101 Matching Annotations
  1. Mar 2024
  2. docs.djangoproject.com docs.djangoproject.com
    1. Writing action functions¶ First, we’ll need to write a function that gets called when the action is triggered from the admin. Action functions are regular functions that take three arguments: The current ModelAdmin An HttpRequest representing the current request, A QuerySet containing the set of objects selected by the user. Our publish-these-articles function won’t need the ModelAdmin or the request object, but we will use the queryset: def make_published(modeladmin, request, queryset): queryset.update(status="p") Note For the best performance, we’re using the queryset’s update method. Other types of actions might need to deal with each object individually; in these cases we’d iterate over the queryset: for obj in queryset: do_something_with(obj) That’s actually all there is to writing an action! However, we’ll take one more optional-but-useful step and give the action a “nice” title in the admin. By default, this action would appear in the action list as “Make published” – the function name, with underscores replaced by spaces. That’s fine, but we can provide a better, more human-friendly name by using the action() decorator on the make_published function: from django.contrib import admin ... @admin.action(description="Mark selected stories as published") def make_published(modeladmin, request, queryset): queryset.update(status="p") Note This might look familiar; the admin’s list_display option uses a similar technique with the display() decorator to provide human-readable descriptions for callback functions registered there, too.

      Alright, let's break down the text into simpler terms with examples:

      1. Writing action functions:
      2. Here, they're talking about creating functions that are triggered when an action is performed in the admin panel of a website or application.
      3. Imagine you have a website where you can select multiple articles and perform actions on them, like publishing them all at once.

      4. Arguments of Action Functions:

      5. When you write these functions, you need to include three things:

        • The current ModelAdmin: This is like the boss overseeing the admin panel.
        • An HttpRequest: This represents the current action request.
        • A QuerySet: This is a collection of objects (like articles) selected by the user.
      6. Example Function:

      7. They give an example of a function called make_published.
      8. This function takes three arguments (modeladmin, request, queryset).
      9. What it does is it updates the status of all selected articles (objects in the queryset) to "published" ('p').

      10. Performance Note:

      11. They mention using the update method of the queryset for better performance.
      12. For other actions, where you need to do something more complex with each object individually, you'd loop through the queryset and process each object separately.

      13. Naming Actions:

      14. By default, the action in the admin panel might have a simple name based on the function name (like "Make published").
      15. But you can make it more user-friendly by using a decorator called action and providing a description.
      16. For example, instead of "Make published", you could have "Mark selected stories as published".

      17. Decorator Usage:

      18. They mention the action decorator, which is used to provide a more human-readable description for the action.
      19. This is similar to how list_display in the admin panel can use decorators to make callback functions more understandable.

      In simpler terms, it's about creating functions that can perform actions on selected items in the admin panel of a website or app, and making those actions more user-friendly. For instance, if you have a bunch of articles you want to publish all at once, you can create a function to do that and give it a nice name like "Mark selected stories as published" instead of just "Make published".

    2. Read on to find out how to add your own actions to this list. Writing actions¶ The easiest way to explain actions is by example, so let’s dive in. A common use case for admin actions is the bulk updating of a model. Imagine a news application with an Article model: from django.db import models STATUS_CHOICES = { "d": "Draft", "p": "Published", "w": "Withdrawn", } class Article(models.Model): title = models.CharField(max_length=100) body = models.TextField() status = models.CharField(max_length=1, choices=STATUS_CHOICES) def __str__(self): return self.title A common task we might perform with a model like this is to update an article’s status from “draft” to “published”. We could easily do this in the admin one article at a time, but if we wanted to bulk-publish a group of articles, it’d be tedious. So, let’s write an action that lets us change an article’s status to “published.”

      Alright, let's break down the process of writing actions in Django's admin with a simple example:

      Understanding the Scenario:

      Let's say we have a news application with an Article model. Each article has a title, body, and status indicating whether it's a draft, published, or withdrawn.

      Problem Statement:

      We often need to update the status of multiple articles from "draft" to "published". Doing this manually for each article can be time-consuming.

      Solution: Writing an Action:

      We'll create a custom action in the Django admin to bulk-publish selected articles.

      ```python from django.contrib import admin from .models import Article

      class ArticleAdmin(admin.ModelAdmin): list_display = ['title', 'status'] actions = ['publish_articles'] # Register the custom action

      def publish_articles(self, request, queryset):
          # Update the status of selected articles to "published"
          queryset.update(status='p')
      
      publish_articles.short_description = "Publish selected articles"
      

      admin.site.register(Article, ArticleAdmin) ```

      Explanation:

      1. We define a custom admin action named publish_articles.

      2. This action takes three arguments: self, request, and queryset.

      3. self: Refers to the admin instance.
      4. request: Contains information about the current HTTP request.
      5. queryset: Contains the selected articles on which the action will be performed.

      6. Inside the publish_articles method, we update the status of all selected articles (queryset) to 'p' (published).

      7. We set a short description for our action using the short_description attribute. This will be displayed in the admin interface.

      Usage:

      • Go to the Django admin page and select the articles you want to publish.
      • Choose "Publish selected articles" from the actions dropdown.
      • Click "Go", and all selected articles will be updated to "published" status.

      Summary:

      Custom actions in Django admin provide a way to perform bulk operations on selected objects. In this example, we wrote an action to bulk-publish selected articles, improving efficiency and streamlining administrative tasks.

    3. The basic workflow of Django’s admin is, in a nutshell, “select an object, then change it.” This works well for a majority of use cases. However, if you need to make the same change to many objects at once, this workflow can be quite tedious. In these cases, Django’s admin lets you write and register “actions” – functions that get called with a list of objects selected on the change list page. If you look at any change list in the admin, you’ll see this feature in action; Django ships with a “delete selected objects” action available to all models. For example, here’s the user module from Django’s built-in django.contrib.auth app:

      Sure, let's break down the explanation into simpler terms with examples:

      1. Basic Workflow of Django Admin:

      2. When you're using Django's admin interface, the typical flow is to select an object (like a user, a post, etc.) and then make changes to it.

      3. For example, you might select a user and then change their email address or update their profile information.

      4. Need for Actions:

      5. While the basic workflow is suitable for most tasks, there are situations where you need to apply the same change to multiple objects at once.

      6. Doing this individually for each object can be time-consuming and tedious.

      7. Using Actions:

      8. Django's admin provides a solution for this through "actions". Actions are essentially functions that you can write and register.

      9. These functions are called with a list of objects that you've selected on a page in the admin interface.
      10. So, instead of making changes to one object at a time, you can write an action to perform the same change on multiple objects simultaneously.

      11. Example: "Delete Selected Objects" Action:

      12. When you're viewing a list of objects (e.g., users, posts) in the Django admin, you'll notice a feature that allows you to perform actions on selected objects.

      13. Django comes with a built-in action called "delete selected objects". This action is available for all models by default.
      14. For instance, let's say you have a list of users displayed in the admin interface. You can select multiple users and then choose the "delete selected objects" action to delete all of them at once.

      15. Custom Actions:

      16. Apart from the built-in actions like "delete selected objects", you can also write your own custom actions to perform specific tasks on selected objects.

      17. For example, you could write an action to send an email to all selected users, change a specific attribute for multiple posts, etc.

      In summary, actions in Django's admin interface provide a convenient way to perform batch operations on multiple objects simultaneously, which can help streamline administrative tasks and improve efficiency.

  3. Feb 2024
    1. Dataset Configuration Name Type Description label string The label for the dataset which appears in the legend and tooltips. clip number|object How to clip relative to chartArea. Positive value allows overflow, negative value clips that many pixels inside chartArea. 0 = clip at chartArea. Clipping can also be configured per side: clip: {left: 5, top: false, right: -2, bottom: 0} order number The drawing order of dataset. Also affects order for stacking, tooltip and legend. stack string The ID of the group to which this dataset belongs to (when stacked, each group will be a separate stack). Defaults to dataset type. parsing boolean|object How to parse the dataset. The parsing can be disabled by specifying parsing: false at chart options or dataset. If parsing is disabled, data must be sorted and in the formats the associated chart type and scales use internally. hidden boolean Configure the visibility of the dataset. Using hidden: true will hide the dataset from being rendered in the Chart. # parsing const data = [{x: 'Jan', net: 100, cogs: 50, gm: 50}, {x: 'Feb', net: 120, cogs: 55, gm: 75}]; const cfg = { type: 'bar', data: { labels: ['Jan', 'Feb'], datasets: [{ label: 'Net sales', data: data, parsing: { yAxisKey: 'net' } }, { label: 'Cost of goods sold', data: data, parsing: { yAxisKey: 'cogs' } }, { label: 'Gross margin', data: data, parsing: { yAxisKey: 'gm' } }] }, };

      Let's simplify the explanation and examples:

      1. Line Chart with Object Data: javascript const cfg = { type: 'line', data: { datasets: [{ data: { January: 10, February: 20 } }] } }; In this line chart example, the data is represented as an object. The property names ('January', 'February') are used for the x-axis (index scale), and the corresponding values (10, 20) are used for the y-axis (value scale). This is for a vertical line chart.

      2. Bar Chart with Parsed Data: javascript const data = [{x: 'Jan', net: 100, cogs: 50, gm: 50}, {x: 'Feb', net: 120, cogs: 55, gm: 75}]; const cfg = { type: 'bar', data: { labels: ['Jan', 'Feb'], datasets: [{ label: 'Net sales', data: data, parsing: { yAxisKey: 'net' } }, { label: 'Cost of goods sold', data: data, parsing: { yAxisKey: 'cogs' } }, { label: 'Gross margin', data: data, parsing: { yAxisKey: 'gm' } }] } }; In this bar chart example, the data is an array of objects with properties like 'x', 'net', 'cogs', and 'gm'. The labels array provides the x-axis labels ('Jan', 'Feb'). Each dataset is associated with a label and uses the parsing option to specify which property should be used for the y-axis. So, 'Net sales' uses the 'net' property, 'Cost of goods sold' uses 'cogs', and 'Gross margin' uses 'gm'.

      This way, you can create charts with more complex datasets, where each dataset might have multiple properties, and you can selectively choose which property to use for the chart.

    2. Object[] using custom properties const cfg = { type: 'bar', data: { datasets: [{ data: [{id: 'Sales', nested: {value: 1500}}, {id: 'Purchases', nested: {value: 500}}] }] }, options: { parsing: { xAxisKey: 'id', yAxisKey: 'nested.value' } } } Copied! When using the pie/doughnut, radar or polarArea chart type, the parsing object should have a key item that points to the value to look at. In this example, the doughnut chart will show two items with values 1500 and 500. const cfg = { type: 'doughnut', data: { datasets: [{ data: [{id: 'Sales', nested: {value: 1500}}, {id: 'Purchases', nested: {value: 500}}] }] }, options: { parsing: { key: 'nested.value' } } } Copied! If the key contains a dot, it needs to be escaped with a double slash: const cfg = { type: 'line', data: { datasets: [{ data: [{'data.key': 'one', 'data.value': 20}, {'data.key': 'two', 'data.value': 30}] }] }, options: { parsing: { xAxisKey: 'data\\.key', yAxisKey: 'data\\.value' } } } Copied! WARNING When using object notation in a radar chart, you still need a labels array with labels for the chart to show correctl

      Let's break down this explanation and examples in simpler terms:

      1. Bar Chart with Custom Properties: javascript const cfg = { type: 'bar', data: { datasets: [{ data: [{id: 'Sales', nested: {value: 1500}}, {id: 'Purchases', nested: {value: 500}}] }] }, options: { parsing: { xAxisKey: 'id', yAxisKey: 'nested.value' } } }; In this bar chart example, the data points have custom properties. Each data point is an object with an id and a nested property containing a value. The parsing option is used to specify where to find the x-axis and y-axis values. So, the x-axis will use the 'id' property, and the y-axis will use the 'nested.value' property. This results in a bar chart with 'Sales' and 'Purchases' on the x-axis and corresponding values on the y-axis.

      2. Doughnut Chart with Custom Property Key: javascript const cfg = { type: 'doughnut', data: { datasets: [{ data: [{id: 'Sales', nested: {value: 1500}}, {id: 'Purchases', nested: {value: 500}}] }] }, options: { parsing: { key: 'nested.value' } } }; In this doughnut chart example, the parsing object has a key property specifying where to find the values. So, the doughnut chart will use the 'nested.value' property to determine the values. The result will be a doughnut chart with two items having values 1500 and 500.

      3. Line Chart with Escaped Dot in Key: javascript const cfg = { type: 'line', data: { datasets: [{ data: [{'data.key': 'one', 'data.value': 20}, {'data.key': 'two', 'data.value': 30}] }] }, options: { parsing: { xAxisKey: 'data\\.key', yAxisKey: 'data\\.value' } } }; In this line chart example, the xAxisKey and yAxisKey properties have dots in them. Dots are escaped with a double backslash (\\). So, the x-axis will use 'data.key', and the y-axis will use 'data.value'.

      Note: When using object notation in a radar chart, you still need a labels array with labels for the chart to display correctly.

    3. const cfg = { type: 'line', data: { datasets: [{ data: [{x: 10, y: 20}, {x: 15, y: null}, {x: 20, y: 10}] }] } } Copied! const cfg = { type: 'line', data: { datasets: [{ data: [{x: '2016-12-25', y: 20}, {x: '2016-12-26', y: 10}] }] } } Copied! const cfg = { type: 'bar', data: { datasets: [{ data: [{x: 'Sales', y: 20}, {x: 'Revenue', y: 10}] }] } } Copied! This is also the internal format used for parsed data. In this mode, parsing can be disabled by specifying parsing: false at chart options or dataset. If parsing is disabled, data must be sorted and in the formats the associated chart type and scales use internally. The values provided must be parsable by the associated scales or in the internal format of the associated scales. A common mistake would be to provide integers for the category scale, which uses integers as an internal format, where each integer represents an index in the labels array. null can be used for skipped values.

      Let's simplify this explanation with examples:

      1. Line Chart with Coordinates: javascript const cfg = { type: 'line', data: { datasets: [{ data: [{x: 10, y: 20}, {x: 15, y: null}, {x: 20, y: 10}] }] } }; In this example, you are creating a line chart. The datasets contain points with coordinates. For instance, at x=10, y=20, and at x=20, y=10. The null in {x: 15, y: null} means there is no data for y at x=15.

      2. Line Chart with Date Labels: javascript const cfg = { type: 'line', data: { datasets: [{ data: [{x: '2016-12-25', y: 20}, {x: '2016-12-26', y: 10}] }] } }; Here, you're still making a line chart, but the x-values are dates. For instance, on December 25, y=20, and on December 26, y=10.

      3. Bar Chart with String Labels: javascript const cfg = { type: 'bar', data: { datasets: [{ data: [{x: 'Sales', y: 20}, {x: 'Revenue', y: 10}] }] } }; This time, it's a bar chart. The x values are labels like 'Sales' and 'Revenue', and the corresponding y values are 20 and 10.

      In all cases, the format used is important for the chart to understand and display the data correctly. If parsing is disabled (by specifying parsing: false), you need to ensure your data is sorted and in the formats expected by the chart type and scales. For example, if you're dealing with a category scale, use integers that represent indices in the labels array. Also, you can use null for values that are skipped.

    4. Data structures The data property of a dataset can be passed in various formats. By default, that data is parsed using the associated chart type and scales. If the labels property of the main data property is used, it has to contain the same amount of elements as the dataset with the most values. These labels are used to label the index axis (default x axes). The values for the labels have to be provided in an array. The provided labels can be of the type string or number to be rendered correctly. In case you want multiline labels you can provide an array with each line as one entry in the array. # Primitive[] const cfg = { type: 'bar', data: { datasets: [{ data: [20, 10], }], labels: ['a', 'b'] } } Copied! When the data is an array of numbers, values from labels array at the same index are used for the index axis (x for vertical, y for horizontal charts). # Object[]

      Sure, let's break down the explanation into simpler terms with an example.

      In charts or graphs, you have data points and labels. The data points are the actual values, and the labels are what you use to mark those values on the chart. Here, we are talking about a scenario where you have a dataset, which is essentially a collection of data points, and you want to visualize it using a bar chart.

      Let's consider an example:

      javascript const chartConfig = { type: 'bar', data: { datasets: [{ data: [20, 10], }], labels: ['a', 'b'] } };

      Now, what does this mean in simple terms?

      1. Type of Chart: It's a bar chart (type: 'bar'), meaning you want to represent your data using bars.

      2. Data: Your data is represented by a dataset with two values: 20 and 10. These could be anything like quantities, scores, or any numerical values.

      3. Labels: You want to label these data points on your chart. The labels are 'a' and 'b'.

      So, in this example, your bar chart would have two bars: one labeled 'a' and another labeled 'b'. The height of each bar corresponds to the values 20 and 10.

      Here's a simple breakdown: - Bar 1 ('a'): Height is 20 - Bar 2 ('b'): Height is 10

      This way, you can quickly understand and communicate information using a visual representation, making it easier to grasp the meaning of your data.

  4. docs.djangoproject.com docs.djangoproject.com
    1. This document explains the usage of Django’s authentication system in its default configuration. This configuration has evolved to serve the most common project needs, handling a reasonably wide range of tasks, and has a careful implementation of passwords and permissions. For projects where authentication needs differ from the default, Django supports extensive extension and customization of authentication. Django authentication provides both authentication and authorization together and is generally referred to as the authentication system, as these features are somewhat coupled.

      Sure, let's break down the concepts of authentication and authorization in simple terms:

      Authentication: Authentication is the process of verifying the identity of a user, confirming that they are who they claim to be. It ensures that a user is genuine and not an imposter. In web applications, this typically involves logging in with a username and password.

      Authorization: Authorization, on the other hand, comes after authentication and involves determining what actions or resources a user is allowed to access. It defines the permissions and privileges associated with a user after their identity has been verified.

      Now, let's see how these concepts apply in Django with examples:

      Authentication in Django: Django provides built-in authentication functionalities through its django.contrib.auth module. Here's a simple example:

      ```python from django.contrib.auth import authenticate, login

      Assuming you have a User model defined

      Authenticate a user (checking username and password)

      user = authenticate(request, username='your_username', password='your_password')

      Log in the user if authentication is successful

      if user is not None: login(request, user) print("User logged in successfully") else: print("Invalid credentials") ```

      In this example, the authenticate function checks the provided username and password against the stored credentials, and if successful, the user is logged in using the login function.

      Authorization in Django: Django handles authorization through its built-in permissions and user groups. Here's a basic example:

      ```python from django.contrib.auth.decorators import permission_required

      Applying permission check to a view

      @permission_required('your_app.view_your_model') def your_view(request): # Your view logic here return HttpResponse("This view requires specific permission") ```

      In this example, the @permission_required decorator ensures that only users with the specified permission (in this case, 'your_app.view_your_model') can access the associated view.

      To summarize, authentication verifies the user's identity, while authorization determines what actions or resources that authenticated user is allowed to access. In Django, these concepts are managed through the django.contrib.auth module and the built-in permission system.

  5. docs.djangoproject.com docs.djangoproject.com
    1. Saving changes to objects¶ To save changes to an object that’s already in the database, use save(). Given a Blog instance b5 that has already been saved to the database, this example changes its name and updates its record in the database: >>> b5.name = "New name" >>> b5.save() This performs an UPDATE SQL statement behind the scenes. Django doesn’t hit the database until you explicitly call save().

      In Django, if you have an object that already exists in the database and you want to update its information, you can do so using the save() method. Here's a simple explanation:

      1. Retrieve the Object: First, you need to get the object you want to modify. In the example, it's assumed that you have a Blog instance named b5 that has already been saved to the database.

      python b5 = Blog.objects.get(id=some_id) # Retrieve the Blog instance from the database

      1. Modify the Object: Change the attributes of the object as needed. In the example, the name attribute is updated.

      python b5.name = "New name"

      1. Save the Changes: Call the save() method on the object to persist the changes to the database.

      python b5.save()

      The save() method triggers an UPDATE SQL statement, modifying the existing record in the database.

      Here's the complete example:

      ```python

      Assuming models live in a file mysite/blog/models.py

      Import the Blog model

      from blog.models import Blog

      Retrieve the Blog instance from the database (assumed it already exists)

      b5 = Blog.objects.get(id=some_id)

      Modify the object

      b5.name = "New name"

      Save the changes to the database

      b5.save() ```

      After running these commands, the Blog record in the database will be updated with the new name.

      It's important to note that Django doesn't automatically persist changes to the database. You need to explicitly call save() to ensure that the modifications are reflected in the database.

    2. Creating objects¶ To represent database-table data in Python objects, Django uses an intuitive system: A model class represents a database table, and an instance of that class represents a particular record in the database table. To create an object, instantiate it using keyword arguments to the model class, then call save() to save it to the database. Assuming models live in a file mysite/blog/models.py, here’s an example: >>> from blog.models import Blog >>> b = Blog(name="Beatles Blog", tagline="All the latest Beatles news.") >>> b.save() This performs an INSERT SQL statement behind the scenes. Django doesn’t hit the database until you explicitly call save(). The save() method has no return value. See also save() takes a number of advanced options not described here. See the documentation for save() for complete details. To create and save an object in a single step, use the create() method.

      In Django, a model class is like a blueprint for a database table, and an instance of that class represents a specific record in the table. To create a new record (object) and save it to the database, you follow these steps:

      1. Import the Model Class: Import the relevant model class into your Python script or shell.

      python from blog.models import Blog

      1. Instantiate the Model: Create an instance of the model class by providing the required data as keyword arguments.

      python b = Blog(name="Beatles Blog", tagline="All the latest Beatles news.")

      In this example, a new Blog instance (b) is created with a name and a tagline.

      1. Save to the Database: Call the save() method on the instance to save the new record to the database.

      python b.save()

      The save() method triggers an INSERT SQL statement, adding a new row to the database table that corresponds to the Blog model.

      Here's the complete example:

      ```python

      Assuming models live in a file mysite/blog/models.py

      Import the Blog model

      from blog.models import Blog

      Create a new Blog instance

      b = Blog(name="Beatles Blog", tagline="All the latest Beatles news.")

      Save the new Blog instance to the database

      b.save() ```

      After running these commands, a new record with the specified name and tagline will be added to the Blog table in the database.

      It's important to note that the save() method is necessary to persist the changes to the database. Django doesn't automatically update the database when you create an instance; you need to explicitly call save() to perform the insertion.

  6. docs.djangoproject.com docs.djangoproject.com
    1. It’s important to remember to call the superclass method – that’s that super().save(*args, **kwargs) business – to ensure that the object still gets saved into the database. If you forget to call the superclass method, the default behavior won’t happen and the database won’t get touched. It’s also important that you pass through the arguments that can be passed to the model method – that’s what the *args, **kwargs bit does. Django will, from time to time, extend the capabilities of built-in model methods, adding new arguments. If you use *args, **kwargs in your method definitions, you are guaranteed that your code will automatically support those arguments when they are added. If you wish to update a field value in the save() method, you may also want to have this field added to the update_fields keyword argument. This will ensure the field is saved when update_fields is specified. For example: from django.db import models from django.utils.text import slugify class Blog(models.Model): name = models.CharField(max_length=100) slug = models.TextField() def save( self, force_insert=False, force_update=False, using=None, update_fields=None ): self.slug = slugify(self.name) if update_fields is not None and "name" in update_fields: update_fields = {"slug"}.union(update_fields) super().save( force_insert=force_insert, force_update=force_update, using=using, update_fields=update_fields, ) See Specifying which fields to save for more details. Overridden model methods are not called on bulk operations Note that the delete() method for an object is not necessarily called when deleting objects in bulk using a QuerySet or as a result of a cascading delete. To ensure customized delete logic gets executed, you can use pre_delete and/or post_delete signals. Unfortunately, there isn’t a workaround when creating or updating objects in bulk, since none of save(), pre_save, and post_save are called.

      In web development, a "slug" is a URL-friendly version of a string, typically used to represent a title or a name in a way that can be easily included in a URL. The purpose of a slug is to make the URL readable and SEO-friendly, replacing spaces and special characters with hyphens or underscores.

      Example: - Original Title: "How to Make a Delicious Cake" - Slug: "how-to-make-a-delicious-cake"

      Now, let's talk about slugify. slugify is a function or method that takes a string and converts it into a slug. It removes any special characters, replaces spaces with hyphens or underscores, and converts the string to lowercase.

      Example using Python: ```python from django.utils.text import slugify

      title = "How to Make a Delicious Cake" slug = slugify(title)

      print(slug) ```

      Output: how-to-make-a-delicious-cake

      In this example, slugify has taken the original title, removed spaces, converted it to lowercase, and replaced spaces with hyphens, resulting in a slug that can be used in a URL.

      Using slugs in URLs makes them more readable for both humans and search engines. It's a common practice in web development to use slugs when creating URLs for blog posts, articles, or any content with a title.Certainly! Let's break it down in simpler terms:

      Why you might want to use update_fields in Django models:

      • When you save an object in Django using the save() method, it might involve updating multiple fields. However, sometimes you only want to update specific fields for optimization or other reasons.

      Example in Simple Words:

      Imagine you have a Blog model with many fields, including a name and a slug. The slug field is automatically generated from the name using slugify before saving.

      ```python class Blog(models.Model): name = models.CharField(max_length=100) slug = models.TextField()

      def save(self, force_insert=False, force_update=False, using=None, update_fields=None):
          # Update the slug field value based on the name
          self.slug = slugify(self.name)
      
          # Check if 'name' is in the fields to be updated
          if update_fields is not None and "name" in update_fields:
              # Include 'slug' in the fields to be updated
              update_fields = {"slug"}.union(update_fields)
      
          # Call the superclass method to save the object with specified fields
          super().save(force_insert=force_insert, force_update=force_update, using=using, update_fields=update_fields)
      

      ```

      Explanation:

      1. The save method is overridden to customize how the object is saved.
      2. It updates the slug field based on the name using slugify.
      3. It checks if the name field is in the update_fields. If it is, it ensures that the slug field is also included in the update_fields.
      4. Finally, it calls the original save method of the parent class (super().save()) with the specified update_fields.

      By doing this, you ensure that when you only want to update the name field, the slug field is also updated as a part of the save operation. This can be useful for efficiency and optimization, especially when dealing with large datasets.

    2. Overriding predefined model methods¶ There’s another set of model methods that encapsulate a bunch of database behavior that you’ll want to customize. In particular you’ll often want to change the way save() and delete() work. You’re free to override these methods (and any other model method) to alter behavior. A classic use-case for overriding the built-in methods is if you want something to happen whenever you save an object. For example (see save() for documentation of the parameters it accepts): from django.db import models class Blog(models.Model): name = models.CharField(max_length=100) tagline = models.TextField() def save(self, *args, **kwargs): do_something() super().save(*args, **kwargs) # Call the "real" save() method. do_something_else()

      Certainly! Let's break down the concept of overriding predefined model methods in Django in simple terms with an example.

      Understanding Model Methods in Django:

      In Django models, there are predefined methods like save() and delete() that encapsulate database behavior. These methods are part of the model's lifecycle and are automatically triggered when you save or delete an object.

      Overriding the save() Method:

      Purpose:

      You might want to override the save() method when you need to perform specific actions or customizations every time an object is saved to the database.

      Example:

      ```python from django.db import models

      class Blog(models.Model): name = models.CharField(max_length=100) tagline = models.TextField()

      def save(self, *args, **kwargs):
          # Custom action before saving
          do_something()
      
          # Call the original save() method to perform the default save operation
          super().save(*args, **kwargs)
      
          # Custom action after saving
          do_something_else()
      

      ```

      Explanation:

      1. Custom Action Before Saving (do_something()):
      2. You can include any custom logic or actions that need to happen before saving the object to the database.

      3. Call the Original save() Method:

      4. The super().save(*args, **kwargs) line calls the original save() method, performing the standard save operation.

      5. Custom Action After Saving (do_something_else()):

      6. Include any additional actions or logic that should happen after the object has been successfully saved.

      Use-Case:

      Imagine you want to update a timestamp or trigger some specific behavior every time a new blog post is saved. By overriding the save() method, you can easily inject your custom logic into the save process.

      General Concept:

      The general concept is to customize the default behavior of model methods by providing your own implementation. This allows you to add, modify, or extend functionality according to the specific needs of your application.

      In summary, overriding predefined model methods like save() provides a way to insert your custom logic into the process of saving or deleting objects in the database. It's a powerful tool for tailoring the behavior of your models to suit your application's requirements. Sure! In Python, args and kwargs are used to pass a variable number of arguments to a function.

      1. args (Positional Arguments):
      2. In simple words, args stands for "arguments," and it allows you to pass a variable number of positional arguments to a function.
      3. The syntax involves placing an asterisk (*) before the parameter name, like *args.
      4. Example:

        ```python def example_function(*args): for arg in args: print(arg)

        example_function(1, 2, 3) ```

      Output: 1 2 3

      Here, *args allows the function to accept any number of positional arguments, and it prints each argument in the function.

      1. kwargs (Keyword Arguments):
      2. kwargs stands for "keyword arguments," and it allows you to pass a variable number of keyword arguments to a function.
      3. The syntax involves placing two asterisks (**) before the parameter name, like **kwargs.
      4. Example:

        ```python def example_function(**kwargs): for key, value in kwargs.items(): print(key, value)

        example_function(name="John", age=25, city="New York") ```

      Output: name John age 25 city New York

      Here, **kwargs allows the function to accept any number of keyword arguments, and it prints each key-value pair in the function.

      Why use them: - args and kwargs provide flexibility when you don't know the exact number of arguments a function might receive. - They are handy when you want to create more generic functions that can handle various input scenarios. - They make your code more readable and adaptable.

      Syntax: - For args: *args - For kwargs: **kwargs

      You can use any name after the asterisk(s), but args and kwargs are commonly used conventions. The important part is the single asterisk () for args and double asterisks (*) for kwargs.

    3. Field options¶ Each field takes a certain set of field-specific arguments (documented in the model field reference). For example, CharField (and its subclasses) require a max_length argument which specifies the size of the VARCHAR database field used to store the data. There’s also a set of common arguments available to all field types. All are optional. They’re fully explained in the reference, but here’s a quick summary of the most often-used ones: nullIf True, Django will store empty values as NULL in the database. Default is False. blankIf True, the field is allowed to be blank. Default is False. Note that this is different than null. null is purely database-related, whereas blank is validation-related. If a field has blank=True, form validation will allow entry of an empty value. If a field has blank=False, the field will be required. choicesA sequence of 2-value tuples, a mapping, an enumeration type, or a callable (that expects no arguments and returns any of the previous formats), to use as choices for this field. If this is given, the default form widget will be a select box instead of the standard text field and will limit choices to the choices given. A choices list looks like this: YEAR_IN_SCHOOL_CHOICES = [ ("FR", "Freshman"), ("SO", "Sophomore"), ("JR", "Junior"), ("SR", "Senior"), ("GR", "Graduate"), ] Note A new migration is created each time the order of choices changes. The first element in each tuple is the value that will be stored in the database. The second element is displayed by the field’s form widget. Given a model instance, the display value for a field with choices can be accessed using the get_FOO_display() method. For example: from django.db import models class Person(models.Model): SHIRT_SIZES = { "S": "Small", "M": "Medium", "L": "Large", } name = models.CharField(max_length=60) shirt_size = models.CharField(max_length=1, choices=SHIRT_SIZES) >>> p = Person(name="Fred Flintstone", shirt_size="L") >>> p.save() >>> p.shirt_size 'L' >>> p.get_shirt_size_display() 'Large'

      Certainly! Let's dive deeper into the choices option in Django models with a detailed explanation and examples.

      1. Purpose of choices:

      The choices option is used to define a predefined set of valid values for a field. It's particularly useful when you want to restrict the possible values that a field can have. This is commonly used with fields like CharField to ensure that the data entered adheres to a specific set of options.

      2. Syntax:

      The choices option takes a sequence of 2-value tuples, a mapping, an enumeration type, or a callable that returns any of the previous formats. Each tuple represents a valid choice for the field. The first element of the tuple is the value that will be stored in the database, and the second element is the human-readable representation of that value.

      3. Example:

      Let's go through the provided example:

      python class Person(models.Model): SHIRT_SIZES = [ ("S", "Small"), ("M", "Medium"), ("L", "Large"), ] shirt_size = models.CharField(max_length=1, choices=SHIRT_SIZES)

      Here, we have a Person model with a field shirt_size. The choices option is set to a list SHIRT_SIZES, which contains tuples representing valid choices. The shirt_size field can only have one of the specified choices: "S", "M", or "L."

      • The database will store "S", "M", or "L" based on the selected option.
      • In forms, when you provide options for this field, it will be presented as a select box with "Small," "Medium," and "Large" as options.

      4. Modifying Choices:

      If you ever need to modify the choices, you should be cautious. Each time you change the order or add/remove choices, Django will create a new migration to reflect these changes in the database.

      5. Displaying Choices:

      When you have a model instance and want to display the human-readable version of a field with choices, you can use the get_FOO_display() method. In the example:

      python p = Person(shirt_size="L") p.save() print(p.get_shirt_size_display()) # Outputs: 'Large'

      This is a convenient way to get the readable representation of the chosen value.

      6. Enumerations:

      Starting from Django 3.10, you can use enumeration classes for defining choices in a more structured manner. Here's an example:

      ```python from django.db import models

      class Person(models.Model): class ShirtSize(models.TextChoices): SMALL = 'S', 'Small' MEDIUM = 'M', 'Medium' LARGE = 'L', 'Large'

      shirt_size = models.CharField(max_length=1, choices=ShirtSize.choices)
      

      ```

      This allows for more maintainable and self-documenting code.

    4. Models¶ A model is the single, definitive source of information about your data. It contains the essential fields and behaviors of the data you’re storing. Generally, each model maps to a single database table. The basics: Each model is a Python class that subclasses django.db.models.Model. Each attribute of the model represents a database field. With all of this, Django gives you an automatically-generated database-access API; see Making queries. Quick example¶ This example model defines a Person, which has a first_name and last_name: from django.db import models class Person(models.Model): first_name = models.CharField(max_length=30) last_name = models.CharField(max_length=30) first_name and last_name are fields of the model. Each field is specified as a class attribute, and each attribute maps to a database column. The above Person model would create a database table like this: CREATE TABLE myapp_person ( "id" bigint NOT NULL PRIMARY KEY GENERATED BY DEFAULT AS IDENTITY, "first_name" varchar(30) NOT NULL, "last_name" varchar(30) NOT NULL );

      Sure, let's break it down in simpler terms with an example:

      Imagine you have an app that needs to store information about people, like their first name and last name. In Django, you would create a "model" to define how this information is structured and stored in the database.

      Here's a simple example in plain English:

      1. Model Definition:
      2. You create a Python class called Person that is a special kind of class provided by Django (models.Model).
      3. Inside this class, you define attributes to represent the information you want to store. In this case, first_name and last_name are the attributes.

      ```python from django.db import models

      class Person(models.Model): first_name = models.CharField(max_length=30) last_name = models.CharField(max_length=30) ```

      1. Database Fields:
      2. Each attribute in your class (first_name and last_name) corresponds to a field in the database. Think of it like columns in an Excel sheet.

      3. Automatically-Generated Database Table:

      4. When you run your Django app, it automatically creates a table in the database based on your model. Each attribute becomes a column in that table.

      sql CREATE TABLE myapp_person ( "id" bigint NOT NULL PRIMARY KEY GENERATED BY DEFAULT AS IDENTITY, "first_name" varchar(30) NOT NULL, "last_name" varchar(30) NOT NULL );

      • Here, myapp_person is the table that will store your person-related information.

      • Example Usage:

      • Now, whenever you want to save information about a person, you create an instance of the Person class and set its attributes.

      ```python # Creating a new person new_person = Person(first_name="John", last_name="Doe")

      # Saving the person to the database new_person.save() ```

      • This automatically adds a new row to the myapp_person table with the specified first name and last name.

      In summary, a Django model is like a blueprint for how your data should be stored. It helps you define the structure of your database, and Django takes care of creating the necessary tables and handling interactions with the database for you.

    1. API File information Each file contains the following information: Key Description Note fieldname Field name specified in the form originalname Name of the file on the user's computer encoding Encoding type of the file mimetype Mime type of the file size Size of the file in bytes destination The folder to which the file has been saved DiskStorage filename The name of the file within the destination DiskStorage path The full path to the uploaded file DiskStorage buffer A Buffer of the entire file MemoryStorage multer(opts) Multer accepts an options object, the most basic of which is the dest property, which tells Multer where to upload the files. In case you omit the options object, the files will be kept in memory and never written to disk. By default, Multer will rename the files so as to avoid naming conflicts. The renaming function can be customized according to your needs. The following are the options that can be passed to Multer. Key Description dest or storage Where to store the files fileFilter Function to control which files are accepted limits Limits of the uploaded data preservePath Keep the full path of files instead of just the base name In an average web app, only dest might be required, and configured as shown in the following example. const upload = multer({ dest: 'uploads/' }) If you want more control over your uploads, you'll want to use the storage option instead of dest. Multer ships with storage engines DiskStorage and MemoryStorage; More engines are available from third parties. .single(fieldname) Accept a single file with the name fieldname. The single file will be stored in req.file. .array(fieldname[, maxCount]) Accept an array of files, all with the name fieldname. Optionally error out if more than maxCount files are uploaded. The array of files will be stored in req.files. .fields(fields) Accept a mix of files, specified by fields. An object with arrays of files will be stored in req.files. fields should be an array of objects with name and optionally a maxCount. Example: [ { name: 'avatar', maxCount: 1 }, { name: 'gallery', maxCount: 8 } ] .none() Accept only text fields. If any file upload is made, error with code "LIMIT_UNEXPECTED_FILE" will be issued. .any() Accepts all files that comes over the wire. An array of files will be stored in req.files. WARNING: Make sure that you always handle the files that a user uploads. Never add multer as a global middleware since a malicious user could upload files to a route that you didn't anticipate. Only use this function on routes where you are handling the uploaded files.

      Let's break down the provided information in simpler terms:

      File Information:

      Each file uploaded using Multer contains the following information:

      • fieldname: The name of the field specified in the form.
      • originalname: The name of the file on the user's computer.
      • encoding: The encoding type of the file.
      • mimetype: The MIME type of the file.
      • size: Size of the file in bytes.
      • destination: The folder where the file has been saved (applicable to DiskStorage).
      • filename: The name of the file within the destination folder (applicable to DiskStorage).
      • path: The full path to the uploaded file (applicable to DiskStorage).
      • buffer: A Buffer containing the entire file (applicable to MemoryStorage).

      Multer Options:

      Multer accepts an options object that can be passed when configuring it. The most basic option is dest, which specifies where to upload the files. If you omit the options object, files will be kept in memory and not written to disk.

      Example using dest: javascript const upload = multer({ dest: 'uploads/' });

      Additional options include: - storage: Allows more control over file storage (you can use DiskStorage or MemoryStorage). - fileFilter: Function to control which files are accepted. - limits: Specifies limits for the uploaded data. - preservePath: Keeps the full path of files instead of just the base name.

      Methods for Handling File Uploads:

      • .single(fieldname): Accepts a single file with the specified field name. The file will be stored in req.file.
      • .array(fieldname[, maxCount]): Accepts an array of files with the specified field name. Optionally, an error will occur if more than maxCount files are uploaded. The array of files will be stored in req.files.
      • .fields(fields): Accepts a mix of files specified by fields. An object with arrays of files will be stored in req.files.
      • .none(): Accepts only text fields. If any file upload is made, an error with code "LIMIT_UNEXPECTED_FILE" will be issued.
      • .any(): Accepts all files that come over the wire. An array of files will be stored in req.files.

      Sure, let's break down the provided information with examples and HTML files for a better understanding.

      1. File Information:

      Example HTML Form:

      ```html

      <form action="/upload" method="post" enctype="multipart/form-data"> <label for="file">Choose a file:</label> <input type="file" name="myFile" id="file"> <input type="submit" value="Upload"> </form>

      ```

      Example Node.js Server (using Express and Multer):

      ```javascript const express = require('express'); const multer = require('multer'); const app = express(); const port = 3000;

      // Multer setup const storage = multer.memoryStorage(); // Use MemoryStorage to keep files in memory const upload = multer({ storage: storage });

      app.post('/upload', upload.single('myFile'), (req, res) => { // Access uploaded file information const file = req.file; console.log(file); res.send('File uploaded successfully!'); });

      app.listen(port, () => { console.log(Server is listening on port ${port}); }); ```

      In this example, the HTML form allows users to choose a file. The Node.js server uses Multer to handle file uploads. It specifies memoryStorage to keep the file in memory.

      2. Multer Options:

      ```javascript // Example using dest option const uploadDest = multer({ dest: 'uploads/' });

      // Additional options const uploadCustomStorage = multer({ storage: multer.diskStorage({ destination: 'custom-uploads/', filename: (req, file, cb) => { cb(null, file.originalname); } }), fileFilter: (req, file, cb) => { // Implement your custom file filtering logic // Example: allow only image files if (file.mimetype.startsWith('image/')) { cb(null, true); } else { cb(new Error('Invalid file type')); } }, limits: { fileSize: 1024 * 1024, // Limit file size to 1MB }, }); ```

      3. Methods for Handling File Uploads:

      .single(fieldname):

      javascript app.post('/upload-single', upload.single('myFile'), (req, res) => { const file = req.file; console.log(file); res.send('File uploaded successfully!'); });

      .array(fieldname[, maxCount]):

      javascript app.post('/upload-array', upload.array('myFiles', 3), (req, res) => { const files = req.files; console.log(files); res.send('Files uploaded successfully!'); });

      .fields(fields):

      ```javascript const fields = [ { name: 'avatar', maxCount: 1 }, { name: 'gallery', maxCount: 8 } ];

      app.post('/upload-fields', upload.fields(fields), (req, res) => { const files = req.files; console.log(files); res.send('Files uploaded successfully!'); }); ```

      .none() and .any():

      ```javascript app.post('/upload-none', upload.none(), (req, res) => { // This route only accepts text fields res.send('Text fields accepted successfully!'); });

      app.post('/upload-any', upload.any(), (req, res) => { // This route accepts all files const files = req.files; console.log(files); res.send('Files uploaded successfully!'); }); `` Certainly! The difference betweenpathanddestination` in the context of file uploads using Multer can be clarified as follows:

      1. path:

      • Description: path refers to the full path to the uploaded file.
      • Usage: It's particularly useful when you're using DiskStorage with Multer, which means files are saved directly to the filesystem.
      • Example: Suppose you have a file upload endpoint /upload and you're using DiskStorage. If the destination folder is uploads/, and a user uploads a file named example.jpg, the path would be something like uploads/example.jpg.

      2. destination:

      • Description: destination refers to the folder to which the file has been saved.
      • Usage: Similar to path, it's primarily used with DiskStorage.
      • Example: Continuing from the previous example, if the destination folder is uploads/, then destination would simply be uploads/. It doesn't include the filename itself, just the directory where the file is saved.

      Example:

      Let's demonstrate with a simple Node.js server using Multer:

      ```javascript const express = require('express'); const multer = require('multer'); const app = express(); const port = 3000;

      // Multer setup const storage = multer.diskStorage({ destination: function (req, file, cb) { cb(null, 'uploads/') // specify the destination folder }, filename: function (req, file, cb) { cb(null, file.originalname) // use the original filename } }); const upload = multer({ storage: storage });

      // Upload endpoint app.post('/upload', upload.single('myFile'), (req, res) => { const file = req.file; console.log('Path:', file.path); console.log('Destination:', file.destination); res.send('File uploaded successfully!'); });

      app.listen(port, () => { console.log(Server is listening on port ${port}); }); ```

      Suppose a user uploads a file named example.jpg. After the upload, if you check the console logs:

      • Path: Would be something like uploads/example.jpg, indicating the full path to the uploaded file.
      • Destination: Would be uploads/, indicating the folder where the file is saved.

      In summary, while both path and destination provide information about where the file is stored, path gives the full path including the filename, whereas destination only gives the directory where the file is saved. These examples illustrate how to handle file uploads using Multer in a Node.js server with Express. Adjustments can be made based on specific project requirements.

      Warning:

      • Handle Uploaded Files Carefully: Always handle the files that a user uploads and never add Multer as a global middleware. Adding Multer globally could allow a malicious user to upload files to routes you didn't anticipate. Only use Multer on routes where you specifically handle the uploaded files.
    2. Installation $ npm install --save multer Usage Multer adds a body object and a file or files object to the request object. The body object contains the values of the text fields of the form, the file or files object contains the files uploaded via the form. Basic usage example: Don't forget the enctype="multipart/form-data" in your form. <form action="/profile" method="post" enctype="multipart/form-data"> <input type="file" name="avatar" /> </form> const express = require('express') const multer = require('multer') const upload = multer({ dest: 'uploads/' }) const app = express() app.post('/profile', upload.single('avatar'), function (req, res, next) { // req.file is the `avatar` file // req.body will hold the text fields, if there were any }) app.post('/photos/upload', upload.array('photos', 12), function (req, res, next) { // req.files is array of `photos` files // req.body will contain the text fields, if there were any }) const cpUpload = upload.fields([{ name: 'avatar', maxCount: 1 }, { name: 'gallery', maxCount: 8 }]) app.post('/cool-profile', cpUpload, function (req, res, next) { // req.files is an object (String -> Array) where fieldname is the key, and the value is array of files // // e.g. // req.files['avatar'][0] -> File // req.files['gallery'] -> Array // // req.body will contain the text fields, if there were any })

      Certainly! Let's break down the installation, usage, and examples of Multer in simple terms:

      Installation:

      To use Multer in your Node.js project, you need to install it using npm. Open your terminal and run:

      bash $ npm install --save multer

      Usage:

      Multer adds a body object and a file or files object to the request (req) object. The body object contains the values of text fields in the form, while the file or files object contains the files uploaded via the form.

      Basic Usage Example:

      1. HTML Form:
      2. Don't forget to set enctype="multipart/form-data" in your HTML form to enable file uploads.

      ```html <br /> <form action="/profile" method="post" enctype="multipart/form-data"> <input type="file" name="avatar" /> </form>

      ```

      1. Server-Side (using Express and Multer):
      2. In your Node.js server code:

      ```javascript const express = require('express'); const multer = require('multer'); const upload = multer({ dest: 'uploads/' });

      const app = express();

      // Handling a single file upload app.post('/profile', upload.single('avatar'), function (req, res, next) { // req.file is the uploaded avatar file // req.body will hold the text fields, if any });

      // Handling multiple file uploads app.post('/photos/upload', upload.array('photos', 12), function (req, res, next) { // req.files is an array of photos files // req.body will contain the text fields, if any });

      // Handling a combination of single and multiple file uploads const cpUpload = upload.fields([{ name: 'avatar', maxCount: 1 }, { name: 'gallery', maxCount: 8 }]); app.post('/cool-profile', cpUpload, function (req, res, next) { // req.files is an object where fieldname is the key, and the value is an array of files // req.body will contain the text fields, if any });

      app.listen(3000, () => { console.log('Server is running on port 3000'); }); ```

      Summary:

      • Multer is a middleware for handling file uploads in Node.js.
      • It adds objects to the request (req) to handle both form fields (body) and uploaded files (file or files).
      • Use enctype="multipart/form-data" in your HTML form to enable file uploads.
      • The upload.single('avatar') middleware handles a single file upload.
      • The upload.array('photos', 12) middleware handles multiple file uploads.
      • The upload.fields([...]) middleware handles a combination of single and multiple file uploads.

