95 Matching Annotations
  1. Mar 2016
    1. The type and location of the cancer and the nature of the presenting signs are all factors in diagnosis. The use of endoscopes, scintigraphy and computed tomography, as well as magnetic resonance imaging, may be of considerable assistance.

      As shown, the type of tumor a dog may have and its location determines the type of diagnosis the veterinarians will use to diagnose the patient. Some of the different methods include endoscopes, scintigraphy, and computed tomography. I will use this info as support to answer my question in regards to how the location of a brain tumor determines the severity and treatment of the disease.

    2. In malignant cancer, cells usually have a primary location, but if untreated, secondary growths, called metastases, may develop in other parts of the body by a process called metastasis.

      Apparently, there are two additional different types of cancer. One type is malignant cancer where a tumor develops in once location of the body; metastasis is when the cancer is not treated and spreads to different areas of the body. I will use this information as support to clarify how certain types of brain cancer is formed.

    3. In dogs the incidence of tumours generally (including non-malignant ones) is said to be higher than in any other animal species, including the human.

      This is very surprising because the author claims that dogs have the highest chance to developing cancer above any other living being. I will probably use this information as a fun fact in my introduction.

    4. They include: repeated irritation, by mechanical friction or radiation (e.g. X-rays, ultra-violet rays); chemical carcinogens; hormones; or viruses.

      This is very important...from many of the other sources that I have researched, many have stated that there were any specific cases for the cause of brain cancer in animals. In all actuality, however, some of the causes to cancer include repeated irritation by mechanical friction or radiation, chemical carcinogens, hormones, and viruses. I will use this information as a rebuttal against the other counterclaims from those who have stated there weren't any reported findings to the cause of brain cancer.

    1. "I learned that feeling valued and knowing that you matter is much more about how you think of others than about how others think of you. And that's just one of the thousand things that dumb dog taught me, and I guess is still teaching me."

      This is completely true...have confidence in yourself and appreciating the person you have become is so much more important than the approval of others. I don't know if I can use this, but it's a powerful quote.

    2. "People always asked me when meeting Lemon if she was a rescue. I was always kind of uncomfortable saying yes, even though it's technically true. But it's not as if I got her as an act of good will. We adopted Lemon because we wanted a dog, and because Greyhounds are good dogs. They are relaxed, and loving, and adorable. How could we consider this an act of charity? Buying for a small fee a cuddle companion and a reason to get out of bed on Sunday mornings, and somebody to blame your farts on. We didn't rescue Lemon; we just got a dog."

      There are times when some people adopt a dog just to give a public display that they "care" for animals and want to give to charity. In this case, it was not the reason the author adopted Lemon. He just wanted a friend in his life. I will use this in my conclusion.

    3. "But dammit, if I didn't think she was important, dammit, if she hasn't left a hole in my heart, nothing matters but to each other. And Lemon mattered to me."

      This also ties in with the previous notation. A person cannot refuse their feelings of love toward another person or animal when they care about them. Although this is a powerful phrase, I will not directly quote this in my paper due to the language.

    4. "Lemon was a dog, and she was my dog. And she was special, and valuable, and amazing, but also not any of those things. In every way, she was just another dog. She wasn't a treasure, but she was my treasure."

      Basically, the author is saying that to his own desires, Lemon was everything he could ever ask for. However, there are other people in this world that may not care for Lemon and have different preferences than the author. I will also use this in my conclusion.

    5. "I don't pretend to have known the mind of my dog. I will never understand how she thought of me, or how she understood her own life. Really, all I can know of my dog is the effect that she had on me."

      In other words, the owner was deeply affected by Lemon because she was a true friend during his life. Dogs are made to be nonjudgmental creatures that show love and kindness to others. I will use this info in my conclusion.

    1. Your veterinarian will give your pet an overdose of an anesthetic drug called sodium pentobarbital, which quickly causes unconsciousness and then gently stops the heartbeat. Your veterinarian will draw the correct dose of the drug into a syringe and then inject it into a vein. In dogs, the front leg is most commonly used. In cats, either the front or rear leg may be used. The injection itself is not painful to your pet. Often, veterinarians will place an intravenous (IV) catheter in the pet’s vein before giving the injection. The catheter will reduce the risk that the vein will rupture as the drug is injected. If the vein ruptures, then some of the drug may leak out into the leg, and it will not work as quickly. Your veterinarian may give your pet an injection of anesthetic or sedative before the injection of sodium pentobarbitol. This is most often done in pets that are not likely to hold still for the IV injection. An anesthetic or sedative injection is usually given in the rear leg muscle and will take effect in about five to 10 minutes. Your pet will become very drowsy or unconscious, allowing the veterinarian to more easily perform the IV injection. Once the IV injection of sodium pentobarbitol is given, your pet will become completely unconscious within a few seconds, and death will occur within a few minutes or less.

