600 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
    1. He said he “guarantees 100%” that the system will at times misconstrue innocent behavior. But he’s more concerned about failing to catch indicators of violence, and he said the system gives schools and other facilities a much-needed early warning system.

      Type I vs. Type II error...

    1. or we can hide our fear and indifference behind a mask of “neutrality.”

      I'd say there can be more to this--and the same precarity (especially financial) that sponsors the traumas students experience can facilitate fear on the part of educators fort he security of their jobs.

  2. Jun 2019
    1. Moe was a vocal proponent of the school management company Edison Schools’ initial public offering in 1999.

      See Samuel E. Abrams' book Education and the Commercial Mindset for a lot more on this stuff.

    2. Metaphors matter.

      <3

    3. But as is often the case with alarmist factoids, this one was wrenched out of historical context: since the 1960s, more students were taking the exam than ever before—and what’s more, SAT performance had actually increased among all subgroups.

      Thanks, Gerald Bracey. I cited this factoid to someone just a few days ago--to Alice at the beach.

    1. Until these are common currency, students would be negatively impacted when they seek to transfer to more traditional institutions if that is the only document they present.

      Local maximum.

    2. She said each high school would be required to come up with its own system for evaluating student knowledge and skills. "It has to vary from school to school," she said, and the idea is to move away from identifying students by some number representing their achievement.

      Weeeeird to hear this. It has to vary from school to school?

    3. so an admissions officer could see lab reports, essays and so forth.

      Would this take more time for admissions officers? There's a fairness argument to be made here, as well...

    4. but levels of proficiency in various areas.

      Proficiency as at least ordinal?

  3. May 2019
    1. I have a problem with the idea that teachers are generic teachers. That we teach children, not subjects. Because while it is true that we teach children, it is through the introduction to subjects that we allow children access to understanding the world, and further, access to that that is beautiful in human life.

      Parker J. Palmer.

    2. And *how* should be driven by *what* anyway.

      As much by why.

    3. This is shorthand for focusing on how to teach, not what to teach.

      False dichotomy.

    4. And hence they believe to focus on it you need to measure it. And if you’re going to measure it, you need to judge it.

      Not a necessary entailment.

    1. Curriculum is in the ascendant. We’re returning to conversations about what we’re teaching. This is awesome. But curriculum is far bigger than a process. It’s what your school is.

      The end of this highlight is great.

    2. Pedagogy was, and still is in some parts, overrated (Stuart Lock, 2017), but the how should have an interwoven, richly tapestried relationship with the what, dictated by the subject discipline.

      ???

    3. mind-manacles of Bloom’s Taxonomy.

      I like this.

    1. in the unaugmented part of my brain

      What part is that?

    2. as if they were all parts of a singular ever-evolving speech.

      They were--or thinking of them as such is a useful metaphor for extending what's possible in composition.

    3. I am not a Luddite.

      Understatement.

    1. The dark forests grow because they provide psychological and reputational cover.

      No.

    2. into their dark forests

      I'm still confused--are you saying TDF is a place of refuge and relative safety? Liu's presumption is that we always were in a dark forest, knowingly or not, and that there's no escape from it--it's the nature of the universe, a law that follows from basic laws of universal sociology.

    3. when we learned that the tools we thought were only life-giving

      There was plenty of evidence to the contrary long before that.

    4. The internet of today is a battleground.
    5. The cultures of those spaces have more in common with the physical world than the internet.

      Seems like an artificial separation and an artificial conflation. Facebook groups are very different than in-person groups. And they are the Internet--or a facet of it.

      Fragmentation is still consistent with the Internet.

    6. Dark forests like newsletters

      The metaphor breaks down here for me. Those are silos, I'd say, rather than a dark forest. I'm leery, I'd say, because in Liu's Dark Forest, the consequence of conspicuousness is death--extinction. And one probably doesn't get second chances.

    1. the appropriately scaled test score itself

      I want to know how we get to something being "appropriately scaled."

    2. and thus lack “face validity” for this purpose.[2]

      Does it follow that they lack face validity simply because they weren't designed to include it? Perhaps I don't have the definitions down and this is semantic, but it seems like you could luck into face validity when re-appropriating measures.

    3. If measures are neither reliable nor valid, indicators constructed from the measures are unlikely to be reliable or valid. But, it’s also possible that measures are reliable and/or valid, but indicators constructed from those measures are neither.

      Important. The nominal/ordinal/interval/ratio scoring comes into this here.

    4. Indicators are re-expressions of measures

      Like the gas gauge?

    5. If we wrongly assume the measure is the underlying process, the remedy for a high temperature is simply to bathe the child in ice, an unlikely solution to whatever underlying process is actually causing the fever.