      When you use upload.single('myFile') middleware in your route (/upload-single), it indicates that you are expecting a single file with the field name 'myFile' in the request. The uploaded file information will be available in the req.file object. Let's break down the information you'll get in req.file:

      Example:

      Suppose you have a simple HTML form like this:

      ```html

      <form action="/upload-single" method="post" enctype="multipart/form-data"> <label for="file">Choose a file:</label> <input type="file" name="myFile" id="file"> <input type="submit" value="Upload"> </form>

      ```

      And your server code is:

      ```javascript const express = require('express'); const multer = require('multer'); const app = express(); const port = 3000;

      const storage = multer.memoryStorage(); const upload = multer({ storage: storage });

      app.post('/upload-single', upload.single('myFile'), (req, res) => { const file = req.file; console.log(file); res.send('File uploaded successfully!'); });

      app.listen(port, () => { console.log(Server is listening on port ${port}); }); ```

      If a user submits the form by choosing a file named "example.txt", you might get the following information in the req.file object:

      javascript { fieldname: 'myFile', originalname: 'example.txt', encoding: '7bit', mimetype: 'text/plain', size: 1234, // size in bytes buffer: <Buffer ...> // file content as a Buffer }

      Explanation of req.file properties:

      • fieldname: The name of the field specified in the form ('myFile' in this case).
      • originalname: The original name of the file on the user's computer ('example.txt').
      • encoding: The encoding type of the file ('7bit').
      • mimetype: The MIME type of the file ('text/plain' for a text file).
      • size: Size of the file in bytes (1234 in this example).
      • buffer: A Buffer containing the entire file (useful if you want to process the file in memory).

      This information provides details about the uploaded file, and you can use it as needed in your server logic.

    3. storage DiskStorage The disk storage engine gives you full control on storing files to disk. const storage = multer.diskStorage({ destination: function (req, file, cb) { cb(null, '/tmp/my-uploads') }, filename: function (req, file, cb) { const uniqueSuffix = Date.now() + '-' + Math.round(Math.random() * 1E9) cb(null, file.fieldname + '-' + uniqueSuffix) } }) const upload = multer({ storage: storage }) There are two options available, destination and filename. They are both functions that determine where the file should be stored. destination is used to determine within which folder the uploaded files should be stored. This can also be given as a string (e.g. '/tmp/uploads'). If no destination is given, the operating system's default directory for temporary files is used. Note: You are responsible for creating the directory when providing destination as a function. When passing a string, multer will make sure that the directory is created for you. filename is used to determine what the file should be named inside the folder. If no filename is given, each file will be given a random name that doesn't include any file extension. Note: Multer will not append any file extension for you, your function should return a filename complete with an file extension. Each function gets passed both the request (req) and some information about the file (file) to aid with the decision. Note that req.body might not have been fully populated yet. It depends on the order that the client transmits fields and files to the server. For understanding the calling convention used in the callback (needing to pass null as the first param), refer to Node.js error handling MemoryStorage The memory storage engine stores the files in memory as Buffer objects. It doesn't have any options. const storage = multer.memoryStorage() const upload = multer({ storage: storage }) When using memory storage, the file info will contain a field called buffer that contains the entire file. WARNING: Uploading very large files, or relatively small files in large numbers very quickly, can cause your application to run out of memory when memory storage is used. limits An object specifying the size limits of the following optional properties. Multer passes this object into busboy directly, and the details of the properties can be found on busboy's page. The following integer values are available: Key Description Default fieldNameSize Max field name size 100 bytes fieldSize Max field value size (in bytes) 1MB fields Max number of non-file fields Infinity fileSize For multipart forms, the max file size (in bytes) Infinity files For multipart forms, the max number of file fields Infinity parts For multipart forms, the max number of parts (fields + files) Infinity headerPairs For multipart forms, the max number of header key=>value pairs to parse 2000 Specifying the limits can help protect your site against denial of service (DoS) attacks. fileFilter Set this to a function to control which files should be uploaded and which should be skipped. The function should look like this: function fileFilter (req, file, cb) { // The function should call `cb` with a boolean // to indicate if the file should be accepted // To reject this file pass `false`, like so: cb(null, false) // To accept the file pass `true`, like so: cb(null, true) // You can always pass an error if something goes wrong: cb(new Error('I don\'t have a clue!')) } Error handling When encountering an error, Multer will delegate the error to Express. You can display a nice error page using the standard express way. If you want to catch errors specifically from Multer, you can call the middleware function by yourself. Also, if you want to catch only the Multer errors, you can use the MulterError class that is attached to the multer object itself (e.g. err instanceof multer.MulterError). const multer = require('multer') const upload = multer().single('avatar') app.post('/profile', function (req, res) { upload(req, res, function (err) { if (err instanceof multer.MulterError) { // A Multer error occurred when uploading. } else if (err) { // An unknown error occurred when uploading. } // Everything went fine. }) }) Custom storage engine For information on how to build your own storage engine, see Multer Storage Engine. License MIT

      Let's break down the provided information about Multer's storage engines and related options:

      DiskStorage:

      The DiskStorage engine provides full control over storing files to disk. You can configure it with the following options:

      ```javascript const storage = multer.diskStorage({ destination: function (req, file, cb) { cb(null, '/tmp/my-uploads'); // Specify the destination folder }, filename: function (req, file, cb) { const uniqueSuffix = Date.now() + '-' + Math.round(Math.random() * 1E9); cb(null, file.fieldname + '-' + uniqueSuffix); // Specify the filename } });

      const upload = multer({ storage: storage }); `` In the context of the provided code,cbstands for "callback." It is a function that you pass to another function, and it gets executed once the other function has completed its task. In Node.js, callbacks are commonly used to handle asynchronous operations. The first parameter of the callback function (null` in this case) conventionally represents an error parameter. If an error occurs during the execution of the function, it will be passed as the first argument to the callback.

      Now, let's break down the code:

      ```javascript const storage = multer.diskStorage({ destination: function (req, file, cb) { cb(null, '/tmp/my-uploads'); // Specify the destination folder }, filename: function (req, file, cb) { const uniqueSuffix = Date.now() + '-' + Math.round(Math.random() * 1E9); cb(null, file.fieldname + '-' + uniqueSuffix); // Specify the filename } });

      const upload = multer({ storage: storage }); ```

      1. storage: This variable is an instance of multer.diskStorage, which is a storage engine for multer that allows you to control the storage destination and file naming.

      2. destination: This is a function that determines the folder where the uploaded files will be stored. In this case, it is set to '/tmp/my-uploads'. The cb function is called with null (indicating no error) and the destination folder path.

      3. filename: This is a function that determines the name of the uploaded file. It appends a unique suffix to the original filename using the current timestamp and a random number. The cb function is called with null (indicating no error) and the generated filename.

      Here's an example of how you might use this setup in an Express route:

      ```javascript const express = require('express'); const multer = require('multer'); const app = express(); const port = 3000;

      app.post('/upload', upload.single('myFile'), (req, res) => { res.send('File uploaded successfully!'); });

      app.listen(port, () => { console.log(Server is running on port ${port}); }); ```

      In this example, a file with the field name 'myFile' is expected to be uploaded. The upload.single('myFile') middleware handles the file upload using the configured storage engine. - destination: Determines the folder where uploaded files should be stored. If not provided, the operating system's default directory for temporary files is used. It can be either a string or a function. - filename: Determines the name of the file inside the destination folder. If not provided, each file is given a random name without an extension.

      MemoryStorage:

      The MemoryStorage engine stores files in memory as Buffer objects. It doesn't have additional options:

      javascript const storage = multer.memoryStorage(); const upload = multer({ storage: storage });

      When using memory storage, the file info will contain a field called buffer that contains the entire file.

      Warning: Uploading very large files or numerous small files quickly can cause your application to run out of memory when using memory storage.

      Limits:

      An object specifying size limits for different properties when uploading files. It's passed into busboy directly, and you can set the following limits:

      • fieldNameSize: Max field name size (default: 100 bytes)
      • fieldSize: Max field value size (default: 1MB)
      • fields: Max number of non-file fields (default: Infinity)
      • fileSize: Max file size for multipart forms (default: Infinity)
      • files: Max number of file fields for multipart forms (default: Infinity)
      • parts: Max number of parts (fields + files) for multipart forms (default: Infinity)
      • headerPairs: Max number of header key=>value pairs to parse for multipart forms (default: 2000)

      Specifying limits helps protect your site against denial of service (DoS) attacks.

      fileFilter:

      You can set a function to control which files should be uploaded and which should be skipped. The function should look like this:

      javascript function fileFilter(req, file, cb) { // The function should call `cb` with a boolean to indicate if the file should be accepted // To reject a file, pass `false`, to accept, pass `true` // You can pass an error if something goes wrong cb(null, true); }

      Error Handling:

      Multer delegates errors to Express. If you want to catch errors specifically from Multer, you can call the middleware function yourself. Additionally, you can use the MulterError class attached to the multer object to catch only Multer-specific errors:

      ```javascript const upload = multer().single('avatar');

      app.post('/profile', function (req, res) { upload(req, res, function (err) { if (err instanceof multer.MulterError) { // A Multer error occurred when uploading. } else if (err) { // An unknown error occurred when uploading. } // Everything went fine. }); }); ```

      Custom Storage Engine:

      For information on building your own storage engine, refer to the "Multer Storage Engine" documentation.

      License:

      Multer is licensed under the MIT license.

    1. Parameters:[filter] «Object» mongodb selector [options] «Object» Returns:«Query» thisSee:countDocumentsSpecifies this query as a countDocuments() query. Behaves like count(), except it always does a full collection scan when passed an empty filter {}. There are also minor differences in how countDocuments() handles $where and a couple geospatial operators. versus count(). This function triggers the following middleware. countDocuments() Example: const countQuery = model.where({ 'color': 'black' }).countDocuments(); query.countDocuments({ color: 'black' }).count().exec(); await query.countDocuments({ color: 'black' }); query.where('color', 'black').countDocuments().exec(); The countDocuments() function is similar to count(), but there are a few operators that countDocuments() does not support. Below are the operators that count() supports but countDocuments() does not, and the suggested replacement: $where: $expr $near: $geoWithin with $center $nearSphere: $geoWithin with $centerSphere

      Certainly! Let's break down the usage of countDocuments in Mongoose in simpler terms with examples:

      1. Basic Usage: - countDocuments is a method in Mongoose that allows you to count the number of documents in a collection based on a given filter. - It is used directly on the model and takes a filter object as an argument to specify the conditions.

      javascript const count = YourModel.countDocuments({ field: 'value' }, (err, count) => { if (err) { console.error(err); } else { console.log(`Total documents: ${count}`); } });

      2. Empty Filter for Total Count: - You can use an empty filter {} to count all documents in the collection.

      javascript const totalCount = YourModel.countDocuments({}, (err, count) => { if (err) { console.error(err); } else { console.log(`Total documents: ${count}`); } });

      3. Count with Middleware: - You can chain countDocuments with other query methods, and it triggers middleware.

      javascript const countQuery = YourModel.where({ color: 'black' }).countDocuments();

      4. Example with await: - You can use await with countDocuments in an asynchronous context.

      javascript const count = await YourModel.countDocuments({ status: 'active' }); console.log(`Total active documents: ${count}`);

      5. Operators and Differences with count(): - countDocuments is similar to count(), but there are some operators it does not support.

      javascript // Example using $where, $near, $nearSphere const countQuery = YourModel.where({ color: 'black' }).countDocuments();

      • For $where, you can use $expr.
      • For $near and $nearSphere, you can use $geoWithin with $center or $centerSphere.

      ```javascript // Example using $expr, $geoWithin with $center const countQuery = YourModel.where({ $expr: { $gt: ['$field1', '$field2'] } }).countDocuments();

      // Example using $geoWithin with $center const countQuery = YourModel.where({ location: { $geoWithin: { $center: [[longitude, latitude], radius], }, }, }).countDocuments(); ```

      Remember to replace YourModel with the actual name of your Mongoose model and adjust the fields and values based on your schema.

    1. send emails, html and attachments (files, streams and strings) from node.js to any smtp server INSTALLING npm install emailjs Copy And SaveShareAsk Copilot FEATURES works with SSL and TLS smtp servers supports smtp authentication ('PLAIN', 'LOGIN', 'CRAM-MD5', 'XOAUTH2') emails are queued and the queue is sent asynchronously supports sending html emails and emails with multiple attachments (MIME) attachments can be added as strings, streams or file paths supports utf-8 headers and body built-in type declarations automatically handles greylisting REQUIRES auth access to an SMTP Server if your service (ex: gmail) uses two-step authentication, use an application specific password

      An application-specific password is a unique, randomly generated password that is used to provide secure access to your account when you are using a non-browser application or device that cannot directly ask for your account password. It's a way to enhance security by allowing you to use specific passwords for different applications or devices, reducing the risk associated with sharing your main account password.

      Here's how you can generate an application-specific password, using Gmail as an example:

      1. Enable Two-Step Verification:
      2. Go to your Google Account settings.
      3. Under "Security," find the "Signing in to Google" section and select "2-Step Verification."
      4. Follow the on-screen instructions to enable two-step verification for your Google account.

      5. Generate an Application-Specific Password:

      6. After enabling two-step verification, go back to your Google Account settings.
      7. Under "Security," find the "Signing in to Google" section and select "App passwords."
      8. You may need to enter your Google account password again.
      9. Select the app and device for which you want to generate the application-specific password.
      10. Click "Generate."

      11. Use the Application-Specific Password:

      12. The generated password is what you use with the specific application or device you chose.
      13. Treat this password like any other password. Keep it secure and don't share it.

      Remember, you'll need to generate separate application-specific passwords for each application or device that requires access to your Google account. If you ever stop using the application or device, you can revoke its access by simply revoking the associated application-specific password.

      Certainly! The instructions are for using the "emailjs" library in Node.js to send emails with various features. Let's break it down:

      1. Installation: Use the following command to install the necessary library: bash npm install emailjs

      2. Features:

      3. Works with both SSL and TLS SMTP servers.
      4. Supports different SMTP authentication methods like 'PLAIN', 'LOGIN', 'CRAM-MD5', and 'XOAUTH2'.
      5. Emails are queued, and the queue is sent asynchronously, allowing for efficient handling.
      6. Supports sending HTML emails and emails with multiple attachments using MIME (Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions).
      7. Attachments can be added as strings, streams, or file paths.
      8. Supports UTF-8 for headers and body of the email.
      9. Built-in type declarations for ease of use.
      10. Automatically handles situations like greylisting.

      11. Requirements:

      12. Requires authentication access to an SMTP server. This is usually provided by your email service provider (like Gmail, Yahoo, etc.).
      13. If your email service uses two-step authentication (like Gmail with a verification code), you should use an application-specific password for security.

      In simpler terms, it's a tool for Node.js that helps you send emails using various advanced features like attachments, HTML content, and different authentication methods. It's designed to work with different email services, and you just need to follow the provided instructions to set it up with your SMTP server.

    1. let configOptions = { host: "smtp.example.com", port: 587, tls: { rejectUnauthorized: true, minVersion: "TLSv1.2" } } I have issues with DNS / hosts file Node.js uses c-ares to resolve domain names, not the DNS library provided by the system, so if you have some custom DNS routing set up, it might be ignored. Nodemailer runs dns.resolve4() and dns.resolve6() to resolve hostname into an IP address. If both calls fail, then Nodemailer will fall back to dns.lookup(). If this does not work for you, you can hard code the IP address into the configuration like shown below. In that case, Nodemailer would not perform any DNS lookups. let configOptions = { host: "1.2.3.4", port: 465, secure: true, tls: { // must provide server name, otherwise TLS certificate check will fail servername: "example.com" } } I have an issue with TypeScript types Nodemailer has official support for Node.js only. For anything related to TypeScript, you need to directly contact the authors of the type definitions. I have a different problem If you are having issues with Nodemailer, then the best way to find help would be Stack Overflow or revisit the docs. License Nodemailer is licensed under the MIT No Attribution license The Nodemailer logo was designed by Sven Kristjansen.

      1. DNS/Hosts File Issues:

      • Problem:<br /> If you're facing DNS or hosts file problems, Nodemailer might not resolve domain names as expected.

      • Solution:<br /> You can bypass DNS resolution and directly use an IP address in the configuration.

      Example: javascript let configOptions = { host: "1.2.3.4", port: 465, secure: true, tls: { servername: "example.com" } };

      In this example, we're using the IP address "1.2.3.4" instead of the domain name.

      2. TypeScript Types Issue:

      • Problem:<br /> Nodemailer officially supports Node.js only, and TypeScript issues need to be addressed with the type definition authors.

      • Solution:<br /> If you encounter TypeScript problems, it's recommended to contact the authors of the type definitions directly for assistance.

      3. Other Problems:

      • Problem:<br /> If you have a different problem with Nodemailer, seeking help on Stack Overflow or revisiting the documentation is recommended.

      4. License Information:

      • License:<br /> Nodemailer is licensed under the MIT No Attribution license.

      5. Simple Syntax and Examples:

      Here's a consolidated example of Nodemailer configuration combining the mentioned solutions:

      ```javascript let configOptions = { // Using IP address to bypass DNS resolution host: "1.2.3.4", port: 465, secure: true, tls: { servername: "example.com" } };

      // Creating a Nodemailer transporter const nodemailer = require('nodemailer'); let transporter = nodemailer.createTransport(configOptions);

      // Defining email content let mailOptions = { from: 'your_email@gmail.com', to: 'recipient@example.com', subject: 'Hello from Nodemailer!', text: 'This is a test email.' };

      // Sending the email transporter.sendMail(mailOptions, (error, info) => { if (error) { console.error(error); } else { console.log('Email sent: ' + info.response); } }); ```

      This example covers using an IP address, configuring TLS, and sending a simple email using Nodemailer in a Node.js environment.

    2. ee nodemailer.com for documentation and terms. TipCheck out EmailEngine – a self-hosted email gateway that allows making REST requests against IMAP and SMTP servers. EmailEngine also sends webhooks whenever something changes on the registered accounts. Using the email accounts registered with EmailEngine, you can receive and send emails. EmailEngine supports OAuth2, delayed sends, opens and clicks tracking, bounce detection, etc. All on top of regular email accounts without an external MTA service. Having an issue? First review the docs Documentation for Nodemailer can be found at nodemailer.com. Nodemailer throws a SyntaxError for "..." You are using an older Node.js version than v6.0. Upgrade Node.js to get support for the spread operator. Nodemailer supports all Node.js versions starting from Node.js@v6.0.0. I'm having issues with Gmail Gmail either works well, or it does not work at all. It is probably easier to switch to an alternative service instead of fixing issues with Gmail. If Gmail does not work for you, then don't use it. Read more about it here. I get ETIMEDOUT errors Check your firewall settings. Timeout usually occurs when you try to open a connection to a firewalled port either on the server or on your machine. Some ISPs also block email ports to prevent spamming. Nodemailer works on one machine but not in another It's either a firewall issue, or your SMTP server blocks authentication attempts from some servers. I get TLS errors If you are running the code on your machine, check your antivirus settings. Antiviruses often mess around with email ports usage. Node.js might not recognize the MITM cert your antivirus is using. Latest Node versions allow only TLS versions 1.2 and higher. Some servers might still use TLS 1.1 or lower. Check Node.js docs on how to get correct TLS support for your app. You can change this with tls.minVersion option You might have the wrong value for the secure option. This should be set to true only for port 465. For every other port, it should be false. Setting it to false does not mean that Nodemailer would not use TLS. Nodemailer would still try to upgrade the connection to use TLS if the server supports it. Older Node versions do not fully support the certificate chain of the newest Let's Encrypt certificates. Either set tls.rejectUnauthorized to false to skip chain verification or upgrade your Node version

      Certainly! Sending emails from Node.js using Nodemailer is indeed easy. Let's break down the information into simpler terms, along with some syntax examples.

      1. Nodemailer Basics:

      • What is it?<br /> Nodemailer is a Node.js module that makes it easy to send emails using Node.js applications.

      • How to use it?<br /> Install Nodemailer using npm: bash npm install nodemailer

      2. EmailEngine:

      • What is it?<br /> EmailEngine is a self-hosted email gateway that enhances Nodemailer functionalities.

      • Useful features:

        • REST requests against IMAP and SMTP servers.
        • Supports OAuth2, delayed sends, opens and clicks tracking, bounce detection, etc.
      • Where to find more information?<br /> Visit EmailEngine for documentation.

      3. Troubleshooting Tips:

      • SyntaxError with "..."

        • Upgrade Node.js to v6.0.0 or later.
      • Issues with Gmail

        • Consider switching to an alternative service if Gmail causes problems.
      • ETIMEDOUT errors

        • Check firewall settings; ensure email ports are not blocked.
      • Nodemailer on one machine but not another

        • Likely a firewall issue or SMTP server blocking certain servers.
      • TLS errors

        • Check antivirus settings.
        • Ensure Node.js supports correct TLS versions.
        • Set tls.minVersion if needed.
        • Adjust secure option based on port.

      4. Simple Syntax and Examples:

      • Sending an Email: ```javascript const nodemailer = require('nodemailer');

        let transporter = nodemailer.createTransport({ service: 'gmail', auth: { user: 'your_email@gmail.com', pass: 'your_password' } });

        let mailOptions = { from: 'your_email@gmail.com', to: 'recipient@example.com', subject: 'Hello from Nodemailer!', text: 'This is a test email.' };

        transporter.sendMail(mailOptions, (error, info) => { if (error) { console.error(error); } else { console.log('Email sent: ' + info.response); } }); ```

      • Custom SMTP Server: ```javascript const nodemailer = require('nodemailer');

        let transporter = nodemailer.createTransport({ host: 'smtp.example.com', port: 587, secure: false, auth: { user: 'your_username', pass: 'your_password' } });

        // ... rest of the email configuration

        transporter.sendMail(mailOptions, (error, info) => { // ... handle response }); ```

      This should help you get started with sending emails using Nodemailer in Node.js!

    1. Docs Home → Develop Applications → MongoDB Manual$setOn this pageDefinitionCompatibilitySyntaxBehaviorExamplesDefinitionNoteDisambiguationThe following page refers to the update operator $set. For the aggregation stage $set, available starting in MongoDB 4.2, see $set.$setThe $set operator replaces the value of a field with the specified value.CompatibilityYou can use $set for deployments hosted in the following environments:MongoDB Atlas: The fully managed service for MongoDB deployments in the cloudMongoDB Enterprise: The subscription-based, self-managed version of MongoDBMongoDB Community: The source-available, free-to-use, and self-managed version of MongoDBSyntaxThe $set operator expression has the following form:{ $set: { <field1>: <value1>, ... } }To specify a <field> in an embedded document or in an array, use dot notation.BehaviorStarting in MongoDB 5.0, update operators process document fields with string-based names in lexicographic order. Fields with numeric names are processed in numeric order. See Update Operators Behavior for details.If the field does not exist, $set will add a new field with the specified value, provided that the new field does not violate a type constraint. If you specify a dotted path for a non-existent field, $set will create the embedded documents as needed to fulfill the dotted path to the field.If you specify multiple field-value pairs, $set will update or create each field.Starting in MongoDB 5.0, mongod no longer raises an error when you use an update operator like $set with an empty operand expression ( { } ). An empty update results in no changes and no oplog entry is created (meaning that the operation is a no-op).ExamplesCreate the products collection:db.products.insertOne( { _id: 100, quantity: 250, instock: true, reorder: false, details: { model: "14QQ", make: "Clothes Corp" }, tags: [ "apparel", "clothing" ], ratings: [ { by: "Customer007", rating: 4 } ] })Set Top-Level FieldsFor the document matching the criteria _id equal to 100, the following operation uses the $set operator to update the value of the quantity field, details field, and the tags field.db.products.updateOne( { _id: 100 }, { $set: { quantity: 500, details: { model: "2600", make: "Fashionaires" }, tags: [ "coats", "outerwear", "clothing" ] } })The operation updates the:value of quantity to 500details field with new embedded documenttags field with new array{ _id: 100, quantity: 500, instock: true, reorder: false, details: { model: '2600', make: 'Fashionaires' }, tags: [ 'coats', 'outerwear', 'clothing' ], ratings: [ { by: 'Customer007', rating: 4 } ]}Set Fields in Embedded DocumentsTo specify a <field> in an embedded document or in an array, use dot notation.For the document matching the criteria _id equal to 100, the following operation updates the make field in the details document:db.products.updateOne( { _id: 100 }, { $set: { "details.make": "Kustom Kidz" } })After updating, the document has the following values:{ _id: 100, quantity: 500, instock: true, reorder: false, details: { model: '2600', make: 'Kustom Kidz' }, tags: [ 'coats', 'outerwear', 'clothing' ], ratings: [ { by: 'Customer007', rating: 4 } ]}Set Elements in ArraysTo specify a <field> in an embedded document or in an array, use dot notation.For the document matching the criteria _id equal to 100, the following operation updates the value second element (array index of 1) in the tags field and the rating field in the first element (array index of 0) of the ratings array.db.products.updateOne( { _id: 100 }, { $set: { "tags.1": "rain gear", "ratings.0.rating": 2 } })After updating, the document has the following values:{ _id: 100, quantity: 500, instock: true, reorder: false, details: { model: '2600', make: 'Kustom Kidz' }, tags: [ 'coats', 'rain gear', 'clothing' ], ratings: [ { by: 'Customer007', rating: 2 } ]}

      Certainly! In simple terms, the $set operator in MongoDB is used to update or add fields to a document in a collection. Let's break down the key points with examples:

      Basic Usage:

      The basic syntax of the $set operator looks like this:

      javascript { $set: { <field1>: <value1>, ... } }

      • It is used within the updateOne or updateMany methods to update documents in the collection.

      Behavior:

      1. Updating Existing Field: If the field already exists in the document, $set will update its value.

      Example: javascript // Updating quantity field to 500 for the document with _id equal to 100 db.products.updateOne( { _id: 100 }, { $set: { quantity: 500 } } );

      1. Creating New Field: If the field does not exist, $set will add a new field with the specified value.

      Example: javascript // Adding a new field 'newField' with the value 'example' for the document with _id equal to 100 db.products.updateOne( { _id: 100 }, { $set: { newField: 'example' } } );

      1. Updating Embedded Documents: You can use dot notation to update fields within embedded documents.

      Example: javascript // Updating the 'make' field inside the 'details' embedded document db.products.updateOne( { _id: 100 }, { $set: { "details.make": "Kustom Kidz" } } );

      1. Updating Arrays: Dot notation is also used to update specific elements in arrays.

      Example: javascript // Updating the second element in the 'tags' array and the rating field in the first element of the 'ratings' array db.products.updateOne( { _id: 100 }, { $set: { "tags.1": "rain gear", "ratings.0.rating": 2 } } );

      Tips:

      • Empty Update: Starting from MongoDB 5.0, an empty $set update ( { $set: {} } ) results in no changes.

      • Compatibility: $set can be used in MongoDB Atlas, MongoDB Enterprise, and MongoDB Community.

      In summary, $set is a powerful operator that allows you to update existing fields, add new fields, and modify values within embedded documents and arrays in MongoDB collections.

  7. Jan 2024
    1. See:mongodbPulls items from the array atomically. Equality is determined by casting the provided value to an embedded document and comparing using the Document.equals() function. Example: doc.array.pull(ObjectId) doc.array.pull({ _id: 'someId' }) doc.array.pull(36) doc.array.pull('tag 1', 'tag 2') To remove a document from a subdocument array we may pass an object with a matching _id. doc.subdocs.push({ _id: 4815162342 }) doc.subdocs.pull({ _id: 4815162342 }) // removed Or we may passing the _id directly and let mongoose take care of it. doc.subdocs.push({ _id: 4815162342 }) doc.subdocs.pull(4815162342); // works The first pull call will result in a atomic operation on the database, if pull is called repeatedly without saving the document, a $set operation is used on the complete array instead, overwriting possible changes that happened on the database in the meantime.

      Certainly! Let's break down the explanation step by step.

      Purpose of pull in Mongoose:

      In Mongoose, the pull method is used to remove items from an array field in a document. It is designed to work atomically, meaning it ensures consistency even if multiple operations are being performed simultaneously.

      Syntax:

      javascript doc.array.pull(...args);

      How it works:

      • Equality Check: The method uses an equality check by casting the provided value to an embedded document and comparing using the Document.equals() function.

      • Atomic Operation: When you call pull, it performs an atomic operation on the database, ensuring that the removal is done in a single step.

      • Example: javascript doc.array.pull(ObjectId); // Removes an item by matching ObjectId doc.array.pull({ _id: 'someId' }); // Removes an item by matching the _id field doc.array.pull(36); // Removes an item by matching the value 36 doc.array.pull('tag 1', 'tag 2'); // Removes items with values 'tag 1' and 'tag 2'

      Removing from Subdocument Array:

      You can use pull to remove items from a subdocument array as well.

      • Example: ```javascript // Removing by passing an object with a matching _id doc.subdocs.push({ _id: 4815162342 }); doc.subdocs.pull({ _id: 4815162342 }); // removes the subdocument

      // Removing by passing the _id directly doc.subdocs.push({ _id: 4815162342 }); doc.subdocs.pull(4815162342); // works in the same way ```

      Atomic Operation and $set:

      • The first pull call results in an atomic operation on the database.
      • If pull is called repeatedly without saving the document, a $set operation is used on the complete array instead. This means it overwrites any possible changes that happened on the database in the meantime.

      Usage in Mongoose:

      In Mongoose, you can use pull on an array field of a document. Here's a simple example:

      ```javascript const mongoose = require('mongoose');

      const schema = new mongoose.Schema({ items: [{ type: String }] });

      const Model = mongoose.model('Example', schema);

      // Example usage Model.findOne({ _id: 'someId' }, (err, doc) => { if (err) throw err;

      // Removing 'unwantedItem' from the 'items' array doc.items.pull('unwantedItem');

      // Save the document to persist the changes to the database doc.save((saveErr) => { if (saveErr) throw saveErr; console.log('Item removed successfully.'); }); }); ```

      In this example, pull is used to remove an item from the 'items' array of a document, and then the changes are saved to the database.

    1. How to Use findOneAndUpdate() in Mongoose The findOneAndUpdate() function in Mongoose has a wide variety of use cases. You should use save() to update documents where possible, for better validation and middleware support. However, there are some cases where you need to use findOneAndUpdate(). In this tutorial, you'll see how to use findOneAndUpdate(), and learn when you need to use it. Getting Started Atomic Updates Upsert The includeResultMetadata Option Getting Started As the name implies, findOneAndUpdate() finds the first document that matches a given filter, applies an update, and returns the document. By default, findOneAndUpdate() returns the document as it was before update was applied. const Character = mongoose.model('Character', new mongoose.Schema({ name: String, age: Number })); await Character.create({ name: 'Jean-Luc Picard' }); const filter = { name: 'Jean-Luc Picard' }; const update = { age: 59 }; // `doc` is the document _before_ `update` was applied let doc = await Character.findOneAndUpdate(filter, update); doc.name; // 'Jean-Luc Picard' doc.age; // undefined doc = await Character.findOne(filter); doc.age; // 59 You should set the new option to true to return the document after update was applied. const filter = { name: 'Jean-Luc Picard' }; const update = { age: 59 }; // `doc` is the document _after_ `update` was applied because of // `new: true` const doc = await Character.findOneAndUpdate(filter, update, { new: true }); doc.name; // 'Jean-Luc Picard' doc.age; // 59 Mongoose's findOneAndUpdate() is slightly different from the MongoDB Node.js driver's findOneAndUpdate() because it returns the document itself, not a result object. As an alternative to the new option, you can also use the returnOriginal option. returnOriginal: false is equivalent to new: true. The returnOriginal option exists for consistency with the the MongoDB Node.js driver's findOneAndUpdate(), which has the same option. const filter = { name: 'Jean-Luc Picard' }; const update = { age: 59 }; // `doc` is the document _after_ `update` was applied because of // `returnOriginal: false` const doc = await Character.findOneAndUpdate(filter, update, { returnOriginal: false }); doc.name; // 'Jean-Luc Picard' doc.age; // 59 Atomic Updates With the exception of an unindexed upsert, findOneAndUpdate() is atomic. That means you can assume the document doesn't change between when MongoDB finds the document and when it updates the document, unless you're doing an upsert. For example, if you're using save() to update a document, the document can change in MongoDB in between when you load the document using findOne() and when you save the document using save() as show below. For many use cases, the save() race condition is a non-issue. But you can work around it with findOneAndUpdate() (or transactions) if you need to. const filter = { name: 'Jean-Luc Picard' }; const update = { age: 59 }; let doc = await Character.findOne({ name: 'Jean-Luc Picard' }); // Document changed in MongoDB, but not in Mongoose await Character.updateOne(filter, { name: 'Will Riker' }); // This will update `doc` age to `59`, even though the doc changed. doc.age = update.age; await doc.save(); doc = await Character.findOne(); doc.name; // Will Riker doc.age; // 59 Upsert Using the upsert option, you can use findOneAndUpdate() as a find-and-upsert operation. An upsert behaves like a normal findOneAndUpdate() if it finds a document that matches filter. But, if no document matches filter, MongoDB will insert one by combining filter and update as shown below. const filter = { name: 'Will Riker' }; const update = { age: 29 }; await Character.countDocuments(filter); // 0 const doc = await Character.findOneAndUpdate(filter, update, { new: true, upsert: true // Make this update into an upsert }); doc.name; // Will Riker doc.age; // 29 The includeResultMetadata Option Mongoose transforms the result of findOneAndUpdate() by default: it returns the updated document. That makes it difficult to check whether a document was upserted or not. In order to get the updated document and check whether MongoDB upserted a new document in the same operation, you can set the includeResultMetadata flag to make Mongoose return the raw result from MongoDB. const filter = { name: 'Will Riker' }; const update = { age: 29 }; await Character.countDocuments(filter); // 0 const res = await Character.findOneAndUpdate(filter, update, { new: true, upsert: true, // Return additional properties about the operation, not just the document includeResultMetadata: true }); res.value instanceof Character; // true // The below property will be `false` if MongoDB upserted a new // document, and `true` if MongoDB updated an existing object. res.lastErrorObject.updatedExisting; // false Here's what the res object from the above example looks like: { lastErrorObject: { n: 1, updatedExisting: false, upserted: 5e6a9e5ec6e44398ae2ac16a }, value: { _id: 5e6a9e5ec6e44398ae2ac16a, name: 'Will Riker', __v: 0, age: 29 }, ok: 1 }

      Certainly! Let's break down the usage of findOneAndUpdate() in Mongoose with simple explanations and examples:

      1. Basic Usage:

      • findOneAndUpdate() is used to find and update a document in a Mongoose model.
      • By default, it returns the document as it was before the update.

      ```javascript const filter = { name: 'Jean-Luc Picard' }; const update = { age: 59 };

      // Find and update the document let doc = await Character.findOneAndUpdate(filter, update); ```

      2. Returning Updated Document:

      • To get the document after the update, set the new option to true.

      javascript const doc = await Character.findOneAndUpdate(filter, update, { new: true });

      3. Atomic Updates:

      • findOneAndUpdate() is atomic, meaning the document won't change between finding and updating, except for upserts.

      ```javascript let doc = await Character.findOne({ name: 'Jean-Luc Picard' });

      // Assume document changed in MongoDB, but not in Mongoose await Character.updateOne(filter, { name: 'Will Riker' });

      // Update doc age to 59, even though the doc changed doc.age = update.age; await doc.save(); ```

      4. Upsert (Find and Upsert):

      • Use the upsert option to perform an upsert, i.e., insert a new document if no match is found.

      ```javascript const filter = { name: 'Will Riker' }; const update = { age: 29 };

      const doc = await Character.findOneAndUpdate(filter, update, { upsert: true, new: true }); ```

      5. Include Result Metadata:

      • To check if a document was upserted or updated, use the includeResultMetadata option.

      ```javascript const res = await Character.findOneAndUpdate(filter, update, { upsert: true, new: true, includeResultMetadata: true });

      // Check if MongoDB upserted a new document if (!res.lastErrorObject.updatedExisting) { console.log('Document was upserted!'); } ```

      These examples cover the basics of using findOneAndUpdate() in Mongoose, including updating documents, performing upserts, and checking result metadata.

    1. Before Mongoose 5.2.0, you needed to enable the keepAlive option to initiate TCP keepalive to prevent "connection closed" errors errors. However, keepAlive has been true by default since Mongoose 5.2.0, and the keepAlive is deprecated as of Mongoose 7.2.0. Please remove keepAlive and keepAliveInitialDelay options from your Mongoose connections. Replica Set Connections To connect to a replica set you pass a comma delimited list of hosts to connect to rather than a single host. mongoose.connect('mongodb://[username:password@]host1[:port1][,host2[:port2],...[,hostN[:portN]]][/[database][?options]]' [, options]); For example: mongoose.connect('mongodb://user:pw@host1.com:27017,host2.com:27017,host3.com:27017/testdb'); To connect to a single node replica set, specify the replicaSet option. mongoose.connect('mongodb://host1:port1/?replicaSet=rsName');

      Replica Set in Simple Terms:

      A MongoDB replica set is like having multiple copies of your data stored in different servers to ensure data reliability, fault tolerance, and availability.

      Example:

      Imagine you have important documents, and you want to keep them safe. Instead of having just one copy in a single drawer (server), you make identical copies and store them in different drawers (servers). If something happens to one drawer (like it breaks or gets lost), you still have other copies, ensuring your documents are secure and accessible.

      In Technical Terms:

      • Primary Node: The main server where all write operations occur. This is like the primary drawer where you initially place your documents.

      • Secondary Nodes: Exact copies of the data on the primary node. These are like additional drawers with the same documents. They provide backups and can take over if the primary node fails.

      • Replica Set: The entire collection of servers (drawers) with one primary node and several secondary nodes. It's a mechanism to ensure data redundancy and high availability.

      • Automatic Failover: If the primary node (drawer) becomes unavailable, one of the secondary nodes automatically takes over as the primary. This ensures continuous access to your data.

      Benefits: 1. Data Redundancy: Copies of your data exist in multiple places. 2. High Availability: If one server goes down, another can take over. 3. Automatic Backups: Secondary nodes serve as backups. 4. Fault Tolerance: System can withstand server failures.

      In MongoDB, you connect to a replica set using a connection string that includes multiple server addresses. For example: javascript mongoose.connect('mongodb://host1:port1,host2:port2,host3:port3/mydatabase');

      So, a replica set is like having a secure system where your important documents (data) are stored in multiple locations, ensuring safety and accessibility.

    2. You can connect to MongoDB with the mongoose.connect() method. mongoose.connect('mongodb://127.0.0.1:27017/myapp'); This is the minimum needed to connect the myapp database running locally on the default port (27017). For local MongoDB databases, we recommend using 127.0.0.1 instead of localhost. That is because Node.js 18 and up prefer IPv6 addresses, which means, on many machines, Node.js will resolve localhost to the IPv6 address ::1 and Mongoose will be unable to connect, unless the mongodb instance is running with ipv6 enabled. You can also specify several more parameters in the uri: mongoose.connect('mongodb://username:password@host:port/database?options...'); See the mongodb connection string spec for more details. Buffering Error Handling Options serverSelectionTimeoutMS Connection String Options Connection Events A note about keepAlive Server Selection Replica Set Connections Replica Set Host Names Multi-mongos support Multiple connections Connection Pools Multi Tenant Connections Operation Buffering Mongoose lets you start using your models immediately, without waiting for mongoose to establish a connection to MongoDB. mongoose.connect('mongodb://127.0.0.1:27017/myapp'); const MyModel = mongoose.model('Test', new Schema({ name: String })); // Works await MyModel.findOne(); That's because mongoose buffers model function calls internally. This buffering is convenient, but also a common source of confusion. Mongoose will not throw any errors by default if you use a model without connecting. const MyModel = mongoose.model('Test', new Schema({ name: String })); const promise = MyModel.findOne(); setTimeout(function() { mongoose.connect('mongodb://127.0.0.1:27017/myapp'); }, 60000); // Will just hang until mongoose successfully connects await promise; To disable buffering, turn off the bufferCommands option on your schema. If you have bufferCommands on and your connection is hanging, try turning bufferCommands off to see if you haven't opened a connection properly. You can also disable bufferCommands globally: mongoose.set('bufferCommands', false); Note that buffering is also responsible for waiting until Mongoose creates collections if you use the autoCreate option. If you disable buffering, you should also disable the autoCreate option and use createCollection() to create capped collections or collections with collations.

      Certainly! Let's break down the concept of buffering in Mongoose with a simple explanation and example:

      Buffering in Mongoose:

      Mongoose allows you to perform certain database operations even before the connection to MongoDB is fully established. This is achieved through a mechanism called "buffering," where Mongoose temporarily stores these operations and executes them once the connection is successfully established.

      Example:

      Suppose you have a Mongoose model named MyModel that represents a document in your MongoDB collection. You want to perform a findOne operation on this model even before connecting to the database.

      ```javascript // Define a Mongoose model const MyModel = mongoose.model('Test', new Schema({ name: String }));

      // Perform a findOne operation and store the promise const promise = MyModel.findOne(); // Works even before the connection is established

      // Simulate a delayed connection (e.g., after 60 seconds) setTimeout(function() { mongoose.connect('mongodb://127.0.0.1:27017/myapp'); }, 60000);

      // Will wait until the connection is successful and then execute the findOne operation await promise; ```

      In this example:

      1. You define a Mongoose model named MyModel that represents a document with a name field.

      2. You perform a findOne operation on MyModel and store the promise in the variable promise. This operation is buffered, meaning it won't immediately fail even if there's no established connection.

      3. You simulate a delayed connection to MongoDB using setTimeout. After 60 seconds, you connect to the MongoDB database.

      4. The await promise; line ensures that the findOne operation is executed only after the connection is successfully established. It waits for the promise to be fulfilled.

      This buffering mechanism is convenient in scenarios where you want to start using your models right away, without waiting for the connection to be fully set up. However, keep in mind that buffering may lead to unexpected behavior if not handled carefully, so use it judiciously based on your application's requirements. Certainly! Let's break down the concept of error handling and options in the mongoose.connect() method with a simple explanation and example:

      Error Handling and Options in Mongoose:

      When connecting to MongoDB using Mongoose, the mongoose.connect() method allows you to provide additional options to control the behavior of the connection. These options include settings for handling errors, configuring how Mongoose interacts with MongoDB, and more.

      Example:

      Suppose you want to connect to a MongoDB database named "myapp" running on the local machine. You can use the mongoose.connect() method and provide options as an object.

      javascript // Connect to MongoDB with additional options mongoose.connect('mongodb://127.0.0.1:27017/myapp', { useNewUrlParser: true, // Use the new URL parser useUnifiedTopology: true, // Use the new Server Discovery and Monitoring engine });

      Explanation:

      1. useNewUrlParser: true: This option tells Mongoose to use the new URL parser. It is recommended to include this when connecting to MongoDB using a connection string.

      2. useUnifiedTopology: true: This option enables the use of the new Server Discovery and Monitoring engine. It provides a more modern and efficient way for Mongoose to discover and monitor MongoDB servers in a cluster.

      By including these options, you are configuring the connection to MongoDB with modern and recommended settings. Additionally, these options can help in avoiding common pitfalls and ensure compatibility with the latest features of MongoDB.

      Remember that the mongoose.connect() method supports various other options, and you can tailor them based on your specific needs and the requirements of your MongoDB setup. These options provide flexibility and control over how Mongoose interacts with the MongoDB server during the connection process. Certainly! Let's break down the concepts mentioned in the Mongoose documentation with examples in simpler terms:

      1. Connecting to MongoDB with mongoose.connect():
      2. Mongoose is a library for MongoDB in Node.js, and you use mongoose.connect() to establish a connection.
      3. Example: javascript mongoose.connect('mongodb://127.0.0.1:27017/myapp');

      4. Buffering in Mongoose:

      5. Mongoose buffers (stores temporarily) certain operations, allowing you to use models before the connection is fully established.
      6. Example: ```javascript const MyModel = mongoose.model('Test', new Schema({ name: String })); const promise = MyModel.findOne(); // Works even before the connection is established

        // Simulating a delayed connection setTimeout(function() { mongoose.connect('mongodb://127.0.0.1:27017/myapp'); }, 60000);

        // Will wait until the connection is successful await promise; ```

      7. Disabling Buffering:

      8. You can disable buffering globally or for specific schemas by setting the bufferCommands option.
      9. Example: ```javascript // Disable buffering globally mongoose.set('bufferCommands', false);

        // Disable buffering for a specific schema const schema = new Schema({ name: String }, { bufferCommands: false }); ```

      10. Error Handling and Options:

      11. The mongoose.connect() method can take various options for error handling and configuration.
      12. Example: javascript mongoose.connect('mongodb://127.0.0.1:27017/myapp', { useNewUrlParser: true, useUnifiedTopology: true, });

      13. Connection Events:

      14. Mongoose emits events related to the connection lifecycle. For example, you can listen for the connected event.
      15. Example: javascript mongoose.connection.on('connected', () => { console.log('Connected to MongoDB'); });

      16. Multi-Tenant Connections:

      17. Mongoose supports connecting to multiple databases.
      18. Example: javascript const connection1 = mongoose.createConnection('mongodb://host1/db1'); const connection2 = mongoose.createConnection('mongodb://host2/db2');

      19. Operation Buffering:

      20. Mongoose buffers operations like findOne when there's no established connection.
      21. Example: javascript const MyModel = mongoose.model('Test', new Schema({ name: String })); await MyModel.findOne(); // Will wait until the connection is successful

      Remember, these examples are simplified for understanding. In a real-world scenario, you might want to handle errors more gracefully and make decisions based on your application's requirements.

