60 Matching Annotations
  1. Dec 2016
  2. techwritingf16.robinwharton.net techwritingf16.robinwharton.net
    1. Document

      Throughout this reading it is interesting how ethics is never defined. It really gives you a chance to see others views of ethics so that you aren't clouded by the true meaning of ethics. The question of the title along is eye catching. Is This Ethical? Because really how do you know if something is ethical or not anymore when there are so many factors to consider?

    2. influence on the ethical decisions of technical communicators, is it because teachers ignore the subject of ethics? If

      This is difficult questions to answer evidently because there are many different factors to consider when discussing this. The educators purpose, the criteria of it. A lot is to be asked on whether teachers are avoiding the topic of ethics or if they aren't.

    3. It depends on who has asked you to evaluate the employee for promotion and why youwant to de-emphasize deficiencies. ”• “ Depends on the size of the font used for the percentages and other characteristics of the graphic. A number of other factors could affect the ‘perceived’ size of each pie slice."• “Whether or not it is ethical depends on the product and the intended users of the product.

      It is interesting to see the different responses that people have towards this. There are some who give exceptions and others who gave none.

    4. consensus

      http://www.dictionary.com/browse/consensus I had to look the word up because for some reason I just couldn't pronounce it or remember what it means. But this means the majority of opinion.

    5. Only 430 people identified their occupation, 420 their sex, and 443 their professional experience and level of education. Relative to the STC membership (Society for Technical Communication 1992), this population has more educators (24% versus 10%), more men (45% versus 38%), more advanced degrees (55% versus 35%), and more job experience (typically 11+ years versus 7 years).

      Although that is a very good turn out of surveys received back it is still not useful information because some did not respond to certain questions. In away it can not be helpful in the long run. But it does bring interesting information to the table to see where the similarities are and where the differences are.

    6. characteristics could be pertinent to the ethics of document design.

      This is a really good point on how to take it a step farther to determine whether or not these specific details have an effect on a persons definition of ethics of document design.

    7. Notice that I offer no definition of the word

      I found this really interesting because he isn't asking them necessarily if they believe these questions to be ethical he is rather seeing what the people's definition of ethics is.

    8. Code for Communicators”


      I found this website to be very useful while reading over the Code for Communication

    9. ou are preparing an annual report for the members of the American Wildlife Association. Included in the report is a pie chart displaying how contributions to the association are used. Each piece of the pie is labeled and its percentage is displayed. In order to de-emphasize the piece of the pie labeled "Administrative Costs," you color this piece green because cool colors make things look smaller. In order to emphasize the piece of the pie labeled "Wildlife Conservation Activities," you color this piece red because hot colors make things look bigger. Is this ethical

      I would consider this to be unethical. Because by making things appear different from the way they are then it gives the wrong impression to others. The information should be displayed the way that it is given.

    10. ethicalOBLIGATIONS

      An ethical obligation is something that someone is required or compelled to do based on a predetermined set of standards of what is right and wrong. https://www.reference.com/world-view/definition-ethical-obligation-a1bb89f13aa062f4

    1. Rationale: W

      While reading through this article, I found it to be extremely helpful, though I have learned a lot of this in a classroom over the years. It really help to clarify many points and to give the proper demonstrations that are needed. It touches points on all different types of graphs as well as the different types of ways to present a presentation by using the proper headings, the typography and more. It was a reliable article to go through.

    2. Flowcharts help writers showthe steps in a process

      Out of all the charts this is the one that holds excellence over them all. It helps to make each point along the way and to make it clear what is going on to the audience. It can be used to share how the flow of a project can work step by step.


    3. Bar graphs

      Bar graphs are just like line graphs with their comparative relationships and show of data. it really is just a preference when it comes to which one you want to use and also what will work better to show your information.

    4. Line graphs

      Line graphs can be very helpful in presentations when you need them. They help to make your data concise and clear and shows the work that was put into the presentation. It can also help to clarify past information to match with current data that was found.

    5. These documents include websites, magazines, photographicessays, and multimedia presentations. In any of these situations,

      This is definitely something that I wish I had known when I was younger when it came to bringing in visual content for presentations. I was never sure what I needed to use for the visual content. Once I got into high school it became more clear what was needed to bring the extra detail to the presentation and that was to make sure that it helped the audience to understand what they were looking t and for it to give clarity.

    6. In effective G e n e ric Headings

      This clearly shows why these headers are ineffective. It doesn't make it clear what the headers are in this example and there is no way to know how the information is being distributed to the audience.