      Yes, and what? Something doesn't quite seem right here. Of course isn't the underlying process--I doubt that's what's happening in these situations.

    6. The measures we take can be referred to as “realizations” which are generated by underlying processes (all the stuff going on in school, as well as in the daily lives of the children attending and teachers working in those schools, inclusive of weather conditions, heating, cooling and lighting, home environments, etc.).

      This seems strange to me. I'm also not sure any of this constitutes an actual definition of measures.

    1. show

      MWLB--probably a whole bunch of overlapping ones. "Learning is an object," in the show-and-tell sense of 'snow" or "Learning is a performance" in the show-me-your-dance-move sense, for starters.

      Per yoozh, what's obscured?

    2. I handed back paragraphs at three different times: once with grades and feedback, once with grades only, and once with feedback only. At each time, I asked students to look over their work and then I took the work away. I gave them a sticky note and asked them to comment on their evaluation. Only when I gave them their work with feedback and no grades, could students explain or demonstrate their next steps in the writing process.

      This echoes some fairly well-known studies, but it seems too clean. That kind of study was designed and it didn't report so simple a result. While I so strongly agree with most of the sentiments here, I worry about overstating our case. Cheerleading isn't what's called for.

    3. The reality is, when one invests in the descriptive feedback, students use the feedback and learning goes up.

      Says who?

    4. A gradeless pedagogy means buying into the ideal that gradeless assessments lead to a learning mindset instead of a grade’s mindset.

      Maaaaaybe.

    5. I use gradeless, descriptive feedback to explain how proficient the student is in that skill area and what they need to work on next.

      How granular are we getting with the skills? How are we determining what constitutes proficiency?

    6. skills

      Devil's in the details here. Bob Shepard link re: skills.

    7. I might as well use a letter grade if don’t explain why, offer descriptive feedback, or give the opportunity to level up.

      "Levels" at very least indicates an ordinal process (or a theoretically ordinal process).

    8. even if I do get asked, I stand by my philosophy that they’ll find out at the end.

      ...?

    9. scale

      Maybe it's more of a progression? Desired trajectory?

    10. a snapshot

      Verisimilitude? Photography metaphor here doesn't seem to fit.

    11. What does a B mean anyways?

      Polysemy here. What do we intend it to mean? What do we imply unintentionally? (Communication leakage.) What's the functional significance for the grade's recipient?

    1. over-communicating your expectations

      Where over-communicating = adequately communicating.

    2. writes in an essay on Medium

      I have plenty of annotations here as well.

    3. if a student is struggling, they probably aren’t choosing to.

      Probably?

    1. hus, my cups symbols on the learning scale was born. Woot woot! Instead of just putting the learning scale language on FreshGrade, I put the scale with the cups. I’ve had positive feedback, especially from those parents who were confused by the scale and were overwhelmed by the language. It really does help give a snapshot of the learning journey.

      Dislike.

    2. There's a lot of work done by the word "demonstrate" here. And by a lot of work, I mean it papers over the whole what of the doing. This is labels all the way down. SOUP, in a word.

    3. learning scales

      I'm really unclear on what you mean by this... These are labels that you're attaching to things, and they have some usefulness (also call back to Bloom, who I don't love). But what makes them a scale? (Spoiler: I don't think it really is.)

    4. This past weekend, as I was assessing these projects, I commented, on FreshGrade, using the cups analogy and gave those who gave me empty cups, to fill them’up! I love it!

      What. Is. FreshGrade?!

    1. The truth is that comfortable, calm connectedness with intimates is the normal resting position for most people.

      I don't believe this to be true. I think if 50% of people were in relationships that were good exemplars of this, then that 50% would soon be much higher than 50%. If the indicators I pay attention to for the presence of autonomy support are reliable, then I'd say it's a rare relationship that meets the criteria.

    2. Emotionally immature men who believe that autonomy is something you take, rather than something you create, may live their lives in a continual nightmare of ‘needs they can’t meet’ that they never come to understand.

      Yes and holy mackerel this is longer than I realized.

      (Not quite--there's a lot of comments down there.)

    3. It'd be worth going back to the bit in SDT that talks about the overlap between it and attachment theory, then re-reading this article.

    4. in

      A Person Is A Container. I'd favor more of a process conception.

    5. They don’t need to do or be anything in particular to be treated this way.

      Unconditionality.

    6. I become more aware of my own feelings of autonomy, which emerge organically when we are safe.

      This is moving in a direction I don't agree with, still. I don't think the need for autonomy is derivative of a feeling of safety/security. There are discrete linguistic formations that constitute autonomy support or thwarting. Using that kind of accountable language may in fact be a cause of a sense of security, rather than its result.

