156 Matching Annotations
  1. Apr 2022
    1. The Cornell Note-Taking Method - Template

      When you analyze the various ways in which the Cornell system encourages productive study behaviors, I think that the summary statement is the most ignored yet possibly the most important. For long term benefit, the identification and storage of a summary capable of standing alone to convey the core idea or ideas is important because it does not rely on the other information for context.

  2. Jan 2022
    1. Learning and knowledge rests in diversity of opinions.

      While this is true, a characteristic of our present time is that the information we encounter and hence the information that shapes what we know is often less diverse than might be ideal. Our connections bias inputs and thus what we "know".

  3. Nov 2019
    1. I would like you to do us a favor though because our country has been through a lot and Ukraine knows a lot about it. I would like you to find out what happened with this whole situation with Ukraine, they say Crowdstrike

      This is the immediate reaction by Pres. Trump to the need to purchase weapons.

    1. Something like collaborative study was mentioned in a recent article by Brown and Adler (2008). The authors cite Harvard research Richard Light who investigates factors predictive of college student success. Light's research (2004) observes that whether or not students form themselves into small study groups that meet frequently is a better predict or academic achievement than such factors as variables associated with instructor style.

      Common problem with the study of voluntary use of study techniques in education. Is the technique useful or do more committed students use a given technique.

  4. Jan 2019
    1. In knowledge-building, the strong form, the learner adds to core ideas from existing personal knowledge and in doing to reflects on the core ideas in greater depth
  5. Nov 2018
    1. polling consistently shows that most Americans favor reining in the control providers such as AT&T and Comcast have over the delivery of online services.

  6. Feb 2018
    1. Key Finding: At home, students spent 68.2 percent of their time on Academic sites, and 31.8 percent of their time on Non-Academic sites.

      how use at home

    2. More Students are Bringing Devices Home GoGuardian analyzed the aggregate anonymous data of 5 million K-12 students, and found that the percent of student devices being used at home steadily increased from the fall of 2016 to the fall of 2017 across grade levels. The largest percentage increase in device usage at home was at the elementary school level, increasing 132 percent, from 11.7 percent in 2016 to 27.2 percent in 2017. Overall, Chromebook usage at home was more prevalent in the higher grade levels: 53.4 percent of middle school devices, and 57.1 percent of high school devices were used by students at home in 2017.
    3. The Rise of Chromebooks in Education As reported by Edsurge and The Journal, Google Chromebooks have captured the dominant share of the K-12 mobile computing market in the United States for the second year in a row. Google Chrome OS's share of school-purchased mobile devices surged to a 59.8 percent share in 2017, up 21 percentage points from 2014.
    4. Top educational sites trending by subject Top educational sites trending by grade level, based upon an index that equally weighed the percent of students visiting the site and percent of time spent.

      Lists trending sites by content areas

    5. Websites offering personalized learning experiences were prevalent across all grade levels, with Khan Academy in the top ten sites at the elementary, middle school, and high school grade levels
    6. The popular study application Quizlet occupies the #2 spot on top educational sites overall, and the #1 spot for middle school and high school students. This is consistent with the larger edtech landscape, where digital flashcards, self-made quizzes, and online study tools are on the rise
    7. Rise in interactive gamification: Data trends indicated a rise in the gamification of digital learning, with Kahoot holding the #1 spot for Educational Sites overall and Cool Math Games taking the #1 spot for Trending Sites (which evaluated YoY growth).
    8. top trending sites in education

      mentions specific services trending in education

    9. G Suite for EducationSix of the Top Ten Educational Sites G Suite for Education (GSFE) far surpassed other sites and apps in student usage metrics, accounting for six of the top ten educational sites. G Suite continues to play a prominent and valuable role in America’s classrooms - more than half the nation’s primary and secondary school students use G Suite, as reported by the New York Times. Average usage of time spent between Google Sites

      Breakdown of student use of Google services

    10. Student device usage can be broken down into three overarching categories: G Suite for Education - including Google Docs, Sheets, Slides, etc.- account for 68.5% of total time spent by students on the top 100 sites. Publishers and Learning Systems - including textbook publisher, LMS, and SIS sites - account for 20.2% of total time spent on the top 100 sites. Student-driven educational sites account for 11.3% of total time spent on the top 100 sites. The list of top student-driven educational sites is included below, and reflects students’ organic browsing patterns.

      total usage by category

    11. The Benchmark Report analyzes the aggregate device usage of 5 million K-12 students across the country.
  7. Jul 2017
    1. our hunch is that at a minimum it will require learning scientists to approach educators with more humility. Instead of attacking myths, scientists need to approach educators as professional colleagues. As colleagues, teachers and scientists have much to learn from and teach each other about what works in a classroom.