    1. Parameters:[conditions] «Object» [update] «Object» [options] «Object» optional see Query.prototype.setOptions() [options.returnDocument='before'] «String» Has two possible values, 'before' and 'after'. By default, it will return the document before the update was applied. [options.lean] «Object» if truthy, mongoose will return the document as a plain JavaScript object rather than a mongoose document. See Query.lean() and the Mongoose lean tutorial. [options.session=null] «ClientSession» The session associated with this query. See transactions docs. [options.strict] «Boolean|String» overwrites the schema's strict mode option [options.timestamps=null] «Boolean» If set to false and schema-level timestamps are enabled, skip timestamps for this update. Note that this allows you to overwrite timestamps. Does nothing if schema-level timestamps are not set. [options.upsert=false] «Boolean» if true, and no documents found, insert a new document [options.projection=null] «Object|String|Array[String]» optional fields to return, see Query.prototype.select() [options.new=false] «Boolean» if true, return the modified document rather than the original [options.fields] «Object|String» Field selection. Equivalent to .select(fields).findOneAndUpdate() [options.maxTimeMS] «Number» puts a time limit on the query - requires mongodb >= 2.6.0 [options.sort] «Object|String» if multiple docs are found by the conditions, sets the sort order to choose which doc to update. [options.runValidators] «Boolean» if true, runs update validators on this command. Update validators validate the update operation against the model's schema [options.setDefaultsOnInsert=true] «Boolean» If setDefaultsOnInsert and upsert are true, mongoose will apply the defaults specified in the model's schema if a new document is created [options.includeResultMetadata] «Boolean» if true, returns the raw result from the MongoDB driver [options.translateAliases=null] «Boolean» If set to true, translates any schema-defined aliases in filter, projection, update, and distinct. Throws an error if there are any conflicts where both alias and raw property are defined on the same object.

      Certainly! Let's break down the information about the parameters and options for a MongoDB findOneAndUpdate operation in simple terms, along with an example:

      Purpose:

      The findOneAndUpdate function in MongoDB is used to find a single document that matches certain conditions, update it, and return either the original or the updated document.

      Syntax:

      javascript Model.findOneAndUpdate(conditions, update, options)

      Parameters:

      • conditions: An object specifying the conditions that the document must meet to be considered for the update. It works like a filter to identify the document to be updated.
      • update: An object specifying the changes to be applied to the found document. It contains the new values for the fields you want to update.
      • options: An optional object that allows you to customize the behavior of the update operation.

      Options:

      • returnDocument: Determines whether to return the document before or after the update. Values can be 'before' or 'after'.
      • lean: If truthy, the function returns the document as a plain JavaScript object instead of a Mongoose document.
      • session: The MongoDB client session associated with this query, useful for transactions.
      • strict: Overwrites the schema's strict mode option.
      • timestamps: If set to false and schema-level timestamps are enabled, it skips updating timestamps for this update.
      • upsert: If true and no matching document is found, it inserts a new document with the specified update.
      • projection: Optional fields to return in the result.
      • new: If true, returns the modified document; otherwise, returns the original document.
      • fields: Field selection, equivalent to .select(fields).findOneAndUpdate().
      • maxTimeMS: Puts a time limit on the query.
      • sort: Sets the sort order if multiple documents match the conditions.
      • runValidators: If true, runs update validators on this command.
      • setDefaultsOnInsert: If true, applies the defaults specified in the model's schema when a new document is created.
      • includeResultMetadata: If true, returns the raw result from the MongoDB driver.
      • translateAliases: If true, translates schema-defined aliases.

      Example:

      Let's say we have a MongoDB collection named "users" with documents like this:

      json { "_id": ObjectId("5f4fbf7d94bf551063d84924"), "name": "John Doe", "age": 30, "email": "john@example.com" }

      Now, if we want to update the age of the user with the email "john@example.com" to 31, the findOneAndUpdate operation can be written like this using Mongoose:

      ```javascript const mongoose = require('mongoose'); const User = mongoose.model('User');

      const conditions = { email: "john@example.com" }; const update = { $set: { age: 31 } }; const options = { new: true, upsert: false };

      User.findOneAndUpdate(conditions, update, options) .then(updatedUser => { if (updatedUser) { console.log("User updated successfully."); console.log("Updated User:", updatedUser); } else { console.log("No user found matching the conditions."); } }) .catch(error => { console.error(Error updating user: ${error}); }); ```

      Explanation: - conditions: We are specifying that we want to find the user with the email "john@example.com." - update: We are using the $set operator to update the age field to 31. - options: We want to return the modified document (new: true) and do not want to perform an upsert if the document is not found (upsert: false).

      The result will be the updated user document if found, or null if no user matches the specified conditions.

    2. Parameters:id «Object|Number|String» value of _id to query by [options] «Object» optional see Query.prototype.setOptions() [options.strict] «Boolean|String» overwrites the schema's strict mode option [options.translateAliases=null] «Boolean» If set to true, translates any schema-defined aliases in filter, projection, update, and distinct. Throws an error if there are any conflicts where both alias and raw property are defined on the same object. Returns:«Query» See:Model.findOneAndDeletemongodbIssue a MongoDB findOneAndDelete() command by a document's _id field. In other words, findByIdAndDelete(id) is a shorthand for findOneAndDelete({ _id: id }). This function triggers the following middleware. findOneAndDelete()

      Certainly! Let's go through the possible outcomes and what the function would return in each case:

      Case 1: Document Found and Deleted

      If the document with the specified _id is found and successfully deleted, the function will return the deleted document. In the example:

      ```javascript const mongoose = require('mongoose'); const User = mongoose.model('User');

      const userIdToDelete = "5f4fbf7d94bf551063d84924";

      User.findByIdAndDelete(userIdToDelete) .then(deletedUser => { if (deletedUser) { console.log(User with _id ${userIdToDelete} deleted successfully.); console.log("Deleted User:", deletedUser); } else { console.log(No user found with _id ${userIdToDelete}.); } }) .catch(error => { console.error(Error deleting user: ${error}); }); ```

      If the user with _id "5f4fbf7d94bf551063d84924" exists, the output might look like:

      User with _id 5f4fbf7d94bf551063d84924 deleted successfully. Deleted User: { "_id": ObjectId("5f4fbf7d94bf551063d84924"), "name": "John Doe", "age": 30, "email": "john@example.com" }

      Case 2: Document Not Found

      If no document with the specified _id is found, the function will return null. In the example:

      ```javascript const mongoose = require('mongoose'); const User = mongoose.model('User');

      const userIdToDelete = "nonexistent_id";

      User.findByIdAndDelete(userIdToDelete) .then(deletedUser => { if (deletedUser) { console.log(User with _id ${userIdToDelete} deleted successfully.); console.log("Deleted User:", deletedUser); } else { console.log(No user found with _id ${userIdToDelete}.); } }) .catch(error => { console.error(Error deleting user: ${error}); }); ```

      If there's no user with the specified _id, the output might look like:

      No user found with _id nonexistent_id.

      Case 3: Error Occurs

      If an error occurs during the operation (e.g., database connection issues), the function will reject the promise, and the .catch block will be executed to handle the error. In the example:

      ```javascript const mongoose = require('mongoose'); const User = mongoose.model('User');

      const userIdToDelete = "5f4fbf7d94bf551063d84924";

      User.findByIdAndDelete(userIdToDelete) .then(deletedUser => { if (deletedUser) { console.log(User with _id ${userIdToDelete} deleted successfully.); console.log("Deleted User:", deletedUser); } else { console.log(No user found with _id ${userIdToDelete}.); } }) .catch(error => { console.error(Error deleting user: ${error}); }); ```

      If there's an error, the output might look like:

      Error deleting user: [Error message describing the issue]Certainly! Let's break down the provided information into simpler terms with an example:

      Purpose:

      The goal of this function is to find a document in a MongoDB database using its _id field and then delete that document.

      Parameters:

      • id: This is the unique identifier of the document you want to find and delete. It can be an object, number, or string representing the _id value.
      • options: An optional object that allows you to customize the behavior of the operation.

      Returns:

      The function returns a Query object, which is a way to interact with MongoDB queries.

      Example:

      Suppose you have a MongoDB collection named "users" with documents like this:

      json { "_id": ObjectId("5f4fbf7d94bf551063d84924"), "name": "John Doe", "age": 30, "email": "john@example.com" }

      Now, if you want to find and delete the user with the _id "5f4fbf7d94bf551063d84924," you can use the function like this:

      ```javascript const mongoose = require('mongoose'); const User = mongoose.model('User'); // Assume you have a model named 'User'

      const userIdToDelete = "5f4fbf7d94bf551063d84924";

      // Using findByIdAndDelete function User.findByIdAndDelete(userIdToDelete) .then(deletedUser => { if (deletedUser) { console.log(User with _id ${userIdToDelete} deleted successfully.); } else { console.log(No user found with _id ${userIdToDelete}.); } }) .catch(error => { console.error(Error deleting user: ${error}); }); ```

      This code finds the user with the specified _id and deletes it using the findByIdAndDelete function. The function returns a promise, so we use .then to handle success and .catch to handle errors. The deletedUser variable contains the deleted user document if found, or it is null if no user was found with the specified _id.

    3. Example: A.findByIdAndUpdate(id, update, options) // returns Query A.findByIdAndUpdate(id, update) // returns Query A.findByIdAndUpdate() // returns Query Note: All top level update keys which are not atomic operation names are treated as set operations: Example: Model.findByIdAndUpdate(id, { name: 'jason bourne' }, options) // is sent as Model.findByIdAndUpdate(id, { $set: { name: 'jason bourne' }}, options) Note: findOneAndX and findByIdAndX functions support limited validation. You can enable validation by setting the runValidators option. If you need full-fledged validation, use the traditional approach of first retrieving the document. const doc = await Model.findById(id) doc.name = 'jason bourne'; await doc.save();

      Certainly! Let's break down the examples and notes:

      Examples:

      1. Basic Usage: javascript A.findByIdAndUpdate(id, update, options) // returns Query This is the general format. You provide the id of the document you want to update, the update object with changes, and optional options. It returns a query.

      2. Without Options: javascript A.findByIdAndUpdate(id, update) // returns Query If you don't need additional options, you can skip the options parameter.

      3. Without Arguments: javascript A.findByIdAndUpdate() // returns Query You can also call it without any arguments, but in practice, you would want to provide at least the id and update to identify the document and specify changes.

      Set Operations:

      • When you provide an update object, all top-level keys that are not atomic operation names (like $set, $inc, etc.) are treated as "set" operations. It means they will replace the existing values with the new ones.

      Example: javascript Model.findByIdAndUpdate(id, { name: 'jason bourne' }, options) This is treated as: javascript Model.findByIdAndUpdate(id, { $set: { name: 'jason bourne' }}, options)

      Notes:

      1. Limited Validation:
      2. The findOneAndX and findByIdAndX functions support limited validation. You can enable validation by setting the runValidators option.

      3. Full-Fledged Validation:

      4. If you need comprehensive validation, use the traditional approach. Retrieve the document first, make changes, and then save it. This ensures all validation checks are applied.

      Example: javascript const doc = await Model.findById(id) doc.name = 'jason bourne'; await doc.save();

      In summary, these examples demonstrate the flexibility of findByIdAndUpdate() and its behavior in handling updates and validations. It's a powerful method for making quick updates based on the document's ID, but it's important to be aware of the nuances, especially regarding validation.

    4. Parameters:filter «Object|ObjectId» [projection] «Object|String|Array[String]» optional fields to return, see Query.prototype.select() [options] «Object» optional see Query.prototype.setOptions() [options.translateAliases=null] «Boolean» If set to true, translates any schema-defined aliases in filter, projection, update, and distinct. Throws an error if there are any conflicts where both alias and raw property are defined on the same object. Returns:«Query» See:field selectionquery castingFinds documents. Mongoose casts the filter to match the model's schema before the command is sent. See our query casting tutorial for more information on how Mongoose casts filter. Example: // find all documents await MyModel.find({}); // find all documents named john and at least 18 await MyModel.find({ name: 'john', age: { $gte: 18 } }).exec(); // executes, name LIKE john and only selecting the "name" and "friends" fields await MyModel.find({ name: /john/i }, 'name friends').exec(); // passing options await MyModel.find({ name: /john/i }, null, { skip: 10 }).exec();

      Yes, the find function in Mongoose will return an array of documents that match the specified conditions. The result of the find operation is an array, even if there's only one document or no documents that match the criteria.

      Here's a simple example:

      ```javascript const result = await MyModel.find({ name: 'John' }).exec();

      console.log(result); ```

      In this case, result will be an array containing all the documents in the MyModel collection where the name is 'John'. If no documents match the condition, the array will be empty. Sure, let's break down the Mongoose find function and its parameters in simpler terms with examples:

      1. filter: This is like a set of conditions you want the documents to meet. You're specifying what you're looking for in the database.

      Example: ```javascript // find all documents await MyModel.find({});

      // find all documents named John and at least 18 years old await MyModel.find({ name: 'John', age: { $gte: 18 } }).exec(); ```

      1. projection: This is optional. It allows you to specify which fields you want to retrieve from the documents.

      Example: javascript // executes, finding documents where name is like "john" and only selecting the "name" and "friends" fields await MyModel.find({ name: /john/i }, 'name friends').exec();

      1. options: Another optional parameter. It allows you to set additional options, like skipping a certain number of documents.

      Example: javascript // passing options, finding documents where name is like "john" and skipping the first 10 await MyModel.find({ name: /john/i }, null, { skip: 10 }).exec();

      1. options.translateAliases: This is a special option. If set to true, it translates any schema-defined aliases in the filter, projection, update, and distinct.

      2. Returns: The function returns a Query object, which is essentially a set of instructions to find documents based on the provided parameters.

      Example: javascript const query = MyModel.find({ name: 'John' });

      In summary, the find function helps you search for documents in your MongoDB collection based on certain conditions, retrieve only the fields you need, and set additional options. The examples provided demonstrate how to use these parameters in various scenarios.

    5. arameters:id «Object|Number|String» value of _id to query by [update] «Object» [options] «Object» optional see Query.prototype.setOptions() [options.returnDocument='before'] «String» Has two possible values, 'before' and 'after'. By default, it will return the document before the update was applied. [options.lean] «Object» if truthy, mongoose will return the document as a plain JavaScript object rather than a mongoose document. See Query.lean() and the Mongoose lean tutorial. [options.session=null] «ClientSession» The session associated with this query. See transactions docs. [options.strict] «Boolean|String» overwrites the schema's strict mode option [options.timestamps=null] «Boolean» If set to false and schema-level timestamps are enabled, skip timestamps for this update. Note that this allows you to overwrite timestamps. Does nothing if schema-level timestamps are not set. [options.sort] «Object|String» if multiple docs are found by the conditions, sets the sort order to choose which doc to update. [options.runValidators] «Boolean» if true, runs update validators on this command. Update validators validate the update operation against the model's schema [options.setDefaultsOnInsert=true] «Boolean» If setDefaultsOnInsert and upsert are true, mongoose will apply the defaults specified in the model's schema if a new document is created [options.includeResultMetadata] «Boolean» if true, returns the full ModifyResult from the MongoDB driver rather than just the document [options.upsert=false] «Boolean» if true, and no documents found, insert a new document [options.new=false] «Boolean» if true, return the modified document rather than the original [options.select] «Object|String» sets the document fields to return. [options.translateAliases=null] «Boolean» If set to true, translates any schema-defined aliases in filter, projection, update, and distinct. Throws an error if there are any conflicts where both alias and raw property are defined on the same object. Returns:«Query» See:Model.findOneAndUpdatemongodbIssues a mongodb findOneAndUpdate command by a document's _id field. findByIdAndUpdate(id, ...) is equivalent to findOneAndUpdate({ _id: id }, ...). Finds a matching document, updates it according to the update arg, passing any options, and returns the found document (if any). This function triggers the following middleware. findOneAndUpdate()

      In simpler terms, the findByIdAndUpdate function is a method provided by the Mongoose library in Node.js, used for updating documents in a MongoDB collection based on their unique identifier (_id). Let's break down the key components:

      Syntax:

      javascript Model.findByIdAndUpdate(id, update, options)

      • id: The unique identifier of the document you want to update.
      • update: An object specifying the changes you want to make to the document.
      • options: Additional settings for the update operation (optional).

      Example:

      ```javascript const User = require('./models/User');

      // Update the user with ID '123' to have the name 'John Doe' User.findByIdAndUpdate('123', { name: 'John Doe' }, { new: true }) .then(updatedUser => { console.log(updatedUser); }) .catch(error => { console.error(error); }); ```

      In this example: - We're using the User model. - The document with the ID '123' will have its name field updated to 'John Doe'. - The { new: true } option indicates that the method should return the modified document, rather than the original one.

      Return Value:

      The findByIdAndUpdate function returns a Mongoose Query object. This object allows you to chain additional methods or execute the query using .exec(). If you want the result of the update, you need to handle it using .then() for a Promise-based approach or use await if inside an async function.

      ```javascript // Using .then() User.findByIdAndUpdate('123', { name: 'John Doe' }, { new: true }) .then(updatedUser => { console.log(updatedUser); }) .catch(error => { console.error(error); });

      // Using async/await try { const updatedUser = await User.findByIdAndUpdate('123', { name: 'John Doe' }, { new: true }); console.log(updatedUser); } catch (error) { console.error(error); } ```

      So, in simple terms, findByIdAndUpdate helps you find a document by its ID, update it with new information, and retrieve the updated document. The return value is a Query object, which you can use to further interact with the Mongoose query if needed.

    1. Resetting state with a key You’ll often encounter the key attribute when rendering lists. However, it also serves another purpose. You can reset a component’s state by passing a different key to a component. In this example, the Reset button changes the version state variable, which we pass as a key to the Form. When the key changes, React re-creates the Form component (and all of its children) from scratch, so its state gets reset. Read preserving and resetting state to learn more. App.jsApp.js Download ResetFork9912345678910111213141516171819202122232425262728293031import { useState } from 'react';export default function App() { const [version, setVersion] = useState(0); function handleReset() { setVersion(version + 1); } return ( <> <button onClick={handleReset}>Reset</button> <Form key={version} /> </> );}function Form() { const [name, setName] = useState('Taylor'); return ( <> <input value={name} onChange={e => setName(e.target.value)} /> <p>Hello, {name}.</p> </> );}Show more Storing information from previous renders Usually, you will update state in event handlers. However, in rare cases you might want to adjust state in response to rendering — for example, you might want to change a state variable when a prop changes. In most cases, you don’t need this: If the value you need can be computed entirely from the current props or other state, remove that redundant state altogether. If you’re worried about recomputing too often, the useMemo Hook can help. If you want to reset the entire component tree’s state, pass a different key to your component. If you can, update all the relevant state in the event handlers. In the rare case that none of these apply, there is a pattern you can use to update state based on the values that have been rendered so far, by calling a set function while your component is rendering. Here’s an example. This CountLabel component displays the count prop passed to it: export default function CountLabel({ count }) { return <h1>{count}</h1>} Say you want to show whether the counter has increased or decreased since the last change. The count prop doesn’t tell you this — you need to keep track of its previous value. Add the prevCount state variable to track it. Add another state variable called trend to hold whether the count has increased or decreased. Compare prevCount with count, and if they’re not equal, update both prevCount and trend. Now you can show both the current count prop and how it has changed since the last render. App.jsCountLabel.jsCountLabel.js ResetFork991234567891011121314151617import { useState } from 'react';export default function CountLabel({ count }) { const [prevCount, setPrevCount] = useState(count); const [trend, setTrend] = useState(null); if (prevCount !== count) { setPrevCount(count); setTrend(count > prevCount ? 'increasing' : 'decreasing'); } return ( <> <h1>{count}</h1> {trend && <p>The count is {trend}</p>} </> );}Show more Note that if you call a set function while rendering, it must be inside a condition like prevCount !== count, and there must be a call like setPrevCount(count) inside of the condition. Otherwise, your component would re-render in a loop until it crashes. Also, you can only update the state of the currently rendering component like this. Calling the set function of another component during rendering is an error. Finally, your set call should still update state without mutation — this doesn’t mean you can break other rules of pure functions. This pattern can be hard to understand and is usually best avoided. However, it’s better than updating state in an effect. When you call the set function during render, React will re-render that component immediately after your component exits with a return statement, and before rendering the children. This way, children don’t need to render twice. The rest of your component function will still execute (and the result will be thrown away). If your condition is below all the Hook calls, you may add an early return; to restart rendering earlier. Troubleshooting I’ve updated the state, but logging gives me the old value Calling the set function does not change state in the running code: function handleClick() { console.log(count); // 0 setCount(count + 1); // Request a re-render with 1 console.log(count); // Still 0! setTimeout(() => { console.log(count); // Also 0! }, 5000);} This is because states behaves like a snapshot. Updating state requests another render with the new state value, but does not affect the count JavaScript variable in your already-running event handler. If you need to use the next state, you can save it in a variable before passing it to the set function: const nextCount = count + 1;setCount(nextCount);console.log(count); // 0console.log(nextCount); // 1 I’ve updated the state, but the screen doesn’t update React will ignore your update if the next state is equal to the previous state, as determined by an Object.is comparison. This usually happens when you change an object or an array in state directly: obj.x = 10; // 🚩 Wrong: mutating existing objectsetObj(obj); // 🚩 Doesn't do anything You mutated an existing obj object and passed it back to setObj, so React ignored the update. To fix this, you need to ensure that you’re always replacing objects and arrays in state instead of mutating them: // ✅ Correct: creating a new objectsetObj({ ...obj, x: 10}); I’m getting an error: “Too many re-renders” You might get an error that says: Too many re-renders. React limits the number of renders to prevent an infinite loop. Typically, this means that you’re unconditionally setting state during render, so your component enters a loop: render, set state (which causes a render), render, set state (which causes a render), and so on. Very often, this is caused by a mistake in specifying an event handler: // 🚩 Wrong: calls the handler during renderreturn <button onClick={handleClick()}>Click me</button>// ✅ Correct: passes down the event handlerreturn <button onClick={handleClick}>Click me</button>// ✅ Correct: passes down an inline functionreturn <button onClick={(e) => handleClick(e)}>Click me</button> If you can’t find the cause of this error, click on the arrow next to the error in the console and look through the JavaScript stack to find the specific set function call responsible for the error. My initializer or updater function runs twice In Strict Mode, React will call some of your functions twice instead of once: function TodoList() { // This component function will run twice for every render. const [todos, setTodos] = useState(() => { // This initializer function will run twice during initialization. return createTodos(); }); function handleClick() { setTodos(prevTodos => { // This updater function will run twice for every click. return [...prevTodos, createTodo()]; }); } // ... This is expected and shouldn’t break your code. This development-only behavior helps you keep components pure. React uses the result of one of the calls, and ignores the result of the other call. As long as your component, initializer, and updater functions are pure, this shouldn’t affect your logic. However, if they are accidentally impure, this helps you notice the mistakes. For example, this impure updater function mutates an array in state: setTodos(prevTodos => { // 🚩 Mistake: mutating state prevTodos.push(createTodo());}); Because React calls your updater function twice, you’ll see the todo was added twice, so you’ll know that there is a mistake. In this example, you can fix the mistake by replacing the array instead of mutating it: setTodos(prevTodos => { // ✅ Correct: replacing with new state return [...prevTodos, createTodo()];}); Now that this updater function is pure, calling it an extra time doesn’t make a difference in behavior. This is why React calling it twice helps you find mistakes. Only component, initializer, and updater functions need to be pure. Event handlers don’t need to be pure, so React will never call your event handlers twice. Read keeping components pure to learn more. I’m trying to set state to a function, but it gets called instead You can’t put a function into state like this: const [fn, setFn] = useState(someFunction);function handleClick() { setFn(someOtherFunction);} Because you’re passing a function, React assumes that someFunction is an initializer function, and that someOtherFunction is an updater function, so it tries to call them and store the result. To actually store a function, you have to put () => before them in both cases. Then React will store the functions you pass. const [fn, setFn] = useState(() => someFunction);function handleClick() { setFn(() => someOtherFunction);}

      Certainly! Let's break down the explanation with examples in simple words:

      Resetting State with a Key:

      In React, you can reset a component's state by changing its key. This is demonstrated in the example:

      ```jsx import { useState } from 'react';

      export default function App() { const [version, setVersion] = useState(0);

      function handleReset() { setVersion(version + 1); }

      return ( <> <button onClick={handleReset}>Reset</button> {/ Form component with a key based on the version state /} <Form key={version} /> <br /> ); }

      function Form() { const [name, setName] = useState('Taylor');

      return ( <> <input value={name} onChange={e => setName(e.target.value)} />

      Hello, {name}.

      <br /> ); } ```

      In this example, the Form component's key is tied to the version state. When you click the "Reset" button, it increments the version, causing React to recreate the Form component from scratch. This results in the state of the Form being reset.

      Storing Information from Previous Renders:

      Sometimes, you might want to adjust state in response to rendering. The example introduces the CountLabel component:

      ```jsx import { useState } from 'react';

      export default function CountLabel({ count }) { const [prevCount, setPrevCount] = useState(count); const [trend, setTrend] = useState(null);

      if (prevCount !== count) { setPrevCount(count); setTrend(count > prevCount ? 'increasing' : 'decreasing'); }

      return ( <>

      {count}

      {trend &&

      The count is {trend}

      } <br /> ); } ```

      Here, the CountLabel component tracks the previous count and determines the trend (increasing or decreasing) when the count prop changes during rendering.

      Troubleshooting Tips:

      The examples provide troubleshooting tips for common issues, such as avoiding infinite re-renders, handling state updates, and understanding the behavior of initializer and updater functions.

      Summary:

      • Changing a component's key can reset its state.
      • Storing information from previous renders may require additional state variables.
      • Troubleshooting tips help address common issues related to state updates.

      These concepts are essential for effective state management in React components.

    2. Avoiding recreating the initial state React saves the initial state once and ignores it on the next renders. function TodoList() { const [todos, setTodos] = useState(createInitialTodos()); // ... Although the result of createInitialTodos() is only used for the initial render, you’re still calling this function on every render. This can be wasteful if it’s creating large arrays or performing expensive calculations. To solve this, you may pass it as an initializer function to useState instead: function TodoList() { const [todos, setTodos] = useState(createInitialTodos); // ... Notice that you’re passing createInitialTodos, which is the function itself, and not createInitialTodos(), which is the result of calling it. If you pass a function to useState, React will only call it during initialization. React may call your initializers twice in development to verify that they are pure. The difference between passing an initializer and passing the initial state directly1. Passing the initializer function 2. Passing the initial state directly Example 1 of 2: Passing the initializer function This example passes the initializer function, so the createInitialTodos function only runs during initialization. It does not run when component re-renders, such as when you type into the input.App.jsApp.js Download ResetFork991234567891011121314151617181920212223242526272829303132333435363738394041import { useState } from 'react';function createInitialTodos() { const initialTodos = []; for (let i = 0; i < 50; i++) { initialTodos.push({ id: i, text: 'Item ' + (i + 1) }); } return initialTodos;}export default function TodoList() { const [todos, setTodos] = useState(createInitialTodos); const [text, setText] = useState(''); return ( <> <input value={text} onChange={e => setText(e.target.value)} /> <button onClick={() => { setText(''); setTodos([{ id: todos.length, text: text }, ...todos]); }}>Add</button> <ul> {todos.map(item => ( <li key={item.id}> {item.text} </li> ))} </ul> </> );}Show moreNext Example

      Certainly! Let's break down the concept of avoiding recreating the initial state in simple words with an example:

      Avoiding Recreating Initial State:

      When using the useState hook in React, it's essential to be mindful of how you initialize your state, especially when dealing with functions that might be computationally expensive. React provides a way to optimize this process.

      Example 1: Passing the Initializer Function

      ```jsx import { useState } from 'react';

      function createInitialTodos() { const initialTodos = []; for (let i = 0; i < 50; i++) { initialTodos.push({ id: i, text: 'Item ' + (i + 1) }); } return initialTodos; }

      export default function TodoList() { const [todos, setTodos] = useState(createInitialTodos); const [text, setText] = useState('');

      return ( <> <input value={text} onChange={e => setText(e.target.value)} /> <button onClick={() => { setText(''); setTodos([{ id: todos.length, text: text }, ...todos]); }}>Add</button>

        {todos.map(item => (
      • {item.text}
      • ))}
      <br /> ); } ```

      In this example:

      • createInitialTodos is a function that generates an initial list of todos.
      • Instead of calling createInitialTodos() directly when initializing the state, you pass the function itself to useStateuseState(createInitialTodos).
      • React will call createInitialTodos only during the component's initialization, not on every re-render.

      Simple Explanation:

      When you pass a function to useState, React saves the function and calls it only during the initial rendering of the component. This is beneficial when the initialization involves heavy computations or expensive operations.

      • Calling Function Directly: jsx const [todos, setTodos] = useState(createInitialTodos()); // Calls the function on every render

      • Passing Function Reference: jsx const [todos, setTodos] = useState(createInitialTodos); // Calls the function only during initialization

      Why Does It Matter?

      Passing a function reference instead of calling the function directly can be more efficient. If you call the function directly, it will be invoked on every render, even if the result remains the same. By passing the function reference, React optimizes by calling it only during the initial render.

      In summary, when using useState, consider passing the function reference to avoid unnecessary recalculations of the initial state on every re-render, especially when dealing with computationally expensive operations.

    3. Is using an updater always preferred? Show DetailsYou might hear a recommendation to always write code like setAge(a => a + 1) if the state you’re setting is calculated from the previous state. There is no harm in it, but it is also not always necessary.In most cases, there is no difference between these two approaches. React always makes sure that for intentional user actions, like clicks, the age state variable would be updated before the next click. This means there is no risk of a click handler seeing a “stale” age at the beginning of the event handler.However, if you do multiple updates within the same event, updaters can be helpful. They’re also helpful if accessing the state variable itself is inconvenient (you might run into this when optimizing re-renders).If you prefer consistency over slightly more verbose syntax, it’s reasonable to always write an updater if the state you’re setting is calculated from the previous state. If it’s calculated from the previous state of some other state variable, you might want to combine them into one object and use a reducer. The difference between passing an updater and passing the next state directly1. Passing the updater function 2. Passing the next state directly Example 1 of 2: Passing the updater function This example passes the updater function, so the “+3” button works.App.jsApp.js Download ResetFork99123456789101112131415161718192021222324import { useState } from 'react';export default function Counter() { const [age, setAge] = useState(42); function increment() { setAge(a => a + 1); } return ( <> <h1>Your age: {age}</h1> <button onClick={() => { increment(); increment(); increment(); }}>+3</button> <button onClick={() => { increment(); }}>+1</button> </> );}Show moreNext Example Updating objects and arrays in state You can put objects and arrays into state. In React, state is considered read-only, so you should replace it rather than mutate your existing objects. For example, if you have a form object in state, don’t mutate it: // 🚩 Don't mutate an object in state like this:form.firstName = 'Taylor'; Instead, replace the whole object by creating a new one: // ✅ Replace state with a new objectsetForm({ ...form, firstName: 'Taylor'}); Read updating objects in state and updating arrays in state to learn more. Examples of objects and arrays in state1. Form (object) 2. Form (nested object) 3. List (array) 4. Writing concise update logic with Immer Example 1 of 4: Form (object) In this example, the form state variable holds an object. Each input has a change handler that calls setForm with the next state of the entire form. The { ...form } spread syntax ensures that the state object is replaced rather than mutated.App.jsApp.js Download ResetFork991234567891011121314151617181920212223242526272829303132333435363738394041424344454647484950515253545556import { useState } from 'react';export default function Form() { const [form, setForm] = useState({ firstName: 'Barbara', lastName: 'Hepworth', email: 'bhepworth@sculpture.com', }); return ( <> <label> First name: <input value={form.firstName} onChange={e => { setForm({ ...form, firstName: e.target.value }); }} /> </label> <label> Last name: <input value={form.lastName} onChange={e => { setForm({ ...form, lastName: e.target.value }); }} /> </label> <label> Email: <input value={form.email} onChange={e => { setForm({ ...form, email: e.target.value }); }} /> </label> <p> {form.firstName}{' '} {form.lastName}{' '} ({form.email}) </p> </> );}Show moreNext Example

      Certainly! Let's explore the difference between passing an updater function and passing the next state directly in simple words with examples:

      Example 1: Passing the Updater Function

      ```jsx import { useState } from 'react';

      export default function Counter() { const [age, setAge] = useState(42);

      function increment() { setAge(a => a + 1); }

      return ( <>

      Your age: {age}

      <button onClick={() => { increment(); increment(); increment(); }}>+3</button> <button onClick={() => { increment(); }}>+1</button> <br /> ); } ```

      In this example:

      • The increment function uses an updater function to increase the age by 1.
      • The "+3" button calls increment three times. Because of the updater function, each call gets the latest state, resulting in the age being incremented by 3.

      Example 2: Passing the Next State Directly

      ```jsx import { useState } from 'react';

      export default function Counter() { const [age, setAge] = useState(42);

      function increment() { setAge(age + 1); }

      return ( <>

      Your age: {age}

      <button onClick={() => { increment(); increment(); increment(); }}>+3</button> <button onClick={() => { increment(); }}>+1</button> <br /> ); } ```

      In this example:

      • The increment function directly passes the next state (age + 1) to setAge.
      • The "+3" button calls increment three times. However, because the state updates are asynchronous, the value of age may not be what you expect due to the batching of updates.

      Why Use Updater Functions?

      Using updater functions is often preferred, especially when you need to calculate the next state based on the current state. It ensures that each call gets the most recent state, even if there are multiple state updates in quick succession.

      Example 3: Updating an Object in State

      ```jsx import { useState } from 'react';

      export default function Form() { const [form, setForm] = useState({ firstName: 'Barbara', lastName: 'Hepworth', email: 'bhepworth@sculpture.com', });

      return ( <> <label> First name: <input value={form.firstName} onChange={e => { setForm({ ...form, firstName: e.target.value }); }} /> </label> <label> Last name: <input value={form.lastName} onChange={e => { setForm({ ...form, lastName: e.target.value }); }} /> </label> <label> Email: <input value={form.email} onChange={e => { setForm({ ...form, email: e.target.value }); }} /> </label>

      {form.firstName}{' '} {form.lastName}{' '} ({form.email})

      <br /> ); } ```

      In this example, we use the spread syntax and an updater function to update an object (form) in state.

      Simple Explanation:

      • Updater Function: Use it when you want to ensure that the state you're working with is the most recent one, especially in scenarios with quick and multiple updates.

      • Directly Passing Next State: This approach may not guarantee the most up-to-date state due to batching, and it's typically used when the next state doesn't depend on the current state.

      In summary, while both approaches work, using updater functions is often preferred when the next state depends on the current state, providing a more reliable and expected behavior in your React components.

    4. Updating state based on the previous state Suppose the age is 42. This handler calls setAge(age + 1) three times: function handleClick() { setAge(age + 1); // setAge(42 + 1) setAge(age + 1); // setAge(42 + 1) setAge(age + 1); // setAge(42 + 1)} However, after one click, age will only be 43 rather than 45! This is because calling the set function does not update the age state variable in the already running code. So each setAge(age + 1) call becomes setAge(43). To solve this problem, you may pass an updater function to setAge instead of the next state: function handleClick() { setAge(a => a + 1); // setAge(42 => 43) setAge(a => a + 1); // setAge(43 => 44) setAge(a => a + 1); // setAge(44 => 45)} Here, a => a + 1 is your updater function. It takes the pending state and calculates the next state from it. React puts your updater functions in a queue. Then, during the next render, it will call them in the same order: a => a + 1 will receive 42 as the pending state and return 43 as the next state. a => a + 1 will receive 43 as the pending state and return 44 as the next state. a => a + 1 will receive 44 as the pending state and return 45 as the next state. There are no other queued updates, so React will store 45 as the current state in the end. By convention, it’s common to name the pending state argument for the first letter of the state variable name, like a for age. However, you may also call it like prevAge or something else that you find clearer. React may call your updaters twice in development to verify that they are pure.

      Certainly! Let's dive into this concept with more detail and simple language:

      Updating State Based on Previous State:

      In React, when you want to update the state based on its current value, you need to be mindful of the asynchronous nature of the setState function. If you repeatedly call setState with the same state value in a synchronous block of code, React might not have updated the state in between calls.

      Example of the Issue:

      Consider the following code:

      ```jsx function Counter() { const [age, setAge] = useState(42);

      function handleClick() { setAge(age + 1); // age is 42, setAge(42 + 1) setAge(age + 1); // age is still 42, setAge(42 + 1) setAge(age + 1); // age is still 42, setAge(42 + 1) }

      return ( <div>

      Age: {age}

      <button onClick={handleClick}>Increment Age</button> </div> ); } ```

      Here, even though setAge is called three times in a row, after the first call, age remains 42 in the subsequent calls because the state updates are asynchronous.

      Solving the Problem with Updater Function:

      To ensure that you're working with the most recent state, you can pass an updater function to setAge instead of the next state directly:

      ```jsx function Counter() { const [age, setAge] = useState(42);

      function handleClick() { setAge((prevAge) => prevAge + 1); // prevAge is 42, setAge(42 => 43) setAge((prevAge) => prevAge + 1); // prevAge is now 43, setAge(43 => 44) setAge((prevAge) => prevAge + 1); // prevAge is now 44, setAge(44 => 45) }

      return ( <div>

      Age: {age}

      <button onClick={handleClick}>Increment Age</button> </div> ); } ```

      Now, by using an updater function with setAge, React ensures that each call gets the most up-to-date state (prevAge), and you get the correct sequence of state updates.

      How Updater Function Works:

      • The updater function, in this case, takes the previous state (prevAge) and calculates the next state by adding 1.
      • React puts these updater functions in a queue.
      • During the next render, React calls each updater function in the order they were queued, ensuring the correct sequence of state updates.

      By convention, the argument to the updater function is often named after the state variable, like prevAge. This makes it clear that it represents the previous state of the age variable.

      Strict Mode Warnings:

      In development mode, React might call your updater functions twice to check for accidental impurities. However, this doesn't affect the production behavior.

      In simpler terms, using updater functions with setState ensures that you work with the latest state when updating based on the previous state, preventing issues caused by the asynchronous nature of state updates in React.

      Certainly! Let's break down the concept of batching state updates in React in simple words with an example:

      Batching State Updates in React:

      When you make multiple state updates in a React component, React doesn't immediately apply each update. Instead, it batches them together for efficiency. This means that several state updates are grouped and processed together to avoid unnecessary renders.

      Example - Without Batching:

      Consider this example without batching:

      ```jsx function Counter() { const [count, setCount] = useState(0);

      function handleClick() { setCount(count + 1); // Update 1 setCount(count + 1); // Update 2 setCount(count + 1); // Update 3 }

      return ( <div>

      Count: {count}

      <button onClick={handleClick}>Increment Count</button> </div> ); } ```

      In this example:

      • Initially, count is 0.
      • When you click the button, three consecutive state updates are triggered.

      Without batching, React would process each update immediately. After the first update, the subsequent updates would still see the old count value.

      Example - With Batching:

      React batches these updates together, ensuring they are processed in a more efficient way. Here's how React would handle it:

      ```jsx function Counter() { const [count, setCount] = useState(0);

      function handleClick() { // React batches these updates setCount(count + 1); // Update 1 setCount(count + 1); // Update 2 setCount(count + 1); // Update 3 // React processes them together, avoiding unnecessary renders }

      return ( <div>

      Count: {count}

      <button onClick={handleClick}>Increment Count</button> </div> ); } ```

      With batching, React processes these state updates together. It calculates the new state based on the current state at the time of the batch, ensuring that the updates are applied more efficiently.

      Simple Explanation:

      Batching is like collecting multiple change requests and applying them all at once, rather than one by one. It's similar to a waiter taking multiple orders from a table and bringing all the dishes together to save time.

      In the context of React, batching state updates helps prevent unnecessary renders and makes the application more efficient.

      In summary, React batches state updates to optimize performance by processing multiple updates together, resulting in a more responsive and efficient user interface.

    5. Caveats useState is a Hook, so you can only call it at the top level of your component or your own Hooks. You can’t call it inside loops or conditions. If you need that, extract a new component and move the state into it. In Strict Mode, React will call your initializer function twice in order to help you find accidental impurities. This is development-only behavior and does not affect production. If your initializer function is pure (as it should be), this should not affect the behavior. The result from one of the calls will be ignored. set functions, like setSomething(nextState) The set function returned by useState lets you update the state to a different value and trigger a re-render. You can pass the next state directly, or a function that calculates it from the previous state: const [name, setName] = useState('Edward');function handleClick() { setName('Taylor'); setAge(a => a + 1); // ... Parameters nextState: The value that you want the state to be. It can be a value of any type, but there is a special behavior for functions. If you pass a function as nextState, it will be treated as an updater function. It must be pure, should take the pending state as its only argument, and should return the next state. React will put your updater function in a queue and re-render your component. During the next render, React will calculate the next state by applying all of the queued updaters to the previous state. See an example below. Returns set functions do not have a return value. Caveats The set function only updates the state variable for the next render. If you read the state variable after calling the set function, you will still get the old value that was on the screen before your call. If the new value you provide is identical to the current state, as determined by an Object.is comparison, React will skip re-rendering the component and its children. This is an optimization. Although in some cases React may still need to call your component before skipping the children, it shouldn’t affect your code. React batches state updates. It updates the screen after all the event handlers have run and have called their set functions. This prevents multiple re-renders during a single event. In the rare case that you need to force React to update the screen earlier, for example to access the DOM, you can use flushSync. Calling the set function during rendering is only allowed from within the currently rendering component. React will discard its output and immediately attempt to render it again with the new state. This pattern is rarely needed, but you can use it to store information from the previous renders. See an example below. In Strict Mode, React will call your updater function twice in order to help you find accidental impurities. This is development-only behavior and does not affect production. If your updater function is pure (as it should be), this should not affect the behavior. The result from one of the calls will be ignored. Usage Adding state to a component Call useState at the top level of your component to declare one or more state variables. import { useState } from 'react';function MyComponent() { const [age, setAge] = useState(42); const [name, setName] = useState('Taylor'); // ... The convention is to name state variables like [something, setSomething] using array destructuring. useState returns an array with exactly two items: The current state of this state variable, initially set to the initial state you provided. The set function that lets you change it to any other value in response to interaction. To update what’s on the screen, call the set function with some next state: function handleClick() { setName('Robin');} React will store the next state, render your component again with the new values, and update the UI. PitfallCalling the set function does not change the current state in the already executing code:function handleClick() { setName('Robin'); console.log(name); // Still "Taylor"!}It only affects what useState will return starting from the next render.

      Absolutely, let's simplify the concepts with examples:

      1. Declaring State with useState:

      When using useState in React, you declare state variables at the top level of your component. The convention is to name state variables using array destructuring, like [something, setSomething].

      ```jsx import { useState } from 'react';

      function MyComponent() { // Declaring state variables: age and name const [age, setAge] = useState(42); const [name, setName] = useState('Taylor'); // ... } ```

      Here, age and name are state variables initialized with default values, and setAge and setName are the corresponding functions to update these state variables.

      2. Updating State with set Functions:

      To update the state and trigger a re-render, you use the set functions:

      jsx function handleClick() { // Updating the state variables setName('Robin'); setAge((prevAge) => prevAge + 1); // Using a function to calculate the next state based on the previous state }

      • setName('Robin'): Updates the name state variable directly.
      • setAge((prevAge) => prevAge + 1): Uses a function to calculate the next state of age based on the previous state.

      3. Pitfall: Asynchronous Nature:

      One pitfall to be aware of is that calling the set function doesn't immediately change the state in the current code execution:

      jsx function handleClick() { setName('Robin'); console.log(name); // Still "Taylor"! }

      Here, the console.log will still output the old value of name. The state update takes effect on the next render, not immediately.

      4. Avoiding Unnecessary Renders:

      React has optimizations in place to avoid unnecessary renders. If the new state provided to the set function is identical to the current state, React skips re-rendering:

      jsx setName('Taylor'); // No re-render because the new value is the same as the current value

      This is an optimization to make React more efficient.

      5. Special Behavior for Functions:

      If you pass a function to setState, it's treated as an updater function, and it's called during the next render:

      jsx setAge((prevAge) => prevAge + 1);

      Here, the function receives the previous state (prevAge) and returns the next state, allowing more dynamic state updates.

      6. Strict Mode Warnings:

      In Strict Mode, React might call your updater function twice during development to help identify accidental impurities. However, this doesn't affect production.

      In simple terms, useState is a powerful hook that allows functional components to have and manage state, enabling dynamic and interactive user interfaces in React.

    6. Reference useState(initialState) Call useState at the top level of your component to declare a state variable. import { useState } from 'react';function MyComponent() { const [age, setAge] = useState(28); const [name, setName] = useState('Taylor'); const [todos, setTodos] = useState(() => createTodos()); // ... The convention is to name state variables like [something, setSomething] using array destructuring. See more examples below. Parameters initialState: The value you want the state to be initially. It can be a value of any type, but there is a special behavior for functions. This argument is ignored after the initial render. If you pass a function as initialState, it will be treated as an initializer function. It should be pure, should take no arguments, and should return a value of any type. React will call your initializer function when initializing the component, and store its return value as the initial state. See an example below. Returns useState returns an array with exactly two values: The current state. During the first render, it will match the initialState you have passed. The set function that lets you update the state to a different value and trigger a re-render.

      Certainly! Let's break down the useState hook in simple terms with examples:

      1. What is useState?

      useState is a hook in React that allows functional components to have state, meaning they can remember values between renders.

      2. How to Use useState:

      Here's a basic example:

      ```jsx import { useState } from 'react';

      function Counter() { // Declaring a state variable 'count' with an initial value of 0 const [count, setCount] = useState(0);

      return ( <div>

      Count: {count}

      <button onClick={() => setCount(count + 1)}>Increment</button> </div> ); } ```

      • count: Represents the current state, initialized with 0.
      • setCount: A function provided by useState to update the count state.

      3. Array Destructuring:

      useState returns an array with two elements, and we use array destructuring to name them:

      jsx const [state, setState] = useState(initialValue);

      • state: Represents the current state.
      • setState: A function to update the state.

      4. Setting Initial State:

      You pass the initial value of your state as an argument to useState. For example:

      jsx const [age, setAge] = useState(28); const [name, setName] = useState('Taylor');

      5. Special Behavior for Functions:

      If your initial state is a function, it's treated as an initializer function:

      jsx const [todos, setTodos] = useState(() => createTodos());

      The function createTodos will be called during the initial render, and its return value will be set as the initial state for todos.

      6. Updating State:

      Use the provided set function to update the state. In the Counter example, setCount(count + 1) increases the count by 1.

      7. Returns:

      useState returns an array with two elements: the current state and the set function.

      jsx const [count, setCount] = useState(0);

      • count: Current state.
      • setCount: Function to update the state.