    7. As secure attachers do, he doesn’t determine for me when I need him; I decide that.

      I don't know whether we have "needs" for other people--we certainly have needs that other people meet, but that's not quite the same thing.

    8. In order for Jordan to create autonomy, he needs to willingly and consistently meet his intimate’s needs for availability.

      This is the first bit I'm not sure whether I agree with.

    1. When the zombie apocalypse comes (or we bring it about?) we will need skills for getting along with each other and being able to work together even after we hook up. Start practicing now.

      Heh.

    1. West Africa

      And central Africa--certainly down into Cameroon and the Central African Republic.

    2. Fulbe

      Mi mari sobiraabe fulbé. Be mi don nana fulfuldé Camérounais sedda...

    1. The tool gives you a heatmap, as it were, of where students are commenting in a particular text, providing information which could then be used to guide discussion.

      Heh. How old is this post?

    2. What has become distinctive now is the extreme rapidity of searching one’s own marginalia, as well the ability to see how others read.

      Being able to see the artifacts left as a result of how others read. Reading itself mostly being a black box, and Hypothes.is not changing that.

    1. when I finally sit down to write a chapter, I’m just building bridges between those islands, and not venturing out into an empty, uncharted sea.

      Oh I like this.

    2. starting with my book How We Got To Now 

      It's this guy.

    1. When you hear an executive make the case for merging two different businesses and say they’ll achieve cost savings through “synergies”, that’s economies of scope they’re chasing (and likely not getting, but the investors won’t know that until management has fled the scene).

      Bahhahahahahahahahhhaaa

    2. Scope can bring economies, too. This was part of the Panzar and Willig contribution. Economies of scope are more difficult and complex than economies of scale. They’re less automatic and less obvious.

      Thinking of the Candle Problem here.

    3. Standardized inputs, processes, and outputs, all enable the great of economies or efficiencies we associate with scale.

      None of which we have in education.

    4. Standardization is a virtue in scale.

      Yes. This is key here. But what the commons demands isn't scale but scope. I think this is why I like Charles Eisenstein's books so much--their scope is as expansive, I'd say, as possible. Or they aim to be.

    5. More benefits is nice, but if more benefits also means an equal increase in costs, then it’s not so attractive.

      Hence the idea of marginality, right? (psh... see next paragraph...)

    1. This revised structure, along with the regular classroom critique of each peer’s work, will provide students with the same amount of learning without the pressure of grades penalizing quality of work.

      Yeah--I don't think learning comes in amounts either.

    2. or what a desirable outcome looks like

      Relevant read from earlier today.

    3. or assign grades based on completion.

      "Grades based on completion" perhaps don't deserve the name. To continue the scaling thinking, grading here is a nominal system, assigning values to individuals based on their membership in a class ("completed the work" and "did not complete the work"), which, okay. But that's so different from most of the conversation around grading that using the same term probably muddies the water?

    4. there is an importance to implement some type of system for students to gauge their improvement.

      This calls up the questions about scales. Gauge is a red herring here for that entailment--gauges measure equal interval scales (or ratio scales), but not ordinal ones.

    5. An “A” becomes a sort of seal of congratulatory approval: “Congrats! You nailed my design aesthetic on the head!” while a “B” or “C” becomes a sympathetic foreboding: “Better luck next time.” Not only does this hinder the creativity of students, but it unknowingly forces us into cookie cutter approaches to design.

      Which, if you're designing for someone else, may have some usefulness. But being transparent about that would be important. And probably having that person not just be the professor... Perhaps drawing from a community of people with authentic design needs.

    6. According to the U.S. Department of Agriculture, beef is graded according to two methods of evaluation: yield grades for the amount of usable lean meat and quality grades for flavor. I see this as a dual system of objective grading (a quantifiable amount)

      Interesting distinction--also relevant to the idea of scales. In this case, you have an interval scale.

    7. the amount of technical refinement in a piece
      1. MWLB -- Pieces of Art Are Containers
      2. "Technical Refinement" is decidedly not an interval scale--and probably shouldn't be referred to as having "amounts"...
    8. objective artistic standards

      This is like a jumbo shrimp jumbo sandwich.

    9. By failing, we learn from our mistakes.
    10. Speaking as a student in Virginia Tech’s graphic design program, more often than not students’ capabilities are limited when their minds are oriented towards getting an “A” on a project rather than testing new strategies.

      I believe this, of course, but this claim seems to be offered here without evidence.`

    11. grades prove more harmful than beneficial because they are heavily subjective.