      This confuses science with scientists. While educators and educational researchers may have egos, sound research is supposed to be independent of personal biases.

    2. The contrast suggests that while learning styles are popular, what’s really popular is instruction involving multiple modalities. Perhaps some teachers who express a belief in learning styles “really mean that they try to use a variety of representations and activities in class,

      Is a common vocabulary the problem.

    3. There is a way forward. We need more teaching – and less preaching – to influence the beliefs of educators such as Terry. To achieve this, advocates of learning science should borrow from the playbooks of good science teachers. These teachers do not prioritize getting students to reject their existing beliefs, but instead seek to foster new scientific knowledge in their students. They replace scientific misconceptions, rather than debunk them.

      Is this accurate - it is not the way I understand conceptual change theory.

      This is vague and I am not certain if I agree or not. Wouldn't this allow inert knowledge.

    4. To that end, recently a group of 30 learning scientists – including Steven Pinker, Hal Pashler and others – published a letter to inform teachers that learning styles is a “neuromyth” that “create[s] a false impression of individuals’ abilities, leading to expectations and excuses that are detrimental to learning in general, which is a cost in the long term.”

      Uses learning styles as an example of a myth.

  8. Mar 2017
    1. Various government websites have been purged of climate change information ever since Trump took over. Within minutes of the president's inauguration, the White House's webpage removed pretty much all references to climate change and replaced it with "An America First Energy Plan."

      Trump position - American First rather than acceptance of scientific position on climate change

    2. Under Tillerson's leadership, Exxon issued several statements that supported the Paris climate agreement. However, Tillerson has not explicitly endorsed the global climate action accord.

      New government position on climate change.

    1. Either way, the major obstacle is Trump’s untrustworthiness. He is a frequently mendacious man, and many of his associates possess the same deficiency in character. I do not know if the many untruths Trump and his team have uttered on this subject are making them appear guiltier than they are or obscuring a shocking reality.

      Either way - the country needs answers.

  9. Feb 2017
    1. A study of 2,000 Twitter users who publicly identified as either Labour, Tory, Ukip or SNP supporters has found they are far more likely to interact with others from the same party and to share articles from publications that match their views.

      Interesting methodology to evaluate validity of echo chamber

  10. Jan 2017
    1. metacognitive knowledge consists of personal insights into how cognitive tasks such as memory or writing are accomplished, about what makes particular tasks difficult or easy, and about personal cognitive characteristics and capabilities.

      What examples of your metacognitive knowledge could you provide? Do you trade this knowledge with your peers?

      Learn more about metacognition from Wikipedia.

    2. Researchers have found that the following problems, among others, are typical:

      You may be aware of these issues but not considered the root cause.

    3. targeted rereading or asking the teacher or a classmate for assistance
    4. Students frequently are unaware that they have failed to comprehend material they have read (Baker, 1985; Markman & Gorin, 1981). They also seem unable to predict accurately how they will do on tests covering material that they are studying (Pressley, Snyder, Levin, Murrary & Ghatala, 1987)

      This is sometimes described as not knowing what you don't know.

  11. Dec 2016
    1. The expectations include cyberbullying “awareness and response” which we assume implies that schools are expected not only to inform, but to intervene when students are being cyberbullied.

      This might be argued to put schools in a challenging position in addressing behaviors that may occur outside of school environment and hours of supervision.

    2. To receive the funds necessary to address equity, school agree to address the issues of technology-related responsible behavior.

      This is the connection with expectations regarding safety and security.