      This section explains the process of when a euthanization is being performed. First, an intravenous catheter is placed into the animal's vein to ensure that the medication will travel directly to the heart. The vet may also inject a sedative for the animal to relax and feel comfortable for the last final minutes. Finally, when the medication is injected for the euthanization, the animal will immediately go unconscious and the heart will stop beating. I will use this information to explain how Riley's procedure was completed.

    2. He has lost interest in all or most of his favorite activities, such as going for walks, playing with toys or other pets, eating treats or soliciting attention and petting from family members. He cannot stand on his own or falls down when trying to walk. He has chronic labored breathing or coughing.

      This section just grabbed the words out of my mouth. When a dog doesn't enjoy their normal every day activities, doesn't have the strength to walk, and can't even breath, this shows that the fight for brain cancer is over. I will also use this as additional information to explain Riley's behavior when he was ill.

    3. He has frequent vomiting or diarrhea that is causing dehydration and/or significant weight loss.

      The dehydration and weight loss were two significant factors with Riley's brain cancer that destroyed his quality of life. I will use this information as a way to explain why it was time for me to euthanize Riley.

    4. quality of life:

      I know this seems very minor, but I have seen this exact phrase more than a dozen times in all of the articles I have researched. I think I am going to use this phrase as the title for my research paper.

    1. the radiation therapist will create a soft mesh mask that is custom-fitted to the patient’s face. This comfortable and non-invasive mask helps the patient keep his or her head and neck still during treatment.

      Just keep in mind this article was made for the use of human cyberknife treatment. In dog terms, they would be put under a general anesthesia.

    2. The CT data then will be used by the CyberKnife team to determine the exact size, shape and location of the tumor.

      This explains the purpose of using a CT Scan or MRI to prepare for treatment; it helps determine the location, size, and shape of tumor and how much radiation is needed for treatment. I will also use this to explain Roxy's treatment.

    3. During the CyberKnife treatment planning phase, the CT, MRI and/or PET scan data will be downloaded into the CyberKnife System’s treatment planning software. The medical team will determine the size of the area that must be targeted by radiation and the radiation dose. They also will identify critical structures where radiation should be minimized. Using this information, the CyberKnife System calculates the optimal radiation delivery plan to treat the tumor. The treatment plan will take full advantage of the CyberKnife System’s extreme maneuverability, allowing for a safer and more accurate treatment.

      That is interesting; it's almost as if a computer or robot is performing the treatment on its own terms. I will use this section as a tool to explain how this form of treatment is prepared.

    4. The doctors may choose to deliver the treatment in one session, or stage it over several days. Typically, brain cancer treatments are completed within five days.

      Wow! Five days is a drastically short amount of time! I will use this information as a resource to explain how strong the cyberknife treatment is and the estimated time it should last.

    5. The CyberKnife Robotic Radiosurgery System improves on other radiosurgery techniques by eliminating the need for stereotactic frames. As a result, the CyberKnife System enables doctors to achieve a high level of accuracy in a non-invasive manner and allows patients to be treated on an outpatient basis.

      In other words, the cyberknife treatment is a more convenient form of treatment for patients to receive. The process includes visiting a veterinarian as an outpatient and receiving a large quantity of radiation treatment for a shorter period of time. I will use this information as I explain the treatment Roxy received for her brain cancer.

    1. *This table was created using data from 2 large retrospective studies in dogs by Snyder, et. al. that reviewed 172 dogs with primary brain tumors and 177 dogs with secondary brain tumors. The data for the cats came from a study by Troxel, et. al. that reviewed 228 cats that had 244 brain tumors (10% of the cats in the study had multiple tumors).

      This table covers the testing that was conducted over the dogs and cats that had brain cancer. From these results, meningioma was the most common cancer. i will take a screenshot of this table and use this in my paper.

    2. Meningioma average survival times in dogs Surgery alone: approximately 7 months Radiation alone: approximately 7-8 months Surgery followed by RT: approximately 18-24 months Hydroxyurea: 6-12 months  

      This is also additional numerical information for canine brain cancer. This covers the estimated lifespan for surgical removal, radiation, and hydroxyurea. I will use this in my statistics section of my paper.

    3. For most brain tumors, patients treated with palliative measures have an average lifespan of 3-6 months.

      Palliative treatment provides an average lifespan of 3-6 months for most types of brain cancer. I will use this information as a statistic during the explanation of my prognosis.

    1. They joy of having normal bodily functions. The ability of the body to do what it is supposed to do is a joy in life.  Try taking away your ability to urinate if you don’t believe me.  The discomfort is excruciating. How about removing the ability to obtain oxygen? Breathing is a joy in life.  When normal biological functions are lost, life quality goes down. The joy of having a healthy mental state.  Pain, having unmet needs, dementia, distress, depression, compulsivity, fatigue, and other unpleasant mental states take away this joy. Having a mental state that is normal is a joy in life that is underrated.