      Instrumental approach to thinking about the issues surrounding grading.

    1. While peer review is invaluable to my undergraduate composition and literature courses, I was disappointed that, in my own graduate education, it wasn’t more explicitly incorporated into our seminars (of course, my friends and I constantly exchanged work outside of class).

      Me too, though we didn't.

    2. Rather than treating our course solely as a form of individual investment, I wanted to challenge students to make their learning useful to an audience beyond our classroom and, in so doing, to think about education as a collective societal project and an opportunity to contribute to the public good.

      Gifts to give.

    3. While I selected four short units ahead of time - genealogies of women of color feminism, speculative fiction, feminist pedagogy, and comedy - the remainder of the semester was designed and led by the students.

      I was thinking about this approach yesterday evening--splitting the structure of the course in two with some planned ahead of time, and the other collaboratively on the fly.

    1. But instead, after suspiciously confirming that he could build whatever he wanted,  here is what happened

      I'd be curious to learn more about the source of that suspicion.

    2. transcend bounds of time, space, location, course, and curriculum

      I think, in important ways, these are all metaphorical constructs--so the boundaries/limitations may be (at least in part) a result of the story we're telling about the thing. This seems clearly true of, say, course grades and location.

    3. promote creativity, play, exploration, awe

      Part of my concern is that something like awe is itself an emergent property of a larger system. As such, I'm not sure "promoting" it is the right word, or even possible.

    4. In this sense, our focus as educators should be on emergent situations, where complexity gives rise to ‘new properties and behaviours… that are not contained in the essence of the constituent elements, or able to be predicted from a knowledge of initial conditions’ (Mason 2008, p.2).”

      Yessss.

    5. Davis and Sumara (2008) argue that “an education that is understood in complexity terms cannot be conceived in terms of preparation for the future. Rather, it must be construed in terms of participation in the creation of possible futures” (p. 43).

      I like this very much

    1. letting them

      Presupposed a particular authority structure.

    2. What’s interesting is that when monitoring these projects and discussions, it appears initially as ineffective.

      Ineffective at what?

    1. Suppose college tuition was free and every first-year had a guaranteed job lined up for after graduation. This parallel universe does exist at military-service academies—and at West Point, Annapolis, and Colorado Springs, humanities majors are at about the same level as they were in 2008.

      Huge clue re: precarity's effect. Also a bit of a portent in the possible effect of a Universal Basic Income. Which has to now become a new tag I use...

    2. Being the type of person inclined to view a college major in terms of return on investment will probably make a much bigger difference in your earnings than the actual major does.

      Confound. And I'll bet this isn't included in the census data.

    3. Instead, in the wake of the 2008 financial crisis, students seem to have shifted their view of what they should be studying—in a largely misguided effort to enhance their chances on the job market.

      Yes--this seems central. Once you shift the calculus for the decision making process re: majors, it's very hard to shift it back. This calls up much of the intrinsic/extrinsic autonomous/controlled motivation discussion. No lack of examples of changed quality of motivation...

      I also wonder if there's any relationship to larger trends toward material culture as the conversion of ever more commonwealth to private wealth continues. Brings up questions of Basic Psychological Needs Theory and need provisioning at the level of mass culture/governance systems.

    4. to spend elective credits

      Are elective credits something you spend? Seems to imply a scarcity that doesn't exist. Certainly there are limits since we spend money to earn the credits, but that's not the same thing.

    5. I’d rather see information about the type and level of courses that undergraduates take.

      This must be combined with data about Gen Ed requirements. Mandates for a history course are a skew.

    1. This is a bit reminiscent of Community Canvas

    2. By now it should be clear that dialogue mapping is a technique that promotes collaboration

      Constitutes, operationalizes collaboration.

    3. indicates how they might connect up with the rest of the discussion – but connection is neither required nor always desirable.

      This is another set of validation. Man, this is what I want to be reading about right now.

    4. Conklin refers to the last move – challenging the context of a discussion – as “grenade throwing.”

      Bahahahhhahahhahaaa. Reasonably so. I'd prefer something a bit less violent--may rug pulling?

    5. Once on the map, it is no longer associated with any person – it is objectified as an element of the larger discussion.

      Map as de-personalizing influence--individual comments as corresponding to already-out-there ideas in the conceptual space.

    6. In an organisation, these moves have a certain stigma attached to them: anyone making arguments for or against an idea might be seen as being opinionated or egotistical.

      Peter Elbow's Believing and Doubting games are good for side-stepping some of this dynamic, I'd guess.

    7. Challenging the context of the entire discussion.

      This is my go-to these days re: education...

