20 Matching Annotations
  1. Dec 2022
    1. These synaptically mediated interactions among assemblies of neurons involve both cooperation as well as winner-takes-all style competition (Hebb 1949; Palm 1990). This competition can be biased by bottom-up, saliency-driven or top-down volitionally controlled attention (Desimone & Duncan 1995), as well as by the expected reward (Maunsell 2004).

      This is basically saying that reality is constructed both by "saliency" or the conjuration of the brain, as well as by "volitionally" involving oneself with the uptake of information from the world outside of the brain. -"cooperation" means that all are working together, -"competition" means that there are some parts of experience that are more influential than others. -"expected reward" seems to emphasize that reward systems are very influential.

  2. Nov 2022
    1. linguistic differences
      1. This article addresses that the Tigray speak a semitic language, while the Amhara speak a language of some other descent. Why would this be divisive?

      2. Both Tigray language (Tigrinya) and Amharic descend from Ge'ez, a semitic language. Still not sure why divisive.

    1. cultural and religious similarities between the Tigray people and the Oromo and Amhara ethnic groups (which account for about 60% of Ethiopia's total population when combined), linguistic differences and political rivalry

      What does "Linguistic differences" mean? Language? Rhetoric?

    1. Kenya, Niger, and Tunisia, in July called for a comprehensive ceasefire, humanitarian access, and expressed support for an inquiry led by the African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights (ACHPR).

      Kenya and Tunisia made this call after initial hesitation.

    2. largely nullified by China, Russia, and India

      Funny how the nations outside of Africa are influencing the humanitarian urgency within Africa.

    3. Eritrean refugees who had relocated to Addis from Tigray

      Eritrean refugees were present in Tigray, where much of the humanitarian crimes occurred, such as pillaging, sexual violence, executions, and airstrikes.

      Why did they leave Eritrea in the first place?

    4. Eritrean

      Where is Eritrea?

      Located in East Africa, North of Ethiopia, Eritrea has a broom-like shape. Ethiopia has no coastline. Eritrea and Djibouti have coasts, since they make up the Horn of Africa.

      Horn of Africa extends into the Arabian sea. Yemen and Oman are the nearest countries across seas.

    5. 20,000 Eritrean refugees living in

      Hitsats and Shimelba camps in Tigray.

    6. Ethiopia’s interim administration in Tigray

      The interim administration is distinct from the "government" referred to in the rest of the article.

    7. Ethiopia Media Authority

      Ethipoia Media Authority (EMA)

    8. after calling for the release of Oromo politicians and justice for murdered Oromo singer Hachalu Hundessa.

      Mohammed Deksisso, upcoming academic, spoke outwardly in contention with government officials' abuse of power that effectively restricted any political opposition.

    9. Ethiopian authorities

      The authorities can consist of any regional government, but this makes me wonder if there is widespread affiliation among government. Referring to the prosperity party as incumbents leads me to believe that this situation is the result of a power vacuum.

    10. The incumbent party faced stiff competition in the Amhara region

      The Prosperity Party based in Oromia, is incumbent.

      Minimal voting by localities of Amhara, Afar, Omalia, Tigray, and Benishangul-Gumuz.

      Who is the Prosperity Party? Are they behind all the violence and corruption?

      Where is the power?

  3. Mar 2022
    1. The ocean is continuing to acidify in response to ongoing ocean carbon uptake. The open ocean surface water pH is observed to be declining (virtually certain) by a very likely range of 0.017−0.027 pH units per decade since the late 1980s across individual time series observations longer than 15 years.

      This is a small range of decrease. Nonetheless, small changes in concentration are proportional to the very small organisms and processes that rely on limited conditions.

    1. This study demonstrates that ocean acidification not only affects external sensory systems, but also those inside the body of the fish. The ears of fish are buried deep in the back of their heads, suggesting lowered pH conditions may have a profound impact on the entire functioning of the sensory system.

      Here is the important trend, but this article does not include a logical connection between independent (pH) and dependent (fish hearing) variables. What does the lowered pH do?

  4. Feb 2022
    1. Its root system is extensive and the many chemical compounds found within it actually inhibit the growth of other plants, thus eliminating competition for precious water. Often, acres of creosote bushes produce a "garden-like" landscape, with the thousands of bushes appearing to be growing equally spaced apart.

      Here shows a likely cause for the even spacing between Creosote bush. I conjectured that there is a voronoi type pattern wherein the roots grow extensively and not within the bounds of other bushes' roots. Within this argument is an assumption that the bushes can sustain their own proximity but I had not fully observed the lack of other plants between each bush. Now I see how there is a chemical factor influencing the placement. I wonder what shape their roots take?

  5. Oct 2021
    1. They're putting their money under the mattress.

    2. They are, in a word, disengaged

      On the other hand, one aspect of the One Percent stereotype is reaffirmed, that they are not contributing their wealth to their communities.

    3. But here is what is so sad about the Amex-Harrison report: hammered in the financial markets and hammered by the public, this Middle Class made-good, these engines of economic growth for the nation, have dug themselves into the bunker, battered both emotionally and financially. They are hoarding cash, avoiding almost all risk, shunning their communities and hunkering down with a few select friends and family only.

      This paragraph creates an image that is conflicting with the general idea of who a "One Percent-er" is. Rather than making them to appear as people living lavishly among all the top people, the general person of the One Percent is living in a "bunker" of their own wealth.

  6. Sep 2021
    1. always checking

      This reminds me of Descartes' methodic doubt, and is a good lesson to apply for our age of near limitless access to information. Whatever we find striking enough to remember could at least be doubted until the information we compartmentalize is both specific to our experience and generalizable enough to share, that way truth can be found in its application to reality as we see it and as others see it.