    7. Using Visuals to Inform & Persuade: HeadingsHeadings help document navigation and introduce and describe the ideas contained in eac section

      Here is an example of how to use headers in essays: http://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/2011/04/how-to-use-five-levels-of-heading-in-an-apa-style-paper.html

      In an essay, headers are useful and like they said help the reader to navigate the essay so that they know what is coming up next in the article. For a group project of mine we had to write out a grant proposal to send out to foundations for a non-profit organization. it really helped to have the headers go along with it so that the foundation understood where the proposal was going.

    8. This presentation discusses five ways in which visuals inform

      Visual aids have great importance in a presentation. Without them it doesn't help for your audience to understand what is going on. Headers, and large fonts are important also and do not have so much information to distract them.

    9. typography,

      https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/typography The definition of typography is the style, arrangement, or appearance of typeset matter

    10. •Information graphics:

      Information graphics or info graphics are extremely helpful when you want to get information across to others in a fast and easy way. You can also create a presentation with them. A great website that I use is Piktochart.com It is very helpful and useful.

  3. Oct 2016

      All and all this article was much more easy to follow than Herrington's for me personally because I am able to follow it better. Though it did not lack in information that Herrington also had. Both were beyond informative on both plagiarism and copyright, these are such important matters for writers, not just ethnical communicators. For college students, I think that it is important to address both of these laws, because without them we are clueless in knowing what we can do with others writing and what protects our own writing.

      Overall throughout the article I found myself agreeing with everything that Reyman had to say. Plagiarism in schools is something different from the workplace and is something that needs to be revised in the classroom. Watching the potential affects that plagiarism can have on not just yourself but the people involved is a very serious and important thing that needs to be taught.

    2. Revising plagiarism policies

      I really agree with what Reyman is stating here like I said before, this is something that teachers should consider to take into mind. Students aren't made aware of this information until they are pushed out of college and into the real world. They need to be taught by those who know what it is like out there and who know this information. Plagiarism is not something to be taken lightly, neither in school or work, but the teachers need to help students to further understand their abilities of what they are able to do and not do.

    3. between classroomand workplace practice

      I think this is something that should really be changed and addressed as Reyman states here. It can be extremely confusing for students, myself included, when we are taught for so long never to take someone else's work unless being referenced, even changing around words can be considered plagiarism. But it is a tricky thing to be taught. You don't want to just say to children "Oh this is only in school" because that can be taken way out of context. I think at a certain age, they need to be taught the differences between school plagiarism and workplace plagiarism and save the many headaches that I have had myself on the matter.

    4. Internet

      As a college student, this would have caused a many much stress and fear of the internet if this was true. But with the way the copyright works there is fair use of the work that is displayed to the public as Herrington discusses. We are permitted use this work.

    5. ntellectual “theft.”

      As we discussed in Herrington's article, there are many different complications and restrictions that come to copyright and what can equal as plagiarism in a work.

    6. ather, I am attempting to bring to light the gray areas thatexist between what is considered “plagiarism” and therange of composing activities that require the copying andre-use of existing materials in the workplace.

      This is something that I had great confusion going into my internship where I was handling content writing. I would research information for them and then I would take the information that I had researched and compile it into a article for them. At first I thought this was plagiarism but by referencing the work, as I was taught in class, and used the work as my own, it wasn't plagiarism.

    7. single sourcing

      I have actually never heard of single sourcing so of course I went to look up exactly what it meant which it first came up about using a single supplier. Which I realized had nothing to do with what was being discussed. Then I found the definition of single sourcing publishingis a content management method which allows the same source content to be used across different forms of media and more than one time.https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Single_source_publishing

    8. Ghostwriting

      I am really glad that they brought that situation up, because there are many instances that can be considered plagiarism but aren't addressed as so. Like ghostwriting, it a very tricky situation that you have to determine whether it is plagiarism or not. Many people think that ghostwriting is a form of plagiarism, but that isn't the case when the ghostwriter themselves are knowingly writing these texts.http://bowvalleycollege.libguides.com/c.php?g=10237&p=2276021

      The definition of ghost writing is: to write (something, such as a book) for someone else using that person's name http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/ghostwrite

    9. “stealing,”

      This is a very serious matter, especially for english majors with in universities ad colleges. Many students have fears of stealing others works. It is a nerve wracking process, and many use plagiarism checkers online to make sure that nothing it taken from other authors and writers. Many writers criticized and black listed for plagiarism.