    3. The Children’s Internet Protection Act (CIPA) mandated that school and library authorities must certify that they are enforcing a policy of Internet safety that includes measures to block or filter Internet access for both minors and adults to certain visual depictions. These include visual depictions that are (1) obscene, or (2) child pornography, or, with respect to use of computers with Internet access by minors, (3) harmful to minors.
    1. Supporters argue that the intent was not to have the telecommunications industry pass on the cost to consumers, but to have the industry absorb these additional costs out of the savings allowed by regulatory changes that reduced access charges previously paid by long-distance companies.
    1. We commonly urge students to report when they are cyberbullied, but they do not do so.

      The "see something, say something" seems to require something more. Do educators feel they have satisfied some responsibility if they make this request?

    2. What should be said?

      There is thus an opportunity to suggest strategies.

    3. The bystander effect proposes that the likelihood of any given observer stepping forward to assist a victim decreases as the number of bystanders increases
    1. Perhaps the situation would be different if reinforcers did not reinforce, more outsiders supported the defenders, and victims had a different social skill set that might limit or allow a response to attacks.

      Possible targets for intervention.

    2. argues that cyberbullying (actually the original model focused on bullying) is a systemic problem unlikely to be adequately addressed assuming that the only needed intervention is to focus on the perpetrators.

      This could be used as a justification for the allocation of class time in contrast to disciplining perpetrators.

    1. “online harassment” is applied to many situations others would label as bullying.

      Perhaps we would be better off if we did not approach these issues as the same problem.

    2. made phone calls to a carefully selected group of adolescents

      It is the "carefully selected" thing that is important here.

    3. representative national sample of specific age groups

      A general methodological issue - you cannot involve everyone so how do assure those who are involved are similar to the group you are attempting to understand.

    4. What can be obscure are the methods used to generate the data that are analyzed.

      This is a point I really wish the public understood. The numbers are not the problem. How do you explain this issue so people understand the difference between the numbers and the process that generated the numbers?

    5. It is not that there are not plenty of descriptive statistics available. Rather, it is frustrating that these statistics are so variable.

      What is good data when the data seem all over the place?

    1. Bullied students claim that the harrassment of peers is responsible for a decline in their grades (Beran & Li, 2007) and that they sometimes avoid going to school because of their treatment online (Katzer, et al., 2009; Ybarra, et al., 2007). Despite the negative experiences occuring online, the victims of bullying feel less safe in school (Varjas, et al., 2007).

      As I understand the issue of schools taking responsibility for addressing specific issue cases of cyberbullying, the demonstration of an in-school consequence gives the school some protection.

    2. note that adolescents without a sense of confidence and poor social skills are less likely to fit in and to have less developed coping skills rendering them poorly prepared to deal with peer conflicts

      consider the direction of causality - possible alternatives or maybe even interactive in some way

    3. We prefer to refer to the connections between being cyberbullied and feelings or behaviors as correlates rather than consequences because these variables are probably interconnected in complex ways.

      This is one of those things that you may have learned in an Introduction to Psychology course. The issue of "correlation does not prove causality" is everywhere, but we frequently fail to recognize.

    4. In this case, of course, we are attempting to consider whether among all of the potential problems that impact children of school age, schools should attempt to address the causes and consequences of cyberbullying.

      Which problems can schools be realistically expected to address? How should these decisions be made?

    1. The stages in this process play out over a significant period of time during which practitioners are asking for ways to address the problems.

      Understand this gap can lead to actions that are not productive and may be damaging. This is not a request for waiting, but a request for recognition and caution.

    1. Cyberbullying is often perceived as a problem for educators to address. However, the major role of the school is that it establishes the social context through which students know each other. The reality is that most online bullying does not involve school equipment or occur during school hours.

      This creates legal and control issues

    2. As a matter of efficiency, these companies desire a broad audience and seldom see K-12 students as providing a unique business opportunity

      It really goes further than this. Typically, revenue opportunities cannot be extended to most students.

    3. attributes of online experiences we value in some settings are the same attributes that cause problems in other settings

      There seem to be few practical mechanisms for separating the potential positive and negative potential. Are separate networks (e.g., Google for Education) a solution?

      What examples can you name?

    4. The research on cyberbullying does not seem to be mature

      What does mature mean - model building based on correlations and questionnaires

  12. Oct 2016
    1. Participants in a chat actually search for the designated hashtag rather than watch their Twitter feed.

