59 Matching Annotations
  1. Dec 2016
    1. Nevertheless, one project did come along that battled its way into existence and the hearts of Atlantans: the Beltline. The Beltline, a prime representation of urban reuse, was based off a thesis by Georgia Tech student Ryan Gravel from 1999 that evolved into a proposal for a 33-mile trail that aided pedestrians and rail transit using the 22-mile rail corridor that encompasses Atlanta as a foundation. The project has been in development for several years and will continue to be in progress for quite some time, but it has already managed to impress itself upon the city and earn international attention and acclaim (“Atlanta BeltLine Overview”). For a city so long dominated for destruction and sprawl, it welcomed the possibility of a new era focused more on adaptation and sustainability.

      make the point of your analysis more clear. I get the idea that it will be about adaptive reuse, but because you ended with a paragraph with much detail about the beltline, i also got the feeling that it could be primarily based on just the beltline in general.

    2. The possibilities of adaptive reuse have captured the imaginations of urban citizens across the world;

      maybe acknowledge why it is captivating as an idea or concept. You explain why it could matter to Atlantans, but not across the globe.

    3. Before its construction, the site was a community known as Buttermilk Bottoms, populated mostly by African-Americans. The city bulldozed the entire community and replaced it with a building that quickly became obsolete and currently burdens the city more than anything (Pendered).

      this is interesting in terms of the implications of the act of tearing down an african american community effortlessly and without backlash. Maybe you could address at some point in your analysis how some areas are easier and cheaper to tear down than others (if you havent already, idk I'm only reading the intro right now)

    4. marvel or attraction

      revise wording

    5. Atlantans

      This is a good way to hook the specific audience :)

    6. Ghirardelli Square

      you did a great job throughout the introduction at acknowledging the history of adaptive reuse and why it matters and affects us all today. :)

    7. As Moses fought for demolition and replacement, Jacobs advocated for repurposing old buildings for new purposes. This idea would later be named adaptive reuse (Carswell).

      this section being separate from other sections seems odd to me. maybe incorporate it somewhere else, as it is a valuable statement in the analysis.

    8. New Yorkers Robert Moses and Jane Jacobs

      this is sort of nit picky but maybe say new york architects moses and jacobs. i know they are architects and eventually the reader will get the point but i would add this here

    9. Evaluating whose core principles of design set forth the best structure for urban planning and policy could easily fill books, much less another built environment analysis, so to simplify matters, this analysis will settle for an admittedly oversimplified view of what both represented: Moses thought on a macro-scale and obsessed over infrastructure, regularly planning and fighting for the expansion of highways and bridges onto extravagant scales with little consideration or mercy for the thousands whom such projects would displace; Jacobs, a near perfect foil to Moses, adored the micro-scale and prioritized the community that city life breeds and the protection of that spirit.

      so maybe cut out unnecessary clauses and simplify. separate into multiple sentences

  2. Oct 2016
    1. Ignorance isn’t always bigotry,” said Keisling. “I don’t think everybody is a hateful bigot. But I wish they would go out and meet some trans people and understand that we’re spectacular, and not a threat, and I wish politicians would leave our children alone.”

      I wonder how Keisling feels now about the issue with North Carolina Governor McCrory. McCrory does not identify as a bigot, but he is nevertheless bashed as one. Keisling would probably view him as ignorant, but I have to wonder if those are the only two categories for people of dissenting opinions or values. Does everyone have to agree in order to not be a bigot or ignorant?

    2. Many of us raise our kids to have modesty, and somebody else shouldn’t be able to come in and decide what your modesty should entail. That should be a personal decision.

      This argument is a lot like the argument made by Governor Pat McCrory of North Carolina. He defends his passage of House Bill 2 by saying that the resistance to it comes from a values disagreement. Government is supposed to provide for the welfare of its people, but to what extent the role should be in this controversy is what makes the debate so heated.