      In summary, useState allows functional components to manage state, making them more dynamic by remembering and updating values across renders. It's a fundamental tool for building interactive React components. Absolutely, let's simplify this concept:

      Special Behavior for Functions in useState:

      When using useState, if you provide a function as the initial state, React treats it as a special case. This function is called only during the initial rendering of the component, and its return value becomes the initial state.

      Example:

      Let's say you have a function called createTodos that generates an initial set of to-do items. You want to use this set of to-dos as the initial state for a state variable called todos. You can achieve this using useState:

      ```jsx import { useState } from 'react';

      function TodoList() { // Using a function to generate initial to-do items const [todos, setTodos] = useState(() => createTodos());

      // Rest of the component logic...

      return ( <div> {/ Display the to-do list /} {todos.map(todo => ( <div key={todo.id}>{todo.text}</div> ))} </div> ); } ```

      Here:

      • createTodos is a function that generates an array of to-do items.
      • useState(() => createTodos()): During the initial render, createTodos is called, and its return value (the array of to-dos) becomes the initial state for the todos state variable.

      This approach is useful when the calculation of the initial state involves some logic or data fetching that you want to perform only once when the component is initially rendered.

      In simpler terms, it's like saying, "Hey React, use the result of this function to set up the initial state of my component, but only do it once when the component is first shown." This can be handy for more complex scenarios where the initial state requires some computation.

    1. How props change over time The Clock component below receives two props from its parent component: color and time. (The parent component’s code is omitted because it uses state, which we won’t dive into just yet.) Try changing the color in the select box below: Clock.jsClock.js ResetFork912345678export default function Clock({ color, time }) { return ( <h1 style={{ color: color }}> {time} </h1> );} This example illustrates that a component may receive different props over time. Props are not always static! Here, the time prop changes every second, and the color prop changes when you select another color. Props reflect a component’s data at any point in time, rather than only in the beginning. However, props are immutable—a term from computer science meaning “unchangeable”. When a component needs to change its props (for example, in response to a user interaction or new data), it will have to “ask” its parent component to pass it different props—a new object! Its old props will then be cast aside, and eventually the JavaScript engine will reclaim the memory taken by them. Don’t try to “change props”. When you need to respond to the user input (like changing the selected color), you will need to “set state”, which you can learn about in State: A Component’s Memory. Recap To pass props, add them to the JSX, just like you would with HTML attributes. To read props, use the function Avatar({ person, size }) destructuring syntax. You can specify a default value like size = 100, which is used for missing and undefined props. You can forward all props with <Avatar {...props} /> JSX spread syntax, but don’t overuse it! Nested JSX like <Card><Avatar /></Card> will appear as Card component’s children prop. Props are read-only snapshots in time: every render receives a new version of props. You can’t change props. When you need interactivity, you’ll need to set state.

      Certainly! Let's break it down in simple terms:

      1. Props Changing Over Time:

      In React, a component can receive different pieces of information, called "props," from its parent component. Props can change over time, reflecting the changing state of the application.

      2. Example: Clock Component:

      Imagine a Clock component that displays the current time and has a specified color. The Clock component is given two props: color and time.

      jsx // Clock.js export default function Clock({ color, time }) { return ( <h1 style={{ color: color }}> {time} </h1> ); }

      Here, the Clock component uses these props to display the time in a specified color.

      3. Props Are Immutable:

      Props are like snapshots of data at a specific moment. They represent the state of the component at a particular time. However, once set, props are immutable, meaning they cannot be directly changed.

      4. Changing Props:

      If you want to change the information shown by a component in response to user actions (like selecting a different color), you don't directly change the props. Instead, you ask the parent component to provide new props. The component then receives these new props, and it re-renders with the updated information.

      5. Setting State for Interactivity:

      To handle user interactions or dynamic changes, you use "state." If you need to update information dynamically (like changing the selected color in the example), you use state. Changing state triggers a re-render of the component with the updated information.

      6. Recap:

      • Passing Props: Props are like information passed down to a component. You add them in JSX, just like HTML attributes.

      • Reading Props: Use destructuring syntax to read props inside the component.

      • Immutable Nature: Props are immutable, meaning you can't directly change them. If something needs to change, ask the parent component for new props.

      • Setting Default Values: You can set default values for props, ensuring they have a value even if not explicitly provided.

      • Interactivity and State: For dynamic changes and user interactivity, use "state" instead of trying to change props directly.

      By understanding and following these principles, you ensure that your React components stay predictable and can handle changes effectively.

    2. Try replacing the <Avatar> inside <Card> with some text to see how the Card component can wrap any nested content. It doesn’t need to “know” what’s being rendered inside of it. You will see this flexible pattern in many places. You can think of a component with a children prop as having a “hole” that can be “filled in” by its parent components with arbitrary JSX. You will often use the children prop for visual wrappers: panels, grids, etc.

      Certainly! Let's break it down in simpler terms:

      1. Flexible Card Component:

      Imagine you have a Card component in React, and you want it to be flexible enough to wrap any content inside it, whether it's an Avatar, some text, or anything else. The key here is to use the children prop.

      2. Understanding the "Hole" Concept:

      Think of the Card component as having a "hole" in it. This "hole" is represented by the children prop. The beauty of it is that the Card component doesn't need to know in advance what's going to be put inside that "hole."

      3. Example:

      Here's a simple implementation:

      jsx // Card.js function Card(props) { return ( <div className="card"> {props.children} </div> ); }

      Now, you can use the Card component to wrap any content:

      jsx // SomeOtherComponent.js function SomeOtherComponent() { return ( <Card> <Avatar /> </Card> ); }

      Or, you can replace the Avatar with some text:

      jsx // AnotherComponent.js function AnotherComponent() { return ( <Card> Some text inside the card! </Card> ); }

      4. Flexibility with Children Prop:

      The Card component doesn't "know" what it's wrapping; it just provides a container. The parent components decide what to put inside that container, making the Card component extremely flexible.

      5. Visual Wrappers:

      This pattern is often used for creating visual wrappers like panels, grids, or any container where the content can vary. The children prop acts as a placeholder for whatever content you want to place inside the component.

      In summary, the children prop provides a way to make components adaptable and versatile, allowing them to wrap different types of content without needing to know the specifics in advance.

    3. This forwards all of Profile’s props to the Avatar without listing each of their names. Use spread syntax with restraint. If you’re using it in every other component, something is wrong. Often, it indicates that you should split your components and pass children as JSX. More on that next! Passing JSX as children It is common to nest built-in browser tags: <div> <img /></div> Sometimes you’ll want to nest your own components the same way: <Card> <Avatar /></Card>

      Certainly! Let's break down the concepts in simple terms with examples:

      1. Forwarding Props with Spread Syntax:

      Suppose you have a Profile component and an Avatar component. If you want to pass all the props from Profile to Avatar without listing each prop individually, you can use the spread syntax (...):

      ```jsx // Profile.js function Profile(props) { // ... (some logic)

      return <Avatar {...props} />; } ```

      In this example, all the props received by Profile are passed down to Avatar. It's a convenient way to avoid listing each prop manually.

      2. Using Spread Syntax with Restraint:

      However, it's advised not to overuse spread syntax in every component. If you find yourself doing this frequently, it might be a sign that you should organize your components differently. Perhaps, you could split them and pass children as JSX.

      3. Passing JSX as Children:

      In JSX, you can nest components just like HTML tags. For example:

      jsx // Card.js function Card(props) { return ( <div className="card"> {props.children} </div> ); }

      Now, you can use the Card component and nest an Avatar inside it:

      jsx // SomeOtherComponent.js function SomeOtherComponent() { return ( <Card> <Avatar /> </Card> ); }

      Here, the Avatar component is a child of the Card component. The props.children in the Card component represents whatever is nested inside it.

      Summary:

      • Forwarding Props: Use spread syntax (...) to forward all props from one component to another.

      • Spread Syntax Restraint: Be cautious not to use spread syntax excessively. It might indicate that your components need better organization.

      • Passing JSX as Children: Components can have nested components, and you can access the nested content using props.children.

      By understanding and applying these concepts, you can create more modular and maintainable React components.

    1. Six other escape sequences are valid in JavaScript: Code Result \b Backspace \f Form Feed \n New Line \r Carriage Return \t Horizontal Tabulator \v Vertical Tabulator

      Escape sequences in JavaScript are special combinations of characters that are used to represent characters that would otherwise be difficult or impossible to include directly in a string. These sequences start with a backslash \ followed by another character or characters.

      Here are some common escape sequences in JavaScript:

      1. \n - Newline:
      2. Represents a line break.

      javascript console.log("Hello\nWorld"); // Output: // Hello // World

      1. \t - Tab:
      2. Represents a horizontal tab.

      javascript console.log("This\tis\tTab"); // Output: This is Tab

      1. \ - Backslash:
      2. Represents a literal backslash.

      javascript console.log("This is a backslash: \\"); // Output: This is a backslash: \

      1. \' - Single Quote:
      2. Represents a single quote within a string declared with single quotes.

      javascript console.log('It\'s a sunny day.'); // Output: It's a sunny day.

      1. \" - Double Quote:
      2. Represents a double quote within a string declared with double quotes.

      javascript console.log("She said, \"Hello!\""); // Output: She said, "Hello!"

      1. \uXXXX - Unicode Escape:
      2. Represents a Unicode character, where XXXX is the Unicode code point in hexadecimal.

      javascript console.log("\u0041"); // Output: A

      These escape sequences allow you to include special characters in your strings without causing syntax errors. For example, if you want to include a quote character within a string that is already enclosed in quotes, you can use the escape sequence to prevent confusion and errors.

  8. developer.mozilla.org developer.mozilla.org
    1. String coercionMany built-in operations that expect strings first coerce their arguments to strings (which is largely why String objects behave similarly to string primitives). The operation can be summarized as follows: Strings are returned as-is. undefined turns into "undefined". null turns into "null". true turns into "true"; false turns into "false". Numbers are converted with the same algorithm as toString(10). BigInts are converted with the same algorithm as toString(10). Symbols throw a TypeError. Objects are first converted to a primitive by calling its [@@toPrimitive]() (with "string" as hint), toString(), and valueOf() methods, in that order. The resulting primitive is then converted to a string. There are several ways to achieve nearly the same effect in JavaScript. Template literal: `${x}` does exactly the string coercion steps explained above for the embedded expression. The String() function: String(x) uses the same algorithm to convert x, except that Symbols don't throw a TypeError, but return "Symbol(description)", where description is the description of the Symbol. Using the + operator: "" + x coerces its operand to a primitive instead of a string, and, for some objects, has entirely different behaviors from normal string coercion. See its reference page for more details. Depending on your use case, you may want to use `${x}` (to mimic built-in behavior) or String(x) (to handle symbol values without throwing an error), but you should not use "" + x.

      Let's simplify the concept of string coercion and the methods mentioned:

      String Coercion:

      • String coercion is the process of converting values into strings. JavaScript automatically performs this conversion in certain situations.

      Coercion Rules:

      1. Strings: Strings are returned as they are.
      2. undefined: Converts to the string "undefined".
      3. null: Converts to the string "null".
      4. true: Converts to the string "true"; false converts to "false".
      5. Numbers and BigInts: Converted using the same algorithm as toString(10).
      6. Symbols: Attempting to coerce a symbol results in a TypeError.
      7. Objects: Converted to a primitive by calling [Symbol.toPrimitive]() with the hint "string," then toString(), and finally valueOf() methods in that order. The resulting primitive is then converted to a string.

      Ways to Achieve String Coercion:

      1. Template Literal (${x}): Using ${x} inside a template literal performs the same string coercion steps explained above for the embedded expression.

      2. String() Function: String(x) uses a similar algorithm to convert x to a string. Symbols are handled differently – they don't throw an error but return "Symbol(description)".

      3. Using the + Operator: "" + x coerces its operand to a primitive, and for some objects, it behaves differently from normal string coercion. This method is generally discouraged due to its potential for unexpected behavior.

      Example:

      ``javascript let value = 42; let stringValue =${value}`; // Using template literal for string coercion let stringValue2 = String(value); // Using String() function

      console.log(stringValue); // Result: "42" console.log(stringValue2); // Result: "42" ```

      Conclusion:

      • When you need to convert a value to a string, it's preferable to use ${x} or String(x) depending on your specific requirements. Avoid using "" + x for string coercion as it may lead to unexpected behaviors in certain situations.
    2. he localeCompare() method enables string comparison in a similar fashion as strcmp() — it allows sorting strings in a locale-aware manner.String primitives and String objects Note that JavaScript distinguishes between String objects and primitive string values. (The same is true of Boolean and Numbers.) String literals (denoted by double or single quotes) and strings returned from String calls in a non-constructor context (that is, called without using the new keyword) are primitive strings. In contexts where a method is to be invoked on a primitive string or a property lookup occurs, JavaScript will automatically wrap the string primitive and call the method or perform the property lookup on the wrapper object instead. jsCopy to Clipboardconst strPrim = "foo"; // A literal is a string primitive const strPrim2 = String(1); // Coerced into the string primitive "1" const strPrim3 = String(true); // Coerced into the string primitive "true" const strObj = new String(strPrim); // String with new returns a string wrapper object. console.log(typeof strPrim); // "string" console.log(typeof strPrim2); // "string" console.log(typeof strPrim3); // "string" console.log(typeof strObj); // "object" Copy And SaveShareAsk Copilot Warning: You should rarely find yourself using String as a constructor. String primitives and String objects also give different results when using eval(). Primitives passed to eval are treated as source code; String objects are treated as all other objects are, by returning the object. For example: jsCopy to Clipboardconst s1 = "2 + 2"; // creates a string primitive const s2 = new String("2 + 2"); // creates a String object console.log(eval(s1)); // returns the number 4 console.log(eval(s2)); // returns the string "2 + 2" Copy And SaveShareAsk Copilot For these reasons, the code may break when it encounters String objects when it expects a primitive string instead, although generally, authors need not worry about the distinction. A String object can always be converted to its primitive counterpart with the valueOf() method. jsCopy to Clipboardconsole.log(eval(s2.valueOf())); // returns the number 4 Copy And SaveShareAsk Copilot

      Certainly! Let's break it down in simpler terms:

      String Primitives and String Objects:

      • In JavaScript, there are two types of strings: string primitives and String objects.
      • String literals (created using double or single quotes) and strings returned from non-constructor String calls are primitive strings.
      • String objects are created using the new String() syntax.

      Examples:

      ```javascript const strPrim = "foo"; // A string primitive const strPrim2 = String(1); // Coerced into the string primitive "1" const strPrim3 = String(true); // Coerced into the string primitive "true" const strObj = new String(strPrim); // String with new returns a string wrapper object.

      console.log(typeof strPrim); // "string" console.log(typeof strPrim2); // "string" console.log(typeof strPrim3); // "string" console.log(typeof strObj); // "object" ```

      • strPrim, strPrim2, and strPrim3 are string primitives, while strObj is a String object.

      Using eval():

      • When using eval() with string primitives, the string is treated as source code, and the result is evaluated.
      • When using eval() with String objects, it treats the object like any other object and returns the object itself.

      Examples:

      ```javascript const s1 = "2 + 2"; // creates a string primitive const s2 = new String("2 + 2"); // creates a String object

      console.log(eval(s1)); // returns the number 4 console.log(eval(s2)); // returns the string "2 + 2" ```

      • eval(s1) evaluates the string primitive as code and returns the result (number 4).
      • eval(s2) returns the String object itself (string "2 + 2"), not the evaluated result.

      Conversion to Primitive:

      • To convert a String object to its primitive counterpart, you can use the valueOf() method.

      Example:

      javascript console.log(eval(s2.valueOf())); // returns the number 4

      • valueOf() converts the String object (s2) to its primitive form before being evaluated, resulting in the number 4.

      Conclusion:

      • In general, it's rare to use String as a constructor (using new String()), and working with string primitives is more common. Understanding the differences is important when dealing with certain situations like using eval() or expecting a specific type of string.
    3. A locale-aware and robust solution for testing case-insensitive equality is to use the Intl.Collator API or the string's localeCompare() method — they share the same interface — with the sensitivity option set to "accent" or "base". jsCopy to Clipboardconst areEqual = (str1, str2, locale = "en-US") => str1.localeCompare(str2, locale, { sensitivity: "accent" }) === 0; areEqual("ß", "ss", "de"); // false areEqual("ı", "I", "tr"); // true

      Certainly! Let's break down the explanation and examples in simpler terms:

      Using Intl.Collator or localeCompare for Case-Insensitive Equality:

      • When you want to check if two strings are equal in a case-insensitive manner and consider language-specific rules, you can use Intl.Collator or the localeCompare method.

      Example Function:

      javascript const areEqual = (str1, str2, locale = "en-US") => str1.localeCompare(str2, locale, { sensitivity: "accent" }) === 0;

      • This function, areEqual, takes two strings (str1 and str2) and an optional locale parameter (default is "en-US").
      • It uses localeCompare to compare the strings with the specified locale and sensitivity option set to "accent."

      Examples:

      1. German Example:
      2. In German, the letter "ß" is not equal to "ss" when considering accents. javascript console.log(areEqual("ß", "ss", "de")); // Result: false

      3. Turkish Example:

      4. In Turkish, the letter "ı" is considered equal to "I" when accent sensitivity is applied. javascript console.log(areEqual("ı", "I", "tr")); // Result: true

      Explanation:

      • localeCompare method allows you to compare strings based on the rules of a specific locale (language and region).
      • The { sensitivity: "accent" } option ensures that accent differences (like in German) are considered during comparison.
      • The result of localeCompare is compared with === 0 to check if the strings are equal.

      Conclusion:

      • Using localeCompare with proper options provides a robust solution for case-insensitive string comparison, considering language-specific rules. This is helpful when dealing with characters beyond the basic Latin alphabet and ensures accurate results in various languages.
    4. The choice of whether to transform by toUpperCase() or toLowerCase() is mostly arbitrary, and neither one is fully robust when extending beyond the Latin alphabet. For example, the German lowercase letter ß and ss are both transformed to SS by toUpperCase(), while the Turkish letter ı would be falsely reported as unequal to I by toLowerCase() unless specifically using toLocaleLowerCase("tr").

      Certainly! Let's simplify this explanation:

      toUpperCase() and toLowerCase():

      • toUpperCase() and toLowerCase() are methods in JavaScript that can be used to convert a string to all uppercase or all lowercase letters, respectively.

      Arbitrary Choice:

      • When deciding whether to use toUpperCase() or toLowerCase(), it's often arbitrary, meaning you can choose either based on your preference or specific requirements.

      Language Specific Challenges:

      • However, these methods may not work perfectly for all languages, especially when dealing with characters beyond the basic Latin alphabet.

      Examples:

      1. German Example:
      2. In German, the lowercase letter "ß" (called "eszett") can be transformed to "SS" using toUpperCase(). javascript let germanStr = 'straße'; console.log(germanStr.toUpperCase()); // Result: STRASSE

      3. Turkish Example:

      4. In Turkish, the letter "ı" (dotless i) may be falsely reported as unequal to "I" using toLowerCase(). To handle this correctly, you would use toLocaleLowerCase("tr"). javascript let turkishStr = 'istanbul'; console.log(turkishStr.toLowerCase()); // Incorrect Result: istanbul console.log(turkishStr.toLocaleLowerCase('tr')); // Correct Result: i̇stanbul

      Conclusion:

      • The choice between toUpperCase() and toLowerCase() might not matter much in many cases, but when working with languages that have specific characters or rules, you may need to consider the limitations of these methods and use additional techniques, like toLocaleLowerCase(), to ensure accurate transformations.
    5. String primitives and string objects share many behaviors, but have other important differences and caveats. See "String primitives and String objects" below. String literals can be specified using single or double quotes, which are treated identically, or using the backtick character `. This last form specifies a template literal: with this form you can interpolate expressions. For more information on the syntax of string literals, see lexical grammar. Character access

      Certainly! Let's break it down into simpler terms:

      String Literals: - A string is a sequence of characters (letters, numbers, symbols) used to represent text. - You can create strings using single quotes (' '), double quotes (" "), or backticks (` \'). - Single and double quotes are treated the same way. For example, let str = 'Hello'; and let str = "Hello"; are equivalent. - Backticks are used to create template literals, which allow you to insert expressions inside strings. This is handy for dynamic content.

      Example of template literal: javascript let name = "John"; let greeting = `Hello, ${name}!`; // Result: "Hello, John!"

      String Primitives vs. String Objects: - In JavaScript, strings can be treated as either primitives or objects. - String primitives are simple, immutable (unchangeable), and are created using single or double quotes. javascript let primitiveStr = 'Hello';

      • String objects are instances of the String object and have additional methods and properties. You create them using the new keyword. javascript let objectStr = new String('Hello');

      • While string primitives are more common and easier to work with, string objects can have certain advantages in specific scenarios.

      Example: ```javascript // String primitive let primitiveStr = 'Hello'; console.log(primitiveStr.length); // Result: 5

      // String object let objectStr = new String('Hello'); console.log(objectStr.length); // Result: 5 ```

      In practice, you'll often use string primitives ('Hello') because they are simpler and work well in most situations. String objects (new String('Hello')) are less commonly used due to their added complexity, unless specific methods or features of the String object are required.

    1. Window: localStorage propertyThe localStorage read-only property of the window interface allows you to access a Storage object for the Document's origin; the stored data is saved across browser sessions. localStorage is similar to sessionStorage, except that while localStorage data has no expiration time, sessionStorage data gets cleared when the page session ends — that is, when the page is closed. (localStorage data for a document loaded in a "private browsing" or "incognito" session is cleared when the last "private" tab is closed.)ValueA Storage object which can be used to access the current origin's local storage space.Exceptions SecurityError Thrown in one of the following cases: The origin is not a valid scheme/host/port tuple. This can happen if the origin uses the file: or data: schemes, for example. The request violates a policy decision. For example, the user has configured the browsers to prevent the page from persisting data. Note that if the user blocks cookies, browsers will probably interpret this as an instruction to prevent the page from persisting data. DescriptionThe keys and the values stored with localStorage are always in the UTF-16 string format, which uses two bytes per character. As with objects, integer keys are automatically converted to strings. localStorage data is specific to the protocol of the document. In particular, for a site loaded over HTTP (e.g., http://example.com), localStorage returns a different object than localStorage for the corresponding site loaded over HTTPS (e.g., https://example.com). For documents loaded from file: URLs (that is, files opened in the browser directly from the user's local filesystem, rather than being served from a web server) the requirements for localStorage behavior are undefined and may vary among different browsers. In all current browsers, localStorage seems to return a different object for each file: URL. In other words, each file: URL seems to have its own unique local-storage area. But there are no guarantees about that behavior, so you shouldn't rely on it because, as mentioned above, the requirements for file: URLs remain undefined. So it's possible that browsers may change their file: URL handling for localStorage at any time. In fact some browsers have changed their handling for it over time.ExamplesThe following snippet accesses the current domain's local Storage object and adds a data item to it using Storage.setItem(). jsCopy to ClipboardlocalStorage.setItem("myCat", "Tom"); Copy And SaveShareAsk Copilot The syntax for reading the localStorage item is as follows: jsCopy to Clipboardconst cat = localStorage.getItem("myCat"); Copy And SaveShareAsk Copilot The syntax for removing the localStorage item is as follows: jsCopy to ClipboardlocalStorage.removeItem("myCat"); Copy And SaveShareAsk Copilot The syntax for removing all the localStorage items is as follows: jsCopy to ClipboardlocalStorage.clear(); Copy And SaveShareAsk Copilot Note: Please refer to the Using the Web Storage API article for a full example. SpecificationsSpecificationHTML Standard # dom-localstorage-devBrowser compatibilityReport problems with this compatibility data on GitHubdesktopmobileserverChromeEdgeFirefoxOperaSafariChrome AndroidFirefox for AndroidOpera AndroidSafari on iOSSamsung InternetWebView AndroidDenolocalStorageFull supportChrome4Toggle historyFull supportEdge12Toggle historyFull supportFirefox3.5Toggle historyFull supportOpera10.5Toggle historyFull supportSafari4Toggle historyFull supportChrome Android18Toggle historyFull supportFirefox for Android4Toggle historyFull supportOpera Android11Toggle historyFull supportSafari on iOS3.2Toggle historyFull supportSamsung Internet1.0Toggle historyFull supportWebView Android37Toggle historyFull supportDeno1.16footnoteToggle historyLegendTip: you can click/tap on a cell for more information.Full supportFull supportSee implementation notes.

      Certainly! Let's break down the information about localStorage in simpler terms with examples:

      What is localStorage?

      localStorage is like a storage space in your web browser that allows websites to store and retrieve information. This data can be saved and accessed even after you close the browser and reopen it.

      Difference from sessionStorage:

      • localStorage data stays until you clear it or if the user manually removes it. It persists across browser sessions.
      • sessionStorage data is cleared when you close the browser tab or window.

      How to use localStorage:

      You can store data using localStorage.setItem(key, value) and retrieve it using localStorage.getItem(key).

      Example:

      ```javascript // Storing data localStorage.setItem("username", "John");

      // Retrieving data const username = localStorage.getItem("username"); console.log(username); // Output: John ```

      Removing Data:

      You can remove a specific item or clear all items from localStorage.

      Example:

      ```javascript // Removing a specific item localStorage.removeItem("username");

      // Clearing all items localStorage.clear(); ```

      Important Points:

      • The data stored in localStorage is specific to the website's origin (protocol, domain, and port).
      • The data is stored as key-value pairs and is always in the UTF-16 string format.
      • Be cautious with sensitive information, as it can be accessed by JavaScript on the same domain.

      Browser Compatibility:

      localStorage is supported by most modern browsers, but it's good practice to check compatibility if you have specific requirements.

      Example Recap:

      ```javascript // Storing data localStorage.setItem("color", "blue");

      // Retrieving data const color = localStorage.getItem("color"); console.log(color); // Output: blue

      // Removing data localStorage.removeItem("color");

      // Clearing all data localStorage.clear(); ```

      In this example, we store the color "blue" in localStorage, retrieve it, remove it, and then clear all data.

    1. Avoiding recreating the ref contents React saves the initial ref value once and ignores it on the next renders. function Video() { const playerRef = useRef(new VideoPlayer()); // ... Although the result of new VideoPlayer() is only used for the initial render, you’re still calling this function on every render. This can be wasteful if it’s creating expensive objects. To solve it, you may initialize the ref like this instead: function Video() { const playerRef = useRef(null); if (playerRef.current === null) { playerRef.current = new VideoPlayer(); } // ... Normally, writing or reading ref.current during render is not allowed. However, it’s fine in this case because the result is always the same, and the condition only executes during initialization so it’s fully predictable. Deep DiveHow to avoid null checks when initializing useRef later Show DetailsIf you use a type checker and don’t want to always check for null, you can try a pattern like this instead:function Video() { const playerRef = useRef(null); function getPlayer() { if (playerRef.current !== null) { return playerRef.current; } const player = new VideoPlayer(); playerRef.current = player; return player; } // ...Here, the playerRef itself is nullable. However, you should be able to convince your type checker that there is no case in which getPlayer() returns null. Then use getPlayer() in your event handlers. Troubleshooting I can’t get a ref to a custom component If you try to pass a ref to your own component like this: const inputRef = useRef(null);return <MyInput ref={inputRef} />; You might get an error in the console: ConsoleWarning: Function components cannot be given refs. Attempts to access this ref will fail. Did you mean to use React.forwardRef()? By default, your own components don’t expose refs to the DOM nodes inside them. To fix this, find the component that you want to get a ref to: export default function MyInput({ value, onChange }) { return ( <input value={value} onChange={onChange} /> );} And then wrap it in forwardRef like this: import { forwardRef } from 'react';const MyInput = forwardRef(({ value, onChange }, ref) => { return ( <input value={value} onChange={onChange} ref={ref} /> );});export default MyInput; Then the parent component can get a ref to it. Read more about accessing another component’s DOM nodes.

      1. Avoiding Recreating Ref Contents:

      When you create a ref with useRef, the initial value is stored and reused in subsequent renders. However, if the initial value is an expensive object that doesn't change, you can optimize by initializing the ref conditionally.

      Example:

      ```jsx function Video() { const playerRef = useRef(null);

      if (playerRef.current === null) { playerRef.current = new VideoPlayer(); }

      // Use playerRef.current... // ... } ```

      In this example, playerRef is initialized only if it's null, preventing the unnecessary recreation of the VideoPlayer object on every render.

      2. Avoiding Null Checks When Initializing Ref Later:

      If you need to initialize a ref later in the component lifecycle, you can use the same approach to avoid null checks.

      Example:

      ```jsx function MyComponent() { const dynamicRef = useRef(null);

      if (dynamicRef.current === null) { dynamicRef.current = someExpensiveInitialization(); }

      // Use dynamicRef.current... // ... } ```

      This ensures that the expensive initialization only happens once and doesn't repeat on subsequent renders.

      3. Refs to Custom Components:

      If you want to get a ref to a custom component, you might run into an issue where function components don't expose refs by default. You can resolve this using React.forwardRef.

      Example:

      ```jsx import { forwardRef } from 'react';

      const MyInput = forwardRef(({ value, onChange }, ref) => { return ( <input value={value} onChange={onChange} ref={ref} /> ); });

      export default MyInput; ```

      Now, when you use MyInput in another component, you can pass a ref to it, and the parent component can access the input's DOM node through the ref.

      ```jsx const inputRef = useRef(null);

      return <MyInput ref={inputRef} />; ```

      This prevents the error and allows you to use refs with your custom components.

    2. Caveats You can mutate the ref.current property. Unlike state, it is mutable. However, if it holds an object that is used for rendering (for example, a piece of your state), then you shouldn’t mutate that object. When you change the ref.current property, React does not re-render your component. React is not aware of when you change it because a ref is a plain JavaScript object. Do not write or read ref.current during rendering, except for initialization. This makes your component’s behavior unpredictable. In Strict Mode, React will call your component function twice in order to help you find accidental impurities. This is development-only behavior and does not affect production. Each ref object will be created twice, but one of the versions will be discarded. If your component function is pure (as it should be), this should not affect the behavior. Usage Referencing a value with a ref Call useRef at the top level of your component to declare one or more refs. import { useRef } from 'react';function Stopwatch() { const intervalRef = useRef(0); // ... useRef returns a ref object with a single current property initially set to the initial value you provided. On the next renders, useRef will return the same object. You can change its current property to store information and read it later. This might remind you of state, but there is an important difference. Changing a ref does not trigger a re-render. This means refs are perfect for storing information that doesn’t affect the visual output of your component. For example, if you need to store an interval ID and retrieve it later, you can put it in a ref. To update the value inside the ref, you need to manually change its current property: function handleStartClick() { const intervalId = setInterval(() => { // ... }, 1000); intervalRef.current = intervalId;} Later, you can read that interval ID from the ref so that you can call clear that interval: function handleStopClick() { const intervalId = intervalRef.current; clearInterval(intervalId);} By using a ref, you ensure that: You can store information between re-renders (unlike regular variables, which reset on every render). Changing it does not trigger a re-render (unlike state variables, which trigger a re-render). The information is local to each copy of your component (unlike the variables outside, which are shared). Changing a ref does not trigger a re-render, so refs are not appropriate for storing information you want to display on the screen. Use state for that instead. Read more about choosing between useRef and useState.

      Mutable vs. Immutable Values in JavaScript:

      • Mutable: Values that can be changed or modified after creation.
      • Immutable: Values that cannot be changed or modified after creation.

      Example of Mutable:

      javascript let mutableArray = [1, 2, 3]; mutableArray.push(4); // Modifying the array console.log(mutableArray); // Output: [1, 2, 3, 4]

      In this example, mutableArray is mutable because we can add elements to it, changing its content.

      Example of Immutable:

      javascript const immutableString = "Hello"; // Trying to modify the string will result in an error: // immutableString = "Goodbye"; // Error! console.log(immutableString); // Output: "Hello"

      In this example, immutableString is immutable because we cannot change its value once it's assigned.

      Summary:

      • Mutable values can be changed.
      • Immutable values cannot be changed.
      • JavaScript strings and numbers are immutable.
      • Arrays and objects are mutable.
      • Immutability can lead to more predictable and safer code.Certainly! Let's break down the key concepts in simpler terms with examples.

      1. What is useRef?

      useRef is a function in React that helps you create a reference to a mutable value, typically something that persists between renders but doesn't cause the component to re-render when it changes.

      2. How to use useRef?

      You call useRef at the top of your component, like this:

      ```jsx import { useRef } from 'react';

      function ExampleComponent() { const myRef = useRef(initialValue); // ... } ```

      useRef returns an object with a current property, initialized to the provided initialValue.

      3. What can you store in useRef?

      You can store anything in useRef, but it's particularly useful for values that don't affect the visual appearance of your component.

      4. Example with Interval ID:

      ```jsx import { useRef } from 'react';

      function Stopwatch() { const intervalRef = useRef(null);

      function handleStartClick() { const intervalId = setInterval(() => { // Some logic... }, 1000); intervalRef.current = intervalId; }

      function handleStopClick() { const intervalId = intervalRef.current; clearInterval(intervalId); }

      // ... } ```

      In this example, intervalRef is used to keep track of the interval ID. It doesn't cause the component to re-render when updated.

      5. Why use useRef over state?

      • useRef is mutable and doesn't trigger a re-render.
      • It's perfect for storing information that doesn't change the UI.
      • It's local to each instance of your component.

      6. When not to use useRef?

      If you want to store data that influences what the user sees (UI-related), use state instead of useRef.

      7. Strict Mode Caveat:

      In development mode, React may call your component function twice (strict mode). This helps catch unintended side effects but doesn't affect the production build.

      8. Summary:

      • Use useRef for mutable values that don't affect rendering.
      • Don't use it for UI-related state; use state for that.
      • Understand that changing useRef doesn't trigger re-renders.
      • Be aware of the strict mode behavior during development.

      I hope these simplified explanations and examples make the usage of useRef clearer!

    3. useRefuseRef is a React Hook that lets you reference a value that’s not needed for rendering.const ref = useRef(initialValue) Reference useRef(initialValue) Usage Referencing a value with a ref Manipulating the DOM with a ref Avoiding recreating the ref contents Troubleshooting I can’t get a ref to a custom component Reference useRef(initialValue) Call useRef at the top level of your component to declare a ref. import { useRef } from 'react';function MyComponent() { const intervalRef = useRef(0); const inputRef = useRef(null); // ... See more examples below. Parameters initialValue: The value you want the ref object’s current property to be initially. It can be a value of any type. This argument is ignored after the initial render. Returns useRef returns an object with a single property: current: Initially, it’s set to the initialValue you have passed. You can later set it to something else. If you pass the ref object to React as a ref attribute to a JSX node, React will set its current property. On the next renders, useRef will return the same object.

      React Hooks are functions provided by React that allow you to use state and lifecycle features in functional components, making them more powerful and expressive. They were introduced in React version 16.8 to let developers use state and other React features without writing a class.

      useState Hook:

      useState is a Hook that allows you to add state to functional components. It returns an array with two elements: the current state value and a function that lets you update it. Here's a simple example:

      ```jsx import React, { useState } from 'react';

      function Counter() { // Declare a state variable named "count" with an initial value of 0 const [count, setCount] = useState(0);

      return ( <div>

      Count: {count}

      <button onClick={() => setCount(count + 1)}>Increment</button> </div> ); } ```

      In this example, count is the state variable, and setCount is the function to update it. When the "Increment" button is clicked, it updates the count state, and React automatically re-renders the component.

      useEffect Hook:

      useEffect is a Hook that enables you to perform side effects in functional components. It's similar to lifecycle methods in class components. Here's a simple example fetching data:

      ```jsx import React, { useState, useEffect } from 'react';

      function DataFetcher() { const [data, setData] = useState(null);

      useEffect(() => { // Fetch data when the component mounts fetch('https://api.example.com/data') .then(response => response.json()) .then(data => setData(data));

      // Clean up any resources when the component unmounts
      return () => {
        // Cleanup code here
      };
      

      }, []); // The empty array ensures this effect runs only once on mount

      return ( <div>

      Data: {data ? data.value : 'Loading...'}

      </div> ); } ```

      In this example, useEffect runs when the component mounts. It fetches data and updates the state. The empty dependency array ([]) means the effect runs only once when the component mounts.

      useContext Hook:

      useContext is a Hook that allows you to subscribe to React context without introducing nesting. It lets you access the value of a context directly.

      ```jsx import React, { useContext } from 'react';

      const ThemeContext = React.createContext('light');

      function ThemedComponent() { const theme = useContext(ThemeContext);

      return

      Current Theme: {theme}

      ; } ```

      In this example, ThemedComponent can directly access the current theme value from the ThemeContext.

      These are just a few examples of React Hooks. There are others like useReducer, useCallback, useMemo, etc., each serving a specific purpose to enhance the functionality of functional components. Hooks allow you to manage state and side effects more effectively in functional components, making your code cleaner and more maintainable. Absolutely! Let's break down the statement in simpler terms:

      useRef Explanation:

      useRef is like a tool in React that helps you create a special reference to something, and this reference won't force your component to re-render when the referenced thing changes.

      Simple Explanation:

      1. Creating a Reference:
      2. With useRef, you can create a reference to a value, like a number, an object, or even a DOM element.

      ```jsx import { useRef } from 'react';

      function MyComponent() { const myRef = useRef(0); // Creating a reference to the number 0 return <div>{myRef.current}</div>; } ```

      In this example, myRef is a reference to the number 0.

      1. No Re-rendering:
      2. When the value of the reference changes, your component won't automatically re-render. This is useful when you want to keep track of something without affecting the UI.

      ```jsx import { useRef, useState, useEffect } from 'react';

      function Counter() { const count = useRef(0); // Creating a reference to the number 0 const [renderCount, setRenderCount] = useState(0);

       useEffect(() => {
         // This effect will run when the component renders
         setRenderCount(renderCount + 1);
      
         // But changing the count won't cause a re-render
         count.current = count.current + 1;
       }, [count, renderCount]);
      
       return (
         <div>
           <p>Render Count: {renderCount}</p>
           <p>Count (no re-render): {count.current}</p>
         </div>
       );
      

      } ```

      In this example, changing the count won't trigger a re-render of the component.

      When to Use useRef:

      • Use useRef when you want to keep track of a value that doesn't affect your component's display directly and shouldn't cause re-renders.

      • Common use cases include interacting with the DOM directly or storing mutable values that shouldn't trigger updates.

      In summary, useRef is a handy tool in React for creating references that won't cause your component to re-render when the referenced value changes. It's useful for scenarios where you need to keep track of something without impacting the UI. Certainly! Let's break down the statement in very simple terms with multiple examples:

      Explanation:

      1. Memoized Object:
      2. When you use useRef to create a reference, React keeps track of it. Instead of creating a new reference object every time your component re-renders, React gives you the same reference object.

      ```jsx import { useRef } from 'react';

      function MyComponent() { const myRef = useRef(0);

       // On each render, myRef is the same object
       console.log(myRef === myRef); // true
      

      } ```

      In this example, myRef remains the same object across renders.

      1. Avoiding Recreation:
      2. This memoization is useful when you don't want to recreate the reference object, especially when dealing with functions. It helps to maintain consistency and avoids unnecessary re-initialization.

      ```jsx import { useRef, useEffect } from 'react';

      function EffectComponent() { const handleClick = useRef(() => { console.log('Button clicked!'); });

       useEffect(() => {
         // Access the function without causing a re-render
         handleClick.current();
       }, []);
      
       return <button onClick={handleClick.current}>Click me</button>;
      

      } ```

      In this example, handleClick remains the same function reference across renders.

      1. Ensuring Same Object:
      2. The memoized object ensures that the reference remains consistent, even when the component re-renders. This is essential when dealing with external functions or references that you want to persist.

      ```jsx import { useRef } from 'react';

      function ReferenceComponent() { const externalFunction = () => { console.log('External function'); };

       const externalFunctionRef = useRef(externalFunction);
      
       // externalFunctionRef.current is the same function across renders
       console.log(externalFunctionRef.current === externalFunction); // true
      

      } ```

      In this example, externalFunctionRef.current is the same function as externalFunction across renders.

      Simplified Summary:

      • useRef gives you the same reference object across renders.
      • This is useful to avoid recreating the reference, especially when dealing with functions.
      • It ensures consistency and stability, preventing unnecessary re-initialization.

      In essence, useRef helps you maintain the same reference object, ensuring stability and preventing unnecessary re-creation, which is particularly handy when working with functions or external references.Sure, let's break down useRef in simple terms with examples:

      What is useRef?

      useRef is a React Hook that allows you to create a reference to a value that won't trigger a re-render when it changes. It's often used for things that are not directly related to rendering, like accessing or manipulating the DOM.

      How to Use useRef:

      1. Referencing a Value: You can use useRef to create a reference to a value, such as a number or an object. This value can be accessed and modified without causing your component to re-render.

      ```jsx import { useRef } from 'react';

      function MyComponent() { const intervalRef = useRef(0); // Reference to a number const inputRef = useRef(null); // Reference to an element (initially null) // ... ```

      1. Manipulating the DOM: useRef is commonly used for interacting with the DOM directly. For example, if you want to focus on an input element or keep track of some DOM-related state without triggering a re-render.

      ```jsx import { useRef, useEffect } from 'react';

      function MyComponent() { const inputRef = useRef(null);

       useEffect(() => {
         // Focus on the input element when the component mounts
         inputRef.current.focus();
       }, []);
      
       return <input ref={inputRef} />;
      

      } ```

      1. Avoiding Recreating the Ref Contents: useRef is memoized, meaning it returns the same object on every render. This is useful when you want to avoid recreating the ref object, especially when dealing with functions.

      ```jsx import { useRef, useEffect } from 'react';

      function MyComponent() { const handleClick = useRef(() => { console.log('Button clicked!'); });

       useEffect(() => {
         // Access the function without causing a re-render
         handleClick.current();
       }, []);
      
       return <button onClick={handleClick.current}>Click me</button>;
      

      } ```

      Parameters and Returns:

      • Parameters:
      • initialValue: The value you want the ref object’s current property to be initially. It can be a value of any type. This argument is ignored after the initial render.

      • Returns:

      • useRef returns an object with a single property:
        • current: Initially set to the initialValue you have passed. You can later set it to something else. If you pass the ref object to React as a ref attribute to a JSX node, React will set its current property.

      In simple terms, useRef is a tool to keep track of values or elements that won't cause your component to re-render every time they change. It's commonly used for interacting with the DOM and handling mutable values in a React component.

    1. GuardSince headers can be sent in requests and received in responses, and have various limitations about what information can and should be mutable, headers' objects have a guard property. This is not exposed to the Web, but it affects which mutation operations are allowed on the headers object. Possible guard values are: none: default. request: guard for a headers object obtained from a request (Request.headers). request-no-cors: guard for a headers object obtained from a request created with Request.mode no-cors. response: guard for a headers object obtained from a response (Response.headers). immutable: guard that renders a headers object read-only; mostly used for ServiceWorkers. Note: You may not append or set the Content-Length header on a guarded headers object for a response. Similarly, inserting Set-Cookie into a response header is not allowed: ServiceWorkers are not allowed to set cookies via synthesized responses. Response objectsAs you have seen above, Response instances are returned when fetch() promises are resolved. The most common response properties you'll use are: Response.status — An integer (default value 200) containing the response status code. Response.statusText — A string (default value ""), which corresponds to the HTTP status code message. Note that HTTP/2 does not support status messages. Response.ok — seen in use above, this is a shorthand for checking that status is in the range 200-299 inclusive. This returns a boolean value. They can also be created programmatically via JavaScript, but this is only really useful in ServiceWorkers, when you are providing a custom response to a received request using a respondWith() method: jsCopy to Clipboardconst myBody = new Blob(); addEventListener("fetch", (event) => { // ServiceWorker intercepting a fetch event.respondWith( new Response(myBody, { headers: { "Content-Type": "text/plain" }, }), ); }); Copy And SaveShareAsk Copilot The Response() constructor takes two optional arguments — a body for the response, and an init object (similar to the one that Request() accepts.) Note: The static method error() returns an error response. Similarly, redirect() returns a response resulting in a redirect to a specified URL. These are also only relevant to Service Workers. BodyBoth requests and responses may contain body data. A body is an instance of any of the following types: ArrayBuffer TypedArray (Uint8Array and friends) DataView Blob File String, or a string literal URLSearchParams FormData The Request and Response interfaces share the following methods to extract a body. These all return a promise that is eventually resolved with the actual content. Request.arrayBuffer() / Response.arrayBuffer() Request.blob() / Response.blob() Request.formData() / Response.formData() Request.json() / Response.json() Request.text() / Response.text() This makes usage of non-textual data much easier than it was with XHR. Request bodies can be set by passing body parameters: jsCopy to Clipboardconst form = new FormData(document.getElementById("login-form")); fetch("/login", { method: "POST", body: form, }); Copy And SaveShareAsk Copilot Both request and response (and by extension the fetch() function), will try to intelligently determine the content type. A request will also automatically set a Content-Type header if none is set in the options parameter.Feature detectionFetch API support can be detected by checking for the existence of Headers, Request, Response or fetch() on the Window or Worker scope. For example: jsCopy to Clipboardif (window.fetch) { // run my fetch request here } else { // do something with XMLHttpRequest? } Copy And SaveShareAsk CopilotDifferences from jQuery.ajax()The fetch specification differs from jQuery.ajax() in the following significant ways: The promise returned from fetch() won't reject on HTTP errors even if the response is an HTTP 404 or 500. Instead, as soon as the server responds with headers, the promise will resolve (with the ok property of the response set to false if the response isn't in the range 200–299). The promise will only reject on network failure or if anything prevented the request from completing. Unless fetch() is called with the credentials option set to include, fetch(): won't send cookies in cross-origin requests won't set any cookies sent back in cross-origin responses As of August 2018, the default credentials policy changed to same-origin. See also ServiceWorker API HTTP access control (CORS) HTTP Fetch polyfill Fetch examples on GitHub Found a content problem with this page?Edit the page on GitHub.Report the content issue.View the source on GitHub.Want to get more involved? Learn how to contribute.This page was last modified on Aug 18, 2023 by MDN contributors.

      Certainly! Let's break down the provided information into simple terms:

      1. Guard in Headers:
      2. Headers are like additional notes attached to an HTTP request or response.
      3. They have a property called "guard" that determines which operations are allowed on the headers object.
      4. Guard values include:
        • none (default): No specific restrictions.
        • request: Applied to headers obtained from a request.
        • request-no-cors: Applied to headers from a no-cors request.
        • response: Applied to headers obtained from a response.
        • immutable: Renders headers read-only, commonly used in ServiceWorkers.