  4. techwritingf16.robinwharton.net techwritingf16.robinwharton.net

      I am beyond glad that I had the opportunity to read this article. There are many things from here that I did not understand or was not aware of that was involved in the copyright clause. I kept wondering why I hadn't yet been taught this as a writer? Why isn't this information taught in a classroom at each college and university? Why is this not required? There were several terms throughout this article that I didn't understand and included definitions for so that I could get across that now I have a better understanding. I am not a law major, or minor and now I wish in some way that I was. So that I could be more informed of the rights that I have when it comes to protecting my work. There has been so much development that I wasn't even aware of. Herrington really used the correct cases to help example everything each step of the way. As a writer and a reader this article really opened my eyes about the way things work in the copyright world.

      Connecting this article along with Reymen's work, there are so many similarities. But for his article he is discussing the plagiarism that occurs and how these laws are reinforced. They both complemented one another as I read through both.

    2. When technical communicators extend their work be-yond moving information from one space to another and developing products un-der the direction of employers and instead go beyond to authorship of knowledgesuch as that described above, the likelihood that they will have created protectablespeech increases, and it follows that the likelihood that their creative actions willcomprise a democratic effort increases as well

      I feel as though technical writing has helped in a way to develop the copy right clause even further than it already had been. With this type of laws, and free use and protection it helps to show the boundaries and freedom that technical communicators have going for them in their work field.

    3. AUTHORSHIPTheEldred

      This is a part of moral rights which ares of creators of copyrighted works generally recognized in civil law jurisdictions and, to a lesser extent, in some common law jurisdictions. They include the right of attribution, the right to have a work published anonymously or pseudonymously, and the right to the integrity of the work. Which had been first recognized in France and Germany. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moral_rights

    4. At the core of the conflict between copyright restrictions and fair use access in theintellectual property provision are the changing pressures on how to maintain bal-ance that provides space for creation and protection of new works and simulta-neously preserves a structure that supports democratic interaction by way of ensur-ing a public domain and supporting speech.

      To be able to come up with such a balance could not have been easy, just reading this it shows the amount of complexity it has taken to come up with the laws that we have today for copyright and fair use. Free use and protection of ones rights of course needs restrictions and small things to guarantee that nothing goes out of line, and no one takes advantage of such a privilege that we have. It isn't just with authors, but with musicians, and film makers, photographers and more.

    5. Fair use

      "Fair use is a legal doctrine that promotes freedom of expression by permitting the unlicensed use of copyright-protected works in certain circumstances" It's amazing to think all that we couldn't do if this doctrine hadn't been created for us to be unlicensed use of the copyright of works. We wouldn't be able to do has much as we do on social media that is a fact.

    6. laintiff

      Probably a very known word, but I actually have never heard it so here is the definition that I found: Plaintiff-a person who brings a legal action I am not really familiar with law terms.I definitely have taken away a lot of this information though. I never realized how extension the first amendment went. It's something that every writer should know about. http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/plaintiff

    7. Thus, for example, if restrictions are not shown to have a focused effect on a partic-ular expression or source of expression, the government can

      This information was very insightful. Now I knew that there of course were limitations to what happened involving written work and speeches, but I hadn't realized that they actually had limitations to where you spoke those speeches based on noise production. In which that case it would make sense for that to be limited from hospitals.The restrictions are mostly made by the city. and what occurrences that they have had. https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/95-815.pdf

    8. Sonny Bono Copyright ExtensionAct

      The reason that the act was put in motion also was to match the rights that were also put in place in England.I think this was a interesting decision made by President Clinton made in 1998, it really does help to benefit not only the estates and heirs of individuals but benefit corporations producing entertainment and other intellectual property will also gain from the fact that the term for “work for hire” has been extended from 75 to 95 years. https://www.ibpa-online.org/article/the-sonny-bono-copyright-term-extension-act/

    9. intellectual property clause

      Intellectual property is a property right that can be protected under federal and state law, including copyrightable works, ideas, discoveries, and inventions. The term intellectual property relates to intangible property such as patents, trademarks, copyrights, and trade tradesecrets. http://definitions.uslegal.com/i/intellectual-property

    10. time limit on authors’

      The time limit for authors to have the rights is usually after seventy years after their death. This is the copyright to perform or display their work.These are very exclusive rights to have for artists and authors. http://www.copyright.gov/circs/circ15a.pdf

  5. Sep 2016
  6. techwritingf16.robinwharton.net techwritingf16.robinwharton.net
    1. Table 1. Rittel and Webber’s Wicked Problems andRelation to the Gulf Spil

      It is really interesting to see all the information of Webber and Rittel's information on what they would have thought were wicked problems in the Gulf spill. It helps to make a clearer understanding of what exactly were the issues that were addressed in the situation. I am really glad that he added this into the reading because I feel that it laid out all the information affectively.