    8. Conklin identifies seven types of questions:

      Always up for a good classification.

    9. Criterial: These questions ask about the criteria that any acceptable ideas must satisfy.

      Nice summary of what criteria are in the context of Lincoln-Douglass debate...

    10. A side benefit of interrruption is that it slows downs the dialogue.

      Interesting (though not, at least to me, surprising) to note a slow-down seen as an improvement/innovation. Especially in contrast to so much of Engelbart's goals for making various subprocesses faster/more efficient.

    11. Conklin emphasises that it is OK to do so as long as it is done in the service of listening. Another important point is that when capturing a point made by someone, the technographer will need to summarise or interpret the point. The interpretation must be checked with the speaker.  Hence validation – and the  interruption it may entail – is not just OK, it is absolutely essential.

      Reflective listening

    12. guess at the intended meaning

      Some overlap with Nonviolent Communication here, I'm sure. It seems possible that the mapping enters the frame of social complexity itself--what happens when someone disagrees (does not validate what's written) in a way that signals emotional charge? I can think of a number of answers, but all of them call up the kind of complexity the method is designed to address. (Maybe this isn't a problem? Probably creates the potential to deal with that tension head-on?)

    13. n real-time, on a shared display which  is  visible to all participants.

      Connecting to the Licklider bit about the wall-screen. Find it in the document by ctrl-f'ing "Computer-Posted Wall Display"

    14. skilled facilitator

      They'd better be. This sounds difficult as hell.

    15. the man who coined the term wicked problem.

      I don't like the term. It sounds tech-y trendy.

    16. (Issue Based Information System)

      Sounds Engelbartian. Is that a thing I can say?

    17. fragmentation

      This word strikes me as not quite the right one. I'm tempted to want to substitute it for positionality--something less charged with the implication of brokenness. Because brokenness implies there's something to be fixed here, and though there's the possibility that people in these meetings might come to "agreement," that agreement doesn't in any way mean their varied and diverse perspectives have collapsed into some sort of monolith. All that agreement is still coming from soooooo many different places.

    18. the traditional, process driven world is partially  blind to the non-technical aspects of complexity.

      Oh man--it sure is.

    1. how would our education system change to take advantage of this new external symbol-manipulation capability of students and teachers (and administrators)?

      How indeed?

      Obligatory Sean Michael Morris paraphrase here:

      "Critical Digital Pedagogy isn't the pedagogy of technology, it's the pedagogy of the Digital Age."

    2. assess

      I think they're underestimating the complexity of assessment for progress. In this section, they mention the ease of it, with regard to the straightforward question of how long it took a programmer to create something that "worked" but that narrow goal sits in an expansive range of goals--and has potentially jagged effects across the network. I keep thinking about current ecological crises--aided and abetted to a huge degree in today's world by digital technologies. To the extent that we can attribute some of that effect to a cause related to greater effectiveness and efficiency due to tool improvements analogous to (or actually described by) this article, can we call it progress? But even down out of the clouds, the whole point of synergic (emergent) improvements is that they're complex and unpredictable. It doesn't seem like much of a stretch that the same complexity that causes the lack of foresight also clouds our judgment in assessing effects.

    3. a quick and rough scaffolding than a carefully engineered structure

      Seems like an interesting guiding principle for designing educational/classroom experiences.

    4. we would recommend turning loose a group of four to six people (or a number of such groups) to develop means that augment their own programming capability

      Seems to imply autonomy--being "loose."

    5. industrial engineering (e.g., motion and time study)

      I was thinking about Frederick Winslow Taylor a bit above.

    6. and later it is easy to merge their contributions

      Is it?

    7. data

      Metadata?

    8. There are, of course, the explicit computer processes which we use, and which our philosophy requires the augmented man to be able to design and build for himself.

      I worry that there are important ways that in having computing skills skip over many of the basic stepping stones present for pioneers from, for example, this time period, we lose a sense of continuity and understanding for much of why things were built the way they were.

    9. He maintained that about ten percent of the little steps we took all day accounted for ninety percent of the progress toward the goals we claimed to pursue -- that is, that ninety percent of our actions and thoughts were coupled to our net progress in only a very feeble way.

      Zipf again.

    10. From what we've been through so far, you might expect it to be like that. What I did, though, was to treat the matter as a process that I was going to execute the process of giving you a lecture demonstration.

      I think there are an increasing number of instances where poor formatting for the document (I think, in this case, a missing comma) is negatively affecting readability/fluency for me.

    11. perhaps you know about 'teaching machines?'

      This is ominous.

    12. If he is interested in only one type of appended substructure, he can request that only the cues associated with that type be displayed.