      These two points are able to relate with one another. In the simplest of forms, they are stating that when a dog is suffering from pain, distress, has trouble going to the bathroom and breathing, these may be some key factors that it's time to let our loved ones go. I will use these two points as counterclaims against my argument.

    2. They joy of athletic stimulation and movement. Most dogs enjoy the use of their body and physical movement.  Not all are athletes, but all enjoy choosing a destination and getting there. Many like walks and play, enjoying the stimulation these provide.  Immobility and a lack of desire or ability to move are negatives.

      When I read this caption, it immediately reminded me of Riley. He was always the type of dog that loved to run around the yard, go for long walks, and play with his companion, Izzy. Since I was able to connect this caption to Riley's life, I will provide this reason in my introduction as I explain why I decided to write about canine brain cancer.

    3. The joy of social relationships with humans and other animals. The love and bonding experiences are joyful for your dog.  Depression, loneliness, and the loss of these social interactions are negatives.

      I can understand why some people may view this as a factor if cancer treatment is worth pursuing. All dogs love to interact with people, so when the times comes that a dog has been diagnosed with cancer, they are suffering in pain and don't have the strength to interact with others. I will also use this reason as a counterclaim.

    4. The joy of eating and drinking.   Having hunger satiated and thirst quenched are delightful and are joys.  Cancer cachexia (weight loss due to cancer) and dehydration are negatives.

      From my perspective, this caption is stating that dogs LOVE to eat and refresh themselves. When they have been diagnosed with cancer and these senses are taken away from them, some people may jump to the conclusion and say that treatment isn't worth their time; the senses of a dog's life has already started to deteriorate. I will use this information as a counterclaim against my theory of brain cancer treatment.

    1. but it shed some clarity on whether Roxy was enjoying her life as a dog should. She was still content laying her head on my lap, but the physical struggles were hard and I felt that she was very tired from the simple task of (fully assisted) getting out of bed to the sofa. I was fearful that her brain was shutting organs down as well as her  motor function. I am not sure if it was fear or premonition that something global was going to go really bad and she wouldn't have the luxury of having some last moments of enjoyment.

      She is very right...Roxy still loved spending time with her owner, but her physical state was deteriorating very quickly. She couldn't care for herself on her own, and I can't imagine how much pain she was in while her organs were shutting down. On top of that, what could have happened if Roxy ended her life in a restless and painful state? I will use this point when I wrap up the story of a dog who battled brain cancer.

    2. I feel horribly guilty, racking my brain for something else I could have done. It has been confirmed by her veterinarians that there was nothing that we could have done for a different outcome.

      In other words, of all the time, effort, and money that was put into this project, it made no difference on the outcome of this disease. Anne wanted to try and find a cure to this cancer, but it only expanded Roxy's life with the pain and suffering that she had to endure. I will use this information for a personal story on a dog that battled with cancer.

    3. her body was shutting down piece by piece. Her left legs did not know what they were doing, and as hard as she tried, her body was not working. Her sleep was restless and thrashing.

      She explained that Roxy was not able to function on her own anymore...she was in so much pain and sorrow, the time finally came for Roxy to be at peace. I will use this information as a backboard in my counterclaim for those who don't agree with brain cancer treatment.

    1. Tumors of the brainstem pose problems on both of these fronts. They are difficult to access because of the thick bone surrounding them, their location close to the floor of the cranial cavity, and because the brainstem does not have much redundancy of function so damaging it could be fatal.

      This could be an addition to the last point I made about operating on the brain-stem since it is protected by so much tissue and bone. I will use this info as a counterclaim to my point on performing a surgical removal of the brain tumor.

    2. Complete physical and neurological examination to identify any other health problems and to localize the neurological signs to a particular area of the brain Routine blood work to rule out a systemic problem and assess the anesthetic risk Thoracic radiographs to check there is no evidence of spread (metastasis) of cancer to the lungs (a common site of metastasis) CT or MRI of the brain. This has to be done under general anesthesia. As a general rule, MRI shows the brain in more detail than CT and is the test of choice when assessing for brain tumors. However, it is a more expensive test and less widely available. CT images will identify most meningiomas and choroid plexus papillomas but can fail to identify gliomas. CT images also have a lot of artifact when trying to assess the brainstem and cerebellum. We therefore strongly recommend an MRI if the animal has signs of brainstem or cerebellar disease, or if it is a breed of dog that is predisposed to gliomas, such as the Boston Terrier. Tumor type can be suspected from the appearance of the mass on CT or MRI, but can only be definitively identified by taking a sample of the tumor, either at surgery or by biopsy. Indeed, masses caused by infections (for example abscesses or fungal granulomas) can look like brain tumors on brain images (figure 8). It is therefore vital that a sample of the tumor is taken and examined with a microscope to identify the cell types involved. Not only will this identify the tumor type, but it will also grade the malignancy of the tumor. Many neurologists, particularly those working in university teaching hospitals, routinely perform CT guided biopsies of tumors.

