the design of a website being a clue to the legitimacy of a source, it reminds me of a lesson I had in a computer class called "Presentation Etiquette." In this lesson we discussed the importance of keeping presentations and websites organized and easy to read. I've always found this to be helpful in determining whether a website is written by a company, a professional writer, or a novice. It also helps tell if the source is for entertainment or for education.

    9. The use of different sources in order to check a source's author and their credibility is something discussed in This seems to be specified in multiple places and teaches the importance of finding the legitimacy of the author.

    10. Page3/19Loading…

      This paragraph really drives home Rheingold's main message of the whole text. I think it serves as an excellent summary for the passage because he briefly but effectively tells us what crap detection is and why he thinks it's important without going so into detail that it becomes too much information. It educates the reader on exactly what the chapter will be about but most importantly why it matters.

  2. Feb 2018
    1. The words on this map (the Hngulstlc mode) describe what we are looking at. The shaded areas on the map visually represent locations where at least one project had taken place. Here, the color-coding (the visual mode) shows us what areas received the most assistance. The information is organized in map form (the spatial mode), which positions the color-coded points according to US counties. The visual and spatial modes work together to help us make comparisons between locations

      Combining linguistics, visuals, and use of space helps us as students take advantage of the blog format by incorporating all of these forms of media in an effective way.

    2. ~ ~ ., ] .. ~ ~ -~ 1 2 1 What Are Multimodal Projects? !---------"------_______________ _.,_) ... Gestural Mode ·1 he gestural mode refers to the way movement, such as body lan-guage, can make meaning. When we interact with people in real life or watch them on-screen, we can tell a lot about how they arc feel-ing and what they arc trying to communicate. The gestural mode includes: • facial expressions • hand gestures • body language • interaction between people

      This reminds me of images commonly found in articles in order to sway opinions. Using the example of the NBC article, it shows the women's protest in a very positive light and the creator of the pink pussy hat is smiling and looks very presentable in the picture used of her. Had they wanted to put blame on her, they could have used a more unflattering image. They could have also painted the women's march in a bad light had they used images where women appear aggressive and angry. For example:


      This article shows Donald Trump looking angry which is most likely an attempt to paint him negatively.


      In this article, Trump is seen with a thumbs up and a smile which sends an entirely different message for the tone of the piece. These affect the way people receive the story because of his facial expression and body language.

    3. Spatial Mode The spatial mode is about physical arrangement. This can include how a brochure opens and the way it leads a reader through the text. l·or example, sec the brochure in Figure 1.11. The designer created this rnnfcrcncc program so that each {old is slightly smaller than the one below it, allowing readers to have a tab for each day o{ presentations. The spatial mode can also refer to the placement of navigation on a Web page to maximize access for users, This mode helps us to understand why physical spaces such as grocery stores or classrooms arc arranged in particular ways to encourage certain kinds of behavior (such as all chairs in a classroom facing toward the center of the room to encourage discussion and collaboration). The spatial mode includes: • ,mangement • organization • proximity between people or obiects

      Because our assignments in class tend not to be in a traditional essay format, we should be aware of the arrangement of our media and text in order to keep our work organized and clear. The NBC article s written in a way that gets it's ideas across one by one. It's separated into sections with different headings. The words are double spaces at least and are written in clear, easy to read fonts. The media is used in a way that isn't distracting and is visually appealing. This is not uncommon for online articles. Their writers are typically very used to this format of writing and know how to write for a website in a clear way that targets their audience. "Buzzfeed" for example, is a very busy looking website that attracts with bright colors and uses common, up-to-date lingo or slang. This differs from the format of "Wikipedia" which serves to look more professional and organized, or a news website like "CNN" which has multiple articles like Buzzfeed, but is done so in a more professional manner, centered more on news stories and less on pop culture. These cater to their audiences and display different tones.

      https://www.cnn.com/ (CNN homepage) https://www.buzzfeed.com/?utm_term=.qbbDaorDqm#.ujoW9EwWpV (buzzfeed homepage)

      https://www.wikipedia.org/ (wikipedia homepage)

