31 Matching Annotations
  1. Dec 2015
    1. who let themselves be fucked in the ass by saintly motorcyclists

      Ginsberg’s decision to use the image of a motorcyclist here could be due to it being one associated with hyper masculinity, the motorcyclist is an iconic American rebel, he is associated with freedom and being on road. Heterosexuality is fundamental to the construct of masculinity and patriarchal power structures, in this case, homosexuality threatens social constructs of masculinity as it opposes the ideal man in American society as well as the nature of homosexual pleasure, which Ginsberg explicitly describes, itself being a form of gender and sexual deviance. By using the image of the motorcyclist, Ginsberg is breaking down assumptions and social expectations of masculinity. Ginsberg successfully illustrates how homosexuality problematizes hegemonic masculinity in the U.S, especially in the 50s, as it exposes the fragility of the unattainable social expectations of manhood.

  2. Nov 2015

      This voice seems to resemble the last call for drinks in a pub, signalling closing time. The repetitive voice which disrupts the rest of the stanza creates a strong sense of unlimited time, of a situation coming to an end. Considering pubs are a place of community and company, where locals of all classes are welcome and come together, this image of time running out implies perhaps society is losing its sense of locality.

      Additionally, the conversation which this stanza invokes reveals to the reader an absence of communication. Although there are many voices, not one voice responds to another, they are completely isolated. This is ironic, as speech is a fundamental aspect of human interaction, in this case everyone has a voice, but no one seems to listen or acknowledge one another. Therefore, this scene of conversation suggests there is an absence of community, where although people are speaking and perhaps in the presence of other people, there is a lack of togetherness. Eliot creates the impression that locals are being exiled from their community, thus they are isolated from an environment which is based on shared common interests. Perhaps Eliot is critiquing modern society as a place which no longer appreciates community, the different voices and lack of human interaction indicates there is an absence of togetherness, creating a sense of loneliness.

  3. Oct 2015
    1. You sang: Keep a-inchin’ along Lak a po’ inch worm. . .

      The singing is a way of staying strong and working together against the institutionalised oppression towards African Americans. Whilst the whites can attempt to take away their sense of humanity, the African American community will always have their struggle in history and togetherness which cannot be taken away.

    2. They taught you the religion they disgraced.

      White slave owners who practiced Christianity have brought shame onto their religion.

    1. Cracks and reforms and bursts in the violet air Falling towers Jerusalem Athens Alexandria Vienna London  375 Unreal

      Jerusalem, Athens and Alexandria were all major cultural and economic centres of fallen ancient civilisations which no longer have any agency in world politics. Their empires have broken down and seize to have major input in modern civilisation. Moreover, Vienna was the capital of the Austria-Hungary empire which fell apart after their defeat in World War 1 and had to pay severe reparations to the Allies. All of these empires have cracked and reformed and broken down again, or even “burst”. Consequently, citizens of these cities have been exiled from everything that they understand of their home, their nationality. In a society which looks upon ones nationality to dictate ones identity, who do you become when your home falls apart?

      Perhaps Eliot is suggesting that London, a significant centre of Europe as well as the British Empire is “falling”, and all that will be left will be the memory of a distant empire, it will be transformed into something “unreal” as it will no longer exist. By listing these empires, Eliot implies London’s eventual fall is inevitable, leaving civilisation as we know it, isolated.

    1. throbbing between two lives
    2. April is the cruellest month, breeding Lilacs out of the dead land, mixing Memory and desire, stirring Dull roots with spring rain.

      Is this image of a waste land supposed to correlate with no mans land?

    3.   Madame Sosostris, famous clairvoyante, Had a bad cold

      If she is a clairvoyante, could she not have forseen and therefore prevented becoming ill?

    1. So great so great Emily. Sew grate sew grate Emily.

      I find these lines very interesting. The lines sound the same but the words mean different things. I think Stein is challenging our understanding of language and the associations we have with different words. I also think Stein's choice of words here are very significant, the term "so great" implies Emily is extremely wonderful. However "Sew grate" has a completely different meaning, I associate "sew" with stitching and domesticity, but "grate" with metal, an object which shreds something into pieces. In this case, "sew grate sew grate Emily" makes me think Emily is physically pained by the domestic, mundane chores she endures. The repetition of the line, which sounds the same, suggests monotony and even boredom, perhaps Emily is fed up of everyday routine.

