47 Matching Annotations
  1. Sep 2021
    1. igure (A)-1 provides a standard organization for air units. Air units areauthorized to make additions and deletions of functions and duties wherenecessary . All functions of the unit must be stated in the unit’ s organizationalchart. Horizontal changes in the existing chart should be avoided.Figure (A)-1. Standard Unit Organization Chart

      Organization of Coast Guard Air Units

    1. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) has 62 H-60 helicopters operated by U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) and the United States Coast Guard (USCG

      DHS (CBP & Coast Guard) H-60 inventory as of 2013

    1. A 2-person crew consisting of a pilot and co-pilot operate the S-76. They are medium-lift utility helicopters which can carry multiple personnel and equipment for various law enforcement operations without sacrificing range or speed.

      Customs and Border Protection (DHS) S-76 crew and equipment description

    2. S-76 helicopters are a medium-range, tactical apprehension aircraft used by U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Air and Marine Operations (AMO) to protect the American public from threats of terrorism and drug smuggling, and to enforce airspace security over critical venues.

      Customs and Border Protection (DHS) S76 description

    1. Electro-optical/infrared sensors and video downlink provide intelligence and communications support that enhance officer safety during high-risk operations and increase covertness during surveillance operations. Video recorders document suspect activities for evidentiary use. A 2-person crew consisting of a pilot and co-pilot operate this aircraft.

      Customs and Border Protection AS350 Crew and Equipment description

    2. AS350/ H125 Light Enforcement Helicopter (LEH) is a short-range, turbine-powered helicopter used by U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Air and Marine Operations to perform missions such as aerial patrol and surveillance of stationary or moving targets.

      Customs and Border Protection (DHS) AS350 description

    1. Class B Airspace - Generally, that airspace from the surface to 10,000 feet MSL surrounding the nation's busiest airports in terms of IFR operations or passenger enplanements. The configuration of each Class B airspace area is individually tailored and consists of a surface area and two or more layers (some Class B airspace areas resemble upside-down wedding cakes), and is designed to contain all published instrument procedures once an aircraft enters the airspace.

      FAA Explanation of Class B airspace i.e. DCA and IAD

    1. The Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit enunciated the leading test for determining whether a person qualifies as a journalist for purposes of the qualified federal privilege. von Bulow, 811 F.2d 136. "[T]he individual claiming the privilege must demonstrate, through competent evidence, the intent to use material sought, gathered or received to disseminate information to the public and that such intent existed at the inception of the newsgathering process." von Bulow, 811 F.2d at 144. The focus of the inquiry is on the intent of the one claiming the privilege, not on the medium used for dissemination: "The primary relationship between the one seeking to invoke the privilege and his sources must have as its basis the intent to disseminate the information to the public garnered from that relationship." von Bulow, 811 F.2d at 145. The Court finds von Bulow to be persuasive on this point.

      Legally defining a journalist: Titan Sports, Inc. v. Turner Broadcasting Systems

    1. The FCC and the Communications Act do not forbid certain types of interception and disclosure of radio communications, including: Mere interception of radio communications, such as overhearing your neighbor’s conversation over a cordless telephone, or listening to emergency service reports on a radio scanner (although intercepting and/or recording telephone-related radio communications may be a violation of other federal or state laws). Divulgence of certain radio communications that were transmitted for use by the public (such as over-the-air radio and television broadcasts). Divulgence of broadcasts related to ships, aircraft, vehicles or persons in distress. Divulgence of transmissions by amateur radio or citizen band radio operators.

      FCC Radio Intercept Laws

    1. Except as prohibited in paragraph (i)(2) of this section, each person operating an aircraft equipped with ADS-B Out must operate this equipment in the transmit mode at all times unless - (1) Otherwise authorized by the FAA when the aircraft is performing a sensitive government mission for national defense, homeland security, intelligence or law enforcement purposes and transmitting would compromise the operations security of the mission or pose a safety risk to the aircraft, crew, or people and property in the air or on the ground

      ADS-B Military exemption

    1. ADS-B consists of two distinct aircraft information services, ADS-B Out and ADS-B In. As previously stated, ADS-B Out technology is one of the main components of FAA’s NextGen effort. It is a performance-based surveillance technology using GPS-enabled satellites to produce flight information, such as an aircraft’s location and velocity, and according to FAA, it is more precise than radar.21 These precise data provide air traffic controllers and pilots with more accurate information to keep aircraft safely separated in the national airspace.

