87 Matching Annotations
  1. Oct 2016
    1. For my supplemental text, I read the article "Universal Design in the Community Planning" about the development of new, more effective and efficient city planning (https://www.ncsu.edu/ncsu/design/cud/about_ud/udincommunity.html ). In the article, the author writes about new cities that are being designed as a tight-knit community and as a work/play area. Homes are being built directly on top of restaurants and shops so residents do not have to go very far for socialization. In cities that are designed where everything is spread out, this is not good for people who are "disabled with age," or very, very old to the point where they cannot function like they use to. As cities are more spread out, older people are forced to drive places since they can't drive. This can be very dangerous. These new communities that are closer together are making it easier for the elderly to reside there since everything is closer together.

      The supplemental text relates to this article because both discuss specifically designing the built environment to better fit the needs of the disabled. While this article does not mention specific examples of things a city can do to help the disabled, it promotes the involvement of disabled people in discussions of city planning. For the supplemental text, it does not discuss the disabled getting involved in city planning, but rather what cities have already done to help the disabled, or, in the supplemental text's case, the elderly. Both of these articles have a goal of making the social environment equal and available for all people to enjoy. By realizing disabled people's needs in the environment, city planners can design cities that will make them accessible and enjoyable for everyone, disabled or not.

    2. A disability perspective is thus dependent upon effective participatory planning processes involving a dialogue between both stakeholders situated and professional knowledge.

      If the politicians and city planning officials can open up a dialogue with disabled people, it will benefit both sides. The disabled will be able to share their concerns and ideas for a more equal and unified environment, and the city planners can make the ideas a reality, making everyone enjoying the environment happy.

    3. However, if the disability perspective is weakened due to a lack of formal influence in the democratic processes, the result might be further marginalization instead of recognition.

      This is why it is important for city officials to acknowledge the point of view from disabled people. If they are constantly ignored, then their influence is heavily weakened. But if they are acknowledged and given an equal say (like a democracy should work), then their influence and recognition will increase.

    4. "all have mortal, decaying bodies and are all needy and disabled in varying ways and to varying degrees"

      When thinking about it, this is true. All humans have some type of disability. However, I think this quote hurts Lid's point rather than helps. One could make the argument that since all humans have disabilities in some way or another, there should just be basic set functions to help extremely disabled people and that's it. Like only including ramps and nothing else, or something of that sort.

    5. accessibility, participation, and inclusion.

      If Lid's argument for the disabled were to be summed up in three words, these are them. Lid is advocating for the disabled's accessibility to be eased and increased in urban life, their participation to be increased in government when it comes to design, and their inclusion in city planning discussions to be increased as well.

    6. The old city centers are attractive to visitors, but the design of these urban places is the product of a period with little awareness on disability based exclusion.

      Just a note on how Lid formats her paragraphs, sometimes she puts her topic sentence as the last sentence instead of the first. She doesn't do it often, but does do it sometimes. I found this interesting.

    7. If public planned environments signalize inclusion, it might strengthen the individual's courage to be part of the urban life.

      Lid is just repeating her argument again. If city planning commissions included more input from disabled people, it would not only strengthen disabled people's influence but their courage in standing up and speaking out on issues they feel need to be addressed.

    8. The term walkability sums up what urban qualifications should be: urban streets and places need to be as safe as possible and predictable for people of various ages and abilities.

      This is just like the Beltline. When studying the Beltline, it is not only safe, but it is also an environment where people of all ages and abilities can come to enjoy it and socialize. The Beltline is the ideal urban environment that Lid envisions.

    9. walkability, defined as "the extent to which the built environment supports and encourages walking by providing for pedestrian comfort and safety"

      This is exactly what Ryan Gravel promoted and advocated for with the creation of the Beltline. He wanted Atlanta to be a more walkable city. It is also not a coincidence that Ryan Gravel wanted Atlanta to become a more social city and wanted to create an environment that increased social opportunities for residents of Atlanta.

    10. Public areas with good design and maintenance promote social optional activities

      Lid, once again, keeps going back to the idea of an urban space operating as a social place. The social aspect of an environment is crucial to Lid and that is why all people should have an equal opportunity to experience it.

    11. The streets have painted zebra crossings, signaling that this is an area for pedestrians.

      I did not understand what Lid meant when she discussed zebra crossings so I looked up a picture. These road markings are very effective in making it safe for pedestrians to navigate the roads if they need to do so. These markings also better the relationship between pedestrians and drivers.

    12. a gap between aesthetics and functionality.