      Get with it, Hypothes.is! We need more granularity.

    13. It is a lot like using zones of variable magnification as you scan the structure

      My primary experience with this is the Apple application bar at the bottom of the screen. I mean, I don't have that feature enabled (I think I did in the past), but I believe my mom does.

    14. Joe picked out one of your sentences, and pushed the rest of the text a few lines up and down from it to isolate it.

      This is a feature of the graphic presentation of text that doesn't seem to be in wide use, unlike so many of the others discussed here.

    15. So far the structure that you have built with your symbols looks just like what you might build with pencil-and-paper techniques

      Cue hyperlinks?

    16. You are quite elated by this freedom to juggle the record of your thoughts

      Yes, and. With so radically reduced barriers to re-working text, I think we enter a realm where Peter Elbow's thoughts on separating generative processes from critical processes becomes incredibly important. The narrative here is that you (the person witnessing the demonstration) didn't make use of the tools to their best effect during the composition process (where tools include the re-working tools of copy/paste/delete/cut, etc.). Those tools, however, may induce a kind of analysis paralysis. Which isn't to say other parts of the tools (like a keyboard for symbol input as opposed to pencil on paper) aren't huge improvements even without the editing stuff.

    17. He's a nice enough guy, but he sure gets preachy.

      I've been this preachy.

    18. I want you to notice first how hard it is for a person to realize how really unquestioning he is about the way he does things.

      Easy to underestimate this.

    19. 3. Single-Frame Manipulation

      Pretty crazy to see just how much of this particular section turned into a reality. If I had to guess, I'd say that wasn't an accident.

    20. It's probably a good thing (for me) that I'm the first to annotate this instance of the article.

    21. only here the proofreader is always looking at clean text as if it had been instantaneously retyped after each designation had been made.

      It occurs to me that a particular stance to typo-correction is only made possible by a technological apparatus that makes the effort of correction minimal--otherwise, it would be much more understandable for people to leave errors stand.

    22. The text would all still look as neat as if freshly retyped.

      People my age and younger (and probably a bit older)--who have never typed a paper on anything other than a computer might be at risk for underestimating how much of an improvement this is.

    23. Joe could reinstate it instantaneously with one stroke of his left hand.

      Undo/Redo. Though, for most of us it's two strokes.

    24. light pen

      Cursor analog.

    25. He claimed that he could comfortably rattle off about 180 words a minute -- faster than he could comfortably talk.

      I was wondering about this before got here. I'm pretty confident in my ability to type around 80 wpm, but 180 is... a different story.

      I think there's a mirror for this in the Spritz reading app.

    26. Some of these signals were used as abbreviations for entire words. It seems that, for instance, the 150 most commonly used words in a natural language made up about half of any normal text in that language.

      Zipfian composition?

    27. At any later time (until he chose to discard that particular abbreviation from his working vocabulary) the typing of the abbreviation term would call forth automatically the "printing" on the display of the entire object string.

      I know this is a capability that exists in (probably?) any word processor in wide use, but I haven't ever made use of the feature. Auto-fill and auto-complete, however, is a different matter. Tagging each of these annotations, all I have to input is #a, and I'm off to the races.

    28. Synonyms or antonyms could just as easily be brought forth. This also seemed sort of trivially obvious, and Joe seemed to know that you would feel so. "It turns out that this simple capability makes it feasible to do some pretty rough tasks in the upper levels of the capability hierarchy -- where precise use of special terms really pays off, where the human just couldn't be that precise by depending upon his unaided memory for definitions and 'standards,' and where using dictionary and reference-book lookup in the normal fashion would be so distracting and time-consuming that the task execution would break down.

      Yessssssss. I'm here for this.

    29. that is, assemble a bunch of symbols before your eyes in order to portray something which you have in mind.

      I think the composition process often doesn't have the thing that ends up being written in mind--writing, including writing on paper or a screen--is generative (and in different ways).

    30. 1. Background

      I think this section is an excellent rhetorical choice.

    31. time sharing

      It seems like we passed the need for this from a cost sense--but I wonder if part of the answer to some ecological questions is to practice more of this. Because maybe our price setting hasn't sufficiently internalized a whole bunch of previously (currently) externalized costs.

    32. (human scale of large and simple)

      I appreciate this qualification.

    33. It is plain that even if the equipment (artifacts) appeared on the market tomorrow, a good deal of empirical research would be needed to develop a methodology that would capitalize upon the artifact process capabilities.

      Seems like we haven't done it yet--not that I'm aware of, in a mass-consciousness way.