    3. “thus risking certain health problems”

      This section of the article is written in a way that makes those who are merely uncomfortable with sharing their spaces the victims. However, it neglects to acknowledge the severe heath problems that may arise for the transgender person. For instance, "the high rate of mental health problems, including depression, anxiety, and and drug and alcohol addiction, as well as a higher suicide rate among untreated transsexual people than in the general population. Many transgender and transsexual activists, and many caregivers, point out that these problems usually are not related to the gender identity issues themselves, but to problems that arise from dealing with those issues and social problems related to them." To learn more about gender identity issues, visit: http://www.psychologistanywhereanytime.com/sexual_problems_pyschologist/psychologist_gender_identity_issues.htm

    4. America’s Profound Gender Anxiety

      Morrill, Jim, and Tim Funk. "McCrory Says Good Friends Have Shunned Him, His Wife over HB2." Charlotte Observer. N.p., 11 Oct. 2016. Web. 17 Oct. 2016. This article is about the recent political issue in North Carolina, regarding transgender bathrooms. North Carolina Governor Pat McCrory has sparked conflict by stating that Caitlyn Jenner should have to use the men's restroom if she is to use government facilities. It is important to note that he does not include private facilities. Governor McCrory signed into law House Bill 2, which requires bathrooms in government facilities to be used by people based on the gender listed on their birth certificate. A majority of the responses to this bill have been not only negative, but calls to violent action, or at least exclusionary action. McCrory has received death threats. His wife has been shunned from events. Even life-long friends of the McCrory family are pulling support. An important point in this article, at least in my opinion, is that he is not hateful. Governor McCrory did not intend to incite or imply hatred. Being governor means that he is trusted to do what he believes is right, and he believes his view is right. He did not write this bill into law in any ill manner, but he notes that he has been confronted only with negative, hateful responses. He listens to opposing views, respectfully disagrees, and moves on. But he is not responded to in the same way. He does not identity himself as an ultra-conservative, but according to his audience, he sure is now. We are in a time of major societal change, and there is sure to be backlash and resistance. Governor Pat McCrory of North Carolina is part of the resistance, but he is not violent and he is not hateful. He merely disagrees with the majority, and that is no longer a viable option anymore. As Governor McCrory aptly notes, “It’s almost like the George Orwell book ‘1984’,” he said. “If you disagree with Big Brother or you go against the thought police, you will be purged. And you will disappear.”

    5. any others share Moore’s belief, but without the same degree of empathy.

      The first thing that comes to my mind when I read this is the Westboro Baptist Church and the way it uses its faith to justify its bigotry as conviction. In the image above, these members protest everything that challenges their faith, but they do so in a way that, arguably I assume, denies their beliefs too. They use the bible to justify their dislike and opposition to such social movements as same sex marriage, but they do so in an alienating way that comes off as extremely hateful, which is something the bible also teaches against. https://www.splcenter.org/sites/default/files/group_images/SPLC_Westboro-Baptist-Church.jpg

    6. Particularly in the United States, a country that remains more religious that its Western peers,

      There is evidence that there is a greater societal dysfunction in countries with higher religiosity rates. Though most arguments use this data to say that religious people are problematic, in this instance, it can be used to explain why people act out. Religion can influence people to believe, support, and enforce social constructs that may be alienating and negatively affect minorities that challenge the status quo. http://www.skeptic.com/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/v12n03_images/fig5_6.gif

    7. The idea that someone might not identify with the gender that corresponds to the sex assigned to them at birth directly contradicts those categories. “Anything that challenges that idea, of the clarity of gender, is really suspect. It’s anxiety-producing, and it makes people angry,” Griffith said.

      This goes along with my previous annotation about religiosity rates and societal dysfunction. It has an alienating affect, similar to Jim Crow laws and other private institutions.

    8. The two motivations—conviction and bigotry—are difficult to tease apart.

      The reason for this is that motivation is almost impossible, if not impossible, to prove in most instances.