      So in a Twitter chat participants use search to follow the discussion and the search term is the designated hashtag.

  13. Sep 2016
    1. There are two efficiency issues we propose teachers should consider in evaluating possible technology-supported, classroom activities. These might be described as the efficiency of the learning task and the efficiency of the learning tool
    2. With direct instruction, less learner cognitive activity is required to get to the point of learning and a larger proportion of learners would be likely to have sufficient remaining cognitive capacity to have successful learning experiences.
    3. There are practical limits on the load that the cognitive system can tolerate and the work of meaningful learning must fit within what an individual is capable of accomplishing

      So load is not a bad thing, but it must be managed.

    4. Our somewhat simplified version suggests that the sources of load in educational settings might be identified as (1) the cognitive activity involved in meaningful learning, (2) the cognitive activity to accomplish any external tasks intended to facilitate learning, and (3) the cognitive activities not directly relevant to learning.

      Source of load should be recognized and when students struggle unnecessary sources of load considered.

    1. Kuhn, D. (2007). Is direct instruction an answer to the right question? Educational Psychologist, 42, 109-113.

      Kuhn has generated and evaluated through careful research project/problem approaches (see chapter 8). Scaffolding rather than complete learner guided discovery seems a way to differentiate successful and less successful tactics.

    1. "Students with high reading ability but low knowledge of baseball were no more capable of recall or summarization than were students with low reading ability and low knowledge of baseball" (p. 19)

      What we retain seems related to whether or not we already have some existing knowledge. Is this what we mean by things "making sense".

    2. Recht and Leslie (1988) wanted to evaluate the relative contribution of reading skill and background knowledge as predictors of differences in what would be learned by reading a text passage

      A way to evaluate the benefit of knowledge vs aptitude.

    1. What is needed is guided practice; a more systematic approach in which students receive feedback on how well they are implementing higher order skills.

      One of the big issues to be examined concerns the mixed opinions on the effectiveness of constructivist activities. Whether scaffolding is provided appears to make the difference.

  14. Mar 2016
    1. Susan Beck's web site

      This website is no longer available.

    2. Count calories, not carbs

      No longer available from BusinessWeek

    3. Specifically, they asked students to "Write an explanation of what caused the eruption of Mt. St. Helens" after reviewing a number of web sites that supposedly resulted from a search on the phrase "causes volcanic eruptions". As is sometimes the case in educational or psychological research, the list of web links provided research participants were not the top "hits" from an actual search, but a collection of informative and pseudoscience sites offering information on volcanic eruptions.
    1. Google Plus is really a framework for a number of services with the promise that more will eventually be added.

      Google does seem to be changing this notion of integrated services, but I am still unclear what direction this new thinking is taking,

    2. circle becomes a way to target the delivery of content and participation in communication activities.
    3. A circle is a group of individuals that fall within a category
    4. originating from the insight that our social relationships, face-to-face and online, are really made up of a complex assortment of overlapping groups

      I think this a very useful insight and the approach of identifying those you and then assigning them to a circle or circles seem very intuitive.

  15. Jan 2016
    1. this might be used to determine when changes were made to a document and if the document was created by multiple authors who did what
    1. The author can specify whether the partner can view, comment, or edit the document. These options are hierarchical such that editorial privileges allow commenting
    1. Teacher models comments in reaction to a writing sample displayed on interactive white board.

      Some call this approach "cognitive apprenticeship" - demonstrate an external behavior and explain the internal behavior.

    2. Most students are not prepared to be effective peer editors

      It would be naive to assume otherwise. Work on cooperative learning (a more general topic) indicates that skills usually need to be developed.

    3. Peers provide separation

      What would you suggest it can be difficult to "see" limitations in your own work?

    4. In addition to the advantage of a division of labor, peer editing should offer a way to develop editing skills

      This is an important point. Developing editorial skill is more than just increasing the labor that can be applied in learning to write. Such skills can improve personal editing as well.

    5. A reality associated with such benefits is the time intensive nature of supporting revision

      When the educator is the only reader, providing comments perhaps on multiple drafts is typically perceived as impractical. Consider that those of us who oversee theses and dissertations read multiple drafts for advanced students. This is what it takes. Finding ways to provide the same kind of interaction for less sophisticated writers is the challenge.