      This covers the basic points on how cancer is diagnosed. Options include a full neurological examination of the patient, blood work, a CT scan, an MRI, or taking a small sample of the cells from the tumor. I will use this to do into a farther depth of each diagnosis that is carried out.

    3. Head tilt Leaning and falling to the side of the head tilt Drunken gait with loss of balance (ataxia) Circling to the side of the head tilt Involuntary flicking of the eyes (nystagmus) Loss of appetite and vomiting Abnormal eye position (strabismus) The Cerebellum – The cerebellum controls coordination of movements and interacts closely with the vestibular system to control balance and posture. Signs of cerebellar disease include: Uncoordinated gait characterized by dramatic goosestepping (hypermetria) Head tremors that are worst when the animal is intent on something (i.e., food) but disappear when the animal is relaxed (intention tremors) Swaying of the trunk Wide based stance Sometimes there can be vestibular signs such as a head tilt The animal’s strength remains normal

      As shown, the brainstem and cerebellum are interconnected with each other and operate with each other. The brainstem controls a couple of crucial system in the body such as the cardiovascular system and respiratory system. When the tumor isn't handled correctly during treatment, there could be a risk of death for the dog. I will use these list of symptoms as additional information when I cover the different types and locations of brain cancer.

    4. Behavioral abnormalities such as loss of learned behavior and depression Increased or decreased appetite and thirst Constant pacing or circling Decreased awareness and vision on one side of the body, causing misjudgement of openings to doorways and bumping of one side of the body Sometimes affected animals behave as if they are in pain Seizures are a classic sign of forebrain disease and in fact, new onset of seizures is the most common presenting sign of animals with tumors of the forebrain. These seizures can occur alongside any of the other signs listed above, or may occur as the only abnormality. Whenever a dog or cat that is greater than five or six years of age has a new onset of seizures, a brain tumor is a possible differential and ruled out by a full diagnostic workup.

      In other words, some of the symptoms of brain cancer in the fore-brain are increased or decreased appetite, decreased vision and bumping into objects while walking, seizures, and pain (these were a few signs of when Riley had brain cancer). I will use this as evidence to show the different symptoms of brain cancer and how each tumor is differentiated from another.

    5. Examples of tumors that may spread to the brain include hemangiosarcoma, mammary carcinoma and melanoma.

      Some types of secondary brain tumors are hemangiosarcoma, mammary carcinoma, and melanoma. I will also use this as evidence to research the types of canine brain cancer.

    6. Primary brain tumors seen in dogs and cats include meningioma, glioma, choroid plexus papilloma, pituitary adenoma or adenocarcinoma, and others.

      There are a variety of primary brain tumors such as meningioma, glioma, chorid plexus papilloma, pituitary adenoma, or adenocarcinoma. I will use this as a resource to reach the different types of brain tumors in dogs.

    7. Brain tumors may be primary, arising from the cells of the brain and its lining (figure 2), or secondary, arising elsewhere and spreading to the brain.

      I have seen this in another article; the basis of this text is that there are two ways in which a cancer cell may arise which is primary and secondary. Primary is when the tumor develops from one certain area of the body, and secondary happens when the cancer cells travel to multiple areas within the body. I will use this information as validation for how cancer cells form in dogs.

    1. Side effects of radiation are usually localized and fairly predictable. Depending on what type of radiation protocol is designed, dogs can develop skin burns (limited to the site of radiation). Tolerating skin burns for a few weeks may add years to a dog's life. Side effects of surgery are directly related to type, location, and extent of surgery. The most obvious side effect of surgery tends to be pain. Fortunately, veterinarians have become more progressive and are now willing to offer pain relief to surgical patients.

      To make this a little more simple and concise, the side effects to radiation is burning of the skin and pain from surgical removal of the tumor. I will use this as a guide to the side effects of treatment in dogs.

    2. Chemotherapy can produce a vast array of side effects or none at all. Decreased appetite or nausea is to be expected for perhaps two to three days of the month on typical protocols, according to Meleo. "I tell my clients to expect a pretty normal life with an occasional poor day. I figure if the dog can have three poor days in a month and add many months or longer to his life, then treatment is well worth it," she says. After receiving chemotherapy, some dogs develop changes in their blood cells, such as decreased red blood-- cell production (anemia), decreased white blood-cell production, or decreased platelet production. Most of these effects are transient and begin resolving within days of their lowest point. Owners are usually unaware of the cell changes, but should know that dogs with low white blood-cells are more susceptible to serious infections. For this reason, Meleo strongly cautions against feeding raw-- meat diets to dogs in cancer treatment. The bacteria commonly found in raw meat can be life-threatening to a dog with a suppressed immune system

      This is very drastic, although chemotherapy may help in assisting to beat the cancer cells, there can be other drawbacks with the white and red blood cells. I will use this information when I explain the different treatment methods and the negative impacts from treatment.