    9. The exemption language tends to echo that in the Religious Freedom Restoration Act, a federal law that’s been emulated by many states, which was designed to protect Americans from being forced to violate their religious beliefs

      https://www.congress.gov/bill/103rd-congress/house-bill/1308 This site is from a government site, summarizing the act and giving other information. The argument is that churches have a religious exemption. They do not claim bigotry, but rather, their own right to do what they believe to be right and just. Personally, I attended a Catholic church a few days after the legalization of same-sex marriage, and the Priest was not hateful, but his sermon came from a place of concern for the ideals of the church.

    10. The law is an imperfect tool for shaping culture—a back-up cudgel for times when softer methods of persuasion don’t work.

      This rings true in historical context of racial discrimination as well. Take the institution and laws that enforced slavery for so long. Then, even when slavery was abolished and the state recognized the severe discrimination around the Civil Rights Movement era, the laws governing the 50 states, especially in the south, were not able to change the feelings and sentiments in the Old South.

  3. Sep 2016
    1. Discrimination and Segregation Through Physical Design of the Built Environment

      3 MAIN TAKE AWAYS/POINTS OF ARGUMENT FROM THIS ARTICLE: This article criticizes the discriminatory aspects of the built environment. It claims, and proves, that the way that architecture regulates a society by preventing or discouraging access to or from a certain section of cities by design. It also claims that the certain groups of people who are most often architecturally excluded are the poor and peoples of color. Not mentioned much in the article, but that I have made note of through my supplemental reading annotations is the exclusion of the elderly. This perhaps is not a design on purpose but it nonetheless exists and affects this group of people as well. Architectural exclusion includes, but is not limited to, physical barriers, transit and placement of transit stops, highways and exists and road infrastructure, the ease of navigation, parking and parking permits. All of these things together affect the way that people live and interact with one another.

    2. Wealthy, mostly white residents of the northern Atlanta suburbs have vocally opposed efforts to expand MARTA into their neighborhoods for the reason that doing so would give people of color easy access to suburban communities

      By opposing the MARTA expansion, these mostly white residents in Atlanta are not only preventing poor and people of color access, but also the elderly. As seen above, poverty affects all races especially in older years. The residents of northern Atlanta suburbs are preventing access to people who they may not even realize. https://www.americanprogress.org/issues/poverty/report/2010/09/27/8426/the-not-so-golden-years/

      Marak, Carol. "'Elder Orphans' Have A Harder Time Aging In Place." Forbes. Forbes Magazine, 8 Sept. 2016. Web. 22 Sept. 2016.

    3. Street grid design, one-way streets, the absence of sidewalks and crosswalks, the location of highways and transit stops, and even residential parking permit requirements can shape the demographics of a city and isolate a neighborhood from those surrounding it, often intentionally

      I highly doubt that when these things were designed that they were created this way to exclude the elderly even if they were made to exclude the poor and peoples of color. However, this is the effect.

      Marak, Carol. "'Elder Orphans' Have A Harder Time Aging In Place." Forbes. Forbes Magazine, 8 Sept. 2016. Web. 22 Sept. 2016.

    4. The architected urban landscape regulates, and the architecture itself is a form of regulation.

      This picture shows how a simple sidewalk can transform an area and bring people together and bring people of all ages, genders, and colors to places they may not otherwise be. For the elderly, walking down a sidewalk may be the only option for their transit.

      Marak, Carol. "'Elder Orphans' Have A Harder Time Aging In Place." Forbes. Forbes Magazine, 8 Sept. 2016. Web. 22 Sept. 2016.

    5. It is hard to understate the central significance of geographical themes—space, place, and mobility—to the social and political history of race relations and antiblack racism in the United States. . . . [S]egregation, integration, and separation are spatial processes; . . . ghettos and exclusionary suburbs are spatial entities; . . . access, exclusion, confinement . . . are spatial experiences.5

      It is much more widely discussed how there are unfair regulations to certain groups based on gender and race, but groups by age are almost never talked about in terms of inclusion or exclusion. Even here it is not discussed, besides implicitly. Elderly are in many cases more poor and are separated from certain places as a result.