    1. An important challenge related to this claim is to make commenting as practical and efficient as possible
    1. Material written to be communicated to peers through telecommunications has been found to be better organized, mechanically more correct, and more informative than papers on identical topics written to be graded by the teacher (Cohen & Riel, 1989)
    2. recursive nature of process writing—that is, the expectation that ideas will be generated, written, considered, and rewritten several times—is ideally implemented within a system that allows written products to be saved, retrieved, and modified efficiently

      The notion of sharing should probably be added as well.

    3. composition skills within this orientation often involves collaboration, and writers frequently receive help and feedback from classmates and their teacher during all of the stages
    4. writing process approach, which encompasses the stages of planning, drafting, editing/revising, and publishing
    1. all parties can use these data

      Kahn talks about a sense of control for the student (I do not emphasize this position). I assume this partly comes from the student's opportunity to view their progress.

    2. These components now feed detailed data to a management system that organizes information on time spent and performance accomplishments for the student, teacher and parent

      among other things this implies that the student is not dependent on the existing content

    3. now include a hierarchical structure (knowledge map)

      I must say I have only viewed the knowledge map for mathematics. It might be important to consider how essential a knowledge map (assumed prerequisites) might be in various content areas.

    4. Kahn Academy have evolved into a more complete system for both learning and instruction

      Do critics understand the present system is far more sophisticated than a series of crude videos?

    5. individuals will differ in what they know and what they will find difficult to understand
      • might fit with the interest in individualization or personalization (whatever the "in" term happens to be
    6. watch the demonstration or consider the explanation a second time

      adjust to learning success

    7. most of us have some things we already know

      Skip what you know - an efficiency argument

    8. the videos offered by the Kahn Academy are short - bite-sized you might say

      Consider what you might argue as the advantages and disadvantages of the 50 minute college class. I teach some online classes that meet once a week and are intended to be much longer.

    9. preferable to use valuable class time for interaction and assume that information input can efficiently be accomplished elsewhere

      This is I consider a "positive interpretation" and others might offer a different perspective.

    10. before you come to class and we will spend class time discussing what you have learned and addressing your questions

      To answer my previous question - the mention of lecture alternatives did not assume a different use for face to face time.

    11. Consider Khan’s concept of “flip the classroom” which seems to translate as watch the lecture at home and do homework in the classroom.

      I do not mean to imply that "flipping the classroom" was Kahn's invention. I believe the term is attributed to a couple of HS chemistry teachers. Video of lectures in higher ed have been around for years. I can remember when Intro Psych was offered through the campus television station. What makes this different?

    12. we would describe as screen casting

      This is what many tech types would describe as low tech and lacking the production quality of commercial content providers (e.g., Lynda.com). To my knowledge, this has not changed. Any reaction to this approach.

    1. The first explains the theory of mastery learning. The second explains how the theory of mastery learning was implemented as instructional strategies when first implemented.

      The examination of time to learn is quite interesting. I would suggest that a similar idea of time as aptitude was built into the notion of IQ (MA/CA).

      I also think it is interesting to consider how educators attempt to address time as aptitude in traditional classes.

      Finally - I would suggest that PSI (Keller plan) is closer to some of CAI approaches than Bloom although it is seldom referenced today.

    1. advantage of CAI may be increasing

      it would make sense that newer software would be more sophisticated based on improved capabilities of the equipment and advances in design.

    2. Summary of Research on CAI

      Our examples of research summaries are dated. We will continue to look, but it seems there is less interest in general conclusions over time. Interest seems to move to more specific questions.

    1. Students in schools with a higher proportion of students receiving a lunch subsidy are more likely to work with instructional software.

      Offer an explanation? Some propose that companies take advantage of funds provided to such schools to sell "easy solutions" to administrators.

    2. the lack of frequent updates on technology use cannot be explained by concluding that most students make heavy use of instructional software in their daily work

      I am sometimes concerned that designers function in a bubble assuming things about application that are just not true. This is why the "reality check" of application data would be helpful.

      As an author, I would like to provide current data but good sources on basic issues often seems not to exist.

      One additional point - marketing data are sometimes collected and sold. It is too bad public institutions such as the Department of Education no longer collects such data.