      ADS-B synopsis

    2. FAA and aviation groups have reported that with the proliferation of commercial and amateur receivers, the public can now track individual aircraft by receiving the aircraft’s ICAO address, squawk code, and altitude. In addition, these entities have reported that since aviation groups and hobbyists have connected the receivers, the networked receivers can calculate and identify the latitude and longitude of the aircraft they are tracking. In addition, according to these reports, some groups maintain aircraft information databases and receiver networks that can identify aircraft by ICAO address and can locate aircraft by comparing the time difference of arrival of Mode S signals between three or more receivers.20 Using data derived from this work, interested parties—including adversaries (for example, foreign intelligence entities, terrorists, and criminals)—can identify military aircraft by type and registration number, and can track the aircraft while in flight through Mode S fixed address broadcasts. Using this readily available public information, we were able to track various kinds of military aircraft that were equipped with Mode S transponders.

      Mode S triangulation

    3. Page 7 GAO-18-177 Military Aircraft TrackingTable 1: Key Data Fields for Aircraft Identification and Tracking in Aircraft Broadcast SystemsKey Data Fields for Aircraft Identification and Tracking in Aircraft Broadcast SystemsSystemModes 3/Aaand Mode CMode SbADS-B OutEra used1963 to present1984 to presentMandated by Jan 1, 2020Squawk codecBarometric altitudeMode C onlyFixed addressXRegistration numberXXLatitude / longitudeXXGeometric altitudeXXAircraft dimensionsXX

      Historical transponder standards and data fields

    1. There are a number of requirements for aircraft flying within the SFRA:Pilots must obtain an advanced clearance from FAA air traffic control to fly within, into, or out of the SFRA.Aircraft flying within the SFRA must have an altitude-encoding transponder and it must be operating.FAA air traffic control must assign a four-digit number that identifies the aircraft by call sign or registration number when it gives a pilot clearance to fly in the SFRA.While flying within the SFRA, the pilot must be in direct contact with air traffic control unless cleared to the local airport traffic advisory frequency.

      DC Prohibited Flight Zones: Special Flight Rules Area

    2. In some situations, NORAD (the North American Aerospace Defense Command) uses a warning signal to communicate with pilots who fly into the SFRA or FRZ without authorization. The signal uses highly focused red and green lights in an alternating red/ red/green signal pattern. This signal is directed at specific aircraft suspected of making unauthorized entry into the SFRA/FRZ that are on a heading or flight path that may be interpreted as a threat, or that operate contrary to the operating rules for the SFRA/FRZ.The beam will not injure the eyes of pilots, aircrews or passengers, regardless of altitude or distance from the source.
    3. The Flight-Restricted Zone (FRZ) extends approximately 15 nautical miles (about 17 statute miles) around Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport. The airport is located in Arlington County, VA, four miles from downtown Washington, D.C.  The FRZ has been in effect since September 11, 2001.The only non-governmental flights allowed within the FRZ without a waiver are scheduled commercial flights into and out of Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport. Airlines operating charter flights that support the U.S. government may land at Joint Base Andrews Air Force Base or Ronald Reagan Washington National Airports without a waiver and under certain conditions

      DC Prohibited Flight Zones: Flight Restricted Zone

    4. P-56A & B are prohibited areas surrounding the White House, the National Mall, and the vice president's residence in Washington, D.C.The only aircraft that are allowed to fly within these prohibited areas are specially authorized flights that are in direct support of the U.S. Secret Service, the Office of the President, or one of several government agencies with missions that require air support within P-56. These prohibited areas have been in effect for about 50 years.

      DC Prohibited Flight Zones: P-56 A & B

    1. we do 02:34 eagle surveys in the spring so we fly up 02:37 the river and we count 02:38 the number of eggs that have been laid 02:41 and then we'll come back a few weeks 02:42 later and count how many hash so we can 02:43 track the population up there 02:47 the other piece that we'll do is 02:48 environmental surveys so we can track 02:50 changing 02:51 conditions on the ground in terms of 02:53 wetlands and things like that to allow 02:55 the biologists to have an understanding 02:57 of the area that they're working in

      Park Police Eagle Mission: "Everything else"

    2. our fourth mission profile uh is an 02:08 increasingly important one for us 02:10 it is uh presidential and foreign 02:12 dignitary protection 02:13 so anytime the president of the united 02:15 states moves in this area 02:17 we're typically out ahead of him doing 02:19 scout work and reconnaissance work and 02:21 just making sure the area is safe

      Park Police Eagle Mission: Presidential Protection

    3. we can use our hoist hoist equipment to 01:44 get them out of that area 01:45 a couple of pieces of equipment that we 01:46 use for that would be a coast guard 01:48 rescue basket 01:49 so if somebody is injured but able to 01:51 still move around on their own then we 01:52 can use this to hoist them 01:54 up for patients that are injured a 01:55 little more seriously or can't be moved 01:57 very much we can bring in what's called 02:00 a stokes basket and that allows them to 02:01 be immobilized 02:03 and kept a little bit more safe

      Park Police Eagle equipment: Coast Guard rescue and stokes basket

    4. our next mission profile 01:26 is going to be search and rescue so we 01:28 can assist with lost hikers 01:30 people who have fallen and gotten 01:32 injured up in the mountains people who 01:33 are trapped in the water