      Marak, Carol. "'Elder Orphans' Have A Harder Time Aging In Place." Forbes. Forbes Magazine, 8 Sept. 2016. Web. 22 Sept. 2016.

    6. When a locality is successful in its opposition, people who rely on transit to get around will not have access to those communities.13

      While some of these excluded groups may be able to get along with out access to certain places, the elderly are more in need and are also excluded because of their physical disabilities. They not only may need to get somewhere, but they do not have company. This is part of why Marak created a Facebook group to connect these elder orphans who need a community of peers. They also work on finding solutions to these hard to access places, with the assistance of the Milken Institute.

      Marak, Carol. "'Elder Orphans' Have A Harder Time Aging In Place." Forbes. Forbes Magazine, 8 Sept. 2016. Web. 22 Sept. 2016.

    7. And although the law has addressed the exclusionary impacts of zoning ordinances and restrictive covenants, courts, legislatures, and most legal scholars have paid little attention to the use of less obvious exclusionary urban design tactics. Street grid design, one-way streets, the absence of sidewalks and crosswalks, the location of highways and transit stops, and even residential parking permit requirements can shape the demographics of a city and isolate a neighborhood from those surrounding it, often intentionally. Decisions about infrastructure shape more than just the physical city; those decisions also influence the way that residents and visitors experience the city.17

      The Milken Institute is hoping to influence the way city planning committees create their cities so that the city accommodates the elderly who most often have nobody to help them in everyday life. Even a simple sidewalk can have an effect on elderly happiness, health, and accessibility.

      Marak, Carol. "'Elder Orphans' Have A Harder Time Aging In Place." Forbes. Forbes Magazine, 8 Sept. 2016. Web. 22 Sept. 2016.

    8. This design decision meant that many people of color and poor people, who most often relied on public transportation, lacked access to the lauded public park at Jones Beach.5

      Lowering bridges to prevent buses largely does affect the poor and and people of color, but it also largely affects "elder orphans", who are too old to drive and who have nobody that can help take care of them. These people are largely dependent on public transportation as well. Marak, Carol. "'Elder Orphans' Have A Harder Time Aging In Place." Forbes. Forbes Magazine, 8 Sept. 2016. Web. 22 Sept. 2016.

    9. Architectural Exclusion

      This article is about how elder orphans, people over 65 years of age who have no living friends or family to care for them, are having more and more difficult maintaining and/or obtaining a comfortable living environment as they age. Everyone ages and it is never an easy transition, but it is especially harder for those elder citizens who cannot get along on their own, who account for 29% of older persons are these elder orphans. The article explains that there is such a large number of elder orphans now because they are the baby boomers who have resulted in less children and a greater divorce rate. The writer of this article is an elder orphan who has created a Facebook page for other elder orphans to come together and find community and support and discuss their problems to find solutions. The main issues presented are legal and care issues such as dealing with finances when there is nobody around to help in times of need. Affordable housing is almost nonexistent for these elders who mostly live on social security. Transportation is usually not something that elders are able to handle themselves because their physical abilities are impaired. Even though the Facebook group is extremely helpful in finding some solutions, it is still imperative that service and support at the local level is implicated. One such business that is answering the call of these elder orphans is The Milken Institute. They work with local governments to build awareness of elder orphans. They work to provide for the needs of elders such as: living comfortable, affordable, healthy, happy, and financially secure, with proper living arrangements, access to mobility, and respect. They work to create a space for elders to thrive. There are cities that are providing well for the aging community as far as health care, active lifestyle choices, economy, and environment, but even here there is not enough available transportation, or affordable housing. Simple things could be implemented all around cities for these aging communities to better adapt, such as sidewalks which would provide a way for elders to go places as well as get them up and moving around, decreasing chronic diseases and isolation and loneliness.

      Marak, Carol. "'Elder Orphans' Have A Harder Time Aging In Place." Forbes. Forbes Magazine, 8 Sept. 2016. Web. 22 Sept. 2016.