    4. Aural Mode The aural mode focuses on sound. Whether we are talking about a speech, a video demonstration, sound effects on a Web site, or the audio elements of a radio program, the aural mode provides multiple ways of communicating and understanding a message, including: • music • sound effects • ambient noise/sounds • silence • tone of voice in spoken language • volume of sound • emphasis and accent

      If we decide to include any kind of music or video in our primary source description posts, we can keep these in mind. Sound can be very powerful when used efficiently and we should try to figure out if any sound we use helps our message get across or if it is annoying, unnecessary, or distracting.

    5. Visual Mode The visual mode refers to the use of images and other characteris-tics that readers see. Billboards, flyers, television, Web sites, lighted advertising displays, even grocery store shelves bombard us with visual information in an effort to attract our attention. We can u-;e this mode to communicate representations of how something look~ or how someone is feeling, to instruct, to persuade, and to entertain, among other things. ·1 he visual mode includes: • color • layout • style • size • perspective

      When writing blog posts responding to the AIDS quilt panels we can think about how images can be used in an effective way and how the layout of our posts can effect the way the reader may interpret our work. The NBC article is all about interpreting a visual. Based on it's color, shape, and cultural significance and discusses why people love it or hate it. Perspective has a lot to do with this. A CIS woman and a trans woman could have different views on it. Not to say one will definitely love it or hate it, but their views could differ. Even the article itself, while trying to remain unbiased, includes quotes that could sway the reader to believe that the creator had no intention of her hats to exclude anyone. Meanwhile another article is very biased into why the pink pussy hats are problematic for feminism.


      When we peer reviewed our last primary source descriptions, different people had different suggestions as to what to add or take away. We can keep this in mind when writing, that other perspectives are useful to have.

    6. Although he likely ~ was referring to IW's commitment to helping individual citizens, his ~ choice of words-"small people" -infuriated the public because it • demeaned those impacted by the spill and implied that the disrup--I tion to their lives was not of great concern.


      This youtube video is of the BP chairman saying that BP cares about the small people. Upon viewing this clip, his word choice can come off as condescending and I can see why some may be offended by it.


      Similarly, this is a tweet in response to the color and shape of the pink pussy hat mentioned in the NBC article. It is once again claiming that these hats are exclusive of the trans community and of women of color. Both show how certain choices in multi-modal communication can be perceived in a way it was not intended to be perceived due to certain things like word choice.

    7. inguistic Mode ~ The linguistic mode refers to the use of language, which usually ~ means written or spoken word~. When we think about the ways ~ the linguistic mode is used to make or understand meaning, we can consider: ~ • word choice ~ • the delivery of spoken or written text !) • the organization of writing or speech into phrases, sentences, ~ paragraphs, etc. ~ • the development and coherence of individual words and ideas

      This is something we should keep in mind when we write our responses to our AIDS quilt panels. Our own choices in words can be very powerful, as can the way we organize our blog posts and develop them. We could decide to describe the panel all at once, our over the course of the essay. We could also take a very personal take on it, or we could research and discuss it i a way that might not be so emotionally involved. This is a goo paragraph to learn from i order to improve the quality of our posts and help us write our responses in an organized, effective way to get our ideas across.

    8. To help you think through the different modes that may be pres-ent in a multimodal text, we're going to introduce you to five terms from the work of the New London Group, a collection of education and literacy scholars who first promoted the concept of m~lti~o~al literacies. ·1 hey outlined five modes of communication-ltngu1stte, visual, aural, gestural, and spatial-

      The NBC article about the pink pussy hat discusses in itself a visual mode. The hat is communicating via its visual form, an act of resistance for women during the women's march. Similarly, the trans flag pussy hat is discusses and it is also a visual mode using colors associated with transgender pride to create a more inclusive item. (https://twitter.com/WrrrdNrrrdGrrrl/status/828416317757743109/photo/1) The article itself uses visuals and linguistics.