      Example: javascript const myHeaders = new Headers(); // Applying guard to headers obtained from a request const requestHeaders = new Headers(myHeaders, { guard: "request" });

      1. Response Objects:
      2. When you make a request using fetch(), it returns a Response object.
      3. Key properties include:
        • Response.status: An integer indicating the response status code (e.g., 200 for success).
        • Response.statusText: A string corresponding to the HTTP status code message.
        • Response.ok: A boolean indicating if the status is in the range 200-299.

      Example: javascript const response = await fetch("https://example.com/api/data"); console.log(response.status); // 200 console.log(response.statusText); // OK console.log(response.ok); // true

      1. Creating Response Object Programmatically:
      2. You can create a Response object programmatically in a ServiceWorker.
      3. This is useful when providing a custom response to a received request using respondWith().

      Example: ```javascript const myBody = new Blob();

      addEventListener("fetch", (event) => { // ServiceWorker intercepting a fetch event.respondWith( new Response(myBody, { headers: { "Content-Type": "text/plain" }, }), ); }); ```

      1. Body Content in Requests and Responses:
      2. Both requests and responses may have body content, which can be of various types (e.g., ArrayBuffer, Blob, JSON).
      3. Methods like arrayBuffer(), blob(), formData(), json(), and text() help extract the body content.

      Example: javascript const responseData = await response.json(); // Or for request body const formData = new FormData(document.getElementById("myForm")); fetch("/api/data", { method: "POST", body: formData, });

      1. Feature Detection:
      2. You can check if the Fetch API is supported in a browser by looking for the existence of fetch on the window or Worker scope.

      Example: javascript if (window.fetch) { // Fetch is supported, proceed with fetch requests } else { // Use alternative like XMLHttpRequest }

      1. Differences from jQuery.ajax():
      2. The Fetch API differs from jQuery.ajax() in terms of error handling and handling of credentials in cross-origin requests.

      Example: javascript fetch("https://example.com/api/data") .then((response) => { if (!response.ok) { throw new Error("Network response was not OK"); } return response.json(); }) .then((data) => { console.log(data); }) .catch((error) => { console.error("Error:", error); });

      These explanations and examples aim to simplify the concepts introduced in the provided information about Headers, Response objects, Body content, and feature detection in the Fetch API.

    2. Instead of passing a path to the resource you want to request into the fetch() call, you can create a request object using the Request() constructor, and pass that in as a fetch() method argument: jsCopy to Clipboardasync function fetchImage(request) { try { const response = await fetch(request); if (!response.ok) { throw new Error("Network response was not OK"); } const myBlob = await response.blob(); myImage.src = URL.createObjectURL(myBlob); } catch (error) { console.error("Error:", error); } } const myHeaders = new Headers(); const myRequest = new Request("flowers.jpg", { method: "GET", headers: myHeaders, mode: "cors", cache: "default", }); fetchImage(myRequest); Copy And SaveShareAsk Copilot Request() accepts exactly the same parameters as the fetch() method. You can even pass in an existing request object to create a copy of it: jsCopy to Clipboardconst anotherRequest = new Request(myRequest, myInit); Copy And SaveShareAsk Copilot This is pretty useful, as request and response bodies can only be used once. Making a copy like this allows you to effectively use the request/response again while varying the init options if desired. The copy must be made before the body is read. Note: There is also a clone() method that creates a copy. Both methods of creating a copy will fail if the body of the original request or response has already been read, but reading the body of a cloned response or request will not cause it to be marked as read in the original. HeadersThe Headers interface allows you to create your own headers object via the Headers() constructor. A headers object is a simple multi-map of names to values: jsCopy to Clipboardconst content = "Hello World"; const myHeaders = new Headers(); myHeaders.append("Content-Type", "text/plain"); myHeaders.append("Content-Length", content.length.toString()); myHeaders.append("X-Custom-Header", "ProcessThisImmediately"); Copy And SaveShareAsk Copilot The same can be achieved by passing an array of arrays or an object literal to the constructor: jsCopy to Clipboardconst myHeaders = new Headers({ "Content-Type": "text/plain", "Content-Length": content.length.toString(), "X-Custom-Header": "ProcessThisImmediately", }); Copy And SaveShareAsk Copilot The contents can be queried and retrieved: jsCopy to Clipboardconsole.log(myHeaders.has("Content-Type")); // true console.log(myHeaders.has("Set-Cookie")); // false myHeaders.set("Content-Type", "text/html"); myHeaders.append("X-Custom-Header", "AnotherValue"); console.log(myHeaders.get("Content-Length")); // 11 console.log(myHeaders.get("X-Custom-Header")); // ['ProcessThisImmediately', 'AnotherValue'] myHeaders.delete("X-Custom-Header"); console.log(myHeaders.get("X-Custom-Header")); // null Copy And SaveShareAsk Copilot Some of these operations are only useful in ServiceWorkers, but they provide a much nicer API for manipulating headers. All of the Headers methods throw a TypeError if a header name is used that is not a valid HTTP Header name. The mutation operations will throw a TypeError if there is an immutable guard (see below). Otherwise, they fail silently. For example: jsCopy to Clipboardconst myResponse = Response.error(); try { myResponse.headers.set("Origin", "http://mybank.com"); } catch (e) { console.log("Cannot pretend to be a bank!"); } Copy And SaveShareAsk Copilot A good use case for headers is checking whether the content type is correct before you process it further. For example: jsCopy to Clipboardasync function fetchJSON(request) { try { const response = await fetch(request); const contentType = response.headers.get("content-type"); if (!contentType || !contentType.includes("application/json")) { throw new TypeError("Oops, we haven't got JSON!"); } const jsonData = await response.json(); // process your data further } catch (error) { console.error("Error:", error); } }

      Sure, let's break down the provided information with examples in simple terms:

      1. Using Request Object with fetch():
      2. Instead of directly passing a URL to the fetch() function, you can create a request object using the Request constructor.
      3. This is useful when you want more control over the request, such as specifying headers, method, mode, etc.

      Example: ```javascript async function fetchImage(request) { try { const response = await fetch(request); if (!response.ok) { throw new Error("Network response was not OK"); } const myBlob = await response.blob(); myImage.src = URL.createObjectURL(myBlob); } catch (error) { console.error("Error:", error); } }

      const myHeaders = new Headers(); const myRequest = new Request("flowers.jpg", { method: "GET", headers: myHeaders, mode: "cors", cache: "default", });

      fetchImage(myRequest); ```

      1. Creating a Copy of a Request Object:
      2. You can create a copy of an existing request object using the Request constructor.
      3. This is helpful when you want to reuse most of the properties but perhaps change some details.

      Example: javascript const anotherRequest = new Request(myRequest, myInit);

      • Here, myRequest is an existing request object, and myInit is an object with additional or modified options.

      • Headers Object:

      • The Headers interface allows you to create your own headers object using the Headers constructor.
      • Headers are essentially a collection of key-value pairs representing HTTP headers.

      Example: javascript const content = "Hello World"; const myHeaders = new Headers(); myHeaders.append("Content-Type", "text/plain"); myHeaders.append("Content-Length", content.length.toString()); myHeaders.append("X-Custom-Header", "ProcessThisImmediately");

      • You can also pass an object literal directly to the Headers constructor.

      • Manipulating Headers:

      • Once you have a Headers object, you can manipulate its contents, query values, set, append, get, and delete headers.

      Example: ```javascript console.log(myHeaders.has("Content-Type")); // true console.log(myHeaders.has("Set-Cookie")); // false myHeaders.set("Content-Type", "text/html"); myHeaders.append("X-Custom-Header", "AnotherValue");

      console.log(myHeaders.get("Content-Length")); // 11 console.log(myHeaders.get("X-Custom-Header")); // ['ProcessThisImmediately', 'AnotherValue']

      myHeaders.delete("X-Custom-Header"); console.log(myHeaders.get("X-Custom-Header")); // null ```

      • These operations are useful when working with HTTP headers in a flexible and convenient way.

      • Fetching JSON with Header Check:

      • The Headers object is useful when you want to check certain headers before processing the response, as shown in this example.

      Example: javascript async function fetchJSON(request) { try { const response = await fetch(request); const contentType = response.headers.get("content-type"); if (!contentType || !contentType.includes("application/json")) { throw new TypeError("Oops, we haven't got JSON!"); } const jsonData = await response.json(); // process your data further } catch (error) { console.error("Error:", error); } }

      • This example checks if the response contains JSON content before further processing.

      These examples demonstrate the use of the Request constructor, creating and manipulating Headers objects, and fetching data with additional control and checks.

    3. Uploading a fileFiles can be uploaded using an HTML <input type="file" /> input element, FormData() and fetch(). jsCopy to Clipboardasync function upload(formData) { try { const response = await fetch("https://example.com/profile/avatar", { method: "PUT", body: formData, }); const result = await response.json(); console.log("Success:", result); } catch (error) { console.error("Error:", error); } } const formData = new FormData(); const fileField = document.querySelector('input[type="file"]'); formData.append("username", "abc123"); formData.append("avatar", fileField.files[0]); upload(formData); Copy And SaveShareAsk CopilotUploading multiple filesFiles can be uploaded using an HTML <input type="file" multiple /> input element, FormData() and fetch(). jsCopy to Clipboardasync function uploadMultiple(formData) { try { const response = await fetch("https://example.com/posts", { method: "POST", body: formData, }); const result = await response.json(); console.log("Success:", result); } catch (error) { console.error("Error:", error); } } const photos = document.querySelector('input[type="file"][multiple]'); const formData = new FormData(); formData.append("title", "My Vegas Vacation"); for (const [i, photo] of Array.from(photos.files).entries()) { formData.append(`photos_${i}`, photo); } uploadMultiple(formData); Copy And SaveShareAsk CopilotProcessing a text file line by lineThe chunks that are read from a response are not broken neatly at line boundaries and are Uint8Arrays, not strings. If you want to fetch a text file and process it line by line, it is up to you to handle these complications. The following example shows one way to do this by creating a line iterator (for simplicity, it assumes the text is UTF-8, and doesn't handle fetch errors). jsCopy to Clipboardasync function* makeTextFileLineIterator(fileURL) { const utf8Decoder = new TextDecoder("utf-8"); const response = await fetch(fileURL); const reader = response.body.getReader(); let { value: chunk, done: readerDone } = await reader.read(); chunk = chunk ? utf8Decoder.decode(chunk) : ""; const newline = /\r?\n/gm; let startIndex = 0; let result; while (true) { const result = newline.exec(chunk); if (!result) { if (readerDone) break; const remainder = chunk.substr(startIndex); ({ value: chunk, done: readerDone } = await reader.read()); chunk = remainder + (chunk ? utf8Decoder.decode(chunk) : ""); startIndex = newline.lastIndex = 0; continue; } yield chunk.substring(startIndex, result.index); startIndex = newline.lastIndex; } if (startIndex < chunk.length) { // Last line didn't end in a newline char yield chunk.substr(startIndex); } } async function run() { for await (const line of makeTextFileLineIterator(urlOfFile)) { processLine(line); } } run(); Copy And SaveShareAsk CopilotChecking that the fetch was successfulA fetch() promise will reject with a TypeError when a network error is encountered or CORS is misconfigured on the server-side, although this usually means permission issues or similar — a 404 does not constitute a network error, for example. An accurate check for a successful fetch() would include checking that the promise resolved, then checking that the Response.ok property has a value of true. The code would look something like this: jsCopy to Clipboardasync function fetchImage() { try { const response = await fetch("flowers.jpg"); if (!response.ok) { throw new Error("Network response was not OK"); } const myBlob = await response.blob(); myImage.src = URL.createObjectURL(myBlob); } catch (error) { console.error("There has been a problem with your fetch operation:", error); } }

      Certainly! Let's break down each section with simple explanations and examples:

      1. Uploading a File:
      2. To upload a file, you can use an HTML <input type="file" /> element to let users choose a file.
      3. Combine this with FormData() to gather form data, and then use fetch() to send it to a server.

      Example: ```javascript async function upload(formData) { try { const response = await fetch("https://example.com/profile/avatar", { method: "PUT", body: formData, }); const result = await response.json(); console.log("Success:", result); } catch (error) { console.error("Error:", error); } }

      const formData = new FormData(); const fileField = document.querySelector('input[type="file"]'); formData.append("username", "abc123"); formData.append("avatar", fileField.files[0]);

      upload(formData); ```

      1. Uploading Multiple Files:
      2. If you want to upload multiple files, use the multiple attribute in the <input type="file" /> element.
      3. Similar to the single-file example, use FormData() and fetch().

      Example: ```javascript async function uploadMultiple(formData) { try { const response = await fetch("https://example.com/posts", { method: "POST", body: formData, }); const result = await response.json(); console.log("Success:", result); } catch (error) { console.error("Error:", error); } }

      const photos = document.querySelector('input[type="file"][multiple]'); const formData = new FormData();

      formData.append("title", "My Vegas Vacation"); for (const [i, photo] of Array.from(photos.files).entries()) { formData.append(photos_${i}, photo); }

      uploadMultiple(formData); ```

      1. Processing a Text File Line by Line:
      2. If you need to process a text file line by line, you can create an iterator.
      3. This example assumes UTF-8 encoding and uses a TextDecoder.

      Example: ```javascript async function* makeTextFileLineIterator(fileURL) { // ... (see provided code) }

      async function run() { for await (const line of makeTextFileLineIterator(urlOfFile)) { processLine(line); } }

      run(); ```

      1. Checking Fetch Success:
      2. It's essential to check if a fetch operation was successful.
      3. You can do this by checking response.ok to ensure the network response was okay.

      Example: javascript async function fetchImage() { try { const response = await fetch("flowers.jpg"); if (!response.ok) { throw new Error("Network response was not OK"); } const myBlob = await response.blob(); myImage.src = URL.createObjectURL(myBlob); } catch (error) { console.error("There has been a problem with your fetch operation:", error); } }

      These examples cover uploading files, handling multiple file uploads, processing text files line by line, and checking the success of a fetch operation. They demonstrate practical uses of the Fetch API in various scenarios.

    4. Sending a request with credentials includedTo cause browsers to send a request with credentials included on both same-origin and cross-origin calls, add credentials: 'include' to the init object you pass to the fetch() method. jsCopy to Clipboardfetch("https://example.com", { credentials: "include", }); Copy And SaveShareAsk Copilot Note: Access-Control-Allow-Origin is prohibited from using a wildcard for requests with credentials: 'include'. In such cases, the exact origin must be provided; even if you are using a CORS unblocker extension, the requests will still fail. Note: Browsers should not send credentials in preflight requests irrespective of this setting. For more information see: CORS Requests with credentials. If you only want to send credentials if the request URL is on the same origin as the calling script, add credentials: 'same-origin'. jsCopy to Clipboard// The calling script is on the origin 'https://example.com' fetch("https://example.com", { credentials: "same-origin", }); Copy And SaveShareAsk Copilot To instead ensure browsers don't include credentials in the request, use credentials: 'omit'. jsCopy to Clipboardfetch("https://example.com", { credentials: "omit", }); Copy And SaveShareAsk CopilotUploading JSON dataUse fetch() to POST JSON-encoded data. jsCopy to Clipboardasync function postJSON(data) { try { const response = await fetch("https://example.com/profile", { method: "POST", // or 'PUT' headers: { "Content-Type": "application/json", }, body: JSON.stringify(data), }); const result = await response.json(); console.log("Success:", result); } catch (error) { console.error("Error:", error); } } const data = { username: "example" }; postJSON(data); Copy And SaveShareAsk Copilot

      Same-Origin and Cross-Origin:

      Same-Origin: - When we talk about "origin" in web terms, we mean the combination of the protocol (like HTTP or HTTPS), domain (like example.com), and port (like 80 or 443). - If a resource (like a script, image, or API) is requested from the same origin, it means it comes from the same protocol, domain, and port.

      Example (Same-Origin): - Your website at https://example.com requests an image from https://example.com/image.jpg. - Both have the same origin (protocol, domain, and port), so it's a same-origin request.

      Cross-Origin: - If a resource is requested from a different origin (even if the domain is the same but the protocol or port is different), it's considered cross-origin.

      Example (Cross-Origin): - Your website at https://example.com requests data from an API at https://api.example.com. - Even though the domains are related, the protocol is different (HTTP vs HTTPS), making it a cross-origin request.

      Why Does it Matter: - Web browsers have security measures in place to prevent certain types of actions between different origins. This is known as the Same-Origin Policy. - It helps protect users from potentially malicious activities like stealing data from one website to use on another.

      Simple Analogy: - Imagine your house (origin). If you borrow something (resource) from your neighbor's house (same origin), it's straightforward. But if you want something from a house across the street (cross-origin), there are rules and permissions to follow.

      In Technical Terms: - The Same-Origin Policy prevents a web page from making requests to a different domain, to protect users from malicious activities that could happen if websites could freely interact with each other without restrictions.

      Summary: - Same-Origin: Resources come from the same protocol, domain, and port. - Cross-Origin: Resources come from a different protocol, domain, or port. - Browsers enforce the Same-Origin Policy to enhance security on the web.

      Certainly! Let's break down the provided information with examples:

      1. Sending a Request with Credentials:
      2. When making requests to a server, you might need to include credentials like cookies or HTTP authentication.
      3. To ensure credentials are included in both same-origin and cross-origin calls, you add credentials: 'include' to the fetch options.

      Example: javascript // Including credentials in the request fetch("https://example.com", { credentials: "include", });

      • This is useful when you want to include cookies or authentication information in your requests.

      • Sending Credentials Only for Same-Origin Requests:

      • If you want to send credentials only when the request URL is on the same origin as the calling script, you use credentials: 'same-origin'.

      Example: javascript // Sending credentials only for same-origin requests fetch("https://example.com", { credentials: "same-origin", });

      • This is a more restrictive setting, suitable for scenarios where you only want to send credentials when communicating within the same website.

      • Not Including Credentials in the Request:

      • If you want to make a request without including any credentials, you use credentials: 'omit'.

      Example: javascript // Not including credentials in the request fetch("https://example.com", { credentials: "omit", });

      • This is useful when you don't want to send any authentication information with your request.

      • Uploading JSON Data:

      • You can use the fetch() method to send JSON-encoded data, typically for POST or PUT requests.
      • Set the Content-Type header to indicate that you are sending JSON, and use the JSON.stringify() method to convert your data to a JSON string.

      Example: ```javascript // Posting JSON-encoded data async function postJSON(data) { try { const response = await fetch("https://example.com/profile", { method: "POST", headers: { "Content-Type": "application/json", }, body: JSON.stringify(data), });

         const result = await response.json();
         console.log("Success:", result);
       } catch (error) {
         console.error("Error:", error);
       }
      

      }

      const data = { username: "example" }; postJSON(data); ```

      These examples illustrate how to control the inclusion of credentials in your fetch requests and how to upload JSON data to a server.

    5. The Response object, in turn, does not directly contain the actual JSON response body but is instead a representation of the entire HTTP response. So, to extract the JSON body content from the Response object, we use the json() method, which returns a second promise that resolves with the result of parsing the response body text as JSON. Note: See the Body section for similar methods to extract other types of body content. Fetch requests are controlled by the connect-src directive of Content Security Policy rather than the directive of the resources it's retrieving.Supplying request optionsThe fetch() method can optionally accept a second parameter, an init object that allows you to control a number of different settings: See fetch() for the full options available, and more details. jsCopy to Clipboard// Example POST method implementation: async function postData(url = "", data = {}) { // Default options are marked with * const response = await fetch(url, { method: "POST", // *GET, POST, PUT, DELETE, etc. mode: "cors", // no-cors, *cors, same-origin cache: "no-cache", // *default, no-cache, reload, force-cache, only-if-cached credentials: "same-origin", // include, *same-origin, omit headers: { "Content-Type": "application/json", // 'Content-Type': 'application/x-www-form-urlencoded', }, redirect: "follow", // manual, *follow, error referrerPolicy: "no-referrer", // no-referrer, *no-referrer-when-downgrade, origin, origin-when-cross-origin, same-origin, strict-origin, strict-origin-when-cross-origin, unsafe-url body: JSON.stringify(data), // body data type must match "Content-Type" header }); return response.json(); // parses JSON response into native JavaScript objects } postData("https://example.com/answer", { answer: 42 }).then((data) => { console.log(data); // JSON data parsed by `data.json()` call }); Copy And SaveShareAsk Copilot Note that mode: "no-cors" only allows a limited set of headers in the request: Accept Accept-Language Content-Language Content-Type with a value of application/x-www-form-urlencoded, multipart/form-data, or text/plain Aborting a fetchTo abort incomplete fetch() operations, use the AbortController and AbortSignal interfaces. jsCopy to Clipboardconst controller = new AbortController(); const signal = controller.signal; const url = "video.mp4"; const downloadBtn = document.querySelector("#download"); const abortBtn = document.querySelector("#abort"); downloadBtn.addEventListener("click", async () => { try { const response = await fetch(url, { signal }); console.log("Download complete", response); } catch (error) { console.error(`Download error: ${error.message}`); } }); abortBtn.addEventListener("click", () => { controller.abort(); console.log("Download aborted"); });

      Certainly! Let's break down the provided information into simpler terms:

      1. Extracting JSON from a Fetch Response:
      2. When you use fetch() to get data from a server, the response you get is a special object called the "Response object."
      3. This Response object represents the entire response from the server, including headers and status information.
      4. To get the actual data (like JSON) from this Response object, you use the json() method.
      5. The json() method returns a promise because fetching and parsing data may take some time.

      Example: javascript const response = await fetch("http://example.com/data.json"); const jsonData = await response.json(); console.log(jsonData); // Now, jsonData contains the parsed JSON data

      1. Supplying Request Options with fetch():
      2. fetch() can take a second parameter, which is an object containing various settings or options for the request.
      3. These options allow you to customize how the request is made, including the request method (GET, POST, etc.), mode (like CORS settings), headers, and more.

      Example (POST Request): ```javascript async function postData(url = "", data = {}) { const response = await fetch(url, { method: "POST", mode: "cors", headers: { "Content-Type": "application/json", }, body: JSON.stringify(data), }); return response.json(); // Parsing JSON response into native JavaScript objects }

      postData("https://example.com/answer", { answer: 42 }).then((data) => { console.log(data); }); ```

      1. Aborting a Fetch Operation:
      2. Sometimes you might want to stop a fetch operation before it's complete. For this, you can use the AbortController and AbortSignal.
      3. An AbortController allows you to create an "abort signal" that you can use to cancel a fetch operation.

      Example: ```javascript const controller = new AbortController(); const signal = controller.signal;

      const response = await fetch(url, { signal }); // If you want to abort the fetch before it's complete, you can call controller.abort() ```

      • In the second example provided, there's an interface for downloading a video. The "Download" button initiates the fetch, and the "Abort" button stops it.

      These examples demonstrate how to use fetch() to make requests, customize those requests, and handle scenarios like extracting JSON or aborting requests.

    6. Using the Fetch APIThe Fetch API provides a JavaScript interface for accessing and manipulating parts of the protocol, such as requests and responses. It also provides a global fetch() method that provides an easy, logical way to fetch resources asynchronously across the network. Unlike XMLHttpRequest that is a callback-based API, Fetch is promise-based and provides a better alternative that can be easily used in service workers. Fetch also integrates advanced HTTP concepts such as CORS and other extensions to HTTP. A basic fetch request looks like this: jsCopy to Clipboardasync function logMovies() { const response = await fetch("http://example.com/movies.json"); const movies = await response.json(); console.log(movies); } Copy And SaveShareAsk Copilot Here we are fetching a JSON file across the network, parsing it, and printing the data to the console. The simplest use of fetch() takes one argument — the path to the resource you want to fetch — and does not directly return the JSON response body but instead returns a promise that resolves with a Response object. The Response object, in turn, does not directly contain the actual JSON response body but is instead a representation of the entire HTTP response. So, to extract the JSON body content from the Response object, we use the json() method, which returns a second promise that resolves with the result of parsing the response body text as JSON. Note: See the Body section for similar methods to extract other types of body content. Fetch requests are controlled by the connect-src directive of Content Security Policy rather than the directive of the resources it's retrieving.

      Certainly! Let's break down the code and concepts in simpler terms:

      1. Fetch API Overview:
      2. The Fetch API is a way for JavaScript to make network requests (like fetching data from a server) and handle the responses.
      3. It's an improvement over the older XMLHttpRequest, providing a cleaner, promise-based syntax.

      4. Basic Fetch Request:

      5. The fetch() function is used to initiate a network request.
      6. It takes a URL as an argument, specifying where to fetch data from.
      7. The fetch() function returns a Promise, which represents the result of the request.

      8. Asynchronous Code with await:

      9. The async keyword in the function declaration indicates that the function contains asynchronous code.
      10. The await keyword is used to wait for the completion of a Promise before moving on to the next line of code.

      11. Fetching JSON Data:

      12. In the example, we're fetching data from "http://example.com/movies.json."
      13. The response from the server is stored in the response variable.

      14. Parsing JSON Response:

      15. The response.json() method is used to parse the response body as JSON.
      16. It returns another Promise that resolves to the actual JSON data.

      17. Logging the Result:

      18. The movies variable holds the parsed JSON data.
      19. In this example, it's logged to the console. You could do other things with the data, like updating a webpage or performing calculations.

      20. Summary:

      21. fetch() initiates a network request and returns a Promise.
      22. await is used to wait for the Promise to resolve, making asynchronous code easier to read and write.
      23. response.json() parses the JSON content of the response.
      24. The whole process is wrapped in an async function for cleaner asynchronous handling.

      Example in Simpler Terms: ```javascript async function logMovies() { // Fetch data from a server const response = await fetch("http://example.com/movies.json");

      // Parse the data as JSON const movies = await response.json();

      // Print the movies to the console console.log(movies); }

      // Call the function to see it in action logMovies(); ```

      This function fetches movie data, waits for the response, parses the JSON, and then logs the movies to the console. It's a convenient way to handle asynchronous operations in JavaScript.

    1. ObjectIds An ObjectId is a special type typically used for unique identifiers. Here's how you declare a schema with a path driver that is an ObjectId: const mongoose = require('mongoose'); const carSchema = new mongoose.Schema({ driver: mongoose.ObjectId }); ObjectId is a class, and ObjectIds are objects. However, they are often represented as strings. When you convert an ObjectId to a string using toString(), you get a 24-character hexadecimal string: const Car = mongoose.model('Car', carSchema); const car = new Car(); car.driver = new mongoose.Types.ObjectId(); typeof car.driver; // 'object' car.driver instanceof mongoose.Types.ObjectId; // true car.driver.toString(); // Something like "5e1a0651741b255ddda996c4"

      Certainly! Let's break it down in simpler terms.

      In this example, we're working with a JavaScript library called Mongoose, which is commonly used with MongoDB (a type of database). In Mongoose, there's a special type called ObjectId, designed for creating unique identifiers.

      Step 1: Define a Schema

      A schema is like a blueprint for how your data should look. In this case, you're creating a schema for a "car" that has a property called "driver," and this driver is expected to be an ObjectId.

      ```javascript const mongoose = require('mongoose');

      const carSchema = new mongoose.Schema({ driver: mongoose.ObjectId }); ```

      Step 2: Create a Model

      You use the schema to create a model for your data. Think of it as a way to interact with your data in the database.

      javascript const Car = mongoose.model('Car', carSchema);

      Step 3: Use the Model to Create a Car Object

      Now, you create an instance of the Car model, representing a specific car.

      javascript const car = new Car();

      Step 4: Assign an ObjectId to the Driver Property

      You generate a new ObjectId and assign it to the "driver" property of your car.

      javascript car.driver = new mongoose.Types.ObjectId();

      Now, car.driver holds an ObjectId.

      Step 5: Checking the Type and Converting to String

      You can check the type of car.driver and see that it's an object.

      javascript typeof car.driver; // 'object' car.driver instanceof mongoose.Types.ObjectId; // true

      Lastly, if you want to represent this ObjectId as a string (which is a common practice), you can use the toString() method.

      javascript car.driver.toString(); // a 24-character hexadecimal string

      So, in simple terms, you're creating a unique identifier for the driver of a car using ObjectIds, and you can easily convert it to a string when needed.

    2. ObjectIds An ObjectId is a special type typically used for unique identifiers. Here's how you declare a schema with a path driver that is an ObjectId: const mongoose = require('mongoose'); const carSchema = new mongoose.Schema({ driver: mongoose.ObjectId });

      Certainly! The way it works is when you create a new note and associate it with a user, you will typically provide the user's unique identifier (ID) as the value for the user field. In a typical scenario, this user ID would come from the "user" collection in your database.

      Here's a brief example in code:

      ```javascript // Assume you have a User model and you have obtained a user's ID const userId = "someUserId"; // This would be the actual ID of the user in your database

      // Creating a new note and associating it with the user by providing the user ID const newNote = new Notes({ user: userId, title: "Sample Note", description: "This is a sample note.", tag: "General", deadline: new Date(), deadlinetime: "12:00 PM", });

      // Save the new note to the database newNote.save() .then((savedNote) => { console.log("Note saved successfully:", savedNote); }) .catch((error) => { console.error("Error saving note:", error); }); ```

      In this example, the user field of the new note is set to the userId obtained from the "user" collection. When you save this note to the database, the user field will store the provided user ID. Later, when you retrieve this note, you can use this user ID to identify which user the note is associated with.

      It's important to ensure that the user ID you provide for the user field actually corresponds to an existing user in the "user" collection. This way, you maintain the relationship between the "notes" and "user" collections in your MongoDB database.

    1. Mongoose schemas support a timestamps option. If you set timestamps: true, Mongoose will add two properties of type Date to your schema: createdAt: a date representing when this document was created updatedAt: a date representing when this document was last updated Mongoose will then set createdAt when the document is first inserted, and update updatedAt whenever you update the document using save(), updateOne(), updateMany(), findOneAndUpdate(), update(), replaceOne(), or bulkWrite(). const userSchema = new Schema({ name: String }, { timestamps: true }); const User = mongoose.model('User', userSchema); let doc = await User.create({ name: 'test' }); console.log(doc.createdAt); // 2022-02-26T16:37:48.244Z console.log(doc.updatedAt); // 2022-02-26T16:37:48.244Z doc.name = 'test2'; await doc.save(); console.log(doc.createdAt); // 2022-02-26T16:37:48.244Z console.log(doc.updatedAt); // 2022-02-26T16:37:48.307Z doc = await User.findOneAndUpdate({ _id: doc._id }, { name: 'test3' }, { new: true }); console.log(doc.createdAt); // 2022-02-26T16:37:48.244Z console.log(doc.updatedAt); // 2022-02-26T16:37:48.366Z The createdAt property is immutable, and Mongoose overwrites any user-specified updates to updatedAt by default. let doc = await User.create({ name: 'test' }); console.log(doc.createdAt); // 2022-02-26T17:08:13.930Z console.log(doc.updatedAt); // 2022-02-26T17:08:13.930Z doc.name = 'test2'; doc.createdAt = new Date(0); doc.updatedAt = new Date(0); await doc.save(); // Mongoose blocked changing `createdAt` and set its own `updatedAt`, ignoring // the attempt to manually set them. console.log(doc.createdAt); // 2022-02-26T17:08:13.930Z console.log(doc.updatedAt); // 2022-02-26T17:08:13.991Z // Mongoose also blocks changing `createdAt` and sets its own `updatedAt` // on `findOneAndUpdate()`, `updateMany()`, and other query operations doc = await User.findOneAndUpdate( { _id: doc._id }, { name: 'test3', createdAt: new Date(0), updatedAt: new Date(0) }, { new: true } ); console.log(doc.createdAt); // 2022-02-26T17:08:13.930Z console.log(doc.updatedAt); // 2022-02-26T17:08:14.008Z

      In this schema, Mongoose will create createdAt and updatedAt fields, both of type Date. When documents are created or updated, these fields store the corresponding date and time information..

      Imagine you're working with a database of users in a Node.js application using Mongoose, which is a library for MongoDB.

      1. timestamps Option:
      2. When you define your user schema in Mongoose, you can include a special option called timestamps: true. This option automatically adds two properties to your user documents:
        • createdAt: Represents when the user document was created.
        • updatedAt: Represents when the user document was last updated.

      javascript const userSchema = new Schema({ name: String }, { timestamps: true }); const User = mongoose.model('User', userSchema);

      1. Automatic Timestamps:
      2. When you create a new user using User.create(), Mongoose automatically sets the createdAt and updatedAt properties.

      javascript let doc = await User.create({ name: 'test' }); console.log(doc.createdAt); // Shows the creation time console.log(doc.updatedAt); // Shows the same time initially

      1. Updating and Timestamps:
      2. When you update the user document using methods like save(), Mongoose automatically updates the updatedAt property.

      javascript doc.name = 'test2'; await doc.save(); console.log(doc.updatedAt); // Shows the updated time

      1. Query Operations and Timestamps:
      2. Mongoose also automatically handles timestamps when you perform update operations like findOneAndUpdate().

      javascript doc = await User.findOneAndUpdate({ _id: doc._id }, { name: 'test3' }, { new: true }); console.log(doc.updatedAt); // Shows the updated time

      1. Immutable createdAt:
      2. Mongoose makes the createdAt property immutable, meaning you can't manually change it.

      javascript doc.createdAt = new Date(0); // This won't work, Mongoose ignores it await doc.save(); console.log(doc.createdAt); // Shows the original creation time

      • Even if you try to set createdAt manually during findOneAndUpdate(), Mongoose ignores it.

      javascript doc = await User.findOneAndUpdate( { _id: doc._id }, { name: 'test3', createdAt: new Date(0) }, { new: true } ); console.log(doc.createdAt); // Shows the original creation time

      In simple terms, the timestamps option in Mongoose helps you keep track of when your documents are created and updated automatically. Mongoose takes care of managing these timestamps, and certain properties like createdAt are protected from manual changes.

    2. Under the Hood For queries with timestamps, Mongoose adds 2 properties to each update query: Add updatedAt to $set Add createdAt to $setOnInsert For example, if you run the below code: mongoose.set('debug', true); const userSchema = new Schema({ name: String }, { timestamps: true }); const User = mongoose.model('User', userSchema); await User.findOneAndUpdate({}, { name: 'test' }); You'll see the below output from Mongoose debug mode: Mongoose: users.findOneAndUpdate({}, { '$setOnInsert': { createdAt: new Date("Sun, 27 Feb 2022 00:26:27 GMT") }, '$set': { updatedAt: new Date("Sun, 27 Feb 2022 00:26:27 GMT"), name: 'test' }}, {...}) Notice the $setOnInsert for createdAt and $set for updatedAt. MongoDB's $setOnInsert operator applies the update only if a new document is upserted. So, for example, if you want to only set updatedAt if a new document is created, you can disable the updatedAt timestamp and set it yourself as shown below: await User.findOneAndUpdate({}, { $setOnInsert: { updatedAt: new Date() } }, { timestamps: { createdAt: true, updatedAt: false } });

      Certainly! Let's break down the information in simpler terms with examples:

      Under the Hood - MongoDB Update Queries with Timestamps:

      1. Properties Added by Mongoose:
      2. When you perform update queries with timestamps enabled, Mongoose adds two special properties to the MongoDB update operation:

        • updatedAt: Added to the $set operator. It represents the last update time.
        • createdAt: Added to the $setOnInsert operator. It represents the creation time and is applied only when a new document is upserted (inserted if not found).
      3. Example - Update Query:

      4. Consider the following code:

      ```javascript const userSchema = new Schema({ name: String }, { timestamps: true }); const User = mongoose.model('User', userSchema);

      await User.findOneAndUpdate({}, { name: 'test' }); ```

      • In the debug output, you'll see MongoDB update operators like $setOnInsert and $set:

      plaintext Mongoose: users.findOneAndUpdate({}, { '$setOnInsert': { createdAt: new Date("Sun, 27 Feb 2022 00:26:27 GMT") }, '$set': { updatedAt: new Date("Sun, 27 Feb 2022 00:26:27 GMT"), name: 'test' }}, {...})

      1. Explanation of $setOnInsert and $set:
      2. $setOnInsert: It sets the specified values only if a new document is inserted during an upsert operation. In the example, it sets createdAt only if a new document is created.
      3. $set: It sets the specified values regardless of whether the document is new or existing. In the example, it sets updatedAt and updates the name.

      4. Disabling updatedAt Timestamp and Setting Manually:

      5. If you want to handle updatedAt manually and disable automatic updates, you can do so:

      javascript await User.findOneAndUpdate({}, { $setOnInsert: { updatedAt: new Date() } }, { timestamps: { createdAt: true, updatedAt: false } });

      • This way, you can control when updatedAt is set, and it won't be automatically managed by Mongoose.

      In simple terms, Mongoose adds special properties like updatedAt and createdAt to MongoDB update queries when timestamps are enabled. These properties are essential for tracking update and creation times. You can customize the behavior by manually handling timestamps or adjusting the update options.

    3. Alternate Property Names For the purposes of these docs, we'll always refer to createdAt and updatedAt. But you can overwrite these property names as shown below. const userSchema = new Schema({ name: String }, { timestamps: { createdAt: 'created_at', // Use `created_at` to store the created date updatedAt: 'updated_at' // and `updated_at` to store the last updated date } }); Disabling Timestamps save(), updateOne(), updateMany(), findOneAndUpdate(), update(), replaceOne(), and bulkWrite() all support a timestamps option. Set timestamps: false to skip setting timestamps for that particular operation. let doc = await User.create({ name: 'test' }); console.log(doc.createdAt); // 2022-02-26T23:28:54.264Z console.log(doc.updatedAt); // 2022-02-26T23:28:54.264Z doc.name = 'test2'; // Setting `timestamps: false` tells Mongoose to skip updating `updatedAt` on this `save()` await doc.save({ timestamps: false }); console.log(doc.updatedAt); // 2022-02-26T23:28:54.264Z // Similarly, setting `timestamps: false` on a query tells Mongoose to skip updating // `updatedAt`. doc = await User.findOneAndUpdate({ _id: doc._id }, { name: 'test3' }, { new: true, timestamps: false }); console.log(doc.updatedAt); // 2022-02-26T23:28:54.264Z // Below is how you can disable timestamps on a `bulkWrite()` await User.bulkWrite([{ updateOne: { filter: { _id: doc._id }, update: { name: 'test4' }, timestamps: false } }]); doc = await User.findOne({ _id: doc._id }); console.log(doc.updatedAt); // 2022-02-26T23:28:54.264Z You can also set the timestamps option to an object to configure createdAt and updatedAt separately. For example, in the below code, Mongoose sets createdAt on save() but skips updatedAt. const doc = new User({ name: 'test' }); // Tell Mongoose to set `createdAt`, but skip `updatedAt`. await doc.save({ timestamps: { createdAt: true, updatedAt: false } }); console.log(doc.createdAt); // 2022-02-26T23:32:12.478Z console.log(doc.updatedAt); // undefined Disabling timestamps also lets you set timestamps yourself. For example, suppose you need to correct a document's createdAt or updatedAt property. You can do that by setting timestamps: false and setting createdAt yourself as shown below. let doc = await User.create({ name: 'test' }); // To update `updatedAt`, do a `findOneAndUpdate()` with `timestamps: false` and // `updatedAt` set to the value you want doc = await User.findOneAndUpdate({ _id: doc._id }, { updatedAt: new Date(0) }, { new: true, timestamps: false }); console.log(doc.updatedAt); // 1970-01-01T00:00:00.000Z // To update `createdAt`, you also need to set `strict: false` because `createdAt` // is immutable doc = await User.findOneAndUpdate({ _id: doc._id }, { createdAt: new Date(0) }, { new: true, timestamps: false, strict: false }); console.log(doc.createdAt); // 1970-01-01T00:00:00.000Z Timestamps on Subdocuments Mongoose also supports setting timestamps on subdocuments. Keep in mind that createdAt and updatedAt for subdocuments represent when the subdocument was created or updated, not the top level document. Overwriting a subdocument will also overwrite createdAt. const roleSchema = new Schema({ value: String }, { timestamps: true }); const userSchema = new Schema({ name: String, roles: [roleSchema] }); const doc = await User.create({ name: 'test', roles: [{ value: 'admin' }] }); console.log(doc.roles[0].createdAt); // 2022-02-27T00:22:53.836Z console.log(doc.roles[0].updatedAt); // 2022-02-27T00:22:53.836Z // Overwriting the subdocument also overwrites `createdAt` and `updatedAt` doc.roles[0] = { value: 'root' }; await doc.save(); console.log(doc.roles[0].createdAt); // 2022-02-27T00:22:53.902Z console.log(doc.roles[0].updatedAt); // 2022-02-27T00:22:53.902Z // But updating the subdocument preserves `createdAt` and updates `updatedAt` doc.roles[0].value = 'admin'; await doc.save(); console.log(doc.roles[0].createdAt); // 2022-02-27T00:22:53.902Z console.log(doc.roles[0].updatedAt); // 2022-02-27T00:22:53.909Z

      Certainly! Let's simplify the information and examples provided:

      Timestamps and Property Names:

      1. Custom Property Names:
      2. By default, Mongoose uses createdAt and updatedAt as timestamp properties. However, you can customize these names:

      javascript const userSchema = new Schema({ name: String }, { timestamps: { createdAt: 'created_at', updatedAt: 'updated_at' } });

      Now, instead of createdAt and updatedAt, your properties will be named created_at and updated_at.

      1. Disabling Timestamps:
      2. You can choose to skip updating timestamps for specific operations by setting timestamps: false.

      ```javascript // Example with save() await doc.save({ timestamps: false });

      // Example with findOneAndUpdate() doc = await User.findOneAndUpdate({ _id: doc._id }, { name: 'test3' }, { new: true, timestamps: false }); ```

      This prevents the updatedAt from being automatically updated during those operations.

      1. Custom Configuration:
      2. You can configure createdAt and updatedAt separately using an object:

      javascript await doc.save({ timestamps: { createdAt: true, updatedAt: false } });

      This example sets createdAt on save but skips updating updatedAt.

      1. Disabling Timestamps and Setting Manually:
      2. If you need to correct or set timestamps manually:

      ``javascript // Example with updatingupdatedAt` doc = await User.findOneAndUpdate({ _id: doc._id }, { updatedAt: new Date(0) }, { new: true, timestamps: false });

      // Example with updating createdAt (requires setting strict: false because createdAt is immutable) doc = await User.findOneAndUpdate({ _id: doc._id }, { createdAt: new Date(0) }, { new: true, timestamps: false, strict: false }); ```

      Timestamps on Subdocuments:

      1. Setting Timestamps on Subdocuments:
      2. You can also have timestamps on subdocuments:

      javascript const roleSchema = new Schema({ value: String }, { timestamps: true }); const userSchema = new Schema({ name: String, roles: [roleSchema] });

      Here, each role in the roles array will have its own createdAt and updatedAt.

      1. Overwriting Subdocuments and Timestamps:
      2. Overwriting a subdocument will also overwrite its createdAt and updatedAt.

      javascript doc.roles[0] = { value: 'root' }; await doc.save();

      1. Updating Subdocuments and Timestamps:
      2. Updating a subdocument preserves createdAt and updates updatedAt.

      javascript doc.roles[0].value = 'admin'; await doc.save();

      In simple terms, these features allow you to customize how timestamps are handled in your Mongoose models, including changing property names, disabling automatic updates for specific operations, and managing timestamps on subdocuments.

    1. The unique Option is Not a Validator A common gotcha for beginners is that the unique option for schemas is not a validator. It's a convenient helper for building MongoDB unique indexes. See the FAQ for more information. const uniqueUsernameSchema = new Schema({ username: { type: String, unique: true } }); const U1 = db.model('U1', uniqueUsernameSchema); const U2 = db.model('U2', uniqueUsernameSchema); const dup = [{ username: 'Val' }, { username: 'Val' }]; // Race condition! This may save successfully, depending on whether // MongoDB built the index before writing the 2 docs. U1.create(dup). then(() => { }). catch(err => { }); // You need to wait for Mongoose to finish building the `unique` // index before writing. You only need to build indexes once for // a given collection, so you normally don't need to do this // in production. But, if you drop the database between tests, // you will need to use `init()` to wait for the index build to finish. U2.init(). then(() => U2.create(dup)). catch(error => { // `U2.create()` will error, but will *not* be a mongoose validation error, it will be // a duplicate key error. // See: https://masteringjs.io/tutorials/mongoose/e11000-duplicate-key assert.ok(error); assert.ok(!error.errors); assert.ok(error.message.indexOf('duplicate key error') !== -1); });

      Certainly! Let's break down the concept of the unique option in Mongoose with simple words and an example:

      1. Unique Option is Not a Validator:
      2. The unique option in Mongoose is not a validator like required or min. Instead, it's a helper for creating unique indexes in MongoDB.
      3. It ensures that the values in the specified field are unique across documents in the collection.

      4. Example:

      5. Consider a schema with a unique username field: javascript const uniqueUsernameSchema = new Schema({ username: { type: String, unique: true } });

      6. Race Condition Warning:

      7. When using unique, there's a potential race condition during document creation.
      8. If you attempt to create two documents with the same unique value simultaneously, it might succeed based on the timing of when MongoDB builds the unique index.
      9. Example: javascript const dup = [{ username: 'Val' }, { username: 'Val' }]; U1.create(dup).then(() => {}).catch(err => {}); This may save successfully depending on whether MongoDB built the index before writing the two documents.

      10. Waiting for Index Build:

      11. To avoid the race condition, you can use init() to wait for the index build to finish.
      12. Example: javascript U2.init().then(() => U2.create(dup)).catch(error => { // Handling the error, which will be a duplicate key error assert.ok(error); assert.ok(!error.errors); assert.ok(error.message.indexOf('duplicate key error') !== -1); }); Here, U2.init() ensures that the unique index is built before attempting to create documents. The error, in this case, will not be a Mongoose validation error but a MongoDB duplicate key error.

      In simple terms, using the unique option helps enforce uniqueness for a field across documents, but you need to be aware of potential race conditions when creating documents with duplicate values. Waiting for the index build before creating documents can help avoid such issues.

    2. Custom Error Messages You can configure the error message for individual validators in your schema. There are two equivalent ways to set the validator error message: Array syntax: min: [6, 'Must be at least 6, got {VALUE}'] Object syntax: enum: { values: ['Coffee', 'Tea'], message: '{VALUE} is not supported' } Mongoose also supports rudimentary templating for error messages. Mongoose replaces {VALUE} with the value being validated. const breakfastSchema = new Schema({ eggs: { type: Number, min: [6, 'Must be at least 6, got {VALUE}'], max: 12 }, drink: { type: String, enum: { values: ['Coffee', 'Tea'], message: '{VALUE} is not supported' } } }); const Breakfast = db.model('Breakfast', breakfastSchema); const badBreakfast = new Breakfast({ eggs: 2, drink: 'Milk' }); const error = badBreakfast.validateSync(); assert.equal(error.errors['eggs'].message, 'Must be at least 6, got 2'); assert.equal(error.errors['drink'].message, 'Milk is not supported');

      Certainly! Let's break down the concept of custom error messages in Mongoose with simple words and an example:

      1. Array Syntax:
      2. When defining a validator like min, you can provide an array with two elements.
      3. The first element is the validation rule (e.g., minimum value), and the second element is a custom error message.
      4. Example: javascript eggs: { type: Number, min: [6, 'Must be at least 6, got {VALUE}'], max: 12 } Here, if the value for 'eggs' is less than 6, the error message will be 'Must be at least 6, got {VALUE}', where {VALUE} is replaced by the actual value.