    34. the value of some sort of copying device

      lolol

    35. Right off the bat I noticed that there were two distinct groups -- some ideas were about what the memo ought to accomplish, what time period it should cover, when it should be finished, what level and style of presentation should be used, etc., and some ideas were about the subject of the memo.

      Reflection on writing processes seems like a significant area to study for this kind of thing.

    36. It's not unreasonable to assume that establishing a link would take about three seconds, and tracing a link to the next card about three to five seconds.

      Ease is important--to free time for other things, but also because at a certain point, a slow process encounters a motivational barrier.

    37. needle sorting

      What's this?

    38. An Existing Note and File System

      Reading this, it seems super strange that in all my education, nobody discussed filing systems--especially digital filing systems. I was just in a public discussion on Twitter, and it took me way longer than I think it should have for me to find a resource I was looking for in my local documents folder--which enabled me to do a quick internet search to get a link to the original source my document adapted. Having recently completed a Master's in Teaching, it seems like a useful topic--how to organize collected resources in a file system. But not ever addressed.

    39. An example of this general sort of thing was given by Bush where he points out that the file index can be called to view at the push of a button, which implicitly provides greater capability to work within more sophisticated and complex indexing systems

      Interesting to think of paywalls in the context of this instantaneous calling up of hyperlinked text. We have the links--but not the accessibility. In this way, a political system that supports profit-motive driven artificial scarcity becomes an important part of the whole system.

    40. in a way that makes them maximally available and useful to the needs of the human's mental-structure development

      Perhaps not redacted files--not maximally.

    41. His excursion may be more enjoyable if he can reacquire the privilege of forgetting the manifold things he does not need to have immediately at hand, with some assurance that he can find them again if they prove important.

      Curious, like the comfort bit way above.

    42. There is a new profession of trail blazers, those who find delight in the task of establishing useful trails through the enormous mass of the common record.

      Maybe once we get that UBI?

    43. Wholly new forms of encyclopedias will appear, ready-made with a mesh of associative trails running through them, ready to be dropped into the memex and there amplified.

      Wikis.

    44. numerous

      Though this is of course contingent on the physical processes of the mechanism, I wonder what constrains the upper limit of hyperlinks (gonna call them that) for this sort of machine.

    45. of a desk

      If we'd gone this way, I wonder how much time it would have taken for someone to make it into a standing desk?

    46. at random

      Not really at random, is it?

    47. and something is bound to come of it.

      Sure is.

    48. Anything that might have so general an effect upon our mental actions as is implied here, is certainly a candidate for ultimate consideration in the continuing development of our intellectual effectiveness.

      This seems responsive to much of what I've been pointing to in many of my annotations.

    49. Existing means of composing and working with symbol structures penalize disorderly processes very heavily, and it is part of the real promise in the automated H-LAM/T systems of tomorrow that the human can have the freedom and power of disorderly processes.

      ?

    50. Also, the kind of generous flexibility that would be truly helpful calls for added symbol structuring just to keep track of the trials, branches, and reasoning thereto that are involved in the development of the subject structure; our present symbol-manipulation means would very soon bog down completely among the complexities that are involved in being more than just a little bit flexible.

      Limits of working memory?

    51. and by indirect imitation.

      Professors without pedagogical training.

    52. If by some magical process the production workers could still know just what to do and when to do it even though the superstructure of contractors was removed from above them, no one would know the difference.

      This could be where stigmergy could come in.

    53. This situation is typical for any of us engaged in reasonably demanding types of professional pursuits, and yet we have never received explicit training in optimum ways of carrying out any but a very few of the roles at a very few of the levels.

      Dare I say, still true.

    54. At a still higher level of capability, the executive capabilities must have a degree of power that unaided mental capabilities cannot provide. In such a case, one might make a list of steps and check each item off as it is executed.
    55. enables
    56. insofar as their actual physical construction is concerned.

      Historically, it seems like there are complex interactions between process structuring and physical structuring. For example, the difference in methods between additive manufacturing (e.g. 3D printing) and subtractive manufacturing (e.g. a lathe). My guess is that there are different affordances in tool capabilities associated with the different processes (resulting in different physical structuring), or differences in the price of manufacturing (resulting in emergent properties as availability scales), but I'm also curious about how different processes might come up against ecological concerns. Intelligence augmentation assumes the presence of an intelligence to augment, which I don't think we can assume anymore given various kinds of existential threats.

    57. toward a certain over-all professional goal

      Goal hierarchies (subject to my same criticism of that term above, though perhaps in a different way) come into the question here. Brings up Perceptual Control Theory on the subject of the interactions between different levels of goals.

