25 Matching Annotations
  1. Apr 2017
    1. If safety at GSU is promoted and held to the highest of standards it will generate prosperity for it facilitators and for the campus in entirety.

      I think that overall your analysis is very good. I like that you have many different visuals and tables. I think that you could do a better job of making it more cohesive and tie together, each section is very seperate and does not directly tie back to each other.

    1. Having a plethora of various security features and measures can better accommodate different individuals with contrasting concerns. Incorporating a variety  of circumstances may also give resolution to the issue of cost and how it may play a major role in the innovation of security measures

      When I read this I am kind of unsure of where you stand in your argument, are you being very ambigious when you say "Incorporating a variety of circumstances may also give resolution to the issue of cost and how it may play a major role in the innovation of securitymeasures" is your agrument on security measures or on GSU security? I think you should be more clear as to how it ties back to GSU and the built enviorment of Atlanta.

    1. This can further create a divide with campus police and students/staff in terms of who is trustworthy as an officer and what officer may be as much of a threat as a campus intruder.

      I think to tie your sections together you can also add this in the next section about the library and the effect of having campus police at the entrance of buildings.

    1. Students go to school to learn, receive an education, earn a degree, enjoy the experience. They do not anticipate to get harassed and degraded by bias individuals with narrow views on religious subjects.

      I think that you do a very good job here, your claim here is that extremist should not be allowed to protest within an eductaion enviroment. I also think that maybe you can add that the male protestor is not a student at the university. Then as a counter example, I don't know if you were aware of the student at GSU who is a white extremist going around questioning people about their beliefs but I think that this would be a good way to show both sides of the argument.

    1. Ross believes that college campuses need to incorporate security features such as metal detectors and security searches to gain access to campus facilities to prevent crimes like mass shootings (Ross 1). The author notes that such features would result in high financial costs, but presumes that having safety measures like the two mentioned above is worth the cost (Ross 2-3).

      Ross is claiming that college campuses should have better securty and one way this should be done is through metal detectors and searches, but you claim that this can give off a bad impression of a place like a prison. Maybe you can find some examples of how increased security can possibye have an adverse effect and be more detremetal than beneficial.

  2. Feb 2017
    1. though that body of literature does not always describe architecture as “regulation.”

      How can architecture not be seen as a form of regulation or agenda? Sidewalks are built so people can walk, roads are built to drive cars. Some buildings require gates and codes, others do not. Whether we recognize it or not, anything that is built, is built for a purpose and with that comes rules and regulations.

    2. Similarly, the existence of divided highway-style median barriers on local arterials makes it difficult for pedestrians to cross streets or for cars to turn left.

      The article, "The morbid and mortal toll of sprawl" by Robert Steuteville used to explain Invitation to Vernacular Architecture. Focuses on how the architecture/ design of roadways has played a large role in traffic deaths. It’s interesting how the article connects to the major points of how architecture can both physically and psychologically divide a society.

    3. ubiquitous

      Definition: existing everywhere; at the same time

      The use of the word "ubiquitous" helps to exemplify how race is everywhere. Especially in the United States, that is known for being a Melting Pot of cultures and languages. The same way laws are made to protect people's freedom and liberty. Those laws should also be applied to Built Environments and architectural design.

    4. “[r]ace is a ubiquitous reality that must be acknowledged . . . if [planners] do not want simply to be the facilitators of social exclusion and economic isolation.”42

      Just like when you fill an application for a job or a program, they ask for your gender and race. Why? Because it helps schools get funding, and it allows for special accommodations. Maybe there is a need for signage in a different language or an interpreter. The same idea applies to architecture. When designing a building, a park, or a bus line. It would be negligent not to consider the types of people who would come in contact or utilize the structures being built. So, I definitely think that the separation and discrimination is intentional, because there is nothing that we can do in our society today without considering race.

      There is an article called, “UT Austin’s School of Architecture Establishes Initiative on Race, Gender and the Built Environment” by Kathleen Stimpert. The article addresses the 21st century concern of design and planning. The article states, their “effort[s] aims to facilitate diversity among design and planning professionals and students, and foster innovation in teaching and research on race, gender and inequality in American cities” The University of Texas at Austin realizes the effect that culture and practices has on a city. So much, that they have opened a new department dedicated to researching those effects. I think that this goes to show how it would be very difficult to build a successful city without considering all the components.


    5. Instead of garnering support to pass a law banning poor people or people of color from the places in which he did not want them—which, if the intent were clear, would not be permissible today84—Moses used his power as an architect to make it physically difficult for certain individuals to reach the places from which he desired to exclude them.

      I think that is very similar to what Airbnb host were doing to potential residents. Both are subtle forms of discriminatory action. Airbnb would be bashed if it publicly came out and stated that they were racist especially in today’s age where people are looking for any reason to point out institutionalized racism.

      Although, Airbnb has publicly stated that they are completely against such actions it would not be surprising to find that these accusation are true and intentional.