      5. Object Syntax:

      6. Alternatively, you can use an object to define the validator with the message property for a custom error message.
      7. Example: javascript drink: { type: String, enum: { values: ['Coffee', 'Tea'], message: '{VALUE} is not supported' } } In this case, if 'Milk' is assigned to 'drink', the error message will be 'Milk is not supported'.

      8. Templating in Error Messages:

      9. Mongoose supports templating in error messages using {VALUE}.
      10. The {VALUE} placeholder is dynamically replaced with the actual value being validated.
      11. Example: javascript eggs: { type: Number, min: [6, 'Must be at least 6, got {VALUE}'], max: 12 } If 'eggs' has a value of 2, the error message would be 'Must be at least 6, got 2'.

      In summary, custom error messages allow you to provide more meaningful and descriptive feedback when a validation fails. In the provided example, if the breakfast object has invalid values for 'eggs' or 'drink', the custom error messages help to understand what went wrong, making it easier to identify and fix issues.

    3. Mongoose has several built-in validators. All SchemaTypes have the built-in required validator. The required validator uses the SchemaType's checkRequired() function to determine if the value satisfies the required validator. Numbers have min and max validators. Strings have enum, match, minLength, and maxLength validators. Each of the validator links above provide more information about how to enable them and customize their error messages. const breakfastSchema = new Schema({ eggs: { type: Number, min: [6, 'Too few eggs'], max: 12 }, bacon: { type: Number, required: [true, 'Why no bacon?'] }, drink: { type: String, enum: ['Coffee', 'Tea'], required: function() { return this.bacon > 3; } } }); const Breakfast = db.model('Breakfast', breakfastSchema); const badBreakfast = new Breakfast({ eggs: 2, bacon: 0, drink: 'Milk' }); let error = badBreakfast.validateSync(); assert.equal(error.errors['eggs'].message, 'Too few eggs'); assert.ok(!error.errors['bacon']); assert.equal(error.errors['drink'].message, '`Milk` is not a valid enum value for path `drink`.'); badBreakfast.bacon = 5; badBreakfast.drink = null; error = badBreakfast.validateSync(); assert.equal(error.errors['drink'].message, 'Path `drink` is required.'); badBreakfast.bacon = null; error = badBreakfast.validateSync(); assert.equal(error.errors['bacon'].message, 'Why no bacon?');

      Certainly! Let's break down the provided Mongoose schema and examples:

      ```javascript const breakfastSchema = new Schema({ eggs: { type: Number, min: [6, 'Too few eggs'], max: 12 }, bacon: { type: Number, required: [true, 'Why no bacon?'] }, drink: { type: String, enum: ['Coffee', 'Tea'], required: function() { return this.bacon > 3; } } });

      const Breakfast = db.model('Breakfast', breakfastSchema); ```

      1. Eggs Property:
      2. Type: Number
      3. Validation:

        • min: Specifies that the value must be at least 6.
        • max: Specifies that the value must be at most 12.
      4. Bacon Property:

      5. Type: Number
      6. Validation:

        • required: Specifies that this property is required, and if not provided, the error message will be 'Why no bacon?'.
      7. Drink Property:

      8. Type: String
      9. Validation:
        • enum: Specifies that the value must be one of the specified enum values ('Coffee' or 'Tea').
        • required: Specifies a custom validation function. In this case, the property is required if the value of 'bacon' is greater than 3.

      Now, let's go through the examples:

      ```javascript const badBreakfast = new Breakfast({ eggs: 2, bacon: 0, drink: 'Milk' });

      let error = badBreakfast.validateSync();

      // Check the errors for each property assert.equal(error.errors['eggs'].message, 'Too few eggs'); // Error for 'eggs' due to min validation assert.ok(!error.errors['bacon']); // No error for 'bacon' as it is provided assert.equal(error.errors['drink'].message, 'Milk is not a valid enum value for path drink.'); // Error for 'drink' due to enum validation

      // Make changes to the breakfast object badBreakfast.bacon = 5; badBreakfast.drink = null;

      // Validate again after changes error = badBreakfast.validateSync(); assert.equal(error.errors['drink'].message, 'Path drink is required.'); // Error for 'drink' due to required validation

      // Make further changes badBreakfast.bacon = null; error = badBreakfast.validateSync(); assert.equal(error.errors['bacon'].message, 'Why no bacon?'); // Error for 'bacon' due to required validation ```

      Explanation:

      • In the first example, badBreakfast is created with values that violate the validation rules. When calling validateSync(), errors are generated for 'eggs' (too few), 'drink' (not in the enum), but none for 'bacon' since it is provided.

      • After changing the values, another validation is performed. Now, 'drink' generates an error because it is set to null and required.

      • Finally, when 'bacon' is set to null, it triggers the 'required' validation, and an error is generated.

      These examples demonstrate how Mongoose's built-in validators can be used to ensure that data adheres to specified constraints.

      Certainly, let's break down the provided assertions in simpler terms:

      1. assert.equal(error.errors['eggs'].message, 'Too few eggs');
      2. This assertion checks if there is an error related to the 'eggs' property.
      3. If the value for 'eggs' is below 6, it triggers an error with the message 'Too few eggs'.
      4. Example: If badBreakfast has eggs: 2, this assertion would pass because 2 is below the specified minimum of 6.

      5. assert.ok(!error.errors['bacon']);

      6. This assertion checks if there is no error related to the 'bacon' property.
      7. If 'bacon' is provided (not null or undefined), it should not trigger a 'required' validation error.
      8. Example: If badBreakfast has bacon: 5, this assertion would pass because 'bacon' is provided.

      9. assert.equal(error.errors['drink'].message, 'Milkis not a valid enum value for pathdrink.');

      10. This assertion checks if there is an error related to the 'drink' property.
      11. If the value for 'drink' is not 'Coffee' or 'Tea', it triggers an error with the specified message.
      12. Example: If badBreakfast has drink: 'Milk', this assertion would pass because 'Milk' is not a valid enum value.

      In simpler terms, these assertions are checking if the validations defined in the Mongoose schema are working as expected. They help ensure that the data conforms to the specified rules: 'eggs' should be above a minimum, 'bacon' should be provided, and 'drink' should be one of the allowed values ('Coffee' or 'Tea').

    4. const schema = new Schema({ name: { type: String, required: true } }); const Cat = db.model('Cat', schema); // This cat has no name :( const cat = new Cat(); let error; try { await cat.save(); } catch (err) { error = err; } assert.equal(error.errors['name'].message, 'Path `name` is required.'); error = cat.validateSync(); assert.equal(error.errors['name'].message, 'Path `name` is required.');

      Certainly! Let's break down the code and explanations in simpler terms:

      1. Schema Definition:
      2. You have defined a Mongoose schema for a "Cat" with a property called "name." The "name" field is of type String and is marked as required, meaning every cat must have a name.

      javascript const schema = new Schema({ name: { type: String, required: true } });

      1. Creating a Cat Model:
      2. You use the schema to create a Mongoose model named "Cat."

      javascript const Cat = db.model('Cat', schema);

      1. Creating a Cat Instance without a Name:
      2. You create a new cat instance without providing a name.

      javascript const cat = new Cat();

      Now, this cat doesn't have a name.

      1. Attempting to Save the Cat:
      2. You try to save the cat using cat.save().

      javascript let error; try { await cat.save(); } catch (err) { error = err; }

      Since the "name" is marked as required in the schema, and the cat doesn't have a name, saving it should result in an error.

      1. Handling the Error:
      2. You catch the error that occurs during the save operation.

      javascript assert.equal(error.errors['name'].message, 'Path `name` is required.');

      The error message indicates that the "name" field is required, and it points out that the "name" path is missing.

      1. Validating Sync:
      2. You also perform synchronous validation using cat.validateSync().

      javascript error = cat.validateSync();

      This is another way to trigger validation without saving the document. The error object will contain information about validation errors.

      1. Asserting the Validation Error:
      2. You assert that the error received from validation has the expected message indicating that the "name" path is required.

      javascript assert.equal(error.errors['name'].message, 'Path `name` is required.');

      This assertion confirms that the validation is working as expected, and it identifies the issue with the missing "name" field.

      In summary, the code demonstrates how Mongoose enforces validation rules specified in the schema, ensuring that essential fields, like "name" in this case, are present before saving a document.

    5. Before we get into the specifics of validation syntax, please keep the following rules in mind: Validation is defined in the SchemaType Validation is middleware. Mongoose registers validation as a pre('save') hook on every schema by default. Validation always runs as the first pre('save') hook. This means that validation doesn't run on any changes you make in pre('save') hooks. You can disable automatic validation before save by setting the validateBeforeSave option You can manually run validation using doc.validate() or doc.validateSync() You can manually mark a field as invalid (causing validation to fail) by using doc.invalidate(...) Validators are not run on undefined values. The only exception is the required validator. When you call Model#save, Mongoose also runs subdocument validation. If an error occurs, your Model#save promise rejects Validation is customizable

      Certainly! Let's break down the key points about validation in Mongoose using simpler language and examples:

      1. Validation Defined in SchemaType:
      2. In Mongoose, you define validation rules for your data in the schema itself. For example, if you want to ensure that a field should be a number, you define it in the schema.

      javascript const userSchema = new mongoose.Schema({ age: { type: Number, required: true, min: 18, max: 99 } });

      1. Validation as Middleware:
      2. Validation is like a checkpoint that runs before saving data. By default, Mongoose adds validation as a step before the 'save' operation.

      3. Validation Order:

      4. Validation always occurs as the first step in the 'save' process. It doesn't run on changes made within 'pre('save')' hooks.

      5. Disabling Automatic Validation:

      6. You can choose to turn off automatic validation before saving by setting the validateBeforeSave option.

      javascript const options = { validateBeforeSave: false }; const userSchema = new mongoose.Schema({/*...*/}, options);

      1. Manual Validation:
      2. You can manually trigger validation using doc.validate() or doc.validateSync() on your document.

      javascript const user = new User({/*...*/}); user.validate((err) => { if (err) { console.error(err); } });

      1. Manually Marking a Field as Invalid:
      2. You can mark a specific field as invalid using doc.invalidate(...). This will cause validation to fail for that field.

      javascript user.invalidate('age', 'Age must be at least 18', 18);

      1. Validators Not Run on Undefined Values:
      2. Validators won't run on fields with undefined values unless a 'required' validator is specified.

      javascript const userSchema = new mongoose.Schema({ email: { type: String, required: true, unique: true } });

      1. Subdocument Validation:
      2. When you save a document with subdocuments, Mongoose also validates those subdocuments.

      javascript const userSchema = new mongoose.Schema({ posts: [{ title: String, content: String }] });

      1. Customizable Validation:
      2. You can customize validation rules based on your specific requirements. For example, writing a custom validator function.

      javascript const userSchema = new mongoose.Schema({ phone: { type: String, validate: { validator: function (v) { return /\d{3}-\d{3}-\d{4}/.test(v); }, message: props => `${props.value} is not a valid phone number!` } } });

      In summary, validation in Mongoose helps ensure that your data meets specific criteria before being saved, and you have flexibility in customizing these validation rules to suit your application's needs.

    1. cookie-parser Parse Cookie header and populate req.cookies with an object keyed by the cookie names. Optionally you may enable signed cookie support by passing a secret string, which assigns req.secret so it may be used by other middleware. Installation $ npm install cookie-parser API var cookieParser = require('cookie-parser') cookieParser(secret, options) Create a new cookie parser middleware function using the given secret and options. secret a string or array used for signing cookies. This is optional and if not specified, will not parse signed cookies. If a string is provided, this is used as the secret. If an array is provided, an attempt will be made to unsign the cookie with each secret in order. options an object that is passed to cookie.parse as the second option. See cookie for more information. decode a function to decode the value of the cookie The middleware will parse the Cookie header on the request and expose the cookie data as the property req.cookies and, if a secret was provided, as the property req.signedCookies. These properties are name value pairs of the cookie name to cookie value. When secret is provided, this module will unsign and validate any signed cookie values and move those name value pairs from req.cookies into req.signedCookies. A signed cookie is a cookie that has a value prefixed with s:. Signed cookies that fail signature validation will have the value false instead of the tampered value. In addition, this module supports special "JSON cookies". These are cookie where the value is prefixed with j:. When these values are encountered, the value will be exposed as the result of JSON.parse. If parsing fails, the original value will remain. cookieParser.JSONCookie(str) Parse a cookie value as a JSON cookie. This will return the parsed JSON value if it was a JSON cookie, otherwise, it will return the passed value. cookieParser.JSONCookies(cookies) Given an object, this will iterate over the keys and call JSONCookie on each value, replacing the original value with the parsed value. This returns the same object that was passed in. cookieParser.signedCookie(str, secret) Parse a cookie value as a signed cookie. This will return the parsed unsigned value if it was a signed cookie and the signature was valid. If the value was not signed, the original value is returned. If the value was signed but the signature could not be validated, false is returned. The secret argument can be an array or string. If a string is provided, this is used as the secret. If an array is provided, an attempt will be made to unsign the cookie with each secret in order. cookieParser.signedCookies(cookies, secret) Given an object, this will iterate over the keys and check if any value is a signed cookie. If it is a signed cookie and the signature is valid, the key will be deleted from the object and added to the new object that is returned. The secret argument can be an array or string. If a string is provided, this is used as the secret. If an array is provided, an attempt will be made to unsign the cookie with each secret in order.

      Certainly! In simple terms, the cookie-parser is a module in Node.js (specifically for Express applications) that helps with handling cookies, which are small pieces of data stored on a user's browser.

      Here's a breakdown:

      1. Installation: You need to install the cookie-parser module using npm.

      bash npm install cookie-parser

      1. Creating a Middleware:
      2. You create a middleware function using cookie-parser.
      3. You can optionally provide a "secret" (a string or an array of strings) for extra security. This secret is used to sign cookies, making them tamper-proof.

      ```javascript const cookieParser = require('cookie-parser'); const app = express();

      // Use the cookie-parser middleware app.use(cookieParser('yourSecret')); ```

      1. Parsing Cookies:
      2. The middleware parses the cookies sent by the user's browser and makes them available in req.cookies.
      3. If a secret is provided, it also validates and unsigns any signed cookies, making them available in req.signedCookies.

      4. Working with Cookies:

      5. You can set cookies in the response using res.cookie().
      6. You can read cookies from the request in your route handlers from req.cookies and req.signedCookies.

      ```javascript app.get('/set-cookie', (req, res) => { // Set a cookie named "myCookie" with value "Hello, Cookie!" res.cookie('myCookie', 'Hello, Cookie!'); res.send('Cookie has been set!'); });

      app.get('/read-cookie', (req, res) => { // Access the value of the "myCookie" cookie const myCookieValue = req.cookies.myCookie; res.send(Value of myCookie: ${myCookieValue}); }); ```

      1. Additional Features:
      2. You can work with signed cookies for added security.
      3. It supports special "JSON cookies" for storing JSON data.

      Remember, cookies are often used to store small pieces of information on the user's browser, and cookie-parser helps you handle them easily in your Express.js applications.

      In an Express.js application, you can set cookies in the browser using the res.cookie() method. This method is provided by the cookie-parser middleware. Here's a simple example:

      1. Install cookie-parser if you haven't already:

      bash npm install cookie-parser

      1. Use cookie-parser in your Express app:

      ```javascript const express = require('express'); const cookieParser = require('cookie-parser');

      const app = express();

      // Use the cookie-parser middleware app.use(cookieParser()); ```

      1. Set a cookie in a route handler:

      ```javascript app.get('/set-cookie', (req, res) => { // Set a cookie named "myCookie" with value "Hello, Cookie!" res.cookie('myCookie', 'Hello, Cookie!');

       // Send a response
       res.send('Cookie has been set!');
      

      }); ```

      In the above example, when the user accesses the /set-cookie endpoint, a cookie named "myCookie" with the value "Hello, Cookie!" will be set in their browser.

      1. Set additional options (optional):

      You can set additional options for cookies, such as maxAge, expires, path, domain, and others. For example:

      javascript res.cookie('myCookie', 'Hello, Cookie!', { maxAge: 900000, httpOnly: true });

      This sets the maxAge option to 900,000 milliseconds (15 minutes) and makes the cookie accessible only through HTTP (not through JavaScript).

      Remember to adapt the code to your specific use case and requirements. The client's browser will now store the cookie, and subsequent requests from that client to your server will include the cookie information in the request headers.

    2. cookie-parser Parse Cookie header and populate req.cookies with an object keyed by the cookie names. Optionally you may enable signed cookie support by passing a secret string, which assigns req.secret so it may be used by other middleware. Installation $ npm install cookie-parser API var cookieParser = require('cookie-parser') cookieParser(secret, options) Create a new cookie parser middleware function using the given secret and options. secret a string or array used for signing cookies. This is optional and if not specified, will not parse signed cookies. If a string is provided, this is used as the secret. If an array is provided, an attempt will be made to unsign the cookie with each secret in order. options an object that is passed to cookie.parse as the second option. See cookie for more information. decode a function to decode the value of the cookie The middleware will parse the Cookie header on the request and expose the cookie data as the property req.cookies and, if a secret was provided, as the property req.signedCookies. These properties are name value pairs of the cookie name to cookie value. When secret is provided, this module will unsign and validate any signed cookie values and move those name value pairs from req.cookies into req.signedCookies. A signed cookie is a cookie that has a value prefixed with s:. Signed cookies that fail signature validation will have the value false instead of the tampered value. In addition, this module supports special "JSON cookies". These are cookie where the value is prefixed with j:. When these values are encountered, the value will be exposed as the result of JSON.parse. If parsing fails, the original value will remain. cookieParser.JSONCookie(str) Parse a cookie value as a JSON cookie. This will return the parsed JSON value if it was a JSON cookie, otherwise, it will return the passed value. cookieParser.JSONCookies(cookies) Given an object, this will iterate over the keys and call JSONCookie on each value, replacing the original value with the parsed value. This returns the same object that was passed in. cookieParser.signedCookie(str, secret) Parse a cookie value as a signed cookie. This will return the parsed unsigned value if it was a signed cookie and the signature was valid. If the value was not signed, the original value is returned. If the value was signed but the signature could not be validated, false is returned. The secret argument can be an array or string. If a string is provided, this is used as the secret. If an array is provided, an attempt will be made to unsign the cookie with each secret in order. cookieParser.signedCookies(cookies, secret) Given an object, this will iterate over the keys and check if any value is a signed cookie. If it is a signed cookie and the signature is valid, the key will be deleted from the object and added to the new object that is returned. The secret argument can be an array or string. If a string is provided, this is used as the secret. If an array is provided, an attempt will be made to unsign the cookie with each secret in order.

      Certainly! In simple terms, the cookie-parser is a module in Node.js (specifically for Express applications) that helps with handling cookies, which are small pieces of data stored on a user's browser.

      Here's a breakdown:

      1. Installation: You need to install the cookie-parser module using npm.

      bash npm install cookie-parser

      1. Creating a Middleware:
      2. You create a middleware function using cookie-parser.
      3. You can optionally provide a "secret" (a string or an array of strings) for extra security. This secret is used to sign cookies, making them tamper-proof.

      ```javascript const cookieParser = require('cookie-parser'); const app = express();

      // Use the cookie-parser middleware app.use(cookieParser('yourSecret')); ```

      1. Parsing Cookies:
      2. The middleware parses the cookies sent by the user's browser and makes them available in req.cookies.
      3. If a secret is provided, it also validates and unsigns any signed cookies, making them available in req.signedCookies.

      4. Working with Cookies:

      5. You can set cookies in the response using res.cookie().
      6. You can read cookies from the request in your route handlers from req.cookies and req.signedCookies.

      ```javascript app.get('/set-cookie', (req, res) => { // Set a cookie named "myCookie" with value "Hello, Cookie!" res.cookie('myCookie', 'Hello, Cookie!'); res.send('Cookie has been set!'); });

      app.get('/read-cookie', (req, res) => { // Access the value of the "myCookie" cookie const myCookieValue = req.cookies.myCookie; res.send(Value of myCookie: ${myCookieValue}); }); ```

      1. Additional Features:
      2. You can work with signed cookies for added security.
      3. It supports special "JSON cookies" for storing JSON data.

      Remember, cookies are often used to store small pieces of information on the user's browser, and cookie-parser helps you handle them easily in your Express.js applications.

    1. express.Router([options]) Creates a new router object. const router = express.Router([options]) The optional options parameter specifies the behavior of the router. Property Description Default Availability caseSensitive Enable case sensitivity. Disabled by default, treating “/Foo” and “/foo” as the same.   mergeParams Preserve the req.params values from the parent router. If the parent and the child have conflicting param names, the child’s value take precedence. false 4.5.0+ strict Enable strict routing. Disabled by default, “/foo” and “/foo/” are treated the same by the router.   You can add middleware and HTTP method routes (such as get, put, post, and so on) to router just like an application. For more information, see Router. express.urlencoded([options]) This is a built-in middleware function in Express. It parses incoming requests with urlencoded payloads and is based on body-parser. Returns middleware that only parses urlencoded bodies and only looks at requests where the Content-Type header matches the type option. This parser accepts only UTF-8 encoding of the body and supports automatic inflation of gzip and deflate encodings. A new body object containing the parsed data is populated on the request object after the middleware (i.e. req.body), or an empty object ({}) if there was no body to parse, the Content-Type was not matched, or an error occurred. This object will contain key-value pairs, where the value can be a string or array (when extended is false), or any type (when extended is true). As req.body’s shape is based on user-controlled input, all properties and values in this object are untrusted and should be validated before trusting. For example, req.body.foo.toString() may fail in multiple ways, for example foo may not be there or may not be a string, and toString may not be a function and instead a string or other user-input. The following table describes the properties of the optional options object. Property Description Type Default extended This option allows to choose between parsing the URL-encoded data with the querystring library (when false) or the qs library (when true). The “extended” syntax allows for rich objects and arrays to be encoded into the URL-encoded format, allowing for a JSON-like experience with URL-encoded. For more information, please see the qs library. Boolean false inflate Enables or disables handling deflated (compressed) bodies; when disabled, deflated bodies are rejected. Boolean true limit Controls the maximum request body size. If this is a number, then the value specifies the number of bytes; if it is a string, the value is passed to the bytes library for parsing. Mixed "100kb" parameterLimit This option controls the maximum number of parameters that are allowed in the URL-encoded data. If a request contains more parameters than this value, an error will be raised. Number 1000 type This is used to determine what media type the middleware will parse. This option can be a string, array of strings, or a function. If not a function, type option is passed directly to the type-is library and this can be an extension name (like urlencoded), a mime type (like application/x-www-form-urlencoded), or a mime type with a wildcard (like */x-www-form-urlencoded). If a function, the type option is called as fn(req) and the request is parsed if it returns a truthy value. Mixed "application/x-www-form-urlencoded" verify This option, if supplied, is called as verify(req, res, buf, encoding), where buf is a Buffer of the raw request body and encoding is the encoding of the request. The parsing can be aborted by throwing an error. Function undefined

      The provided information discusses two aspects of the Express.js framework: express.Router and express.urlencoded.

      1. express.Router([options])

      Syntax: javascript const express = require('express'); const router = express.Router([options]);

      Description: express.Router is a class in Express.js that allows you to create modular, mountable route handlers. It is often used to organize routes and middleware in a separate file and then mount them at a specific route in the main application.

      Options: - caseSensitive: Enable case sensitivity for route paths. - mergeParams: Preserve the req.params values from the parent router. - strict: Enable strict routing, treating "/foo" and "/foo/" as different.

      Example: ```javascript // routes.js const express = require('express'); const router = express.Router();

      router.get('/', (req, res) => { res.send('Hello from the router!'); });

      module.exports = router; ```

      In the main application file:

      ```javascript const express = require('express'); const app = express(); const routes = require('./routes');

      // Mounting the router at '/api' app.use('/api', routes);

      app.listen(3000, () => { console.log('Server is running on port 3000'); }); ```

      In this example, the route defined in routes.js will be accessible at /api.

      2. express.urlencoded([options])

      Syntax: ```javascript const express = require('express'); const app = express();

      // Using urlencoded middleware with options app.use(express.urlencoded([options])); ```

      Description: express.urlencoded is a built-in middleware in Express.js used to parse incoming requests with URL-encoded payloads, typically from HTML forms. It is based on the body-parser library.

      Options: - extended: Choose between parsing with the querystring library (when false) or the qs library (when true). - inflate: Enable or disable handling of deflated (compressed) bodies. - limit: Control the maximum request body size. - parameterLimit: Control the maximum number of parameters in the URL-encoded data. - type: Determine the media type the middleware will parse. - verify: A function called to verify and potentially modify the raw request body.

      Example: javascript // Using urlencoded middleware with options app.use(express.urlencoded({ extended: true, inflate: true, limit: '100kb', parameterLimit: 1000, type: 'application/x-www-form-urlencoded', verify: (req, res, buf, encoding) => { // Custom verification logic } }));

      This middleware parses the URL-encoded data from incoming requests and populates req.body with the parsed data, making it accessible in subsequent middleware or route handlers.

      In summary, express.Router is used for creating modular route handlers, and express.urlencoded is used for parsing URL-encoded request bodies, typically from HTML forms.

    2. express.json([options]) This is a built-in middleware function in Express. It parses incoming requests with JSON payloads and is based on body-parser. Returns middleware that only parses JSON and only looks at requests where the Content-Type header matches the type option. This parser accepts any Unicode encoding of the body and supports automatic inflation of gzip and deflate encodings. A new body object containing the parsed data is populated on the request object after the middleware (i.e. req.body), or an empty object ({}) if there was no body to parse, the Content-Type was not matched, or an error occurred. As req.body’s shape is based on user-controlled input, all properties and values in this object are untrusted and should be validated before trusting. For example, req.body.foo.toString() may fail in multiple ways, for example foo may not be there or may not be a string, and toString may not be a function and instead a string or other user-input. The following table describes the properties of the optional options object. Property Description Type Default inflate Enables or disables handling deflated (compressed) bodies; when disabled, deflated bodies are rejected. Boolean true limit Controls the maximum request body size. If this is a number, then the value specifies the number of bytes; if it is a string, the value is passed to the bytes library for parsing. Mixed "100kb" reviver The reviver option is passed directly to JSON.parse as the second argument. You can find more information on this argument in the MDN documentation about JSON.parse. Function null strict Enables or disables only accepting arrays and objects; when disabled will accept anything JSON.parse accepts. Boolean true type This is used to determine what media type the middleware will parse. This option can be a string, array of strings, or a function. If not a function, type option is passed directly to the type-is library and this can be an extension name (like json), a mime type (like application/json), or a mime type with a wildcard (like */* or */json). If a function, the type option is called as fn(req) and the request is parsed if it returns a truthy value. Mixed "application/json" verify This option, if supplied, is called as verify(req, res, buf, encoding), where buf is a Buffer of the raw request body and encoding is the encoding of the request. The parsing can be aborted by throwing an error.

      The express.json() middleware in Express is used for parsing incoming requests with JSON payloads. It is essentially a middleware that facilitates the handling of JSON data in the request body. This middleware is based on the body-parser library and is commonly used in Express applications to simplify the extraction of JSON data from incoming requests.

      Here's an explanation of the key points and options mentioned in the provided paragraph:

      1. inflate:
      2. Enables or disables handling deflated (compressed) bodies.
      3. When enabled (inflate: true), the middleware automatically handles deflated (compressed) request bodies.
      4. When disabled (inflate: false), deflated bodies are rejected.

      ```javascript const express = require('express'); const app = express();

      // Enable handling deflated bodies app.use(express.json({ inflate: true })); ```

      1. limit:
      2. Controls the maximum request body size.
      3. It can be specified as a number of bytes or a string that is passed to the bytes library for parsing.

      ```javascript const express = require('express'); const app = express();

      // Set maximum request body size to 200 kilobytes app.use(express.json({ limit: '200kb' })); ```

      1. reviver:
      2. The reviver option is passed directly to JSON.parse as the second argument.
      3. It is a function that can be used to transform the result.

      ```javascript const express = require('express'); const app = express();

      // Use a custom reviver function app.use(express.json({ reviver: (key, value) => (key === 'date' ? new Date(value) : value) })); ```

      1. strict:
      2. Enables or disables only accepting arrays and objects.
      3. When disabled (strict: false), the middleware will accept anything that JSON.parse accepts.

      ```javascript const express = require('express'); const app = express();

      // Disable strict mode app.use(express.json({ strict: false })); ```

      1. type:
      2. Used to determine what media type the middleware will parse.
      3. It can be a string, an array of strings, or a function.
      4. If not a function, it is passed directly to the type-is library.

      ```javascript const express = require('express'); const app = express();

      // Set the media type to be parsed as application/json app.use(express.json({ type: 'application/json' })); ```

      1. verify:
      2. If supplied, this option is called as verify(req, res, buf, encoding).
      3. It allows custom verification of the parsed data and can be used to abort parsing by throwing an error.

      ```javascript const express = require('express'); const app = express();

      // Use a custom verification function app.use(express.json({ verify: (req, res, buf, encoding) => { // Perform custom verification logic if (buf.length > 1000) { throw new Error('Request body too large'); } } })); ```

      By using express.json(), developers can ensure that their Express application can easily handle incoming JSON payloads, providing a convenient way to access the parsed data in the req.body object. The various options allow for customization based on the specific requirements of the application.

    3. express() Creates an Express application. The express() function is a top-level function exported by the express module. const express = require('express') const app = express() Methods

      The express() function is a top-level function provided by the Express.js framework, which is a popular web application framework for Node.js. It is used to create an instance of an Express application. Once you have an instance of the Express application, you can use various methods and middleware to define routes, handle HTTP requests and responses, and configure your server.

      Here's a basic example of how you can use express() to create a simple web server:

      ```javascript // Import the express module const express = require('express');

      // Create an instance of the Express application const app = express();

      // Define a route for the root URL ("/") app.get('/', (req, res) => { res.send('Hello, World!'); });

      // Start the server on port 3000 app.listen(3000, () => { console.log('Server is running on port 3000'); }); ```

      In this example: - We import the express module. - We create an instance of the Express application using express(). - We define a route for the root URL ("/") using the app.get() method. When a GET request is made to the root URL, the provided callback function is executed, sending the response 'Hello, World!' back to the client. - We start the server and make it listen on port 3000 using the app.listen() method.

      Express provides a variety of methods to define routes for different HTTP methods (GET, POST, PUT, DELETE, etc.), handle parameters, use middleware, and more. The express() function sets up the basic structure for your application, and you can then use the various methods to customize and extend its functionality.

    1. With custom return labels Now developers can specify the return field names if they want. Below are the list of attributes whose name can be changed. totalDocs docs limit page nextPage prevPage totalPages hasNextPage hasPrevPage pagingCounter meta You should pass the names of the properties you wish to changes using customLabels object in options. Labels are optional, you can pass the labels of what ever keys are you changing, others will use the default labels. If you want to return paginate properties as a separate object then define customLabels.meta. Same query with custom labels const myCustomLabels = { totalDocs: 'itemCount', docs: 'itemsList', limit: 'perPage', page: 'currentPage', nextPage: 'next', prevPage: 'prev', totalPages: 'pageCount', hasPrevPage: 'hasPrev', hasNextPage: 'hasNext', pagingCounter: 'pageCounter', meta: 'paginator' }; const options = { page: 1, limit: 10, customLabels: myCustomLabels }; // Define your aggregate. var aggregate = Model.aggregate(); Model.aggregatePaginate(aggregate, options, function(err, result) { if(!err) { // result.itemsList [here docs become itemsList] // result.itemCount = 100 [here totalDocs becomes itemCount] // result.perPage = 10 [here limit becomes perPage] // result.currentPage = 1 [here page becomes currentPage] // result.pageCount = 10 [here totalPages becomes pageCount] // result.next = 2 [here nextPage becomes next] // result.prev = null [here prevPage becomes prev] // result.hasNextPage = true [not changeable] // result.hasPrevPage = false [not changeable] } else { console.log(err); };Copy And SaveShareAsk Copilot Using offset and limit Model.aggregatePaginate( aggregate, { offset: 30, limit: 10 }, function (err, result) { // result } );Copy And SaveShareAsk Copilot Using countQuery // Define your aggregate query. var aggregate = Model.aggregate(); // Define the count aggregate query. Can be different from `aggregate` var countAggregate = Model.aggregate(); // Set the count aggregate query const options = { countQuery: countAggregate, }; Model.aggregatePaginate(aggregate, options) .then(function (result) { // result }) .catch(function (err) { console.log(err); });Copy And SaveShareAsk Copilot Global Options If you want to set the pagination options globally across the model. Then you can do like below, let mongooseAggregatePaginate = require("mongoose-aggregate-paginate-v2"); let BookSchema = new mongoose.Schema({ title: String, date: Date, author: { type: mongoose.Schema.ObjectId, ref: "Author", }, }); BookSchema.plugin(mongooseAggregatePaginate); let Book = mongoose.model("Book", BookSchema); // Like this. Book.aggregatePaginate.options = { limit: 20, };Copy And SaveShareAsk Copilot Release Note v1.0.7 - Upgrade to mongoose v8 v1.0.6 - Fixed exporting settings to global object. v1.0.5 - Added meta attribute to return paginate meta data as a custom object. v1.0.42 - Added optional countQuery parameter to specify separate count queries in case of bigger aggerate pipeline.

      This code is a continuation of the previous example, now introducing custom labels for the pagination properties. The library mongoose-aggregate-paginate-v2 is used for MongoDB aggregation with pagination. Let's break down the new parts:

      Custom Labels

      Now, developers can customize the names of the properties returned by pagination using the customLabels option. The developer can specify alternative names for attributes like totalDocs, docs, limit, page, and others.

      ```javascript const myCustomLabels = { totalDocs: 'itemCount', docs: 'itemsList', limit: 'perPage', page: 'currentPage', nextPage: 'next', prevPage: 'prev', totalPages: 'pageCount', hasPrevPage: 'hasPrev', hasNextPage: 'hasNext', pagingCounter: 'pageCounter', meta: 'paginator' };

      const options = { page: 1, limit: 10, customLabels: myCustomLabels };

      var aggregate = Model.aggregate();

      Model.aggregatePaginate(aggregate, options, function(err, result) { if (!err) { // Accessing properties with custom labels console.log(result.itemsList); // Array of documents on the current page console.log(result.itemCount); // Total number of documents console.log(result.perPage); // Maximum number of documents per page console.log(result.currentPage); // Current page number console.log(result.pageCount); // Total number of pages console.log(result.next); // Page number of the next page console.log(result.prev); // Page number of the previous page

      // Default labels
      console.log(result.hasNextPage);   // Boolean indicating if there's a next page
      console.log(result.hasPrevPage);   // Boolean indicating if there's a previous page
      

      } else { console.log(err); } }); ```

      In this example, the properties returned in result are now using the custom labels specified in myCustomLabels.

      Using Offset and Limit

      You can also use offset and limit directly in the options to specify where to start and how many documents to retrieve.

      javascript Model.aggregatePaginate( aggregate, { offset: 30, limit: 10 }, function (err, result) { // result } );

      Here, it starts from the 31st document (offset of 30) and retrieves 10 documents.

      Using CountQuery

      You can define a separate count aggregate query to handle counting documents. This can be useful for performance optimization.

      ```javascript // Define your aggregate query. var aggregate = Model.aggregate();

      // Define the count aggregate query. Can be different from aggregate var countAggregate = Model.aggregate();

      // Set the count aggregate query const options = { countQuery: countAggregate, };

      Model.aggregatePaginate(aggregate, options) .then(function (result) { // result }) .catch(function (err) { console.log(err); }); ```

      Global Options

      You can set pagination options globally across the model. This is helpful if you want to apply the same pagination settings to multiple queries.

      javascript // Set global pagination options Book.aggregatePaginate.options = { limit: 20, };

      Now, every call to aggregatePaginate on the Book model will use a default limit of 20 unless overridden in specific queries.

    2. Return first 10 documents from 100 const options = { page: 1, limit: 10, }; // Define your aggregate. var aggregate = Model.aggregate(); Model.aggregatePaginate(aggregate, options) .then(function (result) { // result.docs // result.totalDocs = 100 // result.limit = 10 // result.page = 1 // result.totalPages = 10 // result.hasNextPage = true // result.nextPage = 2 // result.hasPrevPage = false // result.prevPage = null }) .catch(function (err) { console.log(err); }

      Certainly! This code is an example of how to use pagination in a MongoDB environment using the Mongoose library. Let's break down the key parts:

      1. const options = { page: 1, limit: 10 };: This sets up options for pagination. It specifies that you want to start on page 1, and each page should contain a maximum of 10 documents.

      2. var aggregate = Model.aggregate();: This initializes a MongoDB aggregation pipeline using Mongoose. An aggregation pipeline allows you to process data in stages.

      3. Model.aggregatePaginate(aggregate, options): This is a function call provided by a plugin (like mongoose-aggregate-paginate-v2) to handle pagination for MongoDB aggregate queries. It takes the aggregate pipeline and pagination options as parameters.

      4. .then(function (result) { /* ... */ }): This part is a promise callback that gets executed when the aggregation and pagination are successful. The result object contains information about the paginated data, such as documents on the current page, total number of documents, and pagination details.

      5. result.docs: Array of documents on the current page.

      6. result.totalDocs: Total number of documents in the collection.
      7. result.limit: Maximum number of documents per page (from your options).
      8. result.page: Current page number.
      9. result.totalPages: Total number of pages based on the limit and total documents.
      10. result.hasNextPage: Boolean indicating if there is a next page.
      11. result.nextPage: Page number of the next page, if available.
      12. result.hasPrevPage: Boolean indicating if there is a previous page.
      13. result.prevPage: Page number of the previous page, if available.

      14. .catch(function (err) { console.log(err); }): This is the error handling part. If there's any issue during the aggregation or pagination process, it will log the error to the console.

      Example: Let's assume you have a collection with 100 documents, and you want to retrieve them with a limit of 10 documents per page.

      ```javascript const options = { page: 2, // Get the second page limit: 10 // Each page should have a maximum of 10 documents };

      var aggregate = Model.aggregate();

      Model.aggregatePaginate(aggregate, options) .then(function (result) { console.log(result.docs); // Array of documents on the second page console.log(result.totalDocs); // Total number of documents (100) console.log(result.totalPages); // Total number of pages (10) console.log(result.page); // Current page (2) console.log(result.hasNextPage); // Boolean indicating if there's a next page (true) console.log(result.nextPage); // Page number of the next page (3) console.log(result.hasPrevPage); // Boolean indicating if there's a previous page (true) console.log(result.prevPage); // Page number of the previous page (1) }) .catch(function (err) { console.log(err); }); ```

      In this example, you're fetching the second page, and the result object provides information about the documents on that page and the overall pagination details.

    3. // Execute pagination from aggregate const myModel = require('/models/samplemodel'); const options = { page: 1, limit: 10 }; const myAggregate = myModel.aggregate(); myAggregate.paginateExec(options, function(err, results) { if(err) { console.err(err); else { console.log(results); } })

      It seems like there is a small error in the code you provided. The correct syntax for handling errors inside the callback function should be console.error(err) instead of console.err(err). Here's the corrected code:

      ```javascript // Execute pagination from aggregate const myModel = require('/models/samplemodel');

      const options = { page: 1, limit: 10 };

      const myAggregate = myModel.aggregate(); myAggregate.paginateExec(options, function(err, results) { if (err) { console.error(err); } else { console.log(results); } }); ```

      In this code snippet:

      • The myModel.aggregate() line creates an instance of the Mongoose aggregate.
      • The myAggregate.paginateExec(options, function(err, results) { ... }) line executes the pagination directly on the aggregate using the paginateExec method, which is provided by the mongoose-aggregate-paginate-v2 library.

      This approach is an alternative to using aggregatePaginate and allows you to execute pagination directly on the aggregate instance. The paginateExec method takes the same options object for pagination and a callback function for handling the results or errors.

      Make sure to use the corrected syntax for handling errors with console.error(err) in the callback function.

    4. A cursor based custom aggregate pagination library for Mongoose with customizable labels. If you are looking for basic query pagination library without aggregate, use this one mongoose-paginate-v2 Installation npm install mongoose-aggregate-paginate-v2Copy And SaveShareAsk Copilot Usage Adding the plugin to a schema, var mongoose = require("mongoose"); var aggregatePaginate = require("mongoose-aggregate-paginate-v2"); var mySchema = new mongoose.Schema({ /* your schema definition */ }); mySchema.plugin(aggregatePaginate); var myModel = mongoose.model("SampleModel", mySchema);Copy And SaveShareAsk Copilot and then use model aggregatePaginate method, // as Promise var myModel = require("/models/samplemodel"); const options = { page: 1, limit: 10, }; var myAggregate = myModel.aggregate(); myModel .aggregatePaginate(myAggregate, options) .then(function (results) { console.log(results); }) .catch(function (err) { console.log(err); });Copy And SaveShareAsk Copilot // as Callback var myModel = require('/models/samplemodel'); const options = { page: 1, limit: 10 }; var myAggregate = myModel.aggregate(); myModel.aggregatePaginate(myAggregate, options, function(err, results) { if(err) { console.err(err); else { console.log(results); } })

      The mongoose-aggregate-paginate-v2 library is a plugin for Mongoose, a MongoDB object modeling tool for Node.js. This library provides cursor-based pagination support for Mongoose aggregate queries with customizable labels. Below, I'll explain in detail how to install and use this library, along with syntax and examples.

      Installation:

      To install the mongoose-aggregate-paginate-v2 library, use npm:

      bash npm install mongoose-aggregate-paginate-v2

      Usage:

      1. Adding the plugin to a schema:

      First, you need to include the plugin in your Mongoose schema definition. Here's an example:

      ```javascript const mongoose = require("mongoose"); const aggregatePaginate = require("mongoose-aggregate-paginate-v2");

      const mySchema = new mongoose.Schema({ / your schema definition / });

      mySchema.plugin(aggregatePaginate);

      const myModel = mongoose.model("SampleModel", mySchema); ```

      1. Using the aggregatePaginate method:

      After adding the plugin, you can use the aggregatePaginate method on your model to perform paginated aggregate queries.

      ```javascript const myModel = require("/models/samplemodel");

      // Define pagination options const options = { page: 1, limit: 10, };

      // Create an aggregate instance const myAggregate = myModel.aggregate();

      // Use the aggregatePaginate method with Promise syntax myModel .aggregatePaginate(myAggregate, options) .then(function (results) { console.log(results); }) .catch(function (err) { console.log(err); }); ```

      Alternatively, you can use the callback syntax:

      ```javascript const myModel = require('/models/samplemodel');

      // Define pagination options const options = { page: 1, limit: 10 };

      // Create an aggregate instance const myAggregate = myModel.aggregate();

      // Use the aggregatePaginate method with Callback syntax myModel.aggregatePaginate(myAggregate, options, function(err, results) { if(err) { console.error(err); } else { console.log(results); } }); ```

      Explanation:

      • Plugin Integration: The mySchema.plugin(aggregatePaginate) line integrates the mongoose-aggregate-paginate-v2 plugin into your Mongoose schema, enabling pagination features.

      • Options Object: The options object contains parameters for pagination, such as the page number (page) and the number of documents per page (limit).

      • Aggregate Instance: The const myAggregate = myModel.aggregate(); line creates an instance of the Mongoose aggregate.

      • Using aggregatePaginate: The myModel.aggregatePaginate method is used to perform the paginated aggregate query. It takes the aggregate instance, options, and an optional callback function (for callback syntax).

      • Promise and Callback Syntax: You can choose either Promise or Callback syntax based on your preference. The Promise syntax uses .then() and .catch() for handling results and errors, while the Callback syntax directly provides a callback function.

      Examples:

      In the examples, the aggregate query is paginated with the specified options, and the results are logged to the console. Adjust the options object based on your pagination requirements.

      This library helps you paginate through aggregated results efficiently, which is particularly useful when dealing with large datasets.