    10. Courts have similarly upheld residency restrictions that prevent some individuals from using public facilities such as beaches, sports courts, and playgrounds on the grounds that residents’ taxes and fees resulted in construction of those facilities, and so residents should be given use priority.

      The entire idea of a "public good" is that it is a good that is non-excludable. I suppose the courts decision to side with residency restrictions may be in an effort to prevent free-riding, but that does not negate the fact that its underlying motives are racist and unconstitutional in the grand scheme of things.

    11. lacement of Highway Routes, Bridge Exits, and Road Infrastructure

      There is no way this highway system was created with the objective of easy accessibility. As someone who has frequented this highway many times, and still struggles to navigate it, I can attest that the highway system in downtown Atlanta is definitely one that could be considered in this section of the article.

    12. Wiggins took the bus from the inner city, where she lived, to her job at the suburban mall.142 However, the mall’s owners had actively resisted requests to allow the bus to stop on its property; rather, the bus stopped outside the mall on the other side of the large highway.

      http://www.nytimes.com/1999/11/15/nyregion/mall-accused-of-racism-in-a-wrongful-death-trial-in-buffalo.html?_r=0 This is an article about the incident in more detail. The family of Wiggins sued the mall for its racist justifications. This event took place in the early 90s, way after laws had been erected against segregation. It was not and is not alright for business owners to discriminate based on race, gender, sexual orientation, or class.

    13. The possibility of transformation as a result of architecture raises a related question: where did the people who were using these streets prior to the architectural intervention go? Presumably, they were pushed to a different—possibly less affluent—part of town.

      This raises a good point. Whereas keeping bad things out of an area of town is a good thing for the government to strive toward, it ignores the problem entirely. The people who are perpetrating the crimes should not simply be kicked out of an area, but rather should be sought out individually. Just because the crime leaves a certain area does not mean the crimes do not exist elsewhere. It becomes a cycle.

    14. Another common version of this phenomenon is one of the most obvious forms of architectural exclusion: the walls, gates, and guardhouses of gated communities.106

      Another perspective on walls and gates around more affluent communities is that of the outsider. Not only is it true that the gates keep outsiders out, but it keeps those inside of the gates sheltered and helps assert the idea that the outside is dangerous and bad, even though it is not in many cases. The people inside the gates are victims of their own fear and racism.

    15. This form of physical exclusion by walls and barriers is nothing new.92 However, it is not only a remnant of the distant past, but also exists in more modern examples.

      Donald Trump's proposal of a wall to prevent Mexican immigrants from coming to America is the most prevalent example of this today. However, this type of defense is also prevalent through the Great Wall of China. Just like Trump claims to be securing the nation, so too do city planners who may have ulterior motives that may be racially backed.

    16. or example, Elise C. Boddie argues that places have racial identities based on their history of or reputation for exclusion, and that courts should consider this racial meaning for purposes of racial discrimination claims.64 She further suggests that the racial meaning of a place can allow those in charge, such as police officers, to determine who belongs in that place and who does not

      A specific example of a certain area being the home to a certain race both in the past and now is Auburn Avenue in Atlanta, GA. In the past, this street was the most wealthy black community in the country, but since the Civil Rights Movement, many of the wealthy moved away, but because the businesses in the area were targeted towards black people, there was no motivation for other races, specifically white, to repopulate the area. Now the street is a very poor area, and still heavily known as a poorer black community. Read more about the history and decline of Auburn Avenue at the following link: http://www.foxnews.com/us/2012/06/10/atlanta-historic-auburn-ave-again-at-crossroads.html

    17. “there is no such thing as a ‘neutral’ design.”

      There is a reason for everything. This is not to say that every bridge that is low is intended to segregate, but not considering the repercussions of the design does not negate the fact that there WILL be repercussions.

    18. As one planning scholar acknowledged, “[r]ace is a ubiquitous reality that must be acknowledged . . . if [planners] do not want simply to be the facilitators of social exclusion and economic isolation.”42

      It is normal for people to think that taking race out of the equation could lead to a less racist society. But this planning scholar completely dismantles this thought by claiming that it is essential to fixing the problem of racism by fulling acknowledging and accepting the concept of race.