    9. The answer is yes! Let's take Figure 1.2 as an example. It might seem that an audi-ence could understand this text's argu. ment just by reading the written words. In fact, to understand the full message being communicated in the text, the audience has to make sense of other elements as well. They must also look at the images and read the captions that explain what the images contain. The format of the text-a single column of black printed words on a white background, with a margin on either side-also tells the audi-ence something important: that this text Is probably an academic work of some kind . (In fact, it's a page from fenny's disserta-tion.) Knowing what kind or text it is will influence the way the audience reads it

      This is comparable to the NBC article itself. While it is speaking about the pink pussy hat, a form of text itself, the article uses a mixture of text, pictures, and quotes. It also includes tweets. It is a great example of multi-modal communication. Like many other online articles it takes advantage of the use of media that may not be suitable for print like tweets and videos.

    10. To produce a successful text, writers must be able to consciously use different modes both alone and in combination with each other to communicate their ideas to others.

      This reminds me of the NBC article on the pussy hat when it later argues that some people believe these hats to purposefully exclude women of color and trans women. The interpretation is that the pink symbolizes skin color and that because it references female genitalia, it excludes people who are not CIS. The creator of this hat then goes to discuss that this was never her intention. That the pink does represent femininity in a stereotypical way but that it does not mean to include only CIS gender women. She does however note that the hat does make refer to female anatomy which was inspired by Donald Trump's "Grab them by the pussy" statement but could prove to be exclusive of the trans community. This was not her intention, but this is how it has been received by some. Similarly, we may not have control over the way our choices in imagery, in multi-modal communication, and text can be interpreted. Similarly, the AIDS quilt can be interpreted in numerous ways as I'm sure in class we will discover we have very different views and ideas about the quilt and our panels.


      This essay is a brief example of the AIDS quilt from the point of view of a teenager.


      This essay is 15 pages long, and from what I have skimmed, it is a very thorough analysis of the AIDS quilt from a more collegiate point of view. These writing styles and use, or lack of use, of imagery affect the voices and points of view of the text differently and express very different points of view.

    11. Text traditionally means written words. But because we want to talk about the visuals, sounds, and movement that make up multi-media, we use the term text to refer to a piece of communication as a whole. A text can be anything from a lolcat to a concert tee shirt to a dictionary to a performance.

      The NBC news article is a traditional form of text. However, it discusses the impact of the pink pussy hat on a cultural scale. How it has impacted the women's rights movement s a visual comparable to a concert t-shirt as discussed in this paragraph. The pussy hat towards the bottom of the article with the trans flag is also a visual with a different cultural significance than the original pink color. It serves to be more inclusive of trans people. Similarly, the AIDS quilt we have looked at has a cultural significance and is a form of media we can use and explore. It is a physical item that aims to commemorate individuals and raise awareness of the impact of AIDS.

    12. For instance, lolcats, a well-known Internet meme, are multimodal. They combine photographs of cats with words written In humor-ously incorrect grammar to create a text that uses both visuals and language-11111/tip/e modes-to be funny.

      In the article "Pink 'Pussyhat' Creator Addresses Criticism Over Name," it gives information about the pussy hat as it is known as a symbol for female empowerment. The name is taken from President Donald Trump's leaked audio stating that he could "grab them by the pussy" speaking of women he encountered being a big celebrity, which sparked outrage. This phrase went viral and was shared and well-known throughout the united states. Very much like the meme discussed here, it has a significance culturally and is a well known phrase. The pink pussy hats worn during the women's march are a play off of this phrase and are used as a way to combat this negative phrase and reclaim the idea.

      This is an image showing the style of these hats and the popularity they had during the women's march.


      This video contains context for the full video of all audio taken of Donald Trump which led to the outrage sparked by the "grab them by the pussy" phrase.

  3. Jan 2018
    1. Page 11 really delves into the meat of the publication. This section about how students learn about the interconnectedness of objects and history and culture is not talked about in "Material Culture." While the connectedness of history and objects is dived into in "Material Culture" there is nothing in it about students which makes "Essays in Material Culture" a unique source of information for that topic.