    1. root.unmount() Call root.unmount to destroy a rendered tree inside a React root. root.unmount(); An app fully built with React will usually not have any calls to root.unmount. This is mostly useful if your React root’s DOM node (or any of its ancestors) may get removed from the DOM by some other code. For example, imagine a jQuery tab panel that removes inactive tabs from the DOM. If a tab gets removed, everything inside it (including the React roots inside) would get removed from the DOM as well. In that case, you need to tell React to “stop” managing the removed root’s content by calling root.unmount. Otherwise, the components inside the removed root won’t know to clean up and free up global resources like subscriptions. Calling root.unmount will unmount all the components in the root and “detach” React from the root DOM node, including removing any event handlers or state in the tree. Parameters root.unmount does not accept any parameters. Returns root.unmount returns undefined. Caveats Calling root.unmount will unmount all the components in the tree and “detach” React from the root DOM node. Once you call root.unmount you cannot call root.render again on the same root. Attempting to call root.render on an unmounted root will throw a “Cannot update an unmounted root” error. However, you can create a new root for the same DOM node after the previous root for that node has been unmounted. Usage Rendering an app fully built with React If your app is fully built with React, create a single root for your entire app. import { createRoot } from 'react-dom/client';const root = createRoot(document.getElementById('root'));root.render(<App />); Usually, you only need to run this code once at startup. It will: Find the browser DOM node defined in your HTML. Display the React component for your app inside. index.jsindex.htmlApp.jsindex.js ResetFork91234567import { createRoot } from 'react-dom/client';import App from './App.js';import './styles.css';const root = createRoot(document.getElementById('root'));root.render(<App />); If your app is fully built with React, you shouldn’t need to create any more roots, or to call root.render again. From this point on, React will manage the DOM of your entire app. To add more components, nest them inside the App component. When you need to update the UI, each of your components can do this by using state. When you need to display extra content like a modal or a tooltip outside the DOM node, render it with a portal. NoteWhen your HTML is empty, the user sees a blank page until the app’s JavaScript code loads and runs:<div id="root"></div>This can feel very slow! To solve this, you can generate the initial HTML from your components on the server or during the build. Then your visitors can read text, see images, and click links before any of the JavaScript code loads. We recommend using a framework that does this optimization out of the box. Depending on when it runs, this is called server-side rendering (SSR) or static site generation (SSG). PitfallApps using server rendering or static generation must call hydrateRoot instead of createRoot. React will then hydrate (reuse) the DOM nodes from your HTML instead of destroying and re-creating them. Rendering a page partially built with React If your page isn’t fully built with React, you can call createRoot multiple times to create a root for each top-level piece of UI managed by React. You can display different content in each root by calling root.render. Here, two different React components are rendered into two DOM nodes defined in the index.html file: index.jsindex.htmlComponents.jsindex.js ResetFork99123456789101112import './styles.css';import { createRoot } from 'react-dom/client';import { Comments, Navigation } from './Components.js';const navDomNode = document.getElementById('navigation');const navRoot = createRoot(navDomNode); navRoot.render(<Navigation />);const commentDomNode = document.getElementById('comments');const commentRoot = createRoot(commentDomNode); commentRoot.render(<Comments />); You could also create a new DOM node with document.createElement() and add it to the document manually. const domNode = document.createElement('div');const root = createRoot(domNode); root.render(<Comment />);document.body.appendChild(domNode); // You can add it anywhere in the document To remove the React tree from the DOM node and clean up all the resources used by it, call root.unmount. root.unmount(); This is mostly useful if your React components are inside an app written in a different framework. Updating a root component You can call render more than once on the same root. As long as the component tree structure matches up with what was previously rendered, React will preserve the state. Notice how you can type in the input, which means that the updates from repeated render calls every second in this example are not destructive: index.jsApp.jsindex.js ResetFork99123456789101112import { createRoot } from 'react-dom/client';import './styles.css';import App from './App.js';const root = createRoot(document.getElementById('root'));let i = 0;setInterval(() => { root.render(<App counter={i} />); i++;}, 1000); It is uncommon to call render multiple times. Usually, your components will update state instead. Troubleshooting I’ve created a root, but nothing is displayed Make sure you haven’t forgotten to actually render your app into the root: import { createRoot } from 'react-dom/client';import App from './App.js';const root = createRoot(document.getElementById('root'));root.render(<App />); Until you do that, nothing is displayed. I’m getting an error: “Target container is not a DOM element” This error means that whatever you’re passing to createRoot is not a DOM node. If you’re not sure what’s happening, try logging it: const domNode = document.getElementById('root');console.log(domNode); // ???const root = createRoot(domNode);root.render(<App />); For example, if domNode is null, it means that getElementById returned null. This will happen if there is no node in the document with the given ID at the time of your call. There may be a few reasons for it: The ID you’re looking for might differ from the ID you used in the HTML file. Check for typos! Your bundle’s <script> tag cannot “see” any DOM nodes that appear after it in the HTML. Another common way to get this error is to write createRoot(<App />) instead of createRoot(domNode). I’m getting an error: “Functions are not valid as a React child.” This error means that whatever you’re passing to root.render is not a React component. This may happen if you call root.render with Component instead of <Component />: // 🚩 Wrong: App is a function, not a Component.root.render(App);// ✅ Correct: <App /> is a component.root.render(<App />); Or if you pass a function to root.render, instead of the result of calling it: // 🚩 Wrong: createApp is a function, not a component.root.render(createApp);// ✅ Correct: call createApp to return a component.root.render(createApp()); My server-rendered HTML gets re-created from scratch If your app is server-rendered and includes the initial HTML generated by React, you might notice that creating a root and calling root.render deletes all that HTML, and then re-creates all the DOM nodes from scratch. This can be slower, resets focus and scroll positions, and may lose other user input. Server-rendered apps must use hydrateRoot instead of createRoot: import { hydrateRoot } from 'react-dom/client';import App from './App.js';hydrateRoot( document.getElementById('root'), <App />); Note that its API is different. In particular, usually there will be no further root.render call.

      Certainly! Let's break it down:

      1. What is root.unmount()?
      2. root.unmount() is a function in React that you can use to clean up and remove a rendered tree inside a React root. It's like saying, "Hey React, I'm done with this part, please clean it up."

      3. When do you need it?

      4. You might need it when the DOM node where your React app lives is going to be removed by some other code. For example, if you have a tab panel made with jQuery that removes inactive tabs, calling root.unmount() helps React know that it should stop managing the components inside the removed tab.

      5. What does it do?

      6. When you call root.unmount(), it removes all the React components in that part of the app and disconnects React from the corresponding DOM node. This cleanup includes removing event handlers and state.

      7. How to use it?

      8. If your entire app is built with React, you typically create one root at the beginning, and you don't need to call root.unmount(). You set it up once, and React takes care of everything. javascript const root = createRoot(document.getElementById('root')); root.render(<App />);

      9. Cautions and Restrictions:

      10. After calling root.unmount(), you can't call root.render() again on the same root. You would need to create a new root for the same DOM node.
      11. If you're using server rendering, use hydrateRoot instead of createRoot for the initial setup.

      12. Troubleshooting Tips:

      13. If nothing is displayed, make sure you actually called root.render(<App />);.
      14. If you get a "Target container is not a DOM element" error, check if the DOM node you're passing to createRoot is valid.
      15. If you get a "Functions are not valid as a React child" error, ensure you're passing a React component, not just a function.

      In simple terms, root.unmount() is like telling React, "I'm done with this part of the app, clean it up," and you typically use it in specific situations where parts of your app might be removed dynamically.

    2. Reference createRoot(domNode, options?) Call createRoot to create a React root for displaying content inside a browser DOM element. import { createRoot } from 'react-dom/client';const domNode = document.getElementById('root');const root = createRoot(domNode); React will create a root for the domNode, and take over managing the DOM inside it. After you’ve created a root, you need to call root.render to display a React component inside of it: root.render(<App />); An app fully built with React will usually only have one createRoot call for its root component. A page that uses “sprinkles” of React for parts of the page may have as many separate roots as needed. See more examples below. Parameters domNode: A DOM element. React will create a root for this DOM element and allow you to call functions on the root, such as render to display rendered React content. optional options: An object with options for this React root. optional onRecoverableError: Callback called when React automatically recovers from errors. optional identifierPrefix: A string prefix React uses for IDs generated by useId. Useful to avoid conflicts when using multiple roots on the same page. Returns createRoot returns an object with two methods: render and unmount. Caveats If your app is server-rendered, using createRoot() is not supported. Use hydrateRoot() instead. You’ll likely have only one createRoot call in your app. If you use a framework, it might do this call for you. When you want to render a piece of JSX in a different part of the DOM tree that isn’t a child of your component (for example, a modal or a tooltip), use createPortal instead of createRoot. root.render(reactNode) Call root.render to display a piece of JSX (“React node”) into the React root’s browser DOM node. root.render(<App />); React will display <App /> in the root, and take over managing the DOM inside it. See more examples below. Parameters reactNode: A React node that you want to display. This will usually be a piece of JSX like <App />, but you can also pass a React element constructed with createElement(), a string, a number, null, or undefined. Returns root.render returns undefined. Caveats The first time you call root.render, React will clear all the existing HTML content inside the React root before rendering the React component into it. If your root’s DOM node contains HTML generated by React on the server or during the build, use hydrateRoot() instead, which attaches the event handlers to the existing HTML. If you call render on the same root more than once, React will update the DOM as necessary to reflect the latest JSX you passed. React will decide which parts of the DOM can be reused and which need to be recreated by “matching it up” with the previously rendered tree. Calling render on the same root again is similar to calling the set function on the root component: React avoids unnecessary DOM updates.

      Let's simplify the information about createRoot and root.render with examples:

      createRoot Function:

      What it does:

      createRoot is a function in React used to create a root for displaying React components inside a specific browser DOM element.

      Example:

      ```javascript import { createRoot } from 'react-dom/client';

      const domNode = document.getElementById('root'); const root = createRoot(domNode); ```

      Parameters:

      • domNode: A DOM element where you want to display React content.
      • options (optional): An object with options for this React root.

      Returns:

      createRoot returns an object with two methods: render and unmount.

      Caveats:

      • If your app is server-rendered, use hydrateRoot() instead.
      • Typically, you'll have only one createRoot call in your app.

      root.render Method:

      What it does:

      root.render is a method used to display a piece of JSX (React node) into the React root's browser DOM node.

      Example:

      javascript root.render(<App />);

      Parameters:

      • reactNode: A React node to be displayed. It can be JSX, a React element, a string, a number, null, or undefined.

      Returns:

      root.render returns undefined.

      Caveats:

      • The first time you call root.render, React clears all existing HTML content inside the React root before rendering the React component.
      • If you call render on the same root more than once, React updates the DOM as necessary to reflect the latest JSX. It efficiently reuses parts of the DOM when possible.

      In summary, createRoot is used to create a root for rendering React components inside a specific DOM element, and root.render is used to display a React component within that root. The createRoot call is typically made once in your app, and render is called to update the content inside that root as needed.

    1. API ReferenceLegacy React APIscreateElementcreateElement lets you create a React element. It serves as an alternative to writing JSX.const element = createElement(type, props, ...children) Reference createElement(type, props, ...children) Usage Creating an element without JSX Reference createElement(type, props, ...children) Call createElement to create a React element with the given type, props, and children. import { createElement } from 'react';function Greeting({ name }) { return createElement( 'h1', { className: 'greeting' }, 'Hello' );} See more examples below. Parameters type: The type argument must be a valid React component type. For example, it could be a tag name string (such as 'div' or 'span'), or a React component (a function, a class, or a special component like Fragment). props: The props argument must either be an object or null. If you pass null, it will be treated the same as an empty object. React will create an element with props matching the props you have passed. Note that ref and key from your props object are special and will not be available as element.props.ref and element.props.key on the returned element. They will be available as element.ref and element.key. optional ...children: Zero or more child nodes. They can be any React nodes, including React elements, strings, numbers, portals, empty nodes (null, undefined, true, and false), and arrays of React nodes. Returns createElement returns a React element object with a few properties: type: The type you have passed. props: The props you have passed except for ref and key. If the type is a component with legacy type.defaultProps, then any missing or undefined props will get the values from type.defaultProps. ref: The ref you have passed. If missing, null. key: The key you have passed, coerced to a string. If missing, null. Usually, you’ll return the element from your component or make it a child of another element. Although you may read the element’s properties, it’s best to treat every element as opaque after it’s created, and only render it. Caveats You must treat React elements and their props as immutable and never change their contents after creation. In development, React will freeze the returned element and its props property shallowly to enforce this. When you use JSX, you must start a tag with a capital letter to render your own custom component. In other words, <Something /> is equivalent to createElement(Something), but <something /> (lowercase) is equivalent to createElement('something') (note it’s a string, so it will be treated as a built-in HTML tag). You should only pass children as multiple arguments to createElement if they are all statically known, like createElement('h1', {}, child1, child2, child3). If your children are dynamic, pass the entire array as the third argument: createElement('ul', {}, listItems). This ensures that React will warn you about missing keys for any dynamic lists. For static lists this is not necessary because they never reorder. Usage Creating an element without JSX If you don’t like JSX or can’t use it in your project, you can use createElement as an alternative. To create an element without JSX, call createElement with some type, props, and children: import { createElement } from 'react';function Greeting({ name }) { return createElement( 'h1', { className: 'greeting' }, 'Hello ', createElement('i', null, name), '. Welcome!' );} The children are optional, and you can pass as many as you need (the example above has three children). This code will display a <h1> header with a greeting. For comparison, here is the same example rewritten with JSX: function Greeting({ name }) { return ( <h1 className="greeting"> Hello <i>{name}</i>. Welcome! </h1> );} To render your own React component, pass a function like Greeting as the type instead of a string like 'h1': export default function App() { return createElement(Greeting, { name: 'Taylor' });} With JSX, it would look like this: export default function App() { return <Greeting name="Taylor" />;} Here is a complete example written with createElement: App.jsApp.js ResetForkimport { createElement } from 'react'; function Greeting({ name }) { return createElement( 'h1', { className: 'greeting' }, 'Hello ', createElement('i', null, name), '. Welcome!' ); } export default function App() { return createElement( Greeting, { name: 'Taylor' } ); } Show more And here is the same example written using JSX: App.jsApp.js ResetForkfunction Greeting({ name }) { return ( <h1 className="greeting"> Hello <i>{name}</i>. Welcome! </h1> ); } export default function App() { return <Greeting name="Taylor" />; } Both coding styles are fine, so you can use whichever one you prefer for your project. The main benefit of using JSX compared to createElement is that it’s easy to see which closing tag corresponds to which opening tag.

      Certainly! Let's break down the information in a simpler way with examples:

      1. createElement Function:
      2. What it does: createElement is a function in React that allows you to create a React element. It's an alternative to using JSX.
      3. Example: javascript const element = createElement('h1', { className: 'greeting' }, 'Hello');

      4. Parameters:

      5. type: Specifies the type of element you want to create. It can be a tag name string (e.g., 'div', 'span') or a React component.
      6. props: An object that holds the properties (attributes) for the element.
      7. ...children: Optional. Represents child elements or content.
      8. Example: javascript createElement('h1', { className: 'greeting' }, 'Hello', createElement('i', null, 'World'));

      9. Returns:

      10. The function returns a React element object with properties like type, props, ref, and key.
      11. Example: javascript const element = createElement('h1', { className: 'greeting' }, 'Hello'); console.log(element.type); // 'h1' console.log(element.props); // { className: 'greeting' }

      12. Usage Caveats:

      13. React elements and their props should be treated as immutable. They should not be changed after creation.
      14. JSX tags should start with a capital letter for custom components.
      15. When using JSX, dynamic children should be passed as an array to ensure React warns about missing keys for dynamic lists.
      16. Example: javascript createElement('ul', {}, listItems); // Dynamic children as an array

      17. Creating an Element Without JSX:

      18. If you're not using JSX, you can use createElement to create elements.
      19. Example: javascript function Greeting({ name }) { return createElement('h1', { className: 'greeting' }, 'Hello ', createElement('i', null, name), '. Welcome!'); }

      20. Comparison with JSX:

      21. JSX is a more concise and readable way to create elements compared to using createElement.
      22. Example: javascript function Greeting({ name }) { return <h1 className="greeting">Hello <i>{name}</i>. Welcome!</h1>; }

      23. Rendering Your Own Component:

      24. You can use createElement to render your own React components.
      25. Example: javascript export default function App() { return createElement(Greeting, { name: 'Taylor' }); }
      26. With JSX: javascript export default function App() { return <Greeting name="Taylor" />;

      In summary, createElement is a foundational function in React for creating elements, and it is often used behind the scenes when JSX is transpiled. While it's useful, JSX provides a more readable syntax for creating React elements. You can choose the style that best fits your project.

    1. The Difference Between an HTMLCollection and a NodeList A NodeList and an HTMLcollection is very much the same thing. Both are array-like collections (lists) of nodes (elements) extracted from a document. The nodes can be accessed by index numbers. The index starts at 0. Both have a length property that returns the number of elements in the list (collection). An HTMLCollection is a collection of document elements. A NodeList is a collection of document nodes (element nodes, attribute nodes, and text nodes). HTMLCollection items can be accessed by their name, id, or index number. NodeList items can only be accessed by their index number. An HTMLCollection is always a live collection. Example: If you add a <li> element to a list in the DOM, the list in the HTMLCollection will also change. A NodeList is most often a static collection. Example: If you add a <li> element to a list in the DOM, the list in NodeList will not change. The getElementsByClassName() and getElementsByTagName() methods return a live HTMLCollection. The querySelectorAll() method returns a static NodeList. The childNodes property returns a live NodeList.

      In simple terms:

      • HTMLCollection is a collection of HTML elements. You can access items by name, id, or index number. It's always live, meaning it updates automatically when the document changes.

      Example: javascript var buttons = document.getElementsByTagName("button"); buttons[0].style.color = "red";

      • NodeList is a collection of various types of nodes (elements, attributes, text nodes). You can only access items by index number. It's usually static, meaning it doesn't update when the document changes.

      Example: javascript var paragraphs = document.querySelectorAll("p"); paragraphs[1].textContent = "New text for the second paragraph";

      Key differences:

      • HTMLCollection is focused on HTML elements, while NodeList includes various node types.
      • HTMLCollection can be accessed by name, id, or index; NodeList can only be accessed by index.
      • HTMLCollection is typically live (updates dynamically), while NodeList is usually static (doesn't update dynamically).

      Examples of live HTMLCollection: javascript var buttons = document.getElementsByClassName("btn"); // live var images = document.getElementsByTagName("img"); // live

      Examples of static NodeList: javascript var paragraphs = document.querySelectorAll("p"); // static var links = document.querySelectorAll("a"); // static

      Remember, the difference between live and static is important when the document changes after the collection is created.

    1. Definition$lookupChanged in version 5.1.Performs a left outer join to a collection in the same database to filter in documents from the "joined" collection for processing. The $lookup stage adds a new array field to each input document. The new array field contains the matching documents from the "joined" collection. The $lookup stage passes these reshaped documents to the next stage.Starting in MongoDB 5.1, $lookup works across sharded collections.To combine elements from two different collections, use the $unionWith pipeline stage.CompatibilityYou can use $lookup for deployments hosted in the following environments:MongoDB Atlas: The fully managed service for MongoDB deployments in the cloudMongoDB Enterprise: The subscription-based, self-managed version of MongoDBMongoDB Community: The source-available, free-to-use, and self-managed version of MongoDBSyntaxThe $lookup stage has the following syntaxes:Equality Match with a Single Join ConditionTo perform an equality match between a field from the input documents with a field from the documents of the "joined" collection, the $lookup stage has this syntax:{ $lookup: { from: <collection to join>, localField: <field from the input documents>, foreignField: <field from the documents of the "from" collection>, as: <output array field> }}The $lookup takes a document with these fields:

      Sure, let's illustrate the concept of $lookup with a simple example.

      Imagine you have two collections in your MongoDB database: one for "orders" and another for "customers." Each order document in the "orders" collection has a field called customerId that represents the ID of the customer who placed the order.

      Orders Collection: ```json { "_id": 1, "orderNumber": "ORD001", "customerId": 101 }

      { "_id": 2, "orderNumber": "ORD002", "customerId": 102 } ```

      Customers Collection: ```json { "_id": 101, "name": "John Doe", "email": "john@example.com" }

      { "_id": 102, "name": "Jane Smith", "email": "jane@example.com" } ```

      Now, you want to create a report that includes information about the customers for each order. You can use $lookup to achieve this:

      json { $lookup: { from: "customers", localField: "customerId", foreignField: "_id", as: "customerInfo" } }

      • from: Specifies the "customers" collection to join with.
      • localField: Identifies the field in the "orders" collection that contains the customer ID (customerId).
      • foreignField: Specifies the field in the "customers" collection that corresponds to the customer ID (_id).
      • as: Creates a new field named "customerInfo" in each order document to store the matching customer information.

      After running this $lookup, your result would look like this:

      ```json { "_id": 1, "orderNumber": "ORD001", "customerId": 101, "customerInfo": [ { "_id": 101, "name": "John Doe", "email": "john@example.com" } ] }

      { "_id": 2, "orderNumber": "ORD002", "customerId": 102, "customerInfo": [ { "_id": 102, "name": "Jane Smith", "email": "jane@example.com" } ] } ```

      Now, each order document includes a new field (customerInfo) with information about the corresponding customer. This is how $lookup helps combine information from different collections based on common fields.

    1. In case you need to handle a text-only multipart form, you should use the .none() method: const express = require('express') const app = express() const multer = require('multer') const upload = multer() app.post('/profile', upload.none(), function (req, res, next) { // req.body contains the text fields }) Here's an example on how multer is used an HTML form. Take special note of the enctype="multipart/form-data" and name="uploaded_file" fields: <form action="/stats" enctype="multipart/form-data" method="post"> <div class="form-group"> <input type="file" class="form-control-file" name="uploaded_file"> <input type="text" class="form-control" placeholder="Number of speakers" name="nspeakers"> <input type="submit" value="Get me the stats!" class="btn btn-default"> </div> </form> Then in your javascript file you would add these lines to access both the file and the body. It is important that you use the name field value from the form in your upload function. This tells multer which field on the request it should look for the files in. If these fields aren't the same in the HTML form and on your server, your upload will fail: const multer = require('multer') const upload = multer({ dest: './public/data/uploads/' }) app.post('/stats', upload.single('uploaded_file'), function (req, res) { // req.file is the name of your file in the form above, here 'uploaded_file' // req.body will hold the text fields, if there were any console.log(req.file, req.body) });

      Certainly! Let's break down the provided code and example in simpler terms:

      Using Multer for a Text-Only Multipart Form:

      1. HTML Form:
      2. If you're dealing with a text-only multipart form, where you don't have file uploads but only text fields, you should use upload.none().

      ```html <br /> <form action="/profile" enctype="multipart/form-data" method="post"> <div class="form-group"> <input type="file" class="form-control-file" name="uploaded_file"> <input type="text" class="form-control" placeholder="Number of speakers" name="nspeakers"> <input type="submit" value="Get me the stats!" class="btn btn-default"> </div> </form>

      ```

      • Note the enctype="multipart/form-data" in the form, even though there is no file input. This is required for forms that might include file inputs.

      • Server-Side (Using Express and Multer):

      • In your Node.js server code:

      ```javascript const express = require('express'); const multer = require('multer'); const upload = multer();

      const app = express();

      // Handling a text-only multipart form app.post('/profile', upload.none(), function (req, res, next) { // req.body contains the text fields console.log(req.body); });

      // Handling a text and file multipart form const fileUpload = multer({ dest: './public/data/uploads/' }); app.post('/stats', fileUpload.single('uploaded_file'), function (req, res) { // req.file is the name of your file in the form, here 'uploaded_file' // req.body will hold the text fields, if any console.log(req.file, req.body); });

      app.listen(3000, () => { console.log('Server is running on port 3000'); }); ```

      Summary:

      • The HTML form includes both a file input (<input type="file" name="uploaded_file">) and a text input (<input type="text" name="nspeakers">).
      • Even if there's no file input, using enctype="multipart/form-data" is necessary when the form might include file inputs.
      • On the server side, upload.none() middleware is used for handling text-only multipart forms.
      • If there is a mix of text and file inputs, you can use multer with fileUpload.single('uploaded_file') to handle both files and text fields.
      • req.file will contain the uploaded file, and req.body will hold the text fields.
    2. Multer is a node.js middleware for handling multipart/form-data, which is primarily used for uploading files. It is written on top of busboy for maximum efficiency. NOTE: Multer will not process any form which is not multipart (multipart/form-data).

      Certainly! Let's break down Multer and its purpose in simpler terms:

      Multer in Simple Words:

      1. Purpose:
      2. Handling File Uploads: Multer is a middleware for Node.js that specializes in handling the data submitted through forms with the enctype set to multipart/form-data. This type of form is commonly used for file uploads.

      3. Efficiency:

      4. Built on Busboy: Multer is built on top of the Busboy library, which is designed for efficient parsing of multipart/form-data requests. It allows your server to handle file uploads smoothly.

      5. Form-Type Requirement:

      6. Multipart Forms Only: Multer specifically works with forms that are marked as multipart/form-data. It won't process forms with other content types.

      Example:

      Here's a simple example of how you might use Multer in an Express.js application to handle file uploads:

      ```javascript const express = require('express'); const multer = require('multer');

      const app = express(); const port = 3000;

      // Set up Multer const storage = multer.diskStorage({ destination: (req, file, cb) => { cb(null, 'uploads/'); // Specify the directory where files will be stored }, filename: (req, file, cb) => { cb(null, Date.now() + '-' + file.originalname); // Define the file name }, });

      const upload = multer({ storage: storage });

      // Route for handling file uploads app.post('/upload', upload.single('file'), (req, res) => { // Access the uploaded file information through req.file const uploadedFile = req.file;

      // Send a response to the client res.json({ message: 'File uploaded successfully!', file: uploadedFile }); });

      app.listen(port, () => { console.log(Server is running on port ${port}); }); ```

      In this example: - We set up Multer with a destination for file storage and a naming convention for the uploaded files. - The upload.single('file') middleware is used to handle a single file upload. The argument 'file' corresponds to the name attribute of the file input in the form. - The route /upload is set up to handle file uploads. The uploaded file information is available in req.file.

      Remember to create an uploads directory in your project to store the uploaded files. Multer will automatically create this directory if it doesn't exist.

    1. res.json([body]) Sends a JSON response. This method sends a response (with the correct content-type) that is the parameter converted to a JSON string using JSON.stringify(). The parameter can be any JSON type, including object, array, string, Boolean, number, or null, and you can also use it to convert other values to JSON. res.json(null) res.json({ user: 'tobi' }) res.status(500).json({ error: 'message' })

      Certainly! Let's break down the res.json() method in simple terms:

      Purpose:

      The res.json() method in Express is used to send a JSON response to the client. It automatically sets the appropriate content-type header and converts the provided data into a JSON string using JSON.stringify().

      Syntax:

      javascript res.json([body]);

      Examples:

      1. Sending null as JSON:
      2. This example sends a JSON response with null as the content. javascript res.json(null);

      3. Sending an Object as JSON:

      4. This example sends a JSON response with an object. javascript res.json({ user: 'tobi' });

      5. Sending JSON with a Status Code:

      6. You can also set an HTTP status code along with the JSON response. javascript res.status(500).json({ error: 'message' }); This example sends a JSON response with an error message and sets the HTTP status code to 500 (Internal Server Error).

      Summary:

      • res.json() is a convenient method in Express to send JSON responses.
      • It automatically handles the conversion of various data types (object, array, string, Boolean, number, or null) to a JSON string.
      • You can also chain it with res.status() to set an HTTP status code along with the JSON response.

      In simple terms, it's a way to tell the client that the server is responding with data in JSON format, making it easy for client applications to consume the data.

    2. res.cookie(name, value [, options]) Sets cookie name to value. The value parameter may be a string or object converted to JSON. The options parameter is an object that can have the following properties. Property Type Description domain String Domain name for the cookie. Defaults to the domain name of the app. encode Function A synchronous function used for cookie value encoding. Defaults to encodeURIComponent. expires Date Expiry date of the cookie in GMT. If not specified or set to 0, creates a session cookie. httpOnly Boolean Flags the cookie to be accessible only by the web server. maxAge Number Convenient option for setting the expiry time relative to the current time in milliseconds. path String Path for the cookie. Defaults to “/”. priority String Value of the “Priority” Set-Cookie attribute. secure Boolean Marks the cookie to be used with HTTPS only. signed Boolean Indicates if the cookie should be signed. sameSite Boolean or String Value of the “SameSite” Set-Cookie attribute. More information at https://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-ietf-httpbis-cookie-same-site-00#section-4.1.1. All res.cookie() does is set the HTTP Set-Cookie header with the options provided. Any option not specified defaults to the value stated in RFC 6265. For example: res.cookie('name', 'tobi', { domain: '.example.com', path: '/admin', secure: true }) res.cookie('rememberme', '1', { expires: new Date(Date.now() + 900000), httpOnly: true }) You can set multiple cookies in a single response by calling res.cookie multiple times, for example: res .status(201) .cookie('access_token', 'Bearer ' + token, { expires: new Date(Date.now() + 8 * 3600000) // cookie will be removed after 8 hours }) .cookie('test', 'test') .redirect(301, '/admin') The encode option allows you to choose the function used for cookie value encoding. Does not support asynchronous functions. Example use case: You need to set a domain-wide cookie for another site in your organization. This other site (not under your administrative control) does not use URI-encoded cookie values. // Default encoding res.cookie('some_cross_domain_cookie', 'http://mysubdomain.example.com', { domain: 'example.com' }) // Result: 'some_cross_domain_cookie=http%3A%2F%2Fmysubdomain.example.com; Domain=example.com; Path=/' // Custom encoding res.cookie('some_cross_domain_cookie', 'http://mysubdomain.example.com', { domain: 'example.com', encode: String }) // Result: 'some_cross_domain_cookie=http://mysubdomain.example.com; Domain=example.com; Path=/;' The maxAge option is a convenience option for setting “expires” relative to the current time in milliseconds. The following is equivalent to the second example above. res.cookie('rememberme', '1', { maxAge: 900000, httpOnly: true }) You can pass an object as the value parameter; it is then serialized as JSON and parsed by bodyParser() middleware. res.cookie('cart', { items: [1, 2, 3] }) res.cookie('cart', { items: [1, 2, 3] }, { maxAge: 900000 }) When using cookie-parser middleware, this method also supports signed cookies. Simply include the signed option set to true. Then res.cookie() will use the secret passed to cookieParser(secret) to sign the value. res.cookie('name', 'tobi', { signed: true }) Later you may access this value through the req.signedCookie object.

      Sure, let's break it down into simpler terms:

      res.cookie() is a function used in web development to set cookies in the browser when a server responds to a request. Cookies are small pieces of data that websites store on your computer.

      Here are the key parts of res.cookie():

      1. Setting a Basic Cookie:
      2. You can set a cookie by providing a name and a value.

      javascript res.cookie('name', 'tobi');

      1. Additional Options:
      2. You can provide extra options for the cookie using an object. These options include things like the domain, expiration date, whether it's secure (only sent over HTTPS), and more.

      javascript res.cookie('rememberme', '1', { expires: new Date(Date.now() + 900000), httpOnly: true });

      1. Setting Multiple Cookies:
      2. You can set multiple cookies in one response.

      javascript res .status(201) .cookie('access_token', 'Bearer ' + token, { expires: new Date(Date.now() + 8 * 3600000) }) .cookie('test', 'test') .redirect(301, '/admin');

      1. Encoding and Decoding:
      2. You can control how the cookie value is encoded. This might be useful if you're dealing with special characters or have specific encoding requirements.

      javascript res.cookie('some_cross_domain_cookie', 'http://mysubdomain.example.com', { encode: String });

      1. Handling JSON as Cookie Value:
      2. You can pass an object as the cookie value, and it will be automatically converted to JSON.

      javascript res.cookie('cart', { items: [1, 2, 3] });

      1. Signed Cookies:
      2. When using a specific middleware (like cookie-parser), you can sign cookies for added security. This means the server signs the cookie value, and later, when the client sends the cookie back, the server can verify its authenticity.

      javascript res.cookie('name', 'tobi', { signed: true });

      To read a signed cookie later, you would access it through the req.signedCookie object.

      In simple terms, res.cookie() is a way for a server to tell a web browser to store a small piece of information, like a user's preferences or authentication details. The function gives you control over various aspects of how these cookies are stored and transmitted.

    1. The permitted SchemaTypes are: String Number Date Buffer Boolean Mixed ObjectId Array Decimal128 Map UUID Read more about SchemaTypes here. Schemas not only define the structure of your document and casting of properties, they also define document instance methods, static Model methods, compound indexes, and document lifecycle hooks called middleware. Creating a model To use our schema definition, we need to convert our blogSchema into a Model we can work with. To do so, we pass it into mongoose.model(modelName, schema): const Blog = mongoose.model('Blog', blogSchema); // ready to go! Ids By default, Mongoose adds an _id property to your schemas. const schema = new Schema(); schema.path('_id'); // ObjectId { ... } When you create a new document with the automatically added _id property, Mongoose creates a new _id of type ObjectId to your document. const Model = mongoose.model('Test', schema); const doc = new Model(); doc._id instanceof mongoose.Types.ObjectId; // true You can also overwrite Mongoose's default _id with your own _id. Just be careful: Mongoose will refuse to save a top-level document that doesn't have an _id, so you're responsible for setting _id if you define your own _id path. const schema = new Schema({ _id: Number // <-- overwrite Mongoose's default `_id` }); const Model = mongoose.model('Test', schema); const doc = new Model(); await doc.save(); // Throws "document must have an _id before saving" doc._id = 1; await doc.save(); // works Mongoose also adds an _id property to subdocuments. You can disable the _id property on your subdocuments as follows. Mongoose does allow saving subdocuments without an _id property. const nestedSchema = new Schema( { name: String }, { _id: false } // <-- disable `_id` ); const schema = new Schema({ subdoc: nestedSchema, docArray: [nestedSchema] }); const Test = mongoose.model('Test', schema); // Neither `subdoc` nor `docArray.0` will have an `_id` await Test.create({ subdoc: { name: 'test 1' }, docArray: [{ name: 'test 2' }] }); Alternatively, you can disable _id using the following syntax: const nestedSchema = new Schema({ _id: false, // <-- disable _id name: String });

      Let's simplify this information:

      1. Schema Types:
      2. Mongoose supports various types of data for defining the structure of your documents. These include String, Number, Date, Buffer, Boolean, Mixed, ObjectId, Array, Decimal128, Map, and UUID.

      3. Model Creation:

      4. Once you've defined your schema, you need to convert it into a model using mongoose.model(). This model allows you to interact with the MongoDB collection associated with your schema.

      javascript const Blog = mongoose.model('Blog', blogSchema);

      1. Default _id Property:
      2. By default, Mongoose adds an _id property to your schemas. This property is an ObjectId type.

      javascript const schema = new Schema(); schema.path('_id'); // ObjectId { ... }

      1. Custom _id:
      2. You can customize the _id field if you want, but be cautious. Mongoose expects an _id for top-level documents, so if you overwrite it, make sure to set it yourself.

      javascript const schema = new Schema({ _id: Number // Overwrite Mongoose's default `_id` });

      1. Disabling _id for Subdocuments:
      2. You can disable the _id property for subdocuments if you don't want them to have their own identifiers.

      javascript const nestedSchema = new Schema( { name: String }, { _id: false } // Disable `_id` for this subdocument );

      Alternatively, you can disable _id directly within the subdocument's schema:

      javascript const nestedSchema = new Schema({ _id: false, // Disable `_id` name: String });

      This way, subdocuments won't have their own _id property.

      Yes, in Mongoose, the first argument passed to mongoose.model() is the singular name of the collection that the model is for. In your example:

      javascript const Blog = mongoose.model('Blog', blogSchema);

      • 'Blog' is the name of the collection. It's singular, and Mongoose will automatically convert it to plural form when creating the collection in the database (e.g., 'Blog' becomes 'blogs' in the database).

      • blogSchema is the schema you defined for documents in this collection.

      So, Blog is the Mongoose model that you can use to interact with the MongoDB collection named 'blogs' (or whatever Mongoose converts 'Blog' to in plural form).

    2. Everything in Mongoose starts with a Schema. Each schema maps to a MongoDB collection and defines the shape of the documents within that collection. import mongoose from 'mongoose'; const { Schema } = mongoose; const blogSchema = new Schema({ title: String, // String is shorthand for {type: String} author: String, body: String, comments: [{ body: String, date: Date }], date: { type: Date, default: Date.now }, hidden: Boolean, meta: { votes: Number, favs: Number } }); If you want to add additional keys later, use the Schema#add method. Each key in our code blogSchema defines a property in our documents which will be cast to its associated SchemaType. For example, we've defined a property title which will be cast to the String SchemaType and property date which will be cast to a Date SchemaType. Notice above that if a property only requires a type, it can be specified using a shorthand notation (contrast the title property above with the date property). Keys may also be assigned nested objects containing further key/type definitions like the meta property above. This will happen whenever a key's value is a POJO that doesn't have a type property. In these cases, Mongoose only creates actual schema paths for leaves in the tree. (like meta.votes and meta.favs above), and the branches do not have actual paths. A side-effect of this is that meta above cannot have its own validation. If validation is needed up the tree, a path needs to be created up the tree - see the Subdocuments section for more information on how to do this. Also read the Mixed subsection of the SchemaTypes guide for some gotchas.

      Sure, let's break it down in simpler terms.

      In Mongoose, a "Schema" is like a blueprint for how your data should be organized in a MongoDB database. Imagine it as a template for creating documents (records) in a collection (similar to a table in relational databases).

      Let's go through the example:

      ```javascript import mongoose from 'mongoose'; const { Schema } = mongoose;

      // Define a schema for a blog post const blogSchema = new Schema({ title: String, author: String, body: String, comments: [{ body: String, date: Date }], date: { type: Date, default: Date.now }, hidden: Boolean, meta: { votes: Number, favs: Number } }); ```

      Now, let's break it down:

      1. Basic Data Types:
      2. title, author, body, and hidden are properties of your blog document. String is the data type for title, author, and body, while Boolean is the data type for hidden.

      3. Array of Comments:

      4. comments is an array where each element is an object with body (String) and date (Date) properties. This allows you to store multiple comments in an array within your document.

      5. Default Date:

      6. date is a property with the type Date, and it has a default value of the current date and time (Date.now). This means if you don't provide a date when creating a blog post, it will default to the current date and time.

      7. Nested Meta Object:

      8. meta is a nested object within your document. It has two properties, votes (Number) and favs (Number). This allows you to store additional information in a structured way.

      Now, let's say you want to add a new property later, you can use the add method:

      javascript // Add a new property to the schema blogSchema.add({ tags: [String] });

      Here, we're adding a new property tags which is an array of strings.

      The main takeaway is that the schema defines the structure of your documents in MongoDB, including the types of data each property should have. It helps maintain consistency in your data and allows you to enforce certain rules or defaults.

    3. Instance methods Instances of Models are documents. Documents have many of their own built-in instance methods. We may also define our own custom document instance methods. // define a schema const animalSchema = new Schema({ name: String, type: String }, { // Assign a function to the "methods" object of our animalSchema through schema options. // By following this approach, there is no need to create a separate TS type to define the type of the instance functions. methods: { findSimilarTypes(cb) { return mongoose.model('Animal').find({ type: this.type }, cb); } } }); // Or, assign a function to the "methods" object of our animalSchema animalSchema.methods.findSimilarTypes = function(cb) { return mongoose.model('Animal').find({ type: this.type }, cb); }; Now all of our animal instances have a findSimilarTypes method available to them. const Animal = mongoose.model('Animal', animalSchema); const dog = new Animal({ type: 'dog' }); dog.findSimilarTypes((err, dogs) => { console.log(dogs); // woof }); Overwriting a default mongoose document method may lead to unpredictable results. See this for more details. The example above uses the Schema.methods object directly to save an instance method. You can also use the Schema.method() helper as described here. Do not declare methods using ES6 arrow functions (=>). Arrow functions explicitly prevent binding this, so your method will not have access to the document and the above examples will not work.

      Certainly! Let's break down the provided code snippets:

      1. What is it and why is it used?

      In Mongoose, a schema is a blueprint for defining the structure of documents within a collection. When you define a schema, you can also attach methods to it. These methods become instance methods, meaning they are available on the individual documents (instances) created from that schema.

      Instance methods are useful for encapsulating functionality related to a specific document or model instance. They allow you to define custom behavior that can be executed on a specific document. In the given example, the findSimilarTypes method is added to instances of the Animal model, making it easy to find other animals of the same type.

      2. Syntax:

      Using methods object directly in the schema options:

      javascript const animalSchema = new Schema( { name: String, type: String }, { methods: { findSimilarTypes(cb) { return mongoose.model('Animal').find({ type: this.type }, cb); } } } );

      Using methods object directly in the schema:

      javascript animalSchema.methods.findSimilarTypes = function(cb) { return mongoose.model('Animal').find({ type: this.type }, cb); };

      Using Schema.method() helper:

      javascript animalSchema.method('findSimilarTypes', function(cb) { return mongoose.model('Animal').find({ type: this.type }, cb); });

      3. Explanation in Simple Words with Examples:

      Why it's Used:

      Imagine you have a collection of animals in your database, and you want to find other animals of the same type. Instead of writing the same logic repeatedly, you can define a method that can be called on each animal instance to find similar types. This helps in keeping your code DRY (Don't Repeat Yourself) and makes it easier to maintain.

      Example:

      ```javascript const mongoose = require('mongoose'); const { Schema } = mongoose;

      // Define a schema with a custom instance method const animalSchema = new Schema({ name: String, type: String });

      // Add a custom instance method to find similar types animalSchema.methods.findSimilarTypes = function(cb) { return mongoose.model('Animal').find({ type: this.type }, cb); };

      // Create the Animal model using the schema const Animal = mongoose.model('Animal', animalSchema);

      // Create an instance of Animal const dog = new Animal({ type: 'dog', name: 'Buddy' });

      // Use the custom method to find similar types dog.findSimilarTypes((err, similarAnimals) => { console.log(similarAnimals); }); ```

      In this example, findSimilarTypes is a custom instance method added to the Animal schema. When you create an instance of the Animal model (e.g., a dog), you can then call findSimilarTypes on that instance to find other animals with the same type. The method uses the this.type property, which refers to the type of the current animal instance. This allows you to easily reuse the logic for finding similar types across different instances of the Animal model.

      Certainly! Let's go through each part and explain it in simple terms: ### 1. `this` in Mongoose: - **What is `this`?** In JavaScript, `this` refers to the current context or object. In Mongoose, particularly within methods and middleware functions, `this` represents the instance (document) the function is currently operating on. - **Why is it used?** `this` is used to access and modify the properties of the current document. For example, in a Mongoose method, `this` allows you to refer to the fields of the specific document the method is called on. ### 2. Example: Let's use the `userSchema.pre("save", ...)`, which is a Mongoose middleware, as an example: ```javascript userSchema.pre("save", async function (next) { if (!this.isModified("password")) { next(); } else { this.password = await bcrypt.hash(this.password, 10); next(); } }); ``` - **Explanation in Simple Words:** - Imagine you have a system where users can sign up and set their password. - Before saving a new user to the database, you want to ensure that the password is securely encrypted (hashed) using a library like `bcrypt`. - The `userSchema.pre("save", ...)` is a special function that runs automatically before saving a user to the database. - In this function: - `this.isModified("password")`: Checks if the password field of the current user has been changed. - If the password is not modified, it means the user is not updating their password, so it just moves on to the next operation (saving the user). - If the password is modified, it means a new password is set or the existing one is changed. In this case, it uses `bcrypt.hash` to encrypt (hash) the password before saving it to the database. - The use of `this` here is crucial because it allows you to refer to the specific user document that's being saved. It ensures that the correct password is hashed for the current user being processed. In summary, `this` in Mongoose is a way to refer to the current document or instance, and it's commonly used to access and modify the properties of that document, especially in middleware functions like the one demonstrated here for password encryption before saving to the database.

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    1. Third-party middleware Use third-party middleware to add functionality to Express apps. Install the Node.js module for the required functionality, then load it in your app at the application level or at the router level. The following example illustrates installing and loading the cookie-parsing middleware function cookie-parser. $ npm install cookie-parser const express = require('express') const app = express() const cookieParser = require('cookie-parser') // load the cookie-parsing middleware app.use(cookieParser()) For a partial list of third-party middleware functions that are commonly used with Express, see: Third-party middleware.

      Let's break down the concept of third-party middleware in Express with a simple explanation and an example.

      What is Third-Party Middleware?

      Third-party middleware in Express refers to middleware functions that are not built into Express itself but are created by external developers to extend its functionality. These middleware functions can be added to your Express application to provide additional features or handle specific tasks.

      Example Using cookie-parser:

      1. Install the Module:
      2. Use npm to install the cookie-parser module.

      bash $ npm install cookie-parser

      1. Load and Use the Middleware:
      2. In your Express application, require and load the cookie-parser middleware.

      ```javascript const express = require('express'); const app = express(); const cookieParser = require('cookie-parser');

      // Load the cookie-parsing middleware app.use(cookieParser()); ```

      • This middleware is now integrated into your Express application.

      • Use the Middleware in Your Routes:

      • Now, you can use the functionality provided by cookie-parser in your routes.

      ```javascript app.get('/', (req, res) => { // Access cookies using the middleware const userCookie = req.cookies.user;

         // Your route logic here
         res.send(`Welcome, ${userCookie || 'Guest'}!`);
      

      }); ```

      • In this example, cookie-parser allows you to access cookies in the req.cookies object.

      Why Use Third-Party Middleware?

      • Extended Functionality: Third-party middleware adds specialized functionality to your Express application, such as parsing cookies, handling authentication, logging, etc.

      • Modularity: Using third-party middleware allows you to keep your code modular and focus on building features without reinventing the wheel for common tasks.

      • Community Contributions: Many third-party middleware modules are created and maintained by the community, ensuring reliable and well-tested solutions.

      In summary, third-party middleware in Express enables you to enhance your application with additional features and functionalities developed by the broader community. Always check the documentation of each middleware module for usage details and customization options.

    2. Error-handling middleware Error-handling middleware always takes four arguments. You must provide four arguments to identify it as an error-handling middleware function. Even if you don’t need to use the next object, you must specify it to maintain the signature. Otherwise, the next object will be interpreted as regular middleware and will fail to handle errors. Define error-handling middleware functions in the same way as other middleware functions, except with four arguments instead of three, specifically with the signature (err, req, res, next)): app.use((err, req, res, next) => { console.error(err.stack) res.status(500).send('Something broke!') }) For details about error-handling middleware, see: Error handling. Built-in middleware Starting with version 4.x, Express no longer depends on Connect. The middleware functions that were previously included with Express are now in separate modules; see the list of middleware functions. Express has the following built-in middleware functions: express.static serves static assets such as HTML files, images, and so on. express.json parses incoming requests with JSON payloads. NOTE: Available with Express 4.16.0+ express.urlencoded parses incoming requests with URL-encoded payloads. NOTE: Available with Express 4.16.0+

      Let's break down the concepts of error-handling middleware and built-in middleware in Express with simple explanations and examples.

      1. Error-Handling Middleware:

      • Error-handling middleware is used to handle errors that occur during the request-response cycle.

      javascript app.use((err, req, res, next) => { console.error(err.stack); res.status(500).send('Something broke!'); }); - It always takes four arguments (err, req, res, next) to identify it as error-handling middleware. - Even if you don't use the next object, you must specify it to maintain the signature. - In this example, if an error occurs in the request-response cycle, it logs the error and sends a 500 status with the message 'Something broke!'.

      2. Built-In Middleware:

      • Express comes with some built-in middleware functions that are designed to handle common tasks.

      • express.static:

        • Serves static assets such as HTML files, images, etc.

        javascript app.use(express.static('public')); - This middleware serves files from the 'public' directory when requested.

      • express.json and express.urlencoded:

        • Parse incoming requests with JSON or URL-encoded payloads.

        javascript app.use(express.json()); // Parse incoming JSON payloads app.use(express.urlencoded({ extended: true })); // Parse incoming URL-encoded payloads - These middleware functions allow Express to parse incoming requests with JSON or URL-encoded data. - Note: Available with Express version 4.16.0 and later.

      In summary: - Error-handling middleware is used for handling errors during the request-response cycle. It takes four arguments and is defined using app.use(). - Built-in middleware includes functions like express.static for serving static files and express.json and express.urlencoded for parsing incoming data. They are integrated into Express and can be added with app.use().

      These features make it easier to handle errors and common tasks in your Express application.

