26 Matching Annotations
  1. Feb 2016
    1. Race War in Virginia
      1. At first the colonists saw them as people who were kind and just didn't know better. They were fixable and welcomed in the homes of the colonists. After the attack Natives were seen as savages and people who could never truly convert to Christians.

      2. He wants to destroy those who destroyed his people. In doing so his community shall enjoy the Native people's lands, houses, and resources. In his eyes it is only fair after the Natives attacked his people.

    2. destroy them who sought to destroy us

      Why is this okay to say considering they are committing the same acts that they associate with evil?

    3. hereby we shall enjoy their cultivated places.... Now their cleared grounds in all their villages (which are situate in the fruitfulest places of the land) shall be inhabited by us,

      I would think listening to God's word they would have seen the natives as their neighbor and treated them with more respect.

    4. Opechcanough was captured and shot and the survivors of Powhatan's confederacy, now reduced to just 2,000, agreed to submit to English rule.

      It's upsetting to know that a group of settlers can take over another's life simply because they saw themselves more civilized. People were truly ignorant in this time period.

    1. The Idea of the Covenant
      1. A covenant is a contract among the people of a community to which all social relationships must rely on consent and mutual responsibilities.

      2. The Puritans made an agreement with God to establish a community that is truly Christian. To achieve this they must show charity, avoid exploiting their neighbors, and the poor must work diligently. If these standards are not met they will feel the wrath of God. If they obey then they will live a happy and blessed life as a community.

    2. In his call for tightly-knit communities and families, Winthrop was striving to recreate a social ideal that was breaking down in England itself.

      Why was it breaking down in England?

    3. the Lord will surely break out in wrath against us and be revenged on such a perjured people,

      Who created this idea of punishment? It's hard for me to understand these beliefs regardless of my religious background. Trying to figure out who decided this religion will be this and that way.

    4. seventeenth-century New England churches were formed by a voluntary agreement among the members, who elected their own ministers.

      This statement makes me question religion in terms of a religion being made up by a small community and gaining popularity by the claims it makes.

      I understand that this is explaining how churches are formed, a place for people to worship in, but it's so easy for them to anoint a priest or minister. It could be as easy to make up a belief system.

    1. se slave
      1. King Affonso figured the lowest class people being enslaved wouldn't have an impact on his community. They were already prisoners of a horrible life.
      2. Seeing the decay of his society he realized that without these people contributing to his kingdom and being treated the way they were it was hurting his kingdom rather than "cleaning it up".
    2. And to avoid such a great evil we passed a law so that any white man living inour Kingdoms

      I think overall this letter is very clear and it is made known that what the "white man" is doing isn't humane. I would have liked to see where this conversation lead after this letter.

    1. nd C
      1. Through persuasion and the belief that Cortez was the God Quetzalcoatl the Spaniards entered in peacefully and captured Montezuma.
      2. The Sistema de Castas organized individuals into racial groups based on their supposed "purity of blood".
      3. This racial hierarchy was created as a prerequisites for social and political advancement. Iberian-born Spaniards occupied the highest levels of administration. Their descendants, New World born Spaniards occupied the next rung. Those mixed with Spanish and Indian heritage followed.
    2. In 1531, a poor Indian named Juan Diego reported that he was visited by the Virgin Mary, who came as a dark-skinned Nahuatl-speaking Indian.

      I found this interesting because Mexican culture still to today has the Virgen de Guadalupe as a huge icon. You see it everywhere and verses the American Virgin Mary it's quite different.

    3. After two years of conflict, a million-person strong empire was toppled by disease, dissension, and a thousand European conquerors.

      I wonder how history would be if the Spaniards came to the new world with the intent of becoming apart of the the community already existent. Rather than trying to conquer the people on the lands.

    4. But the eclipse of the Maya only heralded the later rise of the most powerful native civilization ever seen in the Western Hemisphere: the Aztecs.

      I've thought of these two native civilizations as being existent in the same time period. I never knew one was after the other. It would be interesting to compare and contrast all native civilizations to see what was learned from another and what was improved.