      This is a problem. Environments are being designed for their beauty rather than their functionality. To me, functionality is way more important than beauty. While I acknowledge that aesthetics are important, the function that the environment serves should be the focus of an urban project.

    13. Consequently, public transportation will be less accessible to people with cognitive disabilities or with sight loss, due to the difficulty of finding the correct stop.

      This connects to an annotation I had above. It is hard to make the environment suitable for all people with all types of disabilities. But if disabled people worked with city planners, a compromise could and would be reached that would most likely benefit both parties.

    14. Urban areas are under pressure from economic interests

      This is really unfortunate, but I know it to be true. Urban areas are often pressured politically and economically to conform to a certain type. This type of pressures leads to a lot of public dislike and distrust. I wish urban areas wouldn't be under so much economic pressure.

    15. meaning that the urban is made up of places populated by different people who can all be recognized and have an experience of belonging.

      Lid's definition of urban is very community-oriented. She is committed to making the urban environment equal for everyone and making sure everyone feels like they belong.

    16. macro, meso, and micro levels

      Definitions for macro, meso, and micro:

      Macro: Large-scale, overall Meso: Middle, intermediate Micro: Small-scale, small

    17. observing the interaction between pedestrians and other road users in this specific urban place.

      Relationships in the physical environment are very important to Lid. She studies not just how the disabled interact with the environment but also how pedestrians interact with the road and drivers.

    18. Oslo

      Oslo is the capital of Norway. Below is Oslo on a map and a link to the city's information page for more facts and statistics about the Norwegian city.


    19. Participatory planning implies that the democratic planning process seeks to be inclusive towards a wide range of citizens.

      What's interesting about this article is Lid never calls for disabled people to participate. Rather she calls for the government to include disabled people in their planning process. This is very interesting. Lid is blaming the government for lack of inclusion rather than putting blame on the disabled for lack of participation.

    20. spatial justice

      Spatial justice is so close to the phrase "social justice." They really do fall under the same category of equality. Social justice is about having equality across the law. Spatial justice is about having equality across the physical environment.

    21. "redesign of public space is essential to the dignity and self-respect of people with impairments"

      This is a bit of a stretch. If we were to redesign every environment we have now to accommodate people with impairments, this would cost billions of dollars. I think a better approach would be to build more smart from now on, and maybe make some fixes here and there to what we currently have constructed in our physical environment.

    22. Accessibility is elaborated upon in Article 9, which requires States Parties to take appropriate measures to ensure that persons with disabilities have access to the physical environment on an equal basis with others (UN, 2008).

      I just wrote about this in my second Built Environment Description. Krog Street Market includes a large ramp in front of the market to ensure all people (even people who are wheelchair-bound) can enjoy what it has to offer. By including ramps, various places are able to open access to their physical environment on an equal basis.

    23. Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD)

      This is a real declaration written by the United Nations (UN). It was drafted in December of 2006 and signed in March of 2007 in New York City. It became effective in May of 2008. Below is the link to the actual full text of the declaration.


    24. Some people live with impairments and experience disability over the course of their lifetime while other people do not.

      This is why it's so hard to accommodate all disabled people. It's really difficult to accommodate all people in a wheelchair, all people who are blind, all people who are deaf, and so on. But if disabled people met with city officials more frequently, like Lid suggests, maybe it will become easier to plan for the disabled in the community.

    25. Disability-based exclusion is the result of both architectural barriers and negative attitudes

      When I first read this I thought it was too sad to be true. But after seeing that Lid was citing the Ministry of Health and Social Affairs and the WHO with this statement, I realized it must be true. It is disappointing to imagine that disabled people are excluded from city planning because architects simply exclude them and because there are "negative attitudes" from both presumably the disabled and city officials. Politicians and disabled people need to come together to assist one another. If they don't, these problems and this separation will continue.

    26. Urban life refers here to social interaction between people in places.

      This is Lid's definition of "urban life." Social interaction plays a major part of her argument here. She believes that an urban environment is more of a social environment, one in which everyone should have equal say and participation.

    27. Such a dynamic interaction at the spatial and political levels might increase politician's and planner's awareness of access as a condition for participation.

      This makes a lot of sense. If people with disabilities engaged more with politicians and city planners, then their issues could be immediately brought up and addressed. For people who are not disabled, it is hard to imagine what disabled people struggle with. But if a disabled person was actually there to bring up their daily struggles, a lot of their concerns could and would be addressed.

    28. argued that politicians and spatial planners needed more knowledge about accessibility for wheelchair users.