    3. Radiation, surgery, and chemotherapy are the three basic components of cancer treatment, and they may be used alone or in combination. Surgery and radiation are limited to the local area affected bv cancer, while chemotherapy is systemic throughout the entire body.

      Although I have already seen this information before in other articles, this verifies that these are the most popular methods to treat brain cancer. They include surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy. I will use this as information for treatment of brain cancer.

    4. Diagnosing cancer in the brain and spinal cord is challenging, but modern technology is changing that. In the last few years, the increased availability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography scan (CT scan) has meant more pets have access to these sophisticated imaging tests that see through the skull and the spinal column.

      Back in the day, it was difficult for animal hospitals to diagnose canine brain cancer. Over this vast period of time, however, many businesses now have access to an MRI machine to look for cancer in the brain. It may be very expensive for the public, but this can be used as an option to diagnose brain cancer. I will use this info as an additional tool to provide a diagnosis for this disease.

    5. Cancers that develop internally usually cause insidious, vague symptoms. In addition to gradual weight loss, decreased appetite and decreased activity are common signs of internal cancers. Owners may feel that they are overreacting to imprecise signs, but careful observation is most likely to result in an early diagnosis. Other vague signs include exercise intolerance, collapse or fainting, coughing, bad breath, restlessness, or pain. Owners may also observe vomiting, bloody stool or urine, diarrhea, constipation, increased urine production, or thirst. Some types of cancer are associated with seizures, lameness, gait changes, or behavioral changes such as aggression or disinterest in regular activities.

      This covers a few symptoms of internal cancer that may be developing in the dog's body: the most common symptom is weight loss, but others may be pain fainting, vomiting, diarrhea, and many more extreme cases. I will use this information as a reference to observe any changes in the dogs behavior or physical state to determine if there is brain cancer.

    6. Unfortunately, most cancers, whether in people or dogs, cannot be traced to any specific cause.

      Some people believe that there aren't any specific causes to brain cancer, but I have researched differently. I will use this as a counterclaim against the fact that there have been proven causes to brain cancer in dogs.

    7. It used to be that when a dog was diagnosed with cancer, the immediate answer was euthanasia. Not anymore. Now veterinarians can offer their patients a variety of options. Advances in the field of veterinary cancer mean better, longer lives for many dogs that previously had few alternatives.

      Awesome! In today's society with our advanced tools and resources, veterinarians are now able to provide service to their clients when a dog has been diagnosed with cancer. Although this is fantastic news, there are many factors that come into play when an owner has to decide if they're going to follow through with treatment. I will probably use this as a counterclaim to see if treatment is worth a client's time and money.

    1. Prognosis

      This is interesting. From the current methods of treatment for brain cancer, the author only clarified the lengthening of survival for these animals; they didn't state if the animal was cured. This will be useful when I develop my argument upon a possible cure for brain cancer.

    2. Palliative, or symptomatic, treatments are designed to relieve some of the secondary effects resulting from the presence of the tumor. Frequently used palliative treatments include steroids, which treat brain swelling and inflammation, and anti-convulsant drugs for those animals that are experiencing seizures. The goal of palliative treatment is to make the patient feel better, but these treatments do not usually have any specific or significant anti-cancer effects. Surgical removal of meningiomas is often possible, especially for those tumors located in the forebrain. Radiation therapy using a variety of dose prescriptions and techniques has been used safely and successfully for the treatment of meningiomas. Radiation has been shown to be beneficial if used as a primary treatment in those cases in which surgery is not possible, or in combination with surgery. There have been no large controlled studies clearly demonstrating the benefits of systemically administered chemotherapies to animals with meningiomas.

      This information is very beneficial due to the fact that it outlines the different methods of treatment for meningiomas. There is palliative which is commonly used to keep the pet comfortable, surgical removal of the tumor, radiation therapy upon the tumor, and chemotherapy that can be administered through IV or oral. I will use this information to cover the different methods of treatment for brain cancer in dogs.

  2. Feb 2016
    1. Meningiomas are classified into three types: benign (Grade I), atypical (Grade II), and anaplastic (Grade III or malignant). In dogs, the incidence of Grade I tumors is 50-60%, 40-45% for Grade II tumors, and < 5% for Grade III tumors.

      Although there are many variations of brain cancer, Meningiomas is separated into three different stages which are benign, atypical, and anaplastic. I will use this information as background info for Meningiomas and how likely the percentage will be for a dog to be diagnosed with a certain stage of this tumor.

    2. Figure 1: MRI and pathologic features of canine meningiomas (Click or tap the image for a larger version) A- Cystic meningioma in the frontal region. B- Basilar meningioma in the brainstem. C- Temporal lobe cerebral convexity meningioma. D- Parasellar meningioma. E- Multiple meningiomas in a dog. F- Biopsy specimen of Grade I meningioma.