    58. Essentially everything that goes on within the H-LAM/T system and that is of direct interest here involves the manipulation of concept and symbol structures in service to the mental structure.

      Disagree. There's a huge direct interest in the motivational context that of adopting the methodology itself--and I think it's only partially tied to the mental structure. Furthermore, I think it's worth dividing mental structure into cognitive--which is represented here--and affective structures. Motivational seems to involve both. It also involves a behavioral context outside the individual with regard to need provisioning and thwarts.

    59. interna1

      Did this pass through ocular character recognition software?

    60. What the computer actually stores need be none of our concern

      Machine readable vs. human readable.

    61. if the concept is given an explicit "handle" in the form of a representative symbol.

      Acronyms.

    62. we see the near-future course of the research toward augmenting the human's intellect as depending entirely upon empirical findings (past and future) for the development of better means to serve the development and use of mental structuring in the human.

      Are we still in the near future?

    1. Andrea celebrates this, saying “unhappy is the land that breeds no hero.” Galileo corrects him: “Unhappy is the land that needs a hero.” Well-run societies don’t need heroes, and the way to keep terrible impulses in check isn’t to dethrone antiheros and replace them with good people.

      Eugene Debs: “I would not be a Moses to lead you into the Promised Land, because if I could lead you into it, someone else could lead you out of it.”

    2. Arguably, the dominance of the psychological and hero/antihero narrative is also the reason we are having such a difficult time dealing with the current historic technology transition. So this essay is more than about one TV show with dragons.

      Yessssss.

    1. In so far as feasibility is concerned, speech production poses less severe problems of a technical nature than does automatic recognition of speech sounds.

      See Stephen Krashen on our not knowing all of the rules of English.

    2. In large part, the interest stems from realization that one can hardly take a military commander or a corporation president away from his work to teach him to type.

      I wanted to say this has been solved (ish), but this isn't the case. And it's clear that it's not the case when you watch students typing in classrooms--typing poorly. This seems like one of the more basic improvements agreeable to Engelbart's augmentation framework. With incredible knock-on effects.

    3. Automatic Speech Production and Recognition:

      We're just getting here.

    4. Computer-Posted Wall Display

      This hasn't been implemented to the extent that I think it could be--certainly lagging behind desk-surface stuff.

    5. Nowhere, to my knowledge, however, is there anything approaching the flexibility and convenience of the pencil and doodle pad or the chalk and blackboard used by men in technical discussion.

      Interesting to read in light of the perennial and extended discussions about productivity and displays and pencil/paper on the Cortext podcast.

    6. It is clear that, working within the loose constraints of predetermined strategies, computers will in due course be able to devise and simplify their own procedures for achieving stated goals.

      By recognizing functions, for example, with matching solutions formulated more simply? This seems like an application of trie memory, so long as you can be sure of parity. Which probably involves checking multiple solutions (many?). I'm imagining a parabola, for whatever reason. This comment might be off the rails.

    7. Men appear to think more naturally and easily in terms of goals than in terms of courses.

      How about re-framing "courses" as a series of intermediary/instrumental goals? Thinking goal hierarchies again.

    8. By examining the storage at a given level, one can determine what thus-far similar items have been stored.

      I don't think I have sufficient grasp of what this means, but I think I see the contours, and the contours suggest it's important.

    9. The trie memory scheme is inefficient for small memories, but it becomes increasingly efficient in using available storage space as memory size increases.

      Upshot. Reminds me of using powers of two to express numbers as a memory saving tactic (mentioned in a recent Radiolab episode on cosmic rays and bit-flips).

    10. 5.3 Memory Organization Requirements

      This doesn't take long to brush up against the limitations of my technical understanding.

    11. trie memory

      Not an OCR typo. See Wikipedia.

    12. Implicit in the idea of man-computer symbiosis are the requirements that information be retrievable both by name and by pattern

      Yup. That's the main power of thinking in terms of view control.

    13. part indelible memory and part published memory.
    14. Published memory will be "read-only" memory.
    15. but it will accept a clearly secondary status in those areas.

      Psh.

    16. or in several alternative ways if the human operator is not sure what he wants

      More view control stuff (to use Engelbart's language).

    17. SAGE System

      Probably this.

    18. It seems likely that the contributions of human operators and equipment will blend together so completely in many operations that it will be difficult to separate them neatly in analysis.

      I think this is more true as time goes on.

    19. I could find nothing comparable to a time-and-motion-study analysis of the mental work of a person engaged in a scientific or technical enterprise.

      I think this is because it's much harder to do. We're moving toward it with things like time tracking software, but that's still not where it will be.

    20. At present, however, there are no man-computer symbioses.

      How 'bout now in 2019?