      If politicians and spatial planners do not understand about accessibility for wheelchair use, how can disabled people expect them to design appropriate structures? This supports the author's thesis. The lack of knowledge on the disabled's lives and problems is a major problem.

    29. How can urban planning processes include perspectives from people with disabilities?

      This is the author's, Inger Marie Lid's, thesis for the article. Right off the bat we know that she is going to be discussing disabled people and how able-bodied people can include them in the building of environments.

  2. Sep 2016
    1. Morrill Act of 1862

      Picture of Vermont Congressman Justin Morrill, the main sponsor of the Morrill Act of 1862.

      Source: https://www.loc.gov/rr/program/bib/ourdocs/Morrill.html

    2. holistic learning

      This is the main focus of this entire article. See my above annotations on what holistic learning is. It is very important to understand the concept of holistic learning for this article and the authors do a good job of defining it and making the readers understand what they are talking about.

    3. The article I chose as my supplemental text was the one from Inside Higher Ed about the excessive funds being spent on student recreation (https://www.insidehighered.com/news/2015/06/15/are-lazy-rivers-and-climbing-walls-driving-cost-college ). Kellie Woodhouse, the author, describes an ongoing controversy while mainly focusing on what is happening at Louisiana State University (LSU). At LSU, the student government decided to increase student fees by $200 to build a giant lazy river in the shape of the letters LSU. This upgrade to their student center (along with a new rock wall and fitness center) will cost the university $85 million. This is small compared to what Ohio State spent to upgrade their student recreation center, which was near $140 million. The controversy arising is whether the universities should be spending all this money on student recreation centers or spending this money on other things, such as research centers.

      The Inside Higher Ed piece relates to this article because both deal with student recreation. However, this article discusses student recreation through the environment and the outdoors while the supplemental discusses student recreation through "fun" recreation, like fitness centers, rock walls, lazy rivers, and hot tubs. I believe that both of these things are important to have at a college campus--green space and fun student recreation centers. From what I learned from this article, green space can really help promote holistic learning and mind "relaxation." On the other hand, student recreation centers can create a fun environment and help students relieve stress and relax. In my opinion, universities need to spend money on both of these features to college campuses but need to balance the budget better. Universities can not spend millions on lazy rivers while not putting in near as much to green space. If universities balance their budget more and spend equal amounts on both green space and student recreation centers, the university will hopefully get great feedback and students will be happy and relaxed and become more successful.

    4. Three main takeaways from the article:

      1. Students have better focus and attention when they study and learn in nature and the outdoors.
      2. Colleges are spending millions on upgrading student centers, but not enough on updating the nature parts of the campus.
      3. College campuses should have a lot of green space to help its students achieve the most they possibly can.
    5. one that requires communication and collaboration among academic, administrative and facilities planning stakeholders.

      I think when modifying their campus, universities should also get the opinions of the students, along with all the faculty, administration, and facility workers. It is important to get everyone's opinions, not just the people who would be paying for it or the people who would be in charge of the project. A holistic learning environment is one that involves everyone. Therefore the creation of a holistic learning environment should involve everyone.

    6. there is a need to conduct more focused and nuanced research on identifying the human-nature mechanisms that lead to (among others) attentional resource benefits.

      This is the first time a plea like this is addressed in the article. However, I agree with this. If more research is done on human-nature interaction and its effect on learning, it will be very helpful to students and teachers.

    7. landscape of the future

      By studying campuses around the United States and the world now and by studying how students learn in different environments, universities can adjust how their campuses look and feel. This may cost a lot of money, but student success will be worth it.

    8. We do suggest that regular cognitive breaks from direct attention in natural settings can help students regulate, replenish, and strengthen cognitive function and ability to prepare for either the next round of classes or improve the effectiveness and efficiency of an independent study period.

      This argument has been supported by results other authors have recorded. When students are out in nature, they tend to learn better and therefore more class should be outside or more "nature" should be available to students.

    9. For example, more than two-thirds of the Cornell University campus is open space

      This is an overhead view of Cornell University. As evidenced by the photograph, most of the space in the university is green space. This leads to holistic learning and a large natural environment.

      Link to photograph (picture is located on page nine): https://www.amazon.com/gp/search?index=books&linkCode=qs&keywords=9780521341394

    10. older campus plans emphasized disciplinary boundaries and newer campus designs are more amorphous and integrative.

      To reword, older campuses separated disciplinary fields while newer campuses are bringing them together. This shows how the concept of holistic learning is becoming even more popular and prevalent on college campuses.