    19. Yet the bench may have been created this way to prevent people—often homeless people—from lying down and taking naps

      Many people would see the first type of bench as a nice thing to do for homeless people by providing shelter. However, the second picture shows a bench that deters homeless people from seeking rest on it, which is a public good that by definition is supposed to be non-excludable. Most people would not view this second bench as being negative. In fact, it is most likely viewed as a nice way to prevent contact with strangers while sitting on the bench.

    20. People used the law by passing ordinances saying that certain individuals could not access certain locations.24 Social norms encouraged some to threaten undesirable persons with violence if they were to enter or remain in certain spaces

      Jim Crow laws were used in the past to segregate. An example of violence that could ensue were the multiple sit ins by nonviolent protesters who were met with angry white men and women who refused them service and refused to be served in the same space as them.

    21. Such devices include physical barriers to access—low bridges, road closings, and the construction of walls—as well as the placement of transit stops, highway routes, one-way streets, and parking-by-permit-only requirements.

      https://www.schlittlaw.com/blog/low-bridges-long-island-parkways/ These lower bridges can lead to death! This bridge in New York, pictured above, was built by Robert Moses, who has a history of creating restricting infrastructure.

    22. This hidden power suggests that lawmakers and judges should be especially diligent in analyzing the exclusionary impacts of architecture, but research demonstrates that they often give these impacts little to no consideration.2

      The power is hidden in that it is hard to prove intent, as I mentioned in a previous annotation above. However, it is only hard to prove if you are not looking for the problem that so many people and scholars are pointing to, which is this exclusionary practice through city planning, architecture, and infrastructure. So since these things have been noticed in patterns, and even in some instances out right admitted, there should be more of a movement to punish such acts as segregation.

    23. The most straightforward reason is that it is difficult to show the necessary intent to discriminate, especially in situations involving land use and the built environment.15 This Article, however, suggests an additional reason—specifically, that those entities often fail to recognize urban design as a form of regulation at all

      It is hard to prove intent in a court of law. Therefor, it is easy for architects and those in city planning communities to utilize architecture and the way a city is built as a means to meet their own political and social ends. There is no way to prove without a shadow of a doubt, in most cases, that the reason for these projects is to segregate or make certain aspects of societies less accessible to certain minority groups.

    24. The U.S. Supreme Court dismissed a challenge to this action, stating that the road closure was just a “routine burden of citizenship” and a “slight inconvenience.”11 Justice Marshall dissented, acknowledging that this inconvenience carried a “powerful symbolic message.”

      Marshall was the Court's 96th justice and its first African-American justice. This may help to explain why he, of all the justices of the court, was the only one to understand the racial implication of the architectural exclusion.

    25. t the request of white residents, in 1974 the city of Memphis closed off a street that connected an all-white neighborhood to a primarily black one


      These maps show how apparent the segregation is in the area of Memphis 1970 and 1980 which may explain the community idea of keeping the different racial groups segregated.

    26. Although the law has addressed the exclusionary impacts of racially restrictive covenants and zoning ordinances, most legal scholars, courts, and legislatures have given little attention to the use of these less obvious exclusionary urban design tactics. Street grid layouts, one-way streets, the absence of sidewalks and crosswalks, and other design elements can shape the demographics of a city and isolate a neighborhood from those surrounding it.

      The law and the government both address exclusionary impacts, but neither can or will do anything about what is happening. It seems that there is no way to prove the intent of these tactics, even though the intents, once studied, can be quite clear to those willing to believe it.