      This would be a great reference to illustrate the different types of cancer. This image displays the different types of cancer and where each tumor is located in the brain. I will use this source as an image in my essay to display the different brain tumors of a dog.

    3. Meningiomas arise from cells within the lining of the surface of the brain and usually appear along the outer edges of the brain adjacent to the skull, and can form in numerous locations.

      In other words, meningiomas are located on the fore-brain and is also the most common type of brain cancer for dogs. Although the author specifies that there are different stage of this specific type of cancer, it is not the most severe case compared to other types of tumors. I will use this information to identify one type of cancer and how its location in the brain determines the severity and treatment.

    1. As Jared Diamond tells us, of all 148 large mammalian species who inhabit this earth, only 14 — sheep, goat, cow, pig, horse, Arabian camel, Bactrian camel, llama, donkey, reindeer, water buffalo, yak, Bali cattle, and mithan — have proven amenable to domestication or the taming that precedes it. Zebras have that nasty temper. Elephants, those gentle giants, mature too slowly, while deer and antelope panic in a pen.

      This would be useful information!

    2. This article explains the life of a girl named Lauren that was raised in a foster home and raised a raccoon of her own. When Lauren was just a child, she found a raccoon in the wall of her attic and began to care for the animal. Over time, the raccoon built a very strong bond with Lauren, but as the raccoon became older, she developed the typical mind and behavior of a wild animal. She would cause harm and destruction to the family, and Lauren was forced to send the raccoon back into the wild. I will use this source to show that many wild animals in today's society are meant to stay in the wild; they are not able to be raised as household pets.

    3. That all across the animal kingdom this cross-pollination occurs

      The Jungle Book

      This phrase in the article connects with the Disney movie The Jungle Book. The main character Mowgli is raised by other animals in the jungle, and soon finds his village at the end of the story.

    4. I was just 15 when I imbibed this sobering information — old enough to understand it but young enough to decide to discard it.

      I can definitely see the purpose of this phrase: The author knew what she had to do to keep the raccoon safe, but with the love and trust that she developed from this animal, she didn't want to lose her friend.

    5. We adore our pets not because they love us, but because they prove to us, day after day after day, that we love them with a purity not possible in human-to-human encounters. Our animals prove to us how capacious the human heart can be, and in doing so they give us a great gift.

      This love that we have for animals is priceless and cannot be compared to another type of love. This love is innocent, kind, and pure, and animals are vital to a person's life.

    6. Amelia, in other words, was not following me because she loved me; she followed me because some dumb drive urged her to do so, the drive itself as wild as wings or water.

      That is interesting, I've never thought of that before.

    7. cathect

      Cathect means to invest with mental or emotional energy.

    8. capacious

      Capacious means having a lot of space.

    9. wax

      This paragraph reminds me of the movie Annie; Annie received no luxuries, gifts, or love at the orphanage, and when the time came for her to visit Oliver Warbucks, she could enjoy all of the desires of her heart.

    10. an animal pulled from a parallel universe, living proof that two separate spheres could happily intersect.

      I am in complete awe by the complexity and creativity of the author's diction; this phrase leaves a large impact in my life because I agree that all people and animals in this world should be able to relate with one another despite their differences and personal beliefs.

    11. I began to move, and she began to follow me with what seemed like total faith, scampering after me as I made my way down the stairs, at my heels as I traveled towards the kitchen.

      I love the way she describes the behavior of her raccoon. Despite the fact that the raccoon barely knows her, she follows her owner with complete faith and obedience. This reminds me of when my dog Riley would always follow me around the house.

    1. This article explains the perspective of Paul Theroux on raising geese as tame animals. Theroux loved having geese as his companions, and he also spent the majority of his time observing the behavior between a male and female goose. Next, one theory that Theroux points out is that there are some people in this world who relate better to animals than actual people, and they are known as "anthropomorphists." Furthermore, Theroux even went into the stage of explaining how another author named his animals, made them domestic pets, and dressing them in human clothes. I will use this source to show opposition to my point about raising wild animals as domestic pets.

    2. There are many more wonders: the way they recognize my voice from anyone else shouting and how they hurry near when called; or follow me because they know I have food in my bulging hand.

      This is just like my dog Izzy...

    3. The essay is not strictly about geese: it is about E. B. White. He compares the defeated gander to "spent old males, motionless in the glare of the day" on a park bench in Florida. He had shuttled back and forth from Maine to Florida; his anxiety is real. He mentions summer sadness twice in his essay, a melancholy that may sadden a person precisely because the day is sunny.

      This is very important! I wonder why E.B. White likes to observe the behavior of geese.

    4. Their alliances within a flock, their bouts of aggression and spells of passivity, their concentration, their impulsive, low, skidding flights when they have a whole meadow to use as a runway, the way they stand their ground against dogs or humans—these are all wonders.

      This content is very beneficial for the purpose of this essay; the author is able to elaborate that animals are more than food and a service tool for our society. All animals have unique characteristics and abilities which makes them special.