    2. wo important lessons emerged out of these student collaborations. First, theoutput of each group’s research was often complicated by the indeterminacy ofthe issue(s) that the groups as a whole were investigating. Indeed, even though thewell was officially capped on September 19th, 2010, the spill continued to be anongoing point of disputation. One prominent issue for my students—and a usefullesson for me as an instructor—was that individual groups did not always agreewith one another regarding the information they were gathering. How much oilhad actually been released into the Gulf? What effects would dispersants haveon the marine ecology? Who was ultimately to blame for the incident?

      I really enjoyed that WIckman used the Gulf spill to demonstrate the use of wicked problems, this really had his students take on a whole new meaning of critical thinking when addressing research. And like i stated before this research didn't just take place in a environment research but also in politics and economics.

    3. Rittel and Webber claim that responding to wicked problems is at once avaluative and deliberative process. It isvaluativein the sense that doing soinvolves making choices and identifying problems within a causal network; andit isdeliberativein the sense that it involves promoting some course of actionbased on one’s assessment of the situation at hand.

      In this part Wickman addresses valuative and deliberative in a sense of definition to explain what Rittel and Webber meant when it was important to respond in this way toward wicked problems. I appreciated this very much, because I wasn't very sure exactly what was meant when saying the two for this process. I like that he mentions this before going into more depth on what the two were saying.

    4. Buchanan associates these placements with a corresponding emphasis onsigns,things,actions, andthoughts. All provide viable strategies—individually andcollectively—for conceptualizing and responding to wicked problems that mustbe addressed on multiple fronts.

      I really like what Buchanan did here with identifying placements to help take note of wicked problems. These steps ike stated helps others to notice signs, things, actions and thoughts. This will allow others to really take in critical thinking to a whole new level because they are looking at so many different ascents of the wicked problems.

    5. The Gulf spill elicited an extensive response from citizens, advocacy groups,and environmental organizations around the world

      The Gulf spill demonstrates a wicked problem that occurred in real life. It caused many questions from who did it and caused the situation. What we were supposed to do next when handing the oil spill. Why the it was still spilling when the well was closed. This is a great way to discuss a dilemma and find multiple issues with when looking into research.

    6. Rittel and Webber’s

      Horst Rittel and Melvin M. Webber are the ones who created the term wicked problems as I made note of before. They wrote together "Dilemmas In A General Theory of Planning" and both studied at the University of Berkley.

    7. I found that Buchanan’s essay “Wicked problems in design thinking” clarifiedstudent understanding of wicked problems, and his doctrine of placements offeredthem a functional heuristic for developing coherent research projects.

      By Wickman giving his students this guide of Buchman's essay it did help to assist them in the research issue of wicked problems and help them to address the issues of the Gulf spill. Wickman points out that there are things that he could have done better when addressing the relationship between rhetoric and design to his students in a way that could helped them further understand theory and practice of technical communication.

    8. A Wicked Problems Framework

      Like ccooper51 stated (wouldn't allow me to comment on his post), this would be a very effective way to help encourage students to think critically in school. By using the way that Rittel and Webber characterized wicked problems it helped for his students to expand their thinking to not just how the Gulf spill affected the environment but also how it was affected economically and politically. It allowed them to have "multiple perspectives" when analyzing the situation that was then at hand.

    9. The value (and potential frustration) of focusing on wicked problems is thatthe object of analysis is ill defined and thus requires careful engagement withmultiple issues.

      Again like I stated before in one of my annotations, the wicked problems that we face can cause a major challenge and frustration.There isn't just one solution or conclusion to it there are multiple issues that are at hand with them. Overtime though, as Wickman states here, people are able to identify them.

    10. socio-technical issues

      "We analyse the reasons for this, highlighting some of the problems with the better known socio-technical design methods. Based on this analysis we propose a new pragmatic framework for socio-technical systems engineering (STSE) which builds on the (largely independent) research of groups investigating work design, information systems, computer-supported cooperative work, and cognitive systems engineering. STSE bridges the traditional gap between organisational change and system development using two main types of activity: sensitisation and awareness; and constructive engagement."http://iwc.oxfordjournals.org/content/23/1/4.full

    11. Rittel and Webber [9] developed the concept of “wicked problem” as a wayto characterize social policy issues that cannot be addressed through techno-scientific rationality alone.

      Not mush of a note for the text, but I found this really interesting and amusing that the term this two men came up with was "wicked term" for a problem that they had when trying to address social policy. But it points out that not everything involving this topic with have solutions to the answer. Only some parts of it can be truly understood, others there can be many conclusions drawn.

