26 Matching Annotations
  1. Feb 2018
    1. While increasing the speed of production, the intensive confinement production system creates a number of problems. These include contributing to the increase in the pool of antibiotic-resistant bacteria    G because of the overuse of antibiotics    G; air quality problems; the contamination of rivers, streams, and coastal waters with concentrated animal waste; animal welfare problems, mainly as a result of the extremely close quarters in which the animals are housed; and significant shifts in the social structure and economy of many farming regions throughout the country.    F

      Everything that meat consumption can do to our planet

    1. Due to its very high per-capita health-care costs, the country could save $180 billion if the population ate according to recommended guidelines, and $250 billion if it eschewed animal food products altogether

      this is very interesting

    2. In a study published last week in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Marco Springmann and his colleagues at the University of Oxford conservatively estimate that if people continue to follow current trends of meat consumption, rather than shifting to a more balanced or plant-based diet, it could cost the U.S. between $197 billion and $289 billion each year—and the global economy up to $1.6 trillion—by 2050.

      some evidence that shows economic benefits.

    1. in April 2008, 7.3 million Americans—3.2 percent of the adult population of the United States—were vegetarians. In addition, 1 million Americans (0.5 percent) were vegans

      we've made progress

    2. The fishing industry has destroyed undersea ecosystems during trawling operations and endangered some species by overfishing. Significant amounts of Amazon rainforest have been cut down to provide grazing land for cattle. The carbon produced from burning trees, the nitrous oxide in manure, and the high levels of methane produced during a cow’s digestive process are believed to contribute significantly to global warming; the United Nations reports that livestock farming is one of the top three contributors to environmental pollution and degradation. Vegetarianism is one way to reduce an individual’s carbon footprint:

      ethical reasons!! Talk about the carbon footprint

    3. Apart from the issue of health benefits and risks, many take up vegetarianism as an ethical choice. For them, vegetarianism is a way to take a stand on issues such as the morality of killing animals for food and the cruel treatment of animals on factory farms. Organizations such as People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) advocate vegetarianism by publicizing such treatment.

      One of the main reasons people chose a vegan diet. They want to help their animal counterparts but don't realize the impact they are having on the planet as a result.

    1. drug-resistant strains of bacteria may be passed directly between animals and humans (primarily farmers); drug-resistant strains may be passed to humans who consume meat and milk from infected animals; and both drug-resistant bacteria and un-metabolized antibiotics may be released into the environment through the animals’ excrement.

      this is how humans can contract infections and antibiotic strains that will not help fight the infection

    2. The large groups of confined animals on factory farms can become breeding grounds for pathogens, and such zoonotic diseases as salmonella, E. coli, avian influenza, and swine flu have all been linked to the industry.

      An interesting fact about what diseases could be in our meat that we eat

    3. Worldwide, more than half of all antibiotics used are used on farm animals.

      This is a crazy fact

    4. For decades, factory farms have administered large quantities of antibiotics — drugs designed for the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections — to animals who are not sick.

      Another concern for human welfare.

    1. because widespread violence against animals in the form of ‘agriculture’, ‘research’ and even ‘entertainment’,

      reasons we believe killing living beings is moral

    2. “If a man earnestly seeks a righteous life, his first act of abstinence is from animal food.” – Leo Tolstoy

      Maybe put this in my essay. I like it

    1. Rising incomes and urbanization are driving a global dietary transition in which traditional diets are replaced by diets higher in refined sugars, refined fats, oils and meats. By 2050 these dietary trends, if unchecked, would be a major contributor to an estimated 80 per cent increase in global agricultural greenhouse gas emissions from food production and to global land clearing.

      describing why diets are changing

    1. "A vegan riding a Hummer contributes less to greenhouse gas emissions than a meat eater riding a bicycle," he says.

      i like this quote

    2. The Balancing Act, concluded that replacing meat with pasta and beans would have the biggest effect on reducing a person's carbon footprint. Australia's meat-products industry accounts for 91 megatonnes of greenhouse gas emissions a year, according to the report. This compares with the 80.4 megatonnes attributable to the nation's transport industry. A vegan diet can dramatically reduce a person's carbon footprint, but can it also erode the nutrients our bodies need to stay healthy? "If you have followed a vegan diet all your life, there is some evidence that your body seems to be able to change the amount it wants to absorb out of food," says Aloysa Hourigan, senior nutritionist at Nutrition Australia. "But it is difficult if a large meat-eater switches to a vegan diet." The main problem seems to be our bodies' ability to extract adequate amounts of vitamin B12, which makes red blood cells, and minerals such as iron, calcium and zinc, from plant-based foods. "Vegans need to eat a wide range of foods.

      although this is evidence in Australia, it effects the whole world

    3. Animal cruelty in the meat, dairy and egg industries remains the prime motivation for many vegans. The cramped conditions in which chickens are kept, mulesing (removing the skin from the backsides of sheep to prevent flystrike) and slaughtering animals while they are still conscious are among their main concerns.

      more evidence for animal welfare

    4. While most people tend to switch to veganism on environmental or humanitarian grounds,

      this is an interesting fact to know, because it seems like a lot of people will do this diet for weight loss