    3. Router-level middleware Router-level middleware works in the same way as application-level middleware, except it is bound to an instance of express.Router(). const router = express.Router() Load router-level middleware by using the router.use() and router.METHOD() functions. The following example code replicates the middleware system that is shown above for application-level middleware, by using router-level middleware: const express = require('express') const app = express() const router = express.Router() // a middleware function with no mount path. This code is executed for every request to the router router.use((req, res, next) => { console.log('Time:', Date.now()) next() }) // a middleware sub-stack shows request info for any type of HTTP request to the /user/:id path router.use('/user/:id', (req, res, next) => { console.log('Request URL:', req.originalUrl) next() }, (req, res, next) => { console.log('Request Type:', req.method) next() }) // a middleware sub-stack that handles GET requests to the /user/:id path router.get('/user/:id', (req, res, next) => { // if the user ID is 0, skip to the next router if (req.params.id === '0') next('route') // otherwise pass control to the next middleware function in this stack else next() }, (req, res, next) => { // render a regular page res.render('regular') }) // handler for the /user/:id path, which renders a special page router.get('/user/:id', (req, res, next) => { console.log(req.params.id) res.render('special') }) // mount the router on the app app.use('/', router) To skip the rest of the router’s middleware functions, call next('router') to pass control back out of the router instance. This example shows a middleware sub-stack that handles GET requests to the /user/:id path. const express = require('express') const app = express() const router = express.Router() // predicate the router with a check and bail out when needed router.use((req, res, next) => { if (!req.headers['x-auth']) return next('router') next() }) router.get('/user/:id', (req, res) => { res.send('hello, user!') }) // use the router and 401 anything falling through app.use('/admin', router, (req, res) => { res.sendStatus(401) })

      Certainly! Let's break down the concept of router-level middleware in Express with simple explanations and examples.

      1. Basic Router-Level Middleware:

      • Router-level middleware works similarly to application-level middleware but is bound to an instance of express.Router().

      ```javascript const express = require('express'); const app = express(); const router = express.Router();

      // Middleware function without a mount path, executed for every request to the router router.use((req, res, next) => { console.log('Time:', Date.now()); next(); });

      app.use('/', router); // Mount the router on the app ```

      In this example, the middleware function logs the current time for every request to the router.

      2. Middleware Sub-Stack with Router-Level Middleware:

      • Define a middleware sub-stack for a specific path within the router.

      javascript router.use('/user/:id', (req, res, next) => { console.log('Request URL:', req.originalUrl); next(); }, (req, res, next) => { console.log('Request Type:', req.method); next(); });

      Here, the middleware sub-stack prints request info for any type of HTTP request to the '/user/:id' path.

      3. Router-Level Middleware with Different Routes:

      • Define middleware sub-stacks for different routes within the router.

      ```javascript router.get('/user/:id', (req, res, next) => { if (req.params.id === '0') next('route'); // Skip to the next route if user ID is '0' else next(); // Pass control to the next middleware }, (req, res, next) => { res.render('regular'); // Render a regular page });

      router.get('/user/:id', (req, res, next) => { res.render('special'); // Render a special page for the /user/:id path }); ```

      In this example, the first middleware checks the user ID and either skips to the next route or renders a regular page. The second middleware renders a special page for the '/user/:id' path.

      4. Skipping Router Middleware:

      • Use next('router') to skip the rest of the router’s middleware functions and pass control back out of the router instance.

      ```javascript router.use((req, res, next) => { if (!req.headers['x-auth']) return next('router'); // Bail out if 'x-auth' header is missing next(); });

      router.get('/user/:id', (req, res) => { res.send('hello, user!'); });

      app.use('/admin', router, (req, res) => { res.sendStatus(401); // Send a 401 response for anything falling through }); ```

      In this example, the router is predicated with a check, and if the 'x-auth' header is missing, it skips the rest of the router’s middleware functions.

      In summary, router-level middleware in Express allows you to organize and modularize your routes and their associated middleware. It provides a way to handle middleware specific to a router instance, making your code more modular and maintainable.

    4. Application-level middleware Bind application-level middleware to an instance of the app object by using the app.use() and app.METHOD() functions, where METHOD is the HTTP method of the request that the middleware function handles (such as GET, PUT, or POST) in lowercase. This example shows a middleware function with no mount path. The function is executed every time the app receives a request. const express = require('express') const app = express() app.use((req, res, next) => { console.log('Time:', Date.now()) next() }) This example shows a middleware function mounted on the /user/:id path. The function is executed for any type of HTTP request on the /user/:id path. app.use('/user/:id', (req, res, next) => { console.log('Request Type:', req.method) next() }) This example shows a route and its handler function (middleware system). The function handles GET requests to the /user/:id path. app.get('/user/:id', (req, res, next) => { res.send('USER') }) Here is an example of loading a series of middleware functions at a mount point, with a mount path. It illustrates a middleware sub-stack that prints request info for any type of HTTP request to the /user/:id path. app.use('/user/:id', (req, res, next) => { console.log('Request URL:', req.originalUrl) next() }, (req, res, next) => { console.log('Request Type:', req.method) next() }) Route handlers enable you to define multiple routes for a path. The example below defines two routes for GET requests to the /user/:id path. The second route will not cause any problems, but it will never get called because the first route ends the request-response cycle. This example shows a middleware sub-stack that handles GET requests to the /user/:id path. app.get('/user/:id', (req, res, next) => { console.log('ID:', req.params.id) next() }, (req, res, next) => { res.send('User Info') }) // handler for the /user/:id path, which prints the user ID app.get('/user/:id', (req, res, next) => { res.send(req.params.id) }) To skip the rest of the middleware functions from a router middleware stack, call next('route') to pass control to the next route. NOTE: next('route') will work only in middleware functions that were loaded by using the app.METHOD() or router.METHOD() functions. This example shows a middleware sub-stack that handles GET requests to the /user/:id path. app.get('/user/:id', (req, res, next) => { // if the user ID is 0, skip to the next route if (req.params.id === '0') next('route') // otherwise pass the control to the next middleware function in this stack else next() }, (req, res, next) => { // send a regular response res.send('regular') }) // handler for the /user/:id path, which sends a special response app.get('/user/:id', (req, res, next) => { res.send('special') }) Middleware can also be declared in an array for reusability. This example shows an array with a middleware sub-stack that handles GET requests to the /user/:id path function logOriginalUrl (req, res, next) { console.log('Request URL:', req.originalUrl) next() } function logMethod (req, res, next) { console.log('Request Type:', req.method) next() } const logStuff = [logOriginalUrl, logMethod] app.get('/user/:id', logStuff, (req, res, next) => { res.send('User Info') })

      Certainly! Let's break down the concepts of application-level middleware in Express with simple explanations and examples.

      1. Basic Application-level Middleware:

      • This middleware runs for every incoming request to your application.

      ```javascript const express = require('express'); const app = express();

      app.use((req, res, next) => { console.log('Time:', Date.now()); next(); }); ```

      In this example, every time a request is received, it logs the current time.

      2. Application-level Middleware with a Mount Path:

      • You can specify a path for the middleware to apply to.

      javascript app.use('/user/:id', (req, res, next) => { console.log('Request Type:', req.method); next(); });

      Here, the middleware only runs for requests to paths starting with '/user/:id'.

      3. Route Handlers with Middleware:

      • Express allows you to define route handlers for specific HTTP methods.

      javascript app.get('/user/:id', (req, res, next) => { res.send('USER'); });

      This handles GET requests to the '/user/:id' path and sends the response 'USER'.

      4. Middleware Sub-Stack with Mount Path:

      • You can create a sub-stack of middleware functions for a specific path.

      javascript app.use('/user/:id', (req, res, next) => { console.log('Request URL:', req.originalUrl); next(); }, (req, res, next) => { console.log('Request Type:', req.method); next(); });

      This example prints request info for any type of HTTP request to the '/user/:id' path.

      5. Route Handlers with Middleware Sub-Stack:

      • Define multiple middleware functions for a single route.

      javascript app.get('/user/:id', (req, res, next) => { console.log('ID:', req.params.id); next(); }, (req, res, next) => { res.send('User Info'); });

      In this case, the first middleware prints the user ID, and the second one sends the response 'User Info'.

      6. Skipping Middleware with next('route'):

      • You can skip the rest of the middleware functions using next('route') and pass control to the next route.

      ```javascript app.get('/user/:id', (req, res, next) => { if (req.params.id === '0') next('route'); else next(); }, (req, res, next) => { res.send('regular'); });

      app.get('/user/:id', (req, res, next) => { res.send('special'); }); ```

      If the user ID is '0', it skips to the next route; otherwise, it sends a regular or special response.

      7. Middleware in an Array for Reusability:

      • Middleware can be declared in an array for reuse.

      ```javascript function logOriginalUrl(req, res, next) { console.log('Request URL:', req.originalUrl); next(); }

      function logMethod(req, res, next) { console.log('Request Type:', req.method); next(); }

      const logStuff = [logOriginalUrl, logMethod]; app.get('/user/:id', logStuff, (req, res, next) => { res.send('User Info'); }); ```

      In this example, the middleware functions logOriginalUrl and logMethod are reusable and applied to the '/user/:id' route.

      In summary, application-level middleware in Express allows you to handle requests, modify them, and control their flow. You can use it for various tasks and organize your code effectively.

    5. Using middleware Express is a routing and middleware web framework that has minimal functionality of its own: An Express application is essentially a series of middleware function calls. Middleware functions are functions that have access to the request object (req), the response object (res), and the next middleware function in the application’s request-response cycle. The next middleware function is commonly denoted by a variable named next. Middleware functions can perform the following tasks: Execute any code. Make changes to the request and the response objects. End the request-response cycle. Call the next middleware function in the stack. If the current middleware function does not end the request-response cycle, it must call next() to pass control to the next middleware function. Otherwise, the request will be left hanging. An Express application can use the following types of middleware: Application-level middleware Router-level middleware Error-handling middleware Built-in middleware Third-party middleware You can load application-level and router-level middleware with an optional mount path. You can also load a series of middleware functions together, which creates a sub-stack of the middleware system at a mount point.

      In Express, the sequence of middleware execution is crucial for controlling the flow of the request-response cycle. The order in which you define and use middleware determines how they are executed. Here's the general rule:

      1. Application-level Middleware:
      2. Middleware defined using app.use() is executed in the order it's defined in your code.

      ```javascript // Example of application-level middleware app.use((req, res, next) => { console.log('Middleware 1'); next(); });

      app.use((req, res, next) => { console.log('Middleware 2'); next(); }); ```

      In this example, "Middleware 1" will execute before "Middleware 2".

      1. Router-level Middleware:
      2. Similar to application-level middleware, the order of middleware in the code defines the execution order.

      ```javascript // Example of router-level middleware const router = express.Router();

      router.use((req, res, next) => { console.log('Router Middleware 1'); next(); });

      router.use((req, res, next) => { console.log('Router Middleware 2'); next(); }); ```

      In this example, "Router Middleware 1" will execute before "Router Middleware 2" for routes under this router.

      1. Error-handling Middleware:
      2. Error-handling middleware should be defined last after all other middleware and route handlers.

      javascript // Example of error-handling middleware app.use((err, req, res, next) => { console.error(err); res.status(500).send('Something went wrong!'); });

      Error-handling middleware will only be executed if there is an error thrown during the request-response cycle.

      1. Built-in Middleware:
      2. Built-in middleware is often automatically applied in the order they are required.

      javascript // Example of using built-in middleware app.use(express.json()); // Body parsing middleware app.use(express.static('public')); // Serving static files

      The order in which you invoke these built-in middleware functions matters.

      1. Third-party Middleware:
      2. Third-party middleware is also executed in the order you apply it.

      javascript // Example of using third-party middleware const passport = require('passport'); app.use(passport.initialize()); // Initialize passport middleware

      The order in which you load third-party middleware influences their execution.

      In summary, the sequence of middleware execution is based on the order in which you define and apply them. This allows you to control the flow of the request through the various stages of processing in your Express application. Sure, let's break down the concept of middleware in Express with simple words and examples.

      1. What is Middleware?

      Middleware is like a set of functions in Express that can do various tasks during the processing of a web request. These tasks can include modifying the request or response, executing some code, or controlling the flow of the request.

      2. Types of Middleware:

      a. Application-level Middleware:

      These are applied to the entire Express application. They are executed for every incoming request.

      javascript // Example of application-level middleware app.use((req, res, next) => { console.log('This runs for every request!'); next(); // Move on to the next middleware });

      b. Router-level Middleware:

      Similar to application-level middleware but only applies to specific routes.

      ```javascript // Example of router-level middleware const router = express.Router();

      router.use((req, res, next) => { console.log('This runs for routes under this router!'); next(); });

      router.get('/route1', (req, res) => { // Route-specific logic }); ```

      c. Error-handling Middleware:

      Special middleware to handle errors during the request-response cycle.

      javascript // Example of error-handling middleware app.use((err, req, res, next) => { console.error(err); res.status(500).send('Something went wrong!'); });

      d. Built-in Middleware:

      Express has some built-in middleware for common tasks.

      javascript // Example of built-in middleware (parsing JSON in the request body) app.use(express.json());

      e. Third-party Middleware:

      Additional middleware created by third-party developers to extend Express functionality.

      javascript // Example of using third-party middleware (e.g., for handling authentication) const passport = require('passport'); app.use(passport.initialize());

      3. How Middleware Works:

      • Each middleware function has access to the request (req) and response (res) objects.
      • They can perform tasks, modify the request or response, and decide whether to end the request-response cycle or pass control to the next middleware.
      • If a middleware function doesn't end the cycle, it must call next() to pass control to the next middleware in line.

      4. Middleware Loading:

      • You can load middleware at the application or router level.
      • Middleware can be loaded with an optional mount path, defining where it should be applied.

      javascript // Example of loading middleware with a mount path app.use('/admin', adminMiddleware);

      This means that adminMiddleware will only be executed for routes starting with '/admin'.

      In summary, middleware in Express is like a chain of functions that can modify requests and responses. They're powerful for handling various tasks and keeping your code organized.

    1. // verify a token symmetric - synchronous var decoded = jwt.verify(token, 'shhhhh'); console.log(decoded.foo) // bar // verify a token symmetric jwt.verify(token, 'shhhhh', function(err, decoded) { console.log(decoded.foo) // bar }); // invalid token - synchronous try { var decoded = jwt.verify(token, 'wrong-secret'); } catch(err) { // err } // invalid token jwt.verify(token, 'wrong-secret', function(err, decoded) { // err // decoded undefined }); // verify a token asymmetric var cert = fs.readFileSync('public.pem'); // get public key jwt.verify(token, cert, function(err, decoded) { console.log(decoded.foo) // bar }); // verify audience var cert = fs.readFileSync('public.pem'); // get public key jwt.verify(token, cert, { audience: 'urn:foo' }, function(err, decoded) { // if audience mismatch, err == invalid audience }); // verify issuer var cert = fs.readFileSync('public.pem'); // get public key jwt.verify(token, cert, { audience: 'urn:foo', issuer: 'urn:issuer' }, function(err, decoded) { // if issuer mismatch, err == invalid issuer }); // verify jwt id var cert = fs.readFileSync('public.pem'); // get public key jwt.verify(token, cert, { audience: 'urn:foo', issuer: 'urn:issuer', jwtid: 'jwtid' }, function(err, decoded) { // if jwt id mismatch, err == invalid jwt id }); // verify subject var cert = fs.readFileSync('public.pem'); // get public key jwt.verify(token, cert, { audience: 'urn:foo', issuer: 'urn:issuer', jwtid: 'jwtid', subject: 'subject' }, function(err, decoded) { // if subject mismatch, err == invalid subject }); // alg mismatch var cert = fs.readFileSync('public.pem'); // get public key jwt.verify(token, cert, { algorithms: ['RS256'] }, function (err, payload) { // if token alg != RS256, err == invalid signature }); // Verify using getKey callback // Example uses https://github.com/auth0/node-jwks-rsa as a way to fetch the keys. var jwksClient = require('jwks-rsa'); var client = jwksClient({ jwksUri: 'https://sandrino.auth0.com/.well-known/jwks.json' }); function getKey(header, callback){ client.getSigningKey(header.kid, function(err, key) { var signingKey = key.publicKey || key.rsaPublicKey; callback(null, signingKey); }); } jwt.verify(token, getKey, options, function(err, decoded) { console.log(decoded.foo) // bar });

      Certainly! Let's break down the provided examples of verifying JWTs using the jsonwebtoken library in Node.js:

      1. Symmetric Verification:

      Synchronous:

      javascript // verify a token symmetric - synchronous var decoded = jwt.verify(token, 'shhhhh'); console.log(decoded.foo) // bar

      In this example, a token is verified synchronously using a secret key ('shhhhh'). If the verification is successful, it returns a decoded object, and you can access the payload property (decoded.foo).

      Asynchronous:

      javascript // verify a token symmetric jwt.verify(token, 'shhhhh', function(err, decoded) { console.log(decoded.foo) // bar });

      Here, the verification is done asynchronously using a callback. If the verification is successful, the decoded object is passed to the callback.

      2. Handling Invalid Tokens:

      Synchronous:

      javascript // invalid token - synchronous try { var decoded = jwt.verify(token, 'wrong-secret'); } catch(err) { // err }

      In case of an invalid token, a synchronous approach using a try-catch block is used to catch and handle the error.

      Asynchronous:

      javascript // invalid token jwt.verify(token, 'wrong-secret', function(err, decoded) { // err // decoded undefined });

      Similarly, for asynchronous verification, an error is passed to the callback in case of an invalid token.

      3. Asymmetric Verification:

      javascript // verify a token asymmetric var cert = fs.readFileSync('public.pem'); // get public key jwt.verify(token, cert, function(err, decoded) { console.log(decoded.foo) // bar });

      Here, the token is verified using an asymmetric approach with a public key (public.pem). Asymmetric cryptography involves a pair of public and private keys, and in this case, the public key is used for verification.

      4. Additional Verification Options:

      Verify Audience:

      javascript // verify audience var cert = fs.readFileSync('public.pem'); // get public key jwt.verify(token, cert, { audience: 'urn:foo' }, function(err, decoded) { // if audience mismatch, err == invalid audience });

      This example demonstrates verifying the audience (aud) claim in the token.

      Verify Issuer:

      javascript // verify issuer var cert = fs.readFileSync('public.pem'); // get public key jwt.verify(token, cert, { audience: 'urn:foo', issuer: 'urn:issuer' }, function(err, decoded) { // if issuer mismatch, err == invalid issuer });

      Verification with issuer (iss) claim. If the issuer does not match, it results in an invalid issuer error.

      5. Advanced Verification:

      javascript // alg mismatch var cert = fs.readFileSync('public.pem'); // get public key jwt.verify(token, cert, { algorithms: ['RS256'] }, function (err, payload) { // if token alg != RS256, err == invalid signature });

      This example verifies the algorithm (alg) used for signing the token. If the algorithm does not match, it results in an invalid signature error.

      6. Verify Using getKey Callback:

      ```javascript // Verify using getKey callback var jwksClient = require('jwks-rsa'); var client = jwksClient({ jwksUri: 'https://sandrino.auth0.com/.well-known/jwks.json' });

      function getKey(header, callback){ client.getSigningKey(header.kid, function(err, key) { var signingKey = key.publicKey || key.rsaPublicKey; callback(null, signingKey); }); }

      jwt.verify(token, getKey, options, function(err, decoded) { console.log(decoded.foo) // bar }); ```

      This example shows how to verify a token using a callback (getKey) to fetch the key dynamically. This can be useful when keys are rotated or managed externally.

      In simple terms, these examples demonstrate how to check if a JWT is valid, has not been tampered with, and meets specific criteria such as expiration, audience, issuer, etc. The library provides both synchronous and asynchronous methods for verification, and you can customize the verification process based on your application's requirements.

    2. Token Expiration (exp claim) The standard for JWT defines an exp claim for expiration. The expiration is represented as a NumericDate: A JSON numeric value representing the number of seconds from 1970-01-01T00:00:00Z UTC until the specified UTC date/time, ignoring leap seconds. This is equivalent to the IEEE Std 1003.1, 2013 Edition [POSIX.1] definition "Seconds Since the Epoch", in which each day is accounted for by exactly 86400 seconds, other than that non-integer values can be represented. See RFC 3339 [RFC3339] for details regarding date/times in general and UTC in particular. This means that the exp field should contain the number of seconds since the epoch. Signing a token with 1 hour of expiration: jwt.sign({ exp: Math.floor(Date.now() / 1000) + (60 * 60), data: 'foobar' }, 'secret'); Another way to generate a token like this with this library is: jwt.sign({ data: 'foobar' }, 'secret', { expiresIn: 60 * 60 }); //or even better: jwt.sign({ data: 'foobar' }, 'secret', { expiresIn: '1h' }); jwt.verify(token, secretOrPublicKey, [options, callback]) (Asynchronous) If a callback is supplied, function acts asynchronously. The callback is called with the decoded payload if the signature is valid and optional expiration, audience, or issuer are valid. If not, it will be called with the error. (Synchronous) If a callback is not supplied, function acts synchronously. Returns the payload decoded if the signature is valid and optional expiration, audience, or issuer are valid. If not, it will throw the error. Warning: When the token comes from an untrusted source (e.g. user input or external requests), the returned decoded payload should be treated like any other user input; please make sure to sanitize and only work with properties that are expected token is the JsonWebToken string secretOrPublicKey is a string (utf-8 encoded), buffer, or KeyObject containing either the secret for HMAC algorithms, or the PEM encoded public key for RSA and ECDSA. If jwt.verify is called asynchronous, secretOrPublicKey can be a function that should fetch the secret or public key. See below for a detailed example As mentioned in this comment, there are other libraries that expect base64 encoded secrets (random bytes encoded using base64), if that is your case you can pass Buffer.from(secret, 'base64'), by doing this the secret will be decoded using base64 and the token verification will use the original random bytes. options algorithms: List of strings with the names of the allowed algorithms. For instance, ["HS256", "HS384"]. If not specified a defaults will be used based on the type of key provided secret - ['HS256', 'HS384', 'HS512'] rsa - ['RS256', 'RS384', 'RS512'] ec - ['ES256', 'ES384', 'ES512'] default - ['RS256', 'RS384', 'RS512'] audience: if you want to check audience (aud), provide a value here. The audience can be checked against a string, a regular expression or a list of strings and/or regular expressions. Eg: "urn:foo", /urn:f[o]{2}/, [/urn:f[o]{2}/, "urn:bar"] complete: return an object with the decoded { payload, header, signature } instead of only the usual content of the payload. issuer (optional): string or array of strings of valid values for the iss field. jwtid (optional): if you want to check JWT ID (jti), provide a string value here. ignoreExpiration: if true do not validate the expiration of the token. ignoreNotBefore... subject: if you want to check subject (sub), provide a value here clockTolerance: number of seconds to tolerate when checking the nbf and exp claims, to deal with small clock differences among different servers maxAge: the maximum allowed age for tokens to still be valid. It is expressed in seconds or a string describing a time span vercel/ms. Eg: 1000, "2 days", "10h", "7d". A numeric value is interpreted as a seconds count. If you use a string be sure you provide the time units (days, hours, etc), otherwise milliseconds unit is used by default ("120" is equal to "120ms"). clockTimestamp: the time in seconds that should be used as the current time for all necessary comparisons. nonce: if you want to check nonce claim, provide a string value here. It is used on Open ID for the ID Tokens. (Open ID implementation notes) allowInvalidAsymmetricKeyTypes: if true, allows asymmetric keys which do not match the specified algorithm. This option is intended only for backwards compatability and should be avoided.

      Certainly! Let's walk through the process of signing and verifying JWTs with expiration using the jsonwebtoken library in Node.js.

      1. Signing a Token with Expiration:

      You can sign a token with an expiration time using the exp claim. Here are a few examples:

      Example 1: Using exp in Payload

      ```javascript const jwt = require('jsonwebtoken');

      const tokenWithExpInPayload = jwt.sign({ exp: Math.floor(Date.now() / 1000) + 3600, // 1 hour expiration data: 'foobar' }, 'secret');

      console.log(tokenWithExpInPayload); ```

      Example 2: Using expiresIn Option

      ```javascript const tokenWithExpiresIn = jwt.sign({ data: 'foobar' }, 'secret', { expiresIn: 3600 }); // 1 hour expiration

      console.log(tokenWithExpiresIn); ```

      Example 3: Using expiresIn with Time String

      ```javascript const tokenWithExpiresInString = jwt.sign({ data: 'foobar' }, 'secret', { expiresIn: '1h' }); // 1 hour expiration

      console.log(tokenWithExpiresInString); ```

      2. Verifying a Token with Expiration:

      You can verify a token, ensuring it has not expired, using the jwt.verify function. Here are examples of both synchronous and asynchronous verification:

      Asynchronous Verification:

      ```javascript const jwt = require('jsonwebtoken');

      const tokenToVerify = '...'; // replace with the actual token

      jwt.verify(tokenToVerify, 'secret', { ignoreExpiration: false }, (err, decoded) => { if (err) { console.error('Token verification failed:', err); } else { console.log('Token decoded:', decoded); } }); ```

      Synchronous Verification:

      ```javascript const jwt = require('jsonwebtoken');

      const tokenToVerify = '...'; // replace with the actual token

      try { const decoded = jwt.verify(tokenToVerify, 'secret', { ignoreExpiration: false }); console.log('Token decoded:', decoded); } catch (err) { console.error('Token verification failed:', err); } ```

      In these examples: - The token is signed with an expiration time. - The jwt.verify function is used to verify the token. - The ignoreExpiration option is set to false to ensure expiration is checked.

      Remember to replace '...' with the actual JWT string you want to verify. The verification process will check if the token is both valid and has not expired.

    3. Synchronous Sign with default (HMAC SHA256) var jwt = require('jsonwebtoken'); var token = jwt.sign({ foo: 'bar' }, 'shhhhh'); Synchronous Sign with RSA SHA256 // sign with RSA SHA256 var privateKey = fs.readFileSync('private.key'); var token = jwt.sign({ foo: 'bar' }, privateKey, { algorithm: 'RS256' }); Sign asynchronously jwt.sign({ foo: 'bar' }, privateKey, { algorithm: 'RS256' }, function(err, token) { console.log(token); }); Backdate a jwt 30 seconds var older_token = jwt.sign({ foo: 'bar', iat: Math.floor(Date.now() / 1000) - 30 }, 'shhhhh');

      Sure, let's break down these JWT signing examples in simple terms:

      1. Synchronous Sign with Default (HMAC SHA256):

      This example shows how to create a JWT using a shared secret key.

      javascript var jwt = require('jsonwebtoken'); var token = jwt.sign({ foo: 'bar' }, 'shhhhh');

      Explanation: - jwt is a library for working with JSON Web Tokens. - The sign function is used to create a JWT. - { foo: 'bar' } is the information you want to include in the token. - 'shhhhh' is a secret key used to secure the token.

      2. Synchronous Sign with RSA SHA256:

      This example demonstrates signing a JWT using an RSA private key.

      javascript var jwt = require('jsonwebtoken'); var privateKey = fs.readFileSync('private.key'); var token = jwt.sign({ foo: 'bar' }, privateKey, { algorithm: 'RS256' });

      Explanation: - privateKey is the RSA private key loaded from a file. - { foo: 'bar' } is the information included in the token. - { algorithm: 'RS256' } specifies the signing algorithm as RSA with SHA256.

      3. Asynchronous Sign with RSA SHA256:

      This example shows how to sign a JWT asynchronously using an RSA private key.

      javascript jwt.sign({ foo: 'bar' }, privateKey, { algorithm: 'RS256' }, function(err, token) { console.log(token); });

      Explanation: - Same as the previous example, but the signing is done asynchronously. - The callback function is called with an error (err) or the generated JWT (token).

      4. Backdate a JWT 30 Seconds:

      This example demonstrates how to create a JWT with an issue time (iat) set 30 seconds in the past.

      javascript var older_token = jwt.sign({ foo: 'bar', iat: Math.floor(Date.now() / 1000) - 30 }, 'shhhhh');

      Explanation: - { foo: 'bar', iat: Math.floor(Date.now() / 1000) - 30 } includes the information (foo: 'bar') and a custom issue time (iat) set to 30 seconds ago.

      In all these examples, the resulting token is what you'd send or use in your application, and it can be decoded by the recipient using the same library and key. These tokens are commonly used for secure communication between different parts of a web application or between different services.

    4. Asynchronous) If a callback is supplied, the callback is called with the err or the JWT. (Synchronous) Returns the JsonWebToken as string payload could be an object literal, buffer or string representing valid JSON. Please note that exp or any other claim is only set if the payload is an object literal. Buffer or string payloads are not checked for JSON validity. If payload is not a buffer or a string, it will be coerced into a string using JSON.stringify. secretOrPrivateKey is a string (utf-8 encoded), buffer, object, or KeyObject containing either the secret for HMAC algorithms or the PEM encoded private key for RSA and ECDSA. In case of a private key with passphrase an object { key, passphrase } can be used (based on crypto documentation), in this case be sure you pass the algorithm option. When signing with RSA algorithms the minimum modulus length is 2048 except when the allowInsecureKeySizes option is set to true. Private keys below this size will be rejected with an error. options: algorithm (default: HS256) expiresIn: expressed in seconds or a string describing a time span vercel/ms. Eg: 60, "2 days", "10h", "7d". A numeric value is interpreted as a seconds count. If you use a string be sure you provide the time units (days, hours, etc), otherwise milliseconds unit is used by default ("120" is equal to "120ms"). notBefore: expressed in seconds or a string describing a time span vercel/ms. Eg: 60, "2 days", "10h", "7d". A numeric value is interpreted as a seconds count. If you use a string be sure you provide the time units (days, hours, etc), otherwise milliseconds unit is used by default ("120" is equal to "120ms"). audience issuer jwtid subject noTimestamp header keyid mutatePayload: if true, the sign function will modify the payload object directly. This is useful if you need a raw reference to the payload after claims have been applied to it but before it has been encoded into a token. allowInsecureKeySizes: if true allows private keys with a modulus below 2048 to be used for RSA allowInvalidAsymmetricKeyTypes: if true, allows asymmetric keys which do not match the specified algorithm. This option is intended only for backwards compatability and should be avoided. There are no default values for expiresIn, notBefore, audience, subject, issuer. These claims can also be provided in the payload directly with exp, nbf, aud, sub and iss respectively, but you can't include in both places. Remember that exp, nbf and iat are NumericDate, see related Token Expiration (exp claim) The header can be customized via the options.header object. Generated jwts will include an iat (issued at) claim by default unless noTimestamp is specified. If iat is inserted in the payload, it will be used instead of the real timestamp for calculating other things like exp given a timespan in options.expiresIn.

      In simple terms, when you create a JWT (JSON Web Token), you're essentially making a secure piece of information that two parties (like a user and a server) can use to communicate. Let's break down the important parts:

      1. Synchronous vs. Asynchronous:
      2. Synchronous: If you're doing things synchronously (meaning step by step, one thing after another), creating a JWT will give you a special string that represents your token.
      3. Asynchronous: If you're doing things asynchronously (meaning not necessarily one after another), you provide a callback function. This function will be called with either an error (if something goes wrong) or the actual JWT string.

      4. Payload:

      5. The payload is the information you want to include in the JWT. It could be things like user details. This information can be an object, a buffer, or a string that represents valid JSON.

      6. Secret or Private Key:

      7. You need a secret or private key to create a secure JWT. This key is like a password that only the parties who know it can use to read or verify the information in the JWT.

      8. Options:

      9. These are additional settings you can use when creating the JWT. For example, you can set how long the token is valid (expiresIn), who the intended audience is (audience), or who issued the token (issuer).

      10. Customizing the Header:

      11. The header of the JWT can be customized. The header is like a title or description for the token, and it can be adjusted using the options.

      12. Other Options:

      13. There are more advanced options like notBefore, jwtid, subject, etc., which allow you to add extra details or constraints to the JWT.

      14. Claiming in Two Places:

      15. Some claims (like expiresIn, notBefore, etc.) can be specified either in the options or directly in the payload. However, you can't include them in both places.

      16. Time-related Claims:

      17. There are time-related claims (exp, nbf, iat) that deal with when the token was issued and when it expires. These are specified in seconds or a time span.

      18. Customizing the Header:

      19. The JWT includes a default claim (iat - issued at) unless you specify not to include a timestamp (noTimestamp).

      20. Security Options:

        • There are options for dealing with security aspects, like allowing smaller RSA key sizes or permitting certain asymmetric key types for backward compatibility.

      In summary, creating a JWT involves specifying what information you want to include, securing it with a key, and adding extra settings if needed. It's a way for two parties to share information securely.

    5. Usage jwt.sign(payload, secretOrPrivateKey, [options, callback])

      URL-safe means that a piece of information, like a token or string, can be safely included in a URL without causing issues. In the context of JWTs, being URL-safe is important because JWTs are often passed as part of URLs in web applications.

      URLs have certain special characters, like '=', '?', and '&', and some systems might not handle other characters well. Therefore, a URL-safe encoding ensures that the JWT won't break or cause errors when included in a URL. It's about making sure the information can be easily and reliably transmitted over the internet without any unexpected problems.

    1. async (recommended) const bcrypt = require('bcrypt'); const saltRounds = 10; const myPlaintextPassword = 's0/\/\P4$$w0rD'; const someOtherPlaintextPassword = 'not_bacon'; To hash a password: Technique 1 (generate a salt and hash on separate function calls): bcrypt.genSalt(saltRounds, function(err, salt) { bcrypt.hash(myPlaintextPassword, salt, function(err, hash) { // Store hash in your password DB. }); }); Technique 2 (auto-gen a salt and hash): bcrypt.hash(myPlaintextPassword, saltRounds, function(err, hash) { // Store hash in your password DB. }); Note that both techniques achieve the same end-result.

      Certainly! The code you provided demonstrates how to use the bcrypt library in Node.js to hash passwords. The examples use both the technique of generating a salt and hashing in separate steps, as well as the technique of auto-generating a salt and hashing in a single step. Let's break it down:

      Technique 1: Generate a Salt and Hash on Separate Function Calls

      ```javascript const bcrypt = require('bcrypt'); const saltRounds = 10; const myPlaintextPassword = 's0/\/\P4$$w0rD';

      // Step 1: Generate a salt bcrypt.genSalt(saltRounds, function(err, salt) { if (err) { // Handle error console.error(err); } else { // Step 2: Hash the plaintext password with the generated salt bcrypt.hash(myPlaintextPassword, salt, function(err, hash) { if (err) { // Handle error console.error(err); } else { // Step 3: Store the hash in your password database // In a real application, you would typically store 'hash' in your database. console.log('Hashed Password:', hash); } }); } }); ```

      Technique 2: Auto-generate a Salt and Hash

      ```javascript const bcrypt = require('bcrypt'); const saltRounds = 10; const myPlaintextPassword = 's0/\/\P4$$w0rD';

      // Auto-generate a salt and hash the plaintext password bcrypt.hash(myPlaintextPassword, saltRounds, function(err, hash) { if (err) { // Handle error console.error(err); } else { // Store the hash in your password database // In a real application, you would typically store 'hash' in your database. console.log('Hashed Password:', hash); } }); ```

      Explanation:

      1. Generate a Salt:
      2. bcrypt.genSalt(saltRounds, callback): This function generates a salt to be used during hashing. The saltRounds parameter defines the cost factor of the hashing process (higher value means more secure but slower). The salt is then passed to the callback function.

      3. Hashing with Generated Salt:

      4. bcrypt.hash(myPlaintextPassword, salt, callback): This function hashes the plaintext password using the generated salt. The resulting hash is passed to the callback function.

      5. Auto-generate Salt and Hash:

      6. bcrypt.hash(myPlaintextPassword, saltRounds, callback): This function auto-generates a salt and then immediately hashes the plaintext password with that salt. The resulting hash is passed to the callback function.

      Both techniques achieve the same end result: a hashed password. The auto-generate approach is more concise and is often preferred for simplicity, but it's essential to understand that either method is valid based on your application's needs. In a real-world scenario, you would typically store the resulting hash in your password database for later authentication checks.

    2. A library to help you hash passwords. You can read about bcrypt in Wikipedia as well as in the following article: How To Safely Store A Password If You Are Submitting Bugs or Issues Please verify that the NodeJS version you are using is a stable version; Unstable versions are currently not supported and issues created while using an unstable version will be closed. If you are on a stable version of NodeJS, please provide a sufficient code snippet or log files for installation issues. The code snippet does not require you to include confidential information. However, it must provide enough information so the problem can be replicable, or it may be closed without an explanation.

      Certainly! Let's cover the information you've requested:

      1. What is bcrypt and why is it used?

      • What is bcrypt? bcrypt is a library used for securely hashing passwords. Hashing is a one-way process that converts a plain-text password into a fixed-length string of characters. It's designed to be computationally intensive and slow, which makes it resistant to brute-force attacks.

      • Why is it used? Storing passwords as plain text is a security risk. If a database is compromised, attackers can easily access user passwords. Hashing passwords with bcrypt adds a layer of security by making it extremely difficult and time-consuming for attackers to reverse-engineer the original passwords. It includes features like salting (adding random data to each password before hashing) to further enhance security.

      2. Syntax:

      • Installation: You need to install bcrypt using npm (Node Package Manager). Open your terminal and run: npm install bcrypt

      • Usage in JavaScript/Node.js: ```javascript const bcrypt = require('bcrypt');

      // Example: Hashing a password const plainPassword = 'mySecurePassword';

      bcrypt.hash(plainPassword, 10, function(err, hash) { if (err) { console.error(err); } else { console.log('Hashed Password:', hash); } });

      // Example: Comparing a password with a hashed password const hashedPasswordFromDatabase = '$2b$10$...'; // Replace with an actual hashed password

      bcrypt.compare('userEnteredPassword', hashedPasswordFromDatabase, function(err, result) { if (err) { console.error(err); } else { console.log('Password Match:', result); } }); `` -bcrypt.hash(plainPassword, saltRounds, callback): Hashes theplainPasswordusing the specified number ofsaltRoundsand provides the result in thecallback. -bcrypt.compare(userEnteredPassword, hashedPasswordFromDatabase, callback): Compares a user-entered password with a hashed password retrieved from the database and provides the result in thecallback`.

      3. Examples:

      Example 1: Hashing a Password

      ```javascript const bcrypt = require('bcrypt');

      const plainPassword = 'mySecurePassword';

      bcrypt.hash(plainPassword, 10, function(err, hash) { if (err) { console.error(err); } else { console.log('Hashed Password:', hash); } }); ```

      Example 2: Comparing a Password

      ```javascript const bcrypt = require('bcrypt');

      const hashedPasswordFromDatabase = '$2b$10$...'; // Replace with an actual hashed password

      bcrypt.compare('userEnteredPassword', hashedPasswordFromDatabase, function(err, result) { if (err) { console.error(err); } else { console.log('Password Match:', result); } }); ```

      In these examples, bcrypt.hash is used to hash a password, and bcrypt.compare is used to compare a user-entered password with a hashed password retrieved from the database. The callback functions handle errors and provide the results of the operations.

    1. Pre Pre middleware functions are executed one after another, when each middleware calls next. const schema = new Schema({ /* ... */ }); schema.pre('save', function(next) { // do stuff next(); }); In mongoose 5.x, instead of calling next() manually, you can use a function that returns a promise. In particular, you can use async/await. schema.pre('save', function() { return doStuff(). then(() => doMoreStuff()); }); // Or, in Node.js >= 7.6.0: schema.pre('save', async function() { await doStuff(); await doMoreStuff(); }); If you use next(), the next() call does not stop the rest of the code in your middleware function from executing. Use the early return pattern to prevent the rest of your middleware function from running when you call next(). const schema = new Schema({ /* ... */ }); schema.pre('save', function(next) { if (foo()) { console.log('calling next!'); // `return next();` will make sure the rest of this function doesn't run /* return */ next(); } // Unless you comment out the `return` above, 'after next' will print console.log('after next'); }); Use Cases Middleware are useful for atomizing model logic. Here are some other ideas: complex validation removing dependent documents (removing a user removes all their blogposts) asynchronous defaults asynchronous tasks that a certain action triggers Errors in Pre Hooks If any pre hook errors out, mongoose will not execute subsequent middleware or the hooked function. Mongoose will instead pass an error to the callback and/or reject the returned promise. There are several ways to report an error in middleware: schema.pre('save', function(next) { const err = new Error('something went wrong'); // If you call `next()` with an argument, that argument is assumed to be // an error. next(err); }); schema.pre('save', function() { // You can also return a promise that rejects return new Promise((resolve, reject) => { reject(new Error('something went wrong')); }); }); schema.pre('save', function() { // You can also throw a synchronous error throw new Error('something went wrong'); }); schema.pre('save', async function() { await Promise.resolve(); // You can also throw an error in an `async` function throw new Error('something went wrong'); }); // later... // Changes will not be persisted to MongoDB because a pre hook errored out myDoc.save(function(err) { console.log(err.message); // something went wrong }); Calling next() multiple times is a no-op. If you call next() with an error err1 and then throw an error err2, mongoose will report err1. Post

      Certainly! Let's break down the provided code snippets, explain the syntax, its use, and illustrate how to use them with examples.

      Syntax Explanation:

      Middleware Registration:

      javascript schema.pre('save', function(next) { // middleware logic next(); });

      • schema.pre('save', ...): This registers a middleware function that runs before the 'save' operation on a Mongoose model.
      • function(next) {...}: This is the middleware function. It takes a next parameter, which is a function that you should call to proceed to the next middleware or the actual save operation.

      Using Promises:

      javascript schema.pre('save', function() { return doStuff() .then(() => doMoreStuff()); });

      • Instead of manually calling next(), you can return a promise from the middleware. The next middleware or the save operation will proceed once the promise is resolved.

      Using async/await:

      javascript schema.pre('save', async function() { await doStuff(); await doMoreStuff(); });

      • With Node.js versions >= 7.6.0, you can use async/await to make asynchronous code more readable. Each await pauses execution until the asynchronous operation is completed.

      Early Return Pattern:

      javascript schema.pre('save', function(next) { if (foo()) { console.log('calling next!'); return next(); } console.log('after next'); });

      • If a condition (foo()) is met, the return next(); statement prevents the rest of the middleware function from executing.

      Error Handling:

      ```javascript schema.pre('save', function(next) { const err = new Error('something went wrong'); next(err); });

      schema.pre('save', function() { return new Promise((resolve, reject) => { reject(new Error('something went wrong')); }); });

      schema.pre('save', function() { throw new Error('something went wrong'); });

      schema.pre('save', async function() { throw new Error('something went wrong'); }); ```

      • Different ways to handle errors in middleware, including passing an error to next, returning a rejected promise, throwing synchronous errors, and throwing errors in an async function.

      Use in Simple Words with Examples:

      Middleware Example:

      Suppose you have a User model, and before saving a user, you want to hash their password.

      ```javascript const mongoose = require('mongoose'); const Schema = mongoose.Schema;

      const userSchema = new Schema({ username: String, password: String, });

      userSchema.pre('save', async function() { // Assuming hashPassword is an asynchronous function this.password = await hashPassword(this.password); });

      const User = mongoose.model('User', userSchema);

      const newUser = new User({ username: 'john_doe', password: 'my_secure_password', });

      newUser.save(); // The 'save' middleware will automatically hash the password before saving. ```

      Error Handling Example:

      Suppose you want to validate the email format before saving a Post model.

      ```javascript const mongoose = require('mongoose'); const Schema = mongoose.Schema;

      const postSchema = new Schema({ title: String, content: String, email: String, });

      postSchema.pre('save', function(next) { const emailRegex = /\S+@\S+.\S+/; if (!emailRegex.test(this.email)) { const err = new Error('Invalid email format'); return next(err); // If the email format is invalid, the save operation will not proceed. } next(); // Proceed with the save operation if the email format is valid. });

      const Post = mongoose.model('Post', postSchema);

      const newPost = new Post({ title: 'Introduction to Middleware', content: 'Middleware is awesome!', email: 'invalid_email', // This will trigger the error handling in the 'save' middleware. });

      newPost.save(function(err) { console.log(err.message); // Outputs: Invalid email format }); ```

      In summary, Mongoose middleware allows you to execute logic before or after certain operations (e.g., saving to the database) on your models. It's a powerful tool for organizing and encapsulating your application's logic in a clean and modular way.

    2. Document middleware is supported for the following document functions. In Mongoose, a document is an instance of a Model class. In document middleware functions, this refers to the document. To access the model, use this.constructor.

      Sure, let's break down the concepts in simple terms with examples.

      1. Document Functions:

      • What are Document Functions:
      • Document functions in Mongoose refer to the methods or functions that can be applied to an instance of a model, which represents a document in the database.

      • Example: ```javascript const mongoose = require('mongoose'); const Schema = mongoose.Schema;

      // Define a schema const personSchema = new Schema({ name: String, age: Number, });

      // Create a model const Person = mongoose.model('Person', personSchema);

      // Create a document (an instance of the Person model) const john = new Person({ name: 'John', age: 30 });

      // Document function: save() john.save((err, savedPerson) => { if (err) { console.error(err); } else { console.log('Person saved:', savedPerson); } }); ```

      2. Document Middleware:

      • What is Document Middleware:
      • Document middleware in Mongoose allows you to execute functions before or after certain document-level operations, such as saving a document.

      • Example: ```javascript const mongoose = require('mongoose'); const Schema = mongoose.Schema;

      // Define a schema with document middleware const personSchema = new Schema({ name: String, age: Number, });

      // Pre-save middleware to update age before saving personSchema.pre('save', function (next) { // Do something with the document before saving this.age += 2; next(); });

      // Create a model const Person = mongoose.model('Person', personSchema);

      // Create a document const john = new Person({ name: 'John', age: 30 });

      // Save the document (pre-save middleware will be executed) john.save((err, savedPerson) => { if (err) { console.error(err); } else { console.log('Person saved with updated age:', savedPerson); } }); ```

      3. Model Class:

      • What is the Model Class:
      • In Mongoose, a model represents a collection in the database and is created by compiling a schema. The model class provides an interface for interacting with the database.

      • Example: ```javascript const mongoose = require('mongoose'); const Schema = mongoose.Schema;

      // Define a schema const personSchema = new Schema({ name: String, age: Number, });

      // Create a model class const Person = mongoose.model('Person', personSchema);

      // Create a document using the model class const john = new Person({ name: 'John', age: 30 });

      // Save the document john.save((err, savedPerson) => { if (err) { console.error(err); } else { console.log('Person saved:', savedPerson); } }); ```

      In summary, document functions are methods that can be applied to instances of a model (documents). Document middleware allows you to run functions before or after certain document-level operations. The model class represents the structure of documents in the database and provides a way to interact with the database collection.