    6. Although these walls are generally put in place by private developers to keep out those whom they do not want to access their communities, local governments have the power to prohibit these barriers. And while some cities have taken action to actively outlaw gated communities,108 most have not.1

      I find this interesting because I live in a gated community, and while reading, I never once considered my living status as a form of segregation. The area I live in is made up of predominately young black families and college students. When I think of a gated area, I think of a place that is closely monitored for the safety of the residents not as a means of separation. I may think this way because I live in a gated area but after reading this, I have a new outlook on the purpose of gated areas/residences.

    7. innocuous

      Definition: not harmful or inoffensive

      The word "innocuous" describes how a one-way street, a street signs, or a bridge- at first glance seem normal and harmless. But they in fact promote a systematic social inequality, because the objects are concrete and steel monuments; they can control and constrain behavior. This overtime effects the culture of the society.

    8. Why have the Court, judges, and lawmakers—the entities usually tasked with crafting and enforcing antidiscrimination law—failed to find fault with these sorts of physical acts of exclusion? The most straightforward reason is that it is difficult to show the necessary intent to discriminate, especially in situations involving land use and the built environment.15

      I don't think that it is difficult to show discrimination in built environments. All you have to do is look at a map or a census, and the facts are there. If this were true, then why are their hoods & projects? Those places are predominantly black/minority and low-income. They are built and designed to "help" the less fortunate, but you would never see a tax-credit or low-income housing right next to an area with good school system or nice houses. The government has created this system, maybe not on purpose, but the interpretation and application of the laws and practices have us divided and will continue to divide us if we don't spread awareness.

    9. Wealthy, mostly white residents of the northern Atlanta suburbs have vocally opposed efforts to expand MARTA into their neighborhoods for the reason that doing so would give people of color easy access to suburban communities.7

      Is this current? I know that there has been talk about expanding MARTA, but I am a little surprised that this really a concern in Atlanta. Compared to other major cities, Atlanta's public transportation is very limited. So forget about expanding to farther neighborhoods, what about just expanding within the city first?

      In an article called, “Atlanta’s MARTA Expansion: An 8 Billion Dollar Step in the Right Direction” by Elizabeth Davies takes a different approach and recognizes the benefits of the expansion. It discusses how Atlanta’s city center is flourishing with a migration of white residents. The minorities and people of low income are leaving to get away from the expensive living and high taxes. Now, because of the displacement of families into suburbs they no longer have access to inner-city developments and transportation. This all leads to income discrepancies.

      Although, Elizabeth Davies takes a different view of the MARTA expansion, the article agrees and supports the fact that it is an issue. One that mostly effects black people and lower-income households.


    10. I. architectural exclusion: theory

      Summary of "Trying to appear "not too black" on Airbnb is exhausting," by Norrinda Brown Hayat. In the article she discusses her personal accounts and those of others who have faced discrimination from host when trying to book reservations on Airbnb. There has been complaints of manipulation by the host of various residences on Airbnb. Airbnb has since released new policies on anti-discrimination. The company also plans to combat the issue by implementing a feature that will help prevent host from having the ability to pick and choose who they can rent to.

      Airbnb has more listing than the Marriot; which is the most well-known hotel chain around the world. There was a study done by professors at Harvard business school that state, "requests from guests with distinctively African-American names are roughly 16% less likely to be accepted than identical guests with distinctively White names," Hayat mentions having to drop indicators, like her occupation, or her level of education in order to come across as a "suitable" candidate. She also mentions a lawsuit that was filed, Selden v. Airbnb. The host rejected the first application and then after changing the application to appear more white, he was then accepted. Airbnb says that they do not condone, racism, harassment, bigotry, or hatred.

      Hayat goes on to say that despite Airbnb's efforts, people will always find a way to discriminate. She states that is not their fault and that the real issue is racism. The article states that if Airbnb cannot control their host and control the discrimination against blacks then people will be forced to do without. There is always the Marriot, although Airbnb has more listing than the Marriot. It is the most well-known hotel chain around the world and they provide equal treatment.

      Hayat, Norrinda Brown. "Trying to appear "not too black" on Airbnb." CNN. Cable News Network, n.d. Web. 25 Feb. 2017.


    1. The distribution of buildings mirrors the distribution of the population according to economic class and makes such divisions visible not only in the sizes of houses, but also in the way the buildings of the rich and powerful physi­cally dominate the landscape by their location and presence (fi

      This reminds me of Atlanta. There are a lot of areas where buildings are down and boarded up, but those building could be right next to a high rise or an establishment that was just built. So, I disagree with this statement because, yes sometimes you can definitely tell the economic standing of an area based on it buildings and roads. But Atlanta is a perfect example of an area that is very mixed in especially downtown Atlanta.

    2. those of material culture studies generally, for they center on the ability to find meaning in artifacts.

      This just remind me of African art. I have a lot of statues, masks, and paintings and each artifact can tell a story of a different tribes history or even an emotion that the artist wants to convey.through that art piece. I also think the same can be said for architecture.