    1. Some point to the motivational advantage of games and the related willingness of many players to spend considerable amounts of time and others complain that any observed benefits of games are likely due to the extra time spent.

      We see this as an important issue. What is assumed about time? Educators may feel pressured to operate within a fixed block of time. Note, for example, the anti home work agenda some educators now face.

    1. One proven method for increasing the involvement of learners in active exploration and generative thinking is to have them work within the exploratory environment in small groups. A collaborative arrangement can prevent some students from becoming completely lost.

      Learners may become caught up in manipulating the setting rather than processing underlying concepts.

    1. situating learning in a context in which actions based on present understanding

      This can be related to the issue of "inert knowledge" we describe elsewhere. Context may be a retrieval cue that is lacking for some content learned in the classroom.

    2. developers make available guest passes

      Note that the link for this content has changed and I hope I have located a new way to access that works.

    1. What case can be made for the digital version of flashcards?

      My answers follow, but what advantages do you see? The issue comes up frequently - e.g., paper books vs ebooks. Are there commonalities across applications that can be identified?

    1. Flashcards provide individuals or individuals within small groups a way to systematically practice retrieval and evaluate understanding both of which are important and documented ways to improve performance and retention (Rohrer, & Pashler, 2010)

      Anti memorization arguments may confuse the issue. Research clearly demonstrates the value of activities that involve retrieving stored information at multiple points in time after initial exposure and assumed storage. Could this be related to the "links" issue in LTM?

    1. arguments for and against guided or direct instructions

      I am a big fan of understanding the arguments for and against a given position. I worry that too many become advocates of a method - educational games, project based learning, etc. without giving serious consideration to the arguments against a method they back.

    2. Why minimal guidance during instruction does not work: An analysis of the failure of constructivist, discovery, problem-based, experiential, and inquiry-based teaching

      I love this title - you do not have to read the article to determine the conclusion.

    1. why not generate products as part of the learning process

      Perhaps you have heard of the concept of formative assessment.

    2. external record of the problem-solving process

      We use the concept of externalization frequently. It is an abstraction but we hope you can provide examples - the answer to a question, what you highlight, a summary, etc.

    1. Metacognitive control functions are demonstrated in planning, regulating, and evaluating behaviors
    2. You consider what is expected of you and adjust your behavior accordingly
    1. peer tutoring
    2. teaching represents a generative activity with benefits to both the teacher and the student
    3. Tasks that rely on multiple sources and that get beyond summarization to argumentation and explanation have a greater positive impact on depth of understanding
    4. whether the task encourages the writer to express ideas that are already formed or requires the writer to formulate new ideas. Bereiter and Scardamalia (1987) differentiate such tasks as knowledge telling and knowledge transforming

      Consider how this distinction might be related to Bloom's taxonomy.

    5. credible support for this focus from at least two identifiable research areas involving learning activities which are traditionally described as a) writing to learn and b) peer tutoring.
    6. generative learning (Wittrock, 1974, 1990)

      It is nice to identify the originator when possible.

    7. We would describe such products as externalized representations of understanding and suggest that in creating these representations, individually or collaboratively, learners process their experiences in ways they may not have without the requirement of generating the product.

      Perhaps changing the odds of desirable internal processing would be a better way to explain. Whether for reasons of motivation or because the activity leads to more desirable processes, the external task may be useful.

    1. How many times will students use the tool? Is this a one-time project or task or will students like make frequent use of what they learn in your class and in other classes?

      There is some danger in always asking your students to use the next "shiny" thing because you want to function on the edge.

    2. "thinking about the experience" component is often sacrificed to save time
    3. Science labs make a good example of the challenge of task efficiency
  16. Dec 2015
    1. if the total load exceeds the cognitive capacity of working memory, the system becomes less effective
    2. Less work is required when a learner already has a good background relevant to what she is trying to learn

      Background knowledge has great value. BTW - it explains why we need to know things and relying on the opportunity to Google things has serious long term limitations.

    3. Think of load as work.
    4. background for this discussion might be found in our comments on the limits of working memory and our description of the controversy between advocates of direct instruction and more experiential learning activities
    1. for flawed models of how something works to be changed, the flawed model must be activated (brought into working memory) at the same time information that contradicts the flawed model is active

      This explains why we can continue to believe things that are just wrong even though we have learned more appropriate explanations for the phenomenon.