    27. According to his biographer, Moses directed that these overpasses be built intentionally low so that buses could not pass under them.4 This design decision meant that many people of color and poor people, who most often relied on public transportation, lacked access to the lauded public park at Jones Beach.5

      In a review of the graphic novel, "Robert Moses: The Master Builder of New York City", David Langdon states that, "for each groundbreaking feat of structural engineering and political mobilization, there is another story told of his callous social engineering, the consequences of which reshaped the lives of New Yorkers as much as his architecture." The authors of the graphic novel, Pierre Christin and Olivier Balez, use a sequence of pictures to expose the multiple facets of this architect who was both a master at his craft, while also a profound racist and destroyer. Read more about this novel: http://www.archdaily.com/772815/robert-moses-the-master-builder-of-new-york-city-pierre-christin-and-olivier-balez

    28. The lack of public-transit connections to areas north of the city makes it difficult for those who rely on transit—primarily the poor and people of color—to access job opportunities located in those suburbs.8

      This type of exclusion, whether intentional or not, leads to segregation in the long run that may last for years, decades, generations, or centuries. Later on, the article mentions that there are businesses in wealthier regions that need employees but cannot attract any because of how the transit system works.

    1. buildings reflect our cultural values. Once created, they not only become symbolic representations of those values but also serve in their own way to enforce those values actively, making sure that they are adhered to and followed. In this sense, as anthropologists point out, the material world is reflexive: architecture, in the words of the social theorist Mark Gottdiener, “possesses the dual characteristics of being both a product of social relations and a producer of social relations.”1

      In the article, "Placemaking on Main Street: Revitalizing Rural Communities," it is asserted that implementing simple projects such as local parks, benches, and sidewalks can influence a community to get out on the streets and influences the social constructs of the community. Take the Reflection Pool for instance, pictured above. Project for Public Spaces. "Placemaking on Main Street: Revitalizing Our Rural Places." Project for Public Spaces. N.p., 12 Aug. 2016. Web. 31 Aug. 2016.

    2. But even in times of historical record­keeping, most people do not write about themselves and most do little that makes others want to write about them. But every­one makes, or buys, and uses things,

      Analysis of artifacts and things are a sort of way to keep someone alive. Some believe that as long as someone is talking about you or saying your name, you are never really dead. So in a way, analysis brings certain times and places and people back to life. http://www.goodreads.com/quotes/46464-do-you-not-know-that-a-man-is-not-dead

    3. In its form, then, the room adheres to all the conventions proper to educa­tional space in the United States.1'

      By analyzing the classroom's construction, rather than just its contents, the classroom is decidedly different than any other room with desks and chairs. This classroom also seems more strict than some others of today's time. The symmetry of the room and classic set up of the desks speak volumes about the importance and seriousness of the education in that time and how classic its learning structure is.

    4. As mentioned, archaeologists deal little if any written documentation for early peri­ods.

      Most people, for example, would not document that they visit a community park often or that they walk to and from work, but in looking at the sidewalks and parks and benches or lack of these things, it can be determined if a certain community does these things or not.<br> Project for Public Spaces. "Placemaking on Main Street: Revitalizing Our Rural Places." Project for Public Spaces. N.p., 12 Aug. 2016. Web. 31 Aug. 2016. “Bucharest, June The 1St 2015, Crowded Park On A Summer Afternoon, Heat Wave, Family Time, People Having Fun Stock Footage Video 10439756 - Shutterstock.” Accessed September 6, 2016. http://www.shutterstock.com/video/clip-10439756-stock-footage-bucharest-june-the-st-crowded-park-on-a-summer-afternoon-heat-wave-family-time-people.html.

    5. And of course if we are looking for “traces of people doing things,” then it is easy to see that one of the main things people did in the past was to build and/or use buildings, and with such objects we do not have to rely on what people said about them. We can, if the buildings have survived, interpret them for ourselves.

      Placemaking seeks to implement buildings and community involvement based on what the community's identity is, so by analyzing the structures of the area, it can be understood what the community's identity is. Project for Public Spaces. "Placemaking on Main Street: Revitalizing Our Rural Places." Project for Public Spaces. N.p., 12 Aug. 2016. Web. 31 Aug. 2016.

    6. tell us about human behavior both past and present.