  4. Sep 2015
    1. apparition

      The speaker is seeing "these faces" only briefly before they disappear again, they are ghost like. We also know the speaker probably feels insignificant because they are amongst a "crowd" and the faces have no identity because their is so many of them. This creates a very fast paced, lonely atmosphere/image, perhaps relating to the busy, modern lifestyle of early 20th century Paris

    1. “Love Is Not All”

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    2. I might be driven to sell your love for peace, Or trade the memory of this night for food.

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    3. I do not think I would.

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    4. Even as I speak

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    5. Even as I speak, for lack of love alone

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    1. Two roads diverged in a wood, and I- I took the one less traveled by, And that has made all the difference.

      Is he reflecting here how he will recount his travels down this road?

    2. And that has made all the difference.

      has it made a good or bad difference?

    1. Jane

      This continues to confuse me. Who is Jane? As the narrator is unnamed I'm not sure if she is referring to herself? Or John's sister?

      John is a very average/standard name for a man, as is Jane for a woman. Perhaps Gilman is referring to the global boundaries society place men and women. In which case the narrator could be referring to societies gender roles

    2. creeping

      The narrator repeats the word creeping continually throughout the narrative. This reminds me of Feuds theory of the uncanny. In this case, the uncanny relates to feelings which seem familiar because they have been repressed, therefore the uncanny reflects something which is familiar in our unconscious, but as this feeling is repressed, it produces feelings of uneasiness because we do not understand it. Even in the narrators personal writing, she cannot truly reflect her unconscious desires to be free from the restrictions of being a woman during this time. The only way she can discuss her anxiety is by reflecting it onto the wallpaper, which allows her to delve deep into her unconscious, repressed desires. She feels familiarity in her being a woman and societies expectations which go along with this, such as getting married and having children. But she feels unsure about this as she is not content and happy with the life he has, even though by societies standards she should be happy. Therefore she is constantly feeling 'creepy'.

    1. this longing to attain self-conscious manhood, to merge his double self into a better and truer self.

      Racial discrimination causes a lack of identity for African Americans, as white people often only see them according to their skin colour. In this case, Du Bois reflects how he longs to se himself as himself, not just how other white people see him

    1. Then he showed his scholar

      Here is an example of Adams as the author distancing himself from himself as the 'scholar'. Adams seems so separated from himself as a student, perhaps because he is so perplexed and overwhelmed by the exposition in addition to the scientific revolution which was challenging the way society had been so absorbed by religion up to this point in time

    2. aching to absorb knowledge, and helpless to find it

      It seems Adams is searching for some kind of concrete, absolute truth or knowledge. But at a time where science is challenging religion and even supposed scientific fact is questioned, Adams is "helpless" and weak

  5. Aug 2015
    1. The Nation has not yet found peace from its sins; the freedman has not yet found in freedom his promised land

      Although slavery has been abolished, racial tensions and discrimination still exists. Just because African Americans are not bound in chains does not mean they are free.

    2. babyhood

      Being innocent to racial discrimination as a child exposes how is race constructed by our social environment, not something embedded into us biologically

    3. How does it feel to be a problem?

      Being black problematizes white hegemony and threatens white privilege

    1. From my five arms and all my hands

      The civilians have become mutilated, but I cannot tell if they have come away stronger, or if they are doomed

    2. The entire desolate, bleak surroundings of this poem reminds me of T.S Elliot's 'The Waste Land'.

    3. "Earth is eating trees" something so familiar and normal is becoming very strange and unnatural. "fence posts, Gutted cars, earth is calling in her little ones". Levine successfully turns everyday middle class family items, such as cars and fence posts, into something uncanny and disturbing. By personifying the Earth into a maternal figure, we get the sense not even our loved ones can save us from this apocalyptic environment.

    4. "They Lion grow." Out of this deadly environment that should kill any natural, living being, the Lion is growing and prospering. Pollution is nourishing and thus making it stronger. The growing lion could be a metaphor for industrial businesses which corrupts and strives of the labour of working class civilians

    5. "Candor of tar". I find this line quite confusing, if candor is being open/sincere perhaps there is a complete honesty concerning the poison environment, perhaps there is little anyone can do to change it?

    6. Butter, beans and bread are all inexpensive foods. Levine could be referencing working class individuals living in an industrial environment. The pollution has became as much a part of their life as the food they eat.