    2. Creating links is not an automatic process. Students must activate stored experiences and find appropriate connections with new ideas or with older ideas that were not previously understood as related

      Activation is a task not appreciated by many. Consider the question of who is responsible - can a designer rely on the learner? What does learner motivation have to do with this challenge?

    3. Attempting to recall disconnected elements requires additional working memory capacity
    4. Individuals connect elements in their memories in unique ways as a consequence of personal cognitive activity. Effective educational experiences, therefore, must result in both the accumulation and organization of memory units.

      Recognizing this requirement should have implications for learners and designers. What personal cognition or proposed activities increase the likelihood of connections.

    1. some researchers describe as indexing
    2. A second learning goal might be to store personal experiences as episodes, but to also associate meaningful labels with these experiences
      • this is what I meant earlier by associating a tag with a story. You might recognize a similar use of tags with digital content.
    3. experiences by themselves are not equivalent to knowledge
    4. advocates of case-based learning, pointing to the problem-solving behavior of individuals in professions such as medicine, claim that decisions are often based on the recollection of "episodes" rather than abstract principles
    5. Episodic memories are rich in detail, much of which may be of no great significance. Episodes are associated with a particular time and place.

      Think of this as a "story". How we make use of stories is of growing interest to researchers and may play a significant role in skilled performance. As we explain what makes a story useful, is tagging - remembering that a story is an example of something.

    1. drawn a distinction between the verbal representation of what we know and the memory responsible for what we can do

      My best way of communicating this distinction is to ask the question "Where on a keyboard is the letter [a]"? I get you can answer this question but you so by activating a procedure - reaching the little finger of your left hand to the left.

      So you do not answer this question by remembering information (as you might be recalling a state capital). You answer this question by executing (remembering) a procedure.

    1. Russell and colleagues
    2. Personal technology proficiency might be thought of as a starting point for the development of teacher differences influencing what happened in the classroom
    3. Inan and Lowther (2010)
    4. basic research strategy might go something like this

      Methodology is something I encourage advanced students to consider. How are data collected and what methods offer quality data?

      For example, note that what is described here is not "experimental" in that there is no manipulation of the assumed causal variables. The method described may reveal relationships but may be unclear as to what causes what.

    5. While teachers in their first few years do not necessarily engage their students with technology, once they get started teachers newer to the role of educator have their students make greater classroom use of technology.

      Priorities - getting your feet on the ground first.

    1. Bloom (1984) described what he called the 2 sigma problem. The core idea in this paper was that the likely optimal outcome in instruction would be similar to the outcome of a student working with a quality tutor
    2. authors propose that the learning and motivational advantages of individual learning will allow a break from these dependencies
    3. "nonconsumption". This strange term pretty much translates as "no competition"
    4. Whether "outsiders" have an accurate understanding or not, it is the children of outsiders we are educating and it is the outsiders who are paying the bills
    5. Keller's personalized system of instruction relied on tutors to work with individual students and while probably less well known is closest to the way technology is used to address individual needs (see Kahn Academy as an example)
    6. we believe that the most credible research supports a focus on aptitude and background knowledge differences, but not learning styles
    7. what each individual does cognitively is self initiated and controlled
    8. many interesting ideas floating about that are intriguing, but as yet unproven.
    9. Center for Research on Education Outcomes, 2015

      I try to reference contrary perspectives/data when I think the quality information is available.

    10. teachers will increase their role as facilitator

      Note this counters the notion of technology vs teachers. Some systems do involve personnel others than teachers - especially to staff computer lab settings.

    11. more flexible content

      This would require designers to generate alternate approaches to the same objective or topic.

    1. Learning What Schools Have Traditionally Taught
    2. Writing to Learn Teaching to Learn

      These are the activities we explore as examples of generative learning.

    3. Knowledge telling is regarded as the weak form involving a restatement of what is known with limited activation of other existing knowledge
    4. theoretical perspective most commonly mentioned as a rationale for the collection of activities we describe here is ''generative learning'' (Wittrock, 1974, 1990)