      Park Police Eagle Mission: Search and Rescue

    5. second mission profile is medevacs 01:09 so anytime a patient needs to get to the 01:10 hospital a little bit more 01:12 quickly than they can get by ground we 01:14 can help 01:16 facilitate that transport and get them 01:17 there a little bit more quickly 01:19 we do medevacs here in the dc area as 01:21 well as in maryland 01:22 and virginia

      Park Police Eagle Mission: Medevac

    6. we have a fleer camera 00:56 which uses infrared technology to allow 00:58 us to see at night 01:00 as well as a track a spotlight which 01:02 lights up an area to allow our officers 01:04 to operate a little bit more safely

      Park Police equipment, Fleer and Trakaspot

    7. our most important function here is to 00:42 provide law enforcement support for 00:44 officers on the ground so we assist them 00:46 with searches 00:47 vehicle and foot pursuits as well as 00:50 helping to find lost and missing people

      Park Police Eagle Mission: Law Enforcement Support

    1. Davison Army Airfield (DAAF) located on Fort Belvoir, Virginia. DAAF is home to the Army’s 12th Aviation Battalion, which is the primary operator at the airfield, along with the District of Columbia Army National Guard and the Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate. There are various aircraft stationed at DAAF including UH-60 Blackhawk and UH-72 Lakota helicopters, which are used for missions such as consequence management readiness, defense support for civil authorities, homeland security operations, air medical operations, and transportation.

      Army Helicopter missions: Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate

    1. AR 95-1, using dedicated MED EV AC helicopters for non-MEDEVAC missions required a waiver from the Department of the Army, Military Operati ons -Aviation (DAMO-A V). However, the regulation also states thiit "[i]ndividuals may deviate from provisions of this regulation during an emergency." Although DCNG personnel did not submit a request for a waiver, the ROI concluded t hat the use of MED EV AC helicopters was '~ustified by the unprecedented emergency circumstances that existed in Washington, D.C., and warranted deviation from the regulatory standards governing uses of MED EV AC helicopters, consistent with the exception cited in AR 95-1." The ROI added that DAMO-AV was "well aware" of the use of the MED EV AC aircraft.

      Army Regulation requiring MEDEVAC helicopters be used for MEDEVAC missions

    1. Federal Bureau of Investigation transports officials between its headquarters in Washington, D.C. and the FBI Academy in Quantico, Virginia utilizing its fleet of six Sikorsky UH-60M and three Bell 429 helicopters.

      FBI

    2. U.S. Park Police officials said they use helicopters to conduct patrol flights, search and rescue, and emergency response operations. To conduct these flights, the agency uses three helicopters: two Bell 412EPs (see fig. 8) and one Bell 206L3. These helicopters are generally based at the Eagle’s Nest facility in Washington, D.C.

      US Park Police

    3. Air Force’s 1st Helicopter Squadron uses helicopters to maintain readiness to conduct air defense operations. To conduct these flights, the Air Force uses 21 Bell UH-1 helicopters stationed at Joint Base Andrews, Maryland.

      Air Force 1st Helicopter Squadron

    4. Army 12th Aviation Battalion uses helicopters to maintain readiness for consequence management missions, such as defense support for civil authorities or homeland security operations, and to provide transportation. To conduct these flights, the Army uses 34 Sikorsky UH-60 helicopters stationed at Davison Army Airfield in Fort Belvoir, Virginia.

      US Army 12th Battalion

    5. Army National Guard said they use helicopters to provide support for a variety of missions, including air medical and security operations. To conduct these flights, the Army National Guard uses nine helicopters: three Sikorsky UH-60 Blackhawks and six Eurocopter UH-72s stationed at Davison Army Air Field in Fort Belvoir, Virginia.

      National Guard

    6. Marine Helicopter Squadron One uses helicopters to provide transportation for the President and Vice President and to provide other national security services. To conduct these flights, the Marine Corps uses 33 helicopters and other rotary wing aircraft, including 12 Bell Boeing MV-22s and 11 Sikorsky VH-3D, one Sikorsky UH-3D (not pictured), one Sikorsky UH-60N (not pictured) and eight Sikorsky VH-60Ns stationed at bases including Marine Corps Air Facility Quantico, Virginia; the Pentagon, the White House, the Naval Observatory, and Joint Base Anacostia-Bolling in Washington, D.C.

      Marine "Presidential" Helicopter Squadron

    7. Coast Guard officials said they use helicopters to provide air defense support flights for the Air Force’s Operation Noble Eagle.3 To conduct these flights, the Coast Guard uses three Eurocopter MH-65D helicopters stationed at Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport.

