29 Matching Annotations
  1. Mar 2018
    1. high number of people encroaching into wild areas that has extensively lead to poaching and mass hunting.

      In part to protect the inhabitants from the animals who's territory they encroached on.

    1. Targeted fishing of top predators (such as billfish, sharks and tuna) eventually disrupts marine communities, causing increased abundance of smaller marine animals at the bottom of the food chain. This in turn has impacts on the rest of the marine ecosystem, such as the increased growth of algae and threats to coral reef health. Overfishing is also closely tied to bycatch, another serious marine threat that causes the needless loss of billions of fish, along with marine turtles and cetaceans.

      Negatively effects entire ecosystems, therefore perpetuating endangerment.

    2. WWF works with stakeholders to reform fisheries management globally, focusing on sustainable practices that conserve ecosystems, but also sustain livelihoods and ensure food security.

      Efforts of conservation organizations in terms of over fishing.

    3. More than 30 percent of the world's fisheries have been pushed beyond their biological limits and are in need of strict management plans to restore them

      Politics might need to come into play here which is going to be messy.

    4. The results not only affect the balance of life in the oceans, but also the social and economic well-being of the coastal communities who depend on fish for their way of life.

      Not only harmful to non-human organisms.

    5. Overfishing occurs when more fish are caught than the population can replace through natural reproduction

      A quick definition.

  2. Feb 2018
    1. Species become endangered for two main reasons: loss of habitat and loss of genetic variation.

      The two main causes of endangerment- bith of which are often caused by humans.

    2. An endangered species is a type of organism that is threatened by extinction. Species become endangered for two main reasons: loss of habitat and loss of genetic variation.

      The leading reasons for endangerment both are caused primarily by humans.

    1. The Sixth Event

      They even have a laymen's name for our extinction.

    2. The World Conservation Union has estimated that as many as 40 percent of all organisms are under some degree of threat due to habitat destruction, disease, pollution, overhunting and overfishing, or other reasons

      Boom. That's massive.

    1. It is difficult to be precise because most of the endangered species which are becoming disappearing species have never been identified by scientists.

      It's an approximation.

    2. There are now 41,415 species on the IUCN Red List, and 16,306 of them are endangered species threatened with extinction

      This is approximately two fifths (40%) of the documented organisms on this planet.

    1. IUCN relies on valuable research from around the world to provide new and better information for species

      Reliable sources.

    2. Species assessed as Critically Endangered (CR), Endangered (EN), or Vulnerable (VU) are referred to as "threatened" species

      A good definition for understanding this info.

    1. Conservation literally means the act of preserving something

      Short, to the point definition

    2. So to sum up, conservation science is a discipline that studies both people and the natural world and produces strategies to maximise benefits for both.

      Again, it's a balance and a dynamic thing.

    3. Although conservation initially focussed mainly on the biological sciences, trying to understand more about species and the environment to protect wildlife, somewhere along the line we realised that, with nearly 7.5 billion people in the world completely changing natural landscapes, it's probably a good idea to look at human dynamics and our interactions with the natural world too.

      This is important because not only is this a key part of my research essay, but also b/c of it's recognition of the things tied into conservation.

    1. Males with the best genes (e.g. biggest tusks, darkest manes etc.) father a high proportion offspring, meaning their traits can spread rapidly. Consequently, the population can adapt quickly to new environments (like the ones we're creating for them). Trophy hunting targets these high quality males, leaving the population very vulnerable to change.

      This again has to do with the sustainability of a population. If the individuals with the most desirable genetics are killed, the population cannot adapt as it needs to. This can lead to a population reduction by proxy.

    2. Restrictions on the age of animals killed aren't always followed, meaning animals are killed too young and don't get a chance to reproduce.

      Age is an important factor as the population needs to be sustained.

    3. The money generated from trophy hunts doesn't always go back to the right people, i.e. the community suffering as a result of living alongside these animals, or the conservationists and rangers trying to protect the people and wildlife.

      Seeing as killing an endangered animal for the fun of it isn't exactly moral, it is unlikely that the trophy hunters will be moral in their means.

    4. Ethically speaking, shooting an animal and taking it's head as a 'trophy' doesn't sit well with the majority of people.​

      Pathos is used here.

    5. Trophy hunting has a smaller footprint than ecotourism; fewer people provide a higher revenue, meaning less flights, and hunters require less infrastructure, meaning habitat degradation is minimal. Additionally, hunters don't mind hunting in less attractive areas meaning more areas can facilitate hunting.

      I don't think this is an effective argument because it's supporting an evil by comparing it to another evil. Two wrongs don't make a right and trophy hunting doesn't reduce ecotourism.

    6. Trophy hunting can benefit local people (via employment, money, and meat) and wildlife if done correctly.

      Solid, but most individuals who trophy hunt don't do it "correctly".

    7. People managing hunting build and maintain waterholes and try to maximise wildlife populations to make it sustainable, whereas in ecotourism there's less need for large populations as a few individuals of a species are enough to make people happy and maximise profits.

      True but to what end? Does it not then further promote trophy hunting and ecotourism? This is in part a good argument as it shows that some trophy hunting can be somewhat helpful as to maximizing populations, although for the sole purpose of killing the animals in the population. Ironic, if anything.

    1. Founded in 1948 and headquartered in Switzerland, the World Conservation Union, or International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) is an international group dedicated to the protection of natural resources and plant and animal species. Every year since 1963 the IUCN has compiled and released its Red List of Threatened Species, widely considered to be the world's most comprehensive, accurate, and unbiased inventory of the global conservation status of plant and animal species. The Red List groups species according to nine different classifications: Least Concern, Near Threatened, Vulnerable, Endangered, Critically Endangered, Extinct in the Wild, Extinct, Data Deficient, and Not Evaluated.

      Another indication of information's validity. A trustworthy source.

    2. The Sixth Event: A term used to describe a possible mass worldwide extinction of species due to humanity's impact through population growth; overhunting and overfishing; and habitat loss due to agriculture, pollution, and climate change. Five previous mass extinction events occurred during the Ordovician, Devonian, Permian, Triassic, and Cretaceous Periods.

      We even have a name for our mass extinction, one which centers primarily around human lifestyle. This is key because it shows that this is enough of a problem that it is classified as an extinction event of it's own, just like the Triassic, Ordovician, etc.

    3. The World Conservation Union

      Reliable source of information.

    4. 40 percent of all organisms are under some degree of threat due to habitat destruction, disease, pollution, overhunting and overfishing, or other reasons

      Almost half of the planet's organisms are under strain.

    5. A species is described as endangered when the entire population faces a serious risk of extinction. In the early twenty-first century, as human population growth, large-scale agriculture, and increasing economic development impact the planet in ways never before seen, extinctions are occurring at an unprecedented rate

      This gives a good description as well as explains that the Earth is undergoing a mass extinction at this time.