      Placemaking helps to create a thriving community by furthering its community involvement and creating jobs and activities, but it is a careful practice that works not against the history and present identity of the community, but rather with it. Project for Public Spaces. "Placemaking on Main Street: Revitalizing Our Rural Places." Project for Public Spaces. N.p., 12 Aug. 2016. Web. 31 Aug. 2016.

    7. *I.l:lI N V I TAT ION

      "Placemaking on Main Street: Revitalizing Rural Communities" Summary: Rural communities from all over the country are struggling to find a way to support their local economies and provide a stable future for them. They face the problem of having to figure out how to do these things effectively by using what they have available to them as far as financial and human capital. This way to do this is to develop solutions within the community using placemaking to create a sense of place and connectedness. To integrate placemaking into these rural communities, partnerships have been formed and have provided training programs for community leaders, serving to inform and also network the rural areas with potential regional funding partners. These partnerships allow the communities to not merely submit, but rather to integrate the important parts of the community’s identity into the future plans rather than wiping them out entirely. Main Streets are full of history and provide the identity of the place, and the objective of placemaking is not to erase these aspects, but rather to help them thrive by creating more places by attracting members of the community to become engaged. For this reason, the process of placemaking must be undertaken by the community in order to ensure positive outcomes.<br> Furthermore, placemaking creates spaces for people to be involved, rather than a space primarily for cars. This can be achieved by implementing low cost, projects to include parks, benches, and fun programs on the street to get people walking. The idea behind getting people to interact within their communities is to create place attachment to assure that young people stay rooted to their communities. However, it can be difficult to carry out these projects due to lack of funding or resources, so Lisa Mensah explains that “partnerships between sectors is central to making rural areas thrive,” so that rural regions can have an effective, lasting impact (Project for Public Spaces).

      Project for Public Spaces. "Placemaking on Main Street: Revitalizing Our Rural Places." Project for Public Spaces. N.p., 12 Aug. 2016. Web. 31 Aug. 2016.

    8. Without some kind of technique for interpreting the architectural lan­guage of the house, we likely cannot read the physical evidence of the structure as a social or cultural text.

      There is a certain way to read architecture. Without the basic training, it is almost impossible to accurately read a structure. If you do not have a basic understanding of how to read a structure, it is likely that you will misinterpret it in context.

    9. building’s appearance is never left to chance, but rather is based on a system of culturally determined ideas of what is considered suitable or beautiful to behold (f

      Nothing is random, especially in a building's construction, just as no word that an author writes is random to his story. A lackluster appearance in one house may show that the particular inhabitant is not concerned with appearance or that they have insufficient funds. A group of these houses point to an overarching cause in the community. Similarly, an ornate residence may point to a more flashy resident with the means to decorate.

    10. “historic architecture is one aspect of the past that we can still see, touch, experience . . . and part of what attracts us to old buildings is their insistence on communicating, in some outmoded dialect we do not entirely understand, the energy and purpose, the achievements and hopes, the disap­pointments and hardships of those who made and used them.”

      This is interesting because most people are at least somewhat intrigued with old things. They are interesting, and it is because there is a story behind it. If there was no such interest or wish to understand these things, history would not be a class and museums would not be so crowded.

    11. then we need to utilize the widest possible range of sources, and buildings are one such source (

      One cannot only view one building and accurately draw conclusions about it. It takes analysis of various buildings and artifacts in order to determine what is normal and average and distinguish each building from the other in order to know the full history and context.

    12. - Countless now nameless immigrants moved through tenem ents like this one in New York City’s Lower Hast Side neighborhood on their way to the American Dream. The people are gone, but the buildings remain.

      Even though the people are no longer living, they left artifacts, things, and a legacy. The example here about a neighborhood is just one of many. For instance, many soldiers who fought and died in wars are not all named but because of what they did and the things we do have, we remember them and know they existed. Likewise, not all men and women who were enslaved are documented. Therefore, documentation through words is not always reliable, so further investigation into "things" is necessary.