    5. other

      I wonder why the author is devoting so much of his essay into the behaviors of a gander and a goose. Maybe is leading this information into differentiating the difference between a domesticated and wild goose.

    6. anthropomorphists

      The definition of this word is "The attributing of human characteristics and purposes to animals."

    7. Animal lovers often tend to be misanthropes or loners, and so they transfer their affection to the creature in their control.

      I can see his point there!

    8. his naming of farm animals, making them domestic pets, dressing them in human clothes and giving them lovable identities, his regarding them as partners (and sometime personal antagonists).

      I would have to say that the dressing of animals in human clothes is a little extensive. Animals are great companions in a person's life; however, they should not replace relationships with human people.

    9. more than that, they are in many cases more sensitive, more receptive, truer chums than many of White's human friends.

      I can definitely relate to this topic; there are many occasions in which I relate to animals better than actual people.

    1. In just a minute, the two-dog baying competition would begin. In pairs, bay dogs would chase a hog, run him down, get on either side of him, herd and worry him, and try to hold him in one spot. The pair that held the hog best for the space of two minutes, in the judges' opinion, would win a tall trophy and a couple of thousand dollars. The hogs would run, snort, squeal, clack their teeth threateningly, charge the dogs, kick up dust, cause the handlers to dodge around trees. The hogs sometimes would be bitten, torn, grabbed, thrown, sat on, and finally shoved back into their pen. Many in the crowd would watch with an almost out-of-body concentration.

      Maybe this is one reason why some hogs are so aggressive...

    2. This article explains the aggressive and violent life of a wild hog. According to author Ian Frazier, the hog is able to accommodate to a life in the wild at a fast rate. Furthermore, there have even been many occasions when some hogs have destructed private and public property as well as attacking many individuals. Frazier also covered a time when hogs would be used in a two-dog baying competition. I will use this source to build upon the evidence of keeping wild animals in their natural habitat.

    3. (but didn't kill)

      Thank goodness!!

    4. "And he cut my bulldog's throat. Then he turned around and killed one of my bay dogs. I couldn't see no tree to get up, so I backed off. He looked at me and I looked at him, and I said, 'Bear, we'll be back.' And I swear the way he looked at me, he was saying, 'I'll be back, too.'

      I'm just going to say that as a dog lover and reading this tragic event, I really wish that hogs didn't exist in this world. It seems that as living beings, the only thing they know how to do is cause trouble.

    5. and destroy a yard that had previously won two "'Yard of the Month" awards on Robins Air Force Base

      The question is this: How do these hogs gain access to these properties?

    6. They just eat the eggs of the sea turtle, an endangered species, on barrier islands off the East Coast, and root up rare and diverse species of plants all over, and contribute to the replacement of those plants by weedy, invasive species, and promote erosion, and undermine roadbeds and bridges with their rooting, and push expensive horses away from food stations in pastures in Georgia, and inflict tusk marks on the legs of these horses, and eat eggs of game birds like quail and grouse, and run off game species like deer and wild turkeys, and eat food plots planted specially for those animals, and root up the hurricane levee in Bayou Sauvage, Louisiana, that kept Lake Pontchartrain from flooding the eastern part of New Orleans, and chase a woman in Itasca, Texas, and root up lawns of condominiums in Silicon Valley, and kill lambs and calves, and eat them so thoroughly that no evidence of the attack can be found.

      This is absolutely brutal. I understand the fact that some animals need to eat other animals to survive, but the consumption of endangered species and chasing a woman in Texas is absolutely absurd. If these actions will continue into the future, then our society needs to find a solution to end these attacks.

    7. John J. Mayer, the wild-hog expert, who was also called in, concluded that the hog had been pen-raised. The hog's long tusks (in the wild, boars break their tusks fighting over sows), its weight (that much food simply isn't available in the wild), and its hooves (their wear indicated a lot of time spent standing on concrete) contributed to Mayer's verdict.

      The purpose of this information is to convey the physical differences between a wild hog and a pen-raised hog.

    8. feral

      "Feral" means that an animal is in a wild state, especially after escape from captivity or domestication.

    9. In frontier times, farmers let their hogs run loose, then collected them with the help of dogs on butchering day

      It's fascinating that dogs would assist the farmers in rounding up the pigs after it was reported that pigs were more intelligent than dogs.

    1. Despite Keiko's progress, though, there was no irrefutable evidence that he would ever leave his bay pen permanently. During the winter, when the wild whales were gone, he was back in his pen full time, and he was the same tractable fellow as always, ready in a minute to put his big wet rubbery head in your lap. If he was getting an idea of what wildness was, he was still a bit of a baby, and certainly daintier than you might think a killer whale should be. Once, when the trainers instructed him to bring something up from the bottom of the bay, he presented them with a puffin feather when they were expecting something more like a boulder, and then he accidentally dropped it, dived back down, and brought up the same tiny feather. Another time, he came up with a little hermit crab that was blithely scurrying up and down the long row of his teeth, oblivious of the fact that it was inside the mouth of a killer whale. When seagulls stole his food, he got angry, but he usually just grabbed them, shook them a bit, and spit them out.