      US Coast Guard (DHS)

    8. Maryland State Police officials, the Maryland State Police Aviation Command has a fleet of 10 Leonardo AW139 helicopters, operating from 7 bases throughout Maryland, with a mission including search and rescue, disaster assessment, homeland security, and medical emergency response flights.

      Maryland State Police

    9. Fairfax County Police Department officials said they use helicopters to support law enforcement operations and conduct medical emergency response flights. To conduct these flights, the Fairfax County Police Department uses two Bell 429 helicopters.

      Fairfax County Police

    10. Monumental Helicopters uses helicopters to provide services including aerial tourism and photography, flight instruction, and chartered transportation flights. To conduct these flights, Monumental uses a Robinson R44 helicopter.

      Monumental Helicopters

    11. Metropolitan Police Department officials said they use helicopters to conduct search and rescue and law enforcement observation flights, search for missing persons, and provide information on crash scenes and traffic. To conduct these flights, the Metropolitan Police Department uses two Eurocopter AS 350B helicopters.

      DC Police

    12. Prince George’s County Police Department said they use helicopters to conduct law enforcement surveillance flights, including in response to incidents such as breaking and entering, robbery, homicide, carjacking, and searching for missing persons. To conduct these flights, the Prince George’s County Police Department uses four MD Helicopters MD 520N helicopters.

      Prince George's County Police

    13. Virginia State Police officials said they use helicopters to provide law enforcement surveillance and support, emergency air medical, search, rescue and executive transportation. To conduct these flights, the Virginia State Police uses seven helicopters, including four Bell 407 helicopters (see fig. 18), two Airbus EC-145 helicopters, and one Bell 412 helicopter.

      Virginia State Police

    14. Department of Energy officials said they use a helicopter to perform mapping of the ground for radiological threats in support of emergency response services. To conduct these flights, the agency uses a Bell 412 helicopter based at Joint Base Andrews, Maryland.

      Department of Energy

    15. Customs and Border Protection officials said they use helicopters to conduct missions related to law enforcement actions and security for special events, such as the State of the Union, state funerals, and presidential inaugurations. To conduct these flights, the agency uses various types of helicopters including Eurocopter AS350s based at Manassas Regional Airport in Manassas, Virginia.

      Customs and Border Protection (DHS)

    16. PHI Air Medical is a large multistate rotorcraft operator that uses helicopters to transport critically ill or injured patients between medical facilities and from emergency scenes to hospitals. PHI Air Medical serves Virginia communities surrounding Fredericksburg, Front Royal, Leesburg, and Manassas, as well as Baltimore, Maryland. To conduct these flights, PHI Air Medical uses two Bell 407 and three Eurocopter EC135 helicopters.

      PHI Air Medical

    17. MedStar Washington Hospital Center said they use medevac helicopters to transport patients who are critically ill or require specialized care at a tertiary hospital like MedStar Washington Hospital Center. It manages a fleet of four Eurocopter EC135 helicopters with three bases located in Maryland: St. Mary’s County, Indian Head, and Tipton, Fort Meade. These bases provide support to patients in Maryland, Virginia, West Virginia, Delaware and Pennsylvania.

      MedStar

    18. Air Methods officials said they use helicopters to conduct critical air ambulance flights and transport patients between medical facilities. To conduct these flights, Air Methods uses six helicopters: three Eurocopter EC 135s (see fig. 5); two Eurocopter EC 145s; and one Eurocopter BK117 S-76 from bases in Hagerstown, Maryland and Petersburg and West Point, Virginia.

      Air Methods

    19. Page 13GAO-21-200 Aircraft NoiseTable 2: Missions of Helicopter Operators in the Washington, D.C. Area, 2017 – 2019 Operator types and missionsExamples of operators Militaryoperators generally use helicopters to transport officials, conduct consequence management operations such as defense support for civil authorities or homeland security, and to train flight crews.Air ForceArmyCoast GuardaMarine CorpsSeveral air medicalhelicopter operators provide services such as rescue flights or hospital-to-hospital transportation of patients.Air MethodsMedStar Washington Hospital CenterPHI Health Other aviation activityoperators conduct flights with a variety of purposes, such as tourism or chartered transportation services. American Helicopters (flight school)Monumental Helicopters (chartered transportation) State and local law enforcement agenciesin D.C. and surrounding areas use helicopters to pursue suspects and for surveillance purposes.Metropolitan Police DepartmentPrince George’s County Police DepartmentVirginia State PoliceSeveral federal law enforcement and emergency supportagencies use helicopters to transport agency officials, protect federal parks and monuments, and provide support services for emergency response.Customs and Border ProtectionDepartment of EnergyFederal Bureau of InvestigationU.S. Park PoliceNewsorganizations use helicopters to conduct aerial photography and other newsgathering operations.Helicopters, Inc.WBAL-TV

      2019 DC Helicopter Mission Profiles

    20. 2017-2019 Flight Report