    1. People who eat a plant-based diet live longer, have less cancer and heart disease, weigh less, and have healthier diets. They even have a lower carbon footprint. These were the impressive findings from the landmark study Adventist Health Study-2 (first announced at the International Congress of Vegetarian Nutrition at Loma Linda University,

      the source to all this evidence

    2. 1. Weight. A progressive weight increase was seen from a vegan diet toward a non-vegetarian diet. “The average body mass index (BMI) for vegans was 23.6, lacto-ovo vegetarians 25.7, pesco-vegetarians 26.3, semi-vegetarians 27.3, and non-vegetarians 28.8,” said Fraser (Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, December 2013). BMI over 25 is overweight; over 30 is obese. 2. Cardiovascular disease. The same trend was observed for cardiovascular disease markers, such as levels of cholesterol, and incidence of high blood pressure and metabolic syndrome, with the vegan dietary pattern offering the lowest risk compared with non-vegetarian (Diabetes Care, 2012). 3. Type 2 Diabetes. Prevalence of type 2 diabetes among vegans (2.9 percent) and lacto-ovo vegetarians (3.2 percent) was half that of non-vegetarians (7.6 percent), reported Fraser, who also noted that the same trend prevailed in fasting blood glucose levels. 4. Inflammation. A similar trend, progressing from vegan to non-vegetarian, was observed for C-reactive protein, a measure of inflammation, which is considered a root of chronic disease. 5. Cancer. Fraser reported, “For overall cancer, all vegetarians (vegans plus lacto-ovo vegetarians) had an 8 percent reduction in risk, and vegans did best of all. For gastrointestinal cancers, vegetarians as a group had 24 percent reduction in risk, and in particular lacto-ovo vegetarians did the best. For respiratory system cancers, the vegetarian group had a 23 percent reduction in risk. In female cancers, vegans did the best in reduced risk.” 6. Longevity. “Death rates rise across the dietary groups, from vegans to non-vegetarians,” said Fraser. There was a 12 percent reduction in risk of all-cause mortality in all vegetarians combined versus non-vegetarians, with a reduction in risk of 15 percent in vegans compared with non-vegetarians, nine percent in lacto-ovo vegetarians, 19 percent in pesco-vegetarians, and eight percent in semi-vegetarians (JAMA Intern Med, 2013).Carbon footprint. Vegetarian diets are also more sustainable, according to Joan Sabate, MD, DrPh, Chair of Nutrition at Loma Linda University. According to a life cycle assessment applied to the AHS-2 data, Sabate reported that the greenhouse gas emissions for a vegan diet are 41.7 percent lower compared with non-vegetarians; lacto-ovo vegetarians are 27.8 percent lower, pescatarians are 23.8 percent lower, and semivegetarians are almost 20 percent lower. 7. Healthy behaviors. Compared to non-vegetarians, vegans and vegetarians watch less television, sleep more, and consume more fruits, vegetables, and low-glycemic foods and less saturated fat.

      Some of the many things veganism can benefit

    3. As the scientists began to compare the health outcomes of the various diet patterns in AHS-2, they saw something intriguing. For many health outcomes, a progressively beneficial relationship was observed between the dietary patterns, with vegan providing the best benefit compared with non-vegetarian, followed by lacto-ovo vegetarian, pesco-vegetarian, and semi-vegetarian.

      In a study there is proof that veganism is better for your health

    1. the animal products industry is the #1 contributor to climate change. Socially, 80-90% of the world's crops go to feeding our livestock- we could easily feed the world's hungry if everyone adopted a vegan diet. What we choose to put into our bodies greatly impacts others and the world around us.  By adopting a vegan diet, you can help save the environment and improve the lives of others (and yourself!)

      this is how people can change the world and save themselves and the rest of our society

    1. Although the vegan diet was defined early on in The Vegan Society's beginnings in 1944, it was as late as 1949 before Leslie J Cross pointed out that the society lacked a definition of veganism. He suggested “[t]he principle of the emancipation of animals from exploitation by man”. This is later clarified as “to seek an end to the use of animals by man for food, commodities, work, hunting, vivisection, and by all other uses involving exploitation of animal life by man”.

      history of veganism. might use to give a nice background of what it is.

    1. from hunger, thirst and malnutrition;•from pain, injury and dise ase ;•from discomfort ;•from fe ar and dist re ss;•to express natural behaviour.

      The five freedoms used to measure welfare

    2. Unfortunately, all medicines have been tested on other animals due to regulatory requirements, and it may be hard to avoid them at times or to find alternatives for some medical treatments.

      It's hard to follow a vegan lifestyle but is possible

    3. doing away with all products derived wholly or partly from other animals.

      life changes!!

    4. Veganism represents a philosophy and way of living which seeks to exclude—as far as is possible and practicable—all forms of exploitation of, and cruelty to, other animals for food, clothing or any other purpose; and promotes the development and use of animal-free alternatives for the benefit of humans, other animals and the environment.

      this is the definition of veganism and will be an important thing to mention first in my essay