      This would be a great example to show the negative impact of taming a wild animal; Keiko was behind in the traditional development of an orca, and his life could be in danger if Keiko doesn't know how to care for himself in the ocean.

    2. This article explains the significant life of a whale named Keiko. Keiko was a whale that was originally from Iceland, and he was also the starring whale for the movie Free Willy. Author Susan Orlean explains that Keiko was raised in an aquarium since he was an infant, and it was wrong for him to be stored in an aquarium tank for all of his life. There came point in his life when the aquarium staff, marine biologists, and other staff members noticed that he was behind in the physical and mental development of a traditional orca whale. Throughout the support of thousands of people and federal corporations, Keiko was able to find his way back to the ocean. Furthermore. Keiko was a friend to so many people throughout the world, and many people admired the love and care he showed to others. In addition, I will use this source to show how many wild animals are meant to stay within their natural habitat to maintain their proper health.

    3. In a documentary film about Keiko, his Reino Aventura trainers, two beautiful young women, were nearly hysterical about his departure, saying he was not just a whale or a job but their closest friend.

      This is the key message in this article...I admire how so many people are able to connect and relate with the unique animals in this world outside the boundaries of cats and dogs. All animals, both big and small, can make a large impact in a person's life.

    4. More than a hundred and thirty orcas have been captured for display since Moby Doll's misadventures

      It is so sad and disappointing to hear of all the whales that have been kept in captivity. I understand why so many people want to observe the life and character of an orca, but it's best to keep them in their natural habitats in order to see the true beauty and intelligence of this whale.

    5. Many of them came from Iceland, until all whaling in the country was halted in 1989

      Now I can see why Iceland is so important!

    6. Sea World's Tillikum,

      Tillikum is one of the world's most popular whales. A documentary known as "Blackfish" was made about him, and I would recommend this video to anyone who has not seen this yet.

    7. Iceland

      The setting in this article is crucial for readers in order to convey the lifestyle in Iceland, and to determine where these whales are from.

    8. But Keiko -- which means "lucky one" in Japanese

      From the information that I have gathered, Orlean decided to reveal the meaning of Keiko's name in order to display the popularity of this whale, the achievements this whale has accomplished, and the number of people who admire this animal.

    9. where the wind never huffs or puffs but simply blows your house down

      I couldn't help but laugh at this phrase...it reminds me of the story "The Three Little Pigs."

    1. After only nine generations, the researchers recorded fox kits born with floppier ears. Piebald patterns appeared on their coats. By this time the foxes were already whining and wagging their tails in response to a human presence, behaviors never seen in wild foxes.

      This is interesting, I never thought that an animal's physical appearance could change whether they are wild or tame.

  3. Jan 2016
    1. BrokeinontheToss-a-Quarter-Onto-the-Platesgameand,got,like,transferredovertotheTilt-a-Whirlin'91.He,smokesMarlboro100'sbutwearsacapthatsays"Winston.

      This is an excellent description of one of the individuals the author met during the fair.

    2. pig'sscreamsandwheezes

      This reminds me of the time when I had to care for a dog that consumed rat poison; the dog was short of breath and was screaming in pain.

    3. Exceptwhytakeallthetrou-bletobreedandcareforandtrainaspecialani-malandbringittotheIllinoisStateFairifyoudon'tcareanythingaboutit

      I would definitely be asking this question if I was in the author's shoes. It seems that the owners are neglecting their animals and they just want to make a profit off of them. It brings great disappointment to me when I witness or hear about situations like this.

    4. tremblesandshuddersandmakestheframedank,lowing,itseyesrollingup.almosttothewhites

      I love the way the author uses this imagery as the cows are bathed: "Trembles and shudders and makes the frame clank, lowing, its eyes rolling up almost to the whites." This creates an image in my mind of a cow's behavior during "bath time."

    5. whoworkeddetasselingsummercornwithmeinhighschool

      I know for a fact that detasseling summer corn is not the most entertaining activity; my cousin had a job similar to this when she lived in Princeton.

    6. feldspar

      Just a note for those who may not be familiar with "feldspar:" this is a very common type of mineral such as aluminum, barium, calcium, sodium, etc.

    7. Inside,they'regraycement,dimandyeasty,hugefansoverhead,workersinoverallsandwadershos-•ingeverythingdown

      This reminds me of my uncle's farm in Wisconsin. His farm is made for dairy, but the structure of his barn is similar to this one.

    8. the-skyisthecolorofoldjeans

      This is a great example of a metaphor.

    9. stunned,

      This reminds me of the time my family went to Newark, IL to judge the floats for the 4th of July parade. It was very humid and a large quantity of corn as described in this section.