    1. Direct questioning -Surveys -Interviews - Comprehension tests

      I feel that direct questioning is definitely one of the more effective methods when handling methods of research. Different ways to go about surveying participants is by going to a populated area and asking randoms people to assist. Or mail them out as well.For interviews you can also go to a populated area to ask if they would like to participate in the study, also go by telephone but that really isn't a preferred method now a days. For comprehension tests, this is when they ask to answer questions, so send out flyers in the mail to help to assist with questioning or email them online to random participants again.

    2. ssue 3: Can Usability Research Present Writing Theory With Compelling Arguments for Integrating Usability More Centrally Into the Writing Development Process?

      Through this part of the reading Sullivan goes into a discussion of whether or not usability research presents writing theory with compelling arguments for integrating usability more centrally into the writing development process. He states that this is a yes pointing out although usability may not help out the writers in a sense it will help to assist the viewers. Which this will give the writers a chance to learn about the views which he discussed earlier in the chapter.

      By learning about the viewers, writers are able to change the view point that they have on constructing manuals, because they now know the point of view of the users. These tests lead to endless possibilities for the writers to go off of to find out what the viewers want.


      I generally found this entire section wonderful and informative. Sullivan in this section discusses the issues at hand while broadening our view in usability while also informing us of the con's that come with it. He discusses three issues that touch base on product development, whether or not usability can be put in a natural context, and can usability be found in compelling arguments.My favorite issue that he discusses is the third one; I will go into more depth with my annotation there.

    4. It makes clear what components of the study were (or should have been) focal to the effort. It also clarifies why particular groups were studied and why certain methods were selected

      Using the method of these place questions helps to keep organization as Sullivan says. But it also helps with the focal point of the research. These are extremely important as Sullivan goes on to mention about what groups are studied and why. This in turn will help others to figure out and apply these things to their own situations during research.

    5. In this article, I argue that we technical communicators need to interpret the charge of usability more broadly than a narrow interpretation of usability testing allows, turning to the whole range of usability research for a conception that takes advan- tage of the exciting investigations that are being carried out in various places. But there are consequences to broadening our view.

      Sullivan points out how important that usability is for technical writers and mentions that this is what his argument will be about for the article. It is very smart of him though to point out that their are some consequences when it comes to "broadening our view" of usability. There is always a consequence to everything that we do, and the fact that he argues both sides shows that he is doesn't just want to persuade us to follow the need of usability but for us to do so wisely while knowing the consequences. He definitely goes into this later on in the reading about the issues that can be at hand.

    6. In general, few usability researchers think about the missions of usability researchers outside their fields. Usability of docu- mentation can illustrate the differing views. Baecker and Bux- ton, in a text that features the importance of usability to the field of human-computer interaction, reflect the marginal posi- tion of documentation to that field as they relegate documenta- tion to a miscellaneous chapter near the end of the book. [ 141 Even their forward-looking text sees writing as “tacked on.” Writers, on the other hand, generally make human-computer interaction just as marginal to their effort. As both Nelson [15] and McDowell [16] point out, human factors is not a recognized part of the education of technical communicators. Thus, we can expect that few technical communicators read what human-computer interaction researchers are saying about users and usability and then think about how that work may apply to the writing of documentation.

      I found this paragraph really interesting, just because we kind of get the sense of where people in different job settings take human-computer interactions seriously. Writer's generally aren't concerned with this, but when it comes to technical writers the research that they look into for this will affect their career I'm sure.

    7. Placing a usability study within both of these frameworks- the contextual setting and the structural setting- helps us under- stand it more reliabl

      Using these two settings of groups, contextual and structural, it will give more structure and organization to figure out the differences between the two different groups. Sullivan state it "helps us understand it more reliably." Also, in Wiclman's reading Wicked Problems he also uses a similar method with controlled groups having two groups similar and different in disciplines.

    8. f we take a broader view of usability, then we must deal with a flood of information, not all of which is ultimately relevant.

      This is true in any form of research, which is losing focus on what is necessary out of the research. But when it comes to technical communicators the focus needs to come back to what will help the audience in the long run, which is something that technical communicators take in for everything that they do.We are here to inform and to teach them.

  7. Aug 2016
    1. Technical communication began in the modern era as technical writing and has transformed to include many types of media and communication. This transition has required the field to redefine technical communication.

      Transformed later on to include media and communication

    1. Technical communication is a broad field and includes any form of communication that exhibits one or more of the following characteristics:

      Definition of technical communication