    2. http://www.jstor.org/stable/1180761 This journal article Mind in Matter: An Introduction to Material Culture Theory and Method by Jules David Prown helps explain Prown's method of material culture analysis in full detail beyond what is found in this collection of essays. Looking at the process in a more detailed and outlined way. Being able to use the steps (description, deduction, speculation, research, and interpretive analysis) and understand what each step entails through a primary source is helpful to really make the most of the process and analyze an item with a process you understand completely. https://youtu.be/B9gN63kLw3U This youtube video helps explain the steps of Prownian Analysis by seeing it applied in a demonstration. Being able to see the process applied in real time is immensely helpful in simplifying the process and being able to apply it to an object being studied. http://www.engineeringthepast.com/prownian-analysis/ This website suggests that taking notes on a commonly found household items and using the Prownian Analysis steps to familiarize yourself with the process and be able to understand and practice the process. It later explains steps that can help you expand your initial Prownian Analysis. It suggests writing a short paragraph on each step to expand the details of what has been written for each step. The last step suggested in the article is to find other sources, blogs and articles that could assist as outside information. Overall, this article is very helpful in understanding Prownian Analysis and how to apply it.

    3. The idea of not just summarizing other people's content but using our own ideas and outside is one we have learned in class. It is important to separate summarization from our own ideas and emotions based on the text. It can also be helpful to include outside sources, supplementary text, images, link, and our own observations and emotional feedback to determine what the object represents and the significance it has beyond the description. While both bodies of text describe the importance of object description, it is more important to introduce evidence and that supports your ideas.

    4. schematized- arranged or represented in a schematic form

    5. Emotional connections are necessary to being to understand or speculate the meaning of an item. The emotional connection between humans and items is also discussed in "Material Culture" but it isn't discussed in connection with a bigger cultural meaning the way its connected here. Using your own interpretation of an item and using that to create a cultural understanding and connection is very key in the central idea of "Essays in Material Culture."

    6. elucidate- make (something) clear; explain

    7. Something "Essays in Material Culture" goes into that "Material Culture" does not, is that the observer's perspective and description is unique. Obviously, looking at an object with historical significance can lead to understanding other cultures and how an object is reflective of or effects a culture or group of people. However, each description or perception of an item is individual. Each person may have different emotional reactions or connections. Someone may have a deep connection to a Torah for example if they are Jewish or have respect for the Jewish faith. A Torah is a physical book that has association to the Jewish faith and is important to those who actively practice this faith. However, someone else may understand this about the culture but not experience the same emotional connection to this item. However, with increased self-awareness there is the ability to connect with an object more, which is why it is so necessary to be self aware of your response and description when studying an object for cultural significance.

    8. The additional text "Material Culture" by Sophie Woodward defines and starts to explain what material culture is. The work goes into brief detail about how there is a cultural effect on items. It makes the point that an object, it's physical properties, the material it's made with, and what makes them central to understanding culture and social relations. This work also challenges the belief that a physical item is separate from their cultural association. For example, in Christianity (although this is not universal to every sect of Christianity, Jehovah's Witnesses being an example of a religion that rejects symbols of worship) the cross is a well known symbol. At it's base, it is a cross shape possibly made out of wood. That is what it is at base level. However, the cross is culturally accepted as a symbol of Christianity and the sacrifice of Jesus Christ. This is the cultural association that goes along with this artifact. It argues that material properties should not be overlooked when looking at the meaning if an item, but instead are central to the meaning the item possesses. Items also produce an effect on humans. We see this in the real world example of precious family heirlooms or the idea of "prized possessions." The article "Prized Possessions found at http://www.businesspsych.org/articles/113.html illustrates this point by giving an example of a widow who is attached to a home that she lived in with her husband, even though this home may not be practical for a woman living alone. It supports the idea that people become attached and have emotional connections and responses to physical items. It also goes to explain a brief history on the roots of Material Culture in Anthropology and Archeology. Material Culture in itself however is merging the two worlds of items and artifacts and examining how they affect culture and the relationship between people and things. “Obo.” Material Culture - Anthropology - Oxford Bibliographies, 4 Jan. 2018, www.oxfordbibliographies.com/view/document/obo-9780199766567/obo-9780199766567-0085.xml.