  2. Jan 2016
    1. How did human beings arrive in the world? • How were animals helpful? • What did twins do to create the world?
      1. They fell from the sky and were cared for by animals. When old enough they produced children miraculously.
      2. The animals prepared he Earth for the woman to have a sustainable future and showed her was off limits and what was okay.
      3. Wanting to expand their land the twins created forests and lakes.
    2. The inspection of each other’s work resulted in a deadly disagreement between the brothers, who finally came to grips and blows, and Othagwenda was killed in the fierce struggle.

      Reading this section of the creation myth reminded me of Cane and Able in the Bible. It's interesting to see similar characteristics in origin stories from different cultures.

    3. In the course of time she brought forth a girl baby, who grew rapidly in size and intelligence.

      It's interesting to see that people were clueless as to how babies are made and to say this woman had a child without a man probably left many people confused. Also, sounds similar to the Virgin Mary.

    1. God said, Let us make man in our image, 1 Cor. 11.7 after our likeness: and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth,

      Society still very much thinks this way. They believe they have power over everything nature has to offer and takes, but never gives back. Native Americans took, but not without giving thanks to the world for all it has provided them.

    2. to rule over the day and over the night, and to divide the light from the darkness: and God saw that it was good.

      I just thought it was interesting that instantly God associated light with good and darkness with evil. I believe this is one of those lines where people start to learn their ideologies from and living by them.

    1. continued to shape the patterns of life throughout the New World for hundreds of years.

      I find it inspiring that they kept up a good fight and were able to at least preserve some pieces of their culture to pass down to generations today. It's just disappointing to know that they are still fighting for what is theirs.

    2. Columbus reported, “with fifty men they can all be subjugated and made to do what is required of them.” It was God’s will, he said.7

      It's disturbing to know how blind Columbus was when it came to knowing how to treat people like human beings. The simple fact that the people he had discovered were "not civilized" because they didn't live like he did is ridiculous. For that reason a lone he thought it was okay to treat them as slaves.

    3. Scandinavian seafarers reached the New World centuries before Columbus.

      I never knew that the Scandinavians reached the New World and it's understandable why. It was a short lived voyage and they were practically chased back to sea. I'm curious as to why in grade school we were never taught this.

    4. Fathers, for instance, would often join mothers’ extended families

      I remember learning the womans role in her tribe in my Women's history class and it's quite intriguing. In America women are seen as low class and the men are in charge. Native Americans had respect for their women and treated them as equals. They felt women should be respected in the family as they were the ones with the capabilities of creating life. Women could even become chief of a tribe. Major difference in these two cultures.

    5. Slaves were defined in Native American culture not as property, but rather as people lacking kinship.

      The definition of slave is completely different than Europeans' definition. I can see that Native American's understood that all people deserve to be treated like people no matter the circumstance. Verses Europeans saw slaves as everything less than a human being. It's interesting to see that major comparison.

    6. And as paleo-Indians populated mountains, prairies, deserts, and forests, cultures and ways of life as arose as varied as the geography.

      Human's are amazing when it comes to adapting to their environment. I appreciate the variety that is within Native American culture. Most people mistake Native American culture to be as one specific theme. When really there are so many sub categories to this race.

      1. Native Americans interacted with numerous people from all areas. This lead to the exchange of different resources, religions, labor ways, and ideas. These exchanges often sealed social and political relationships. It allowed the people who gave to earn prestige and placed an obligation to those they gave to. That was how the relationship was sealed. One person did a favor and the other must reciprocate.
      2. All European nations began experiencing massive population growth after the black plague, which increased the economy and the demand for consumer goods. These demands lead to advances like ship building so sea merchants were able to compete with their fellow merchants. Growing economies lead to bigger kingdoms and powerful monarchs. These kingdom's could pull together the resources needed for large voyages. European nations were also interested in trading with the wealthiest countries allowing them to seek out the best trading routes.
      3. There was an increasing need for slaves and it had existed all the way back to the Roman Empire. The Portuguese became major purchasers and sellers of the slave trade allowing them to have influence on the way slave trading was done and the practice of it.