    3. Analyzing and explaining the cultural content of a building is not something you can justr/o,

      I agree, because just like any profession. One has to study and work to sharpen their skills. Especially, because there are so many different types of buildings in the Us let alone around the world. To be the best at Vernacular Architecture one would need to know the language and the culture of many different places.

    4. Reading buildings requires some­thing of a leap of faith: faith in yourself as an objective onlooker and faith in your methodology. At some point you have to decide what it is all about

      I never thought about analyzing buildings in this way, but it reminds me of the same way you would examine a picture. In order to properly analyze a building and tell its story you have to use all the physical characteristics as well as your experience and any remaining documents to piece together what the culture/society was like for the people of that time.

    5. As both the products of culture and its agents, buildings reflect our cultural values. Once created, they not only become symbolic representations of those values but also serve in their own way to enforce those values actively, making sure that they are adhered to and followed.

      In the article, "The morbid and total toll of sprawl", Steuteville states how the design of roadways are the main cause for fatalities. This is interesting because I see this becoming a reality. The roadways have become a symbolic representation of our society. Atlanta is a perfect example, we have 8 lane expressways, the traffic is horrible, and there is always an accident. This has become a norm in our society, so I definitely agree that buildings and architecture in general "reflect our cultural values".

    6. Determining history through buildings has its drawbacks,

      I also feel that another drawback of trying to determine history through buildings is that it is based on perspective. I can look at a building and all of of its evidence and draw a different conclusion that someone else. But I guess that can be said about history in general.

    7. the Rule of Least and Best; they achieve a necessary efficiency in their work by gathering the least amount of best information needed to solve their problem." The trick in vernacular architecture studies is to figure out when and under what circum­stances buildings and landscapes become the best documents for answering particular kinds of historical questions,

      I feel that this is exactly what is being done with the transit-oriented developments. The idea is to be as effective as possible without having to do extra work. I feel that the developments put everything in one place. Isn't that what a person looks for when deciding where to live or even where to stay when picking a hotel in a different city? The idea of convenience and accessibility is always going to be important. I also feel that overtime, as the developments begin to age, the area will establish its own culture and personality that will tell a story.

    8. Invitation to Archaeology

      The article, "MARTA Breaks Ground on First Transit-Developemt Project" by Tasmin Shamma is a plan devised to help flourish and advance the community. The first location is Edgewood-Candler Park MARTA station. The developments will have apartments, restaurants, entertainment like a dance hall that can also be used for educational purposes.There will also be a park and traffic plans to help ease the hectic traffic in the area.

      The development is going to be funded privately by a developer called Columbia Ventures LLC. The project is estimated to cost about 40 million dollars. With the help of these developments, MARTA is expected to see a large increase in the number of riders. Shamma also discusses how with the easy access of transportation next to these developments, there will no longer be a need for parking. The idea is to make everything easily accessible for the residents in the area. A percentage of the living complexes will be made affordable for people of lower incomes. This is just at the Edgewood-Candler locations.

      There is talk about other developments around the city. the plans is to have a total of 6 transit-oriented developments in areas like Avondale, Chamblee, Brookhaven/Oglethrope University, King Memorial and the Lindgergh Arts Center station. http://news.wabe.org/post/marta-breaks-ground-first-transit-development-project

    9. The article, "The morbid and mortal toll of sprawl" by Robert Steuteville is an article about how the design of roadways have played a large role in traffic deaths. The article tries to bring awareness by pointing out how the roadways have changed since the 1950's.A graph displays the the comparison of traffic fatalities before the 1950's and now. There is a clear discrepancy.

      People love to claim that distracted driving is the leading cause of accidents but in actuality it is the architectural design of the roads. Steuteville claims that the reason for this climb in casualties is due to the road designs. They have made drivers feel comfortable. Wide lanes and large intersections encourage speeding and careless driving. Compared to other countries the US is dragging behind on road safety.<br> https://www.cnu.org/publicsquare/2016/08/26/morbid-and-mortal-toll-sprawl

  3. Jan 2017
    1. n the ways that all kinds of buildings are constructed, in the ways they are styled and decorated, and in the ways they are used and reused (and reused), later observers are able to see the end results of people making actual decisions about how their world will be ordered (

      I found this interesting because in the article by Robert Steuteville that discusses fatal car accidents, he states how the roads are "built with “forgiving design,” encourage drivers to step on the gas in highly populated urban areas, and pure physics increases stopping distances and impact forces geometrically” (Steuteville 2016). If you look at the roadway systems of other countries like Paris against the U.S. the difference in culture is clear. Only considering the roadways, Paris has very narrow and small streets and the same can be said for the cars driven. But in the U.S., the expressways can have as many as 8 lanes for a single side. Like the article states, the more space the faster and more careless driver can be. In Paris is it difficult to speed because the roads are so narrow and do not leave much room for mistakes. I find this to be a great example to show how the architecture can explain a culture and the history of a region so just image how much more insight one can gain from looking at buildings. https://www.cnu.org/publicsquare/2016/08/26/morbid-and-mortal-toll-sprawl