    9. The idea highlighted on page 6 of "Essays in Material Culture" that we explain remarks about pictures coincide with Chapter 4 of "Images with Messages" by Paul Martin Lester. It delves into the types of signs; an iconic sign being a picture itself. For example, a picture of a dove, at an iconic level, is just a sign of a dove. It is a sign because it is not a physical dove, but an image of one. On an symbolic level, if one is Christian for example, a dove can be symbolic of purity or good tidings. In paganism, doves represent certain goddesses. In Judaism, it can depict a soul. They are also associated with peace (Norman A. Rubin. "The Dove"). This would explain a dove as we have come to know it. However, if someone has never seen a dove, they would need to be able to receive a detailed description of the physical attributes. The color white culturally can represent purity. Knowing a dove is white may help someone make the connection between doves and purity or holiness. This is why a solid description of the physical attributes of an object, in full detail, are necessary to be able to explore the meaning behind and item or the cultural effect an object has. Lester, Paul Martin. Visual communication: images with messages. Wadsworth/Cengage Learning, 2014.

    10. This paragraph seems to hint that a physical item is just the basis of what the cultural effect, or representation is. "Material Culture" actively challenges this idea by claiming the physical item is central to its meaning. While both texts seem to support that a physical object cannot be separate from its cultural meaning, they differ in the importance of the physical item in the study of material culture.

    11. taxonomy- the branch of science concerned with classification, especially of organisms; systematics.

    12. Like "Material Culture" this paragraph details the importance of observing the physical item in detail to be able to grasp a better meaning. While "Material Culture" explains the "why" of observing an object on a physical level, or the importance in doing so, "Essays in Material Culture" describes how to describe and observe an object on a physical level in a body of writing.

    13. This is very reminiscent of the fourth chapter in the textbook "Images with Messages" by Paul Martin Lester. This chapter focuses on semiotics (the study of signs) and the types of signs, more specifically, it is reminiscent of the section on symbolic signs. This details that humans attach values and ideology to items. This section of "Essays in Material Culture" goes into the types of object metaphors humans give to objects, complimenting what is taught in this textbook.

      Lester, Paul Martin. Visual communication: images with messages. Wadsworth/Cengage Learning, 2014.

    14. gerundial- relating to a verbal noun

    15. Both passages talk about the physical object as important to study. "Material Culture" challenges the idea that the physical item is somehow separate or less important than the meaning behind the object. It states that material properties are key to the meaning behind the item. "Essays in Material Culture" seems to imply that there are steps to observing an object and that finding cultural significance is a more complex step. These two ideas are complimentary and help paint a full picture of the importance of studying both the physical object, and its cultural significance.

    16. This passage begins to explain something that "Material Culture" does not go into detail about. It begins talking about the connection between studying material culture and studying history and learning about history. "Material Culture begins to talk about the history of the study of material culture in the last section of the passage but it does not talk about what is learned about history from studying material culture. "Material Culture" talks about the start of the study in the 19th and 20th centuries and how central it is to anthropology but does not begin to talk about the impact it has on the knowledge of history through studying significant cultural artifacts.

    17. The idea that "only some of culture takes material form" is one that could be shared with the source "Material Culture" but is not specified in that piece of writing. "Material Culture" places emphasis on the meaning humans give to material items in a cultural sense and does not offer this type of disclaimer. However, both dive into defining what the study of material culture is. By definition, material culture is "The physical objects that belong to or were created by a group (http://sociologydictionary.org/material-culture/)." Both documents, while differing slightly in how detailed they are in explaining whether or not all items possess a level of cultural influence, explain this definition of material culture in their beginning and explain what the study of this is.

    18. Etymological- relating to the origin and historical development of words and their meaning

    19. Pedagogic- relating to teaching.