    11. Urban (mostly built) Viewing a roof garden from the windows of a student lounge Mural of a landscape scene on the wall of a tunnel or walkway Outdoor plaza used for art classes Spaces between campus buildings Outdoor water features Green roofs Rain gardens Height of buildings Complexity and ornamentation of façade Sense of enclosure (no blocked views)

      This category seems like the one Georgia State would fit into.

    12. in the absence of fascinating natural stimuli, humans miss out on the critical type of rest (Keniger, et al., 2013). Urban stimuli typically lack the capacity to restore our direct attentional capacities effectively.

      Could this be a problem with Georgia State? Should Georgia State be worried about this and, if so, what should they do to fix it? I think they should either add more parks (or green space) or take more class trips to nature centers (like Stone Mountain or the Botanical Gardens). Or, even, have class held outside sometimes.

    13. Interaction with natural environments (especially green nature) employs faculties of concentration not normally used – involuntary ones – thus allowing the neural mechanisms underlying directed attention a chance to rest and replenish.

      The article is making an interesting point saying that our mind can replenish itself when we are studying, or rather "interacting," with nature. This supports the article's claim that college campuses should have more green space on campus.

    14. attention

      This article is really focusing on two main points: holistic learning and attention. All of the author's points are being brought back to these two main overarching categories.

    15. Interaction with nature, in particular, can help to maintain or restore cognitive function such as direct attention, problem solving, focus and concentration, impulse inhibition, and memory, which can become depleted from fatigue or with overuse

      The argument is that the more nature a college has on its campus the more successful the students will be. This should be supported by student records/test results/grades from very urban universities (like Georgia State or New York University) to rural universities (like the University of Colorado or Dartmouth).

    16. Attention Restoration Theory

      The Attention Restoration Theory is a theory developed by Rachel and Stephen Kaplan in their book "The Experience of Nature: A Psychological Approach." The theory states that people can concentrate better after spending time in nature or looking at nature scenes. Their book is available here, for free:


    17. physical landscape features had a direct impact on shaping human behavior

      This is something that I discovered while doing the Built Environment Description. As I sat in Krog Street Market, the closer to closing time it got, the louder the music they were playing got. It reached a point where the music was loud and annoying so people were leaving. In Krog Street Market, they influenced the environment and sound landscape in order to get the patrons to do what they wanted (which was to leave). This proves that this statement is true.

    18. increased public awareness that environmental protection is a critical issue

      Now, there are a lot of public announcements about environmental awareness. Colleges (even Georgia State) pride themselves in being environmentally friendly and helping the environment by conserving energy. While most "typical" college campuses have large green spaces, Georgia State is different as we do not, so we have to help the environment in other ways (like walking instead of driving, turning lights off in unoccupied rooms, not littering, etc.).

    19. “ring road” type of plan, in which vehicles were mostly kept outside the pedestrian oriented campus core

      After reading this phrase it immediately made me think of Georgia Tech. There, there is a road that circles the campus where cars can drive and all parking lots are on the outside. However, when you walk on to the campus, there is nothing but green space, trees, and sidewalks for walking. There are no cars on campus, only the the "ring road" outside of it.

    20. through its working farms, forests, arboretums, greenhouses, gardens

      For the first time, students are getting out of the classroom and into actual experiences and hands-on learning (another aspect of holistic learning). This proves that the Morrill Act of 1862 was not only important when it comes to land use, but also student's education as well.

    21. Morrill Act of 1862

      The Morrill Act of 1862 "provided each state with 30,000 acres of Federal land for each member in their Congressional delegation. The land was then sold by the states and the proceeds used to fund public colleges that focused on agriculture and the mechanical arts." From this land, sixty-nine universities were founded including Cornell, MIT, and the University of Wisconsin.

      Source: https://www.loc.gov/rr/program/bib/ourdocs/Morrill.html

    22. secluded from city distraction but still open to the larger community

      This is what many typical college campuses are like. You walk onto the campus and are surrounded but nothing but the college. Once again, this all goes back to holistic learning--the immersion of the student in university life. On a separate note, this is nothing like what Georgia State is like. Georgia state is not secluded from city distraction and is very open to the larger community. However, I still feel like I am on a campus in Georgia State because the part of downtown Atlanta that the college is located in has really become Georgia State's "section" of the city.

    23. One way to examine this potential is to consider the entire campus with its buildings, roads and natural open spaces as a well-networked landscape system that supports student learning experiences.

      This statement is supporting the theory of holistic learning. Clearly, in this article, the authors are arguing that holistic learning is important for a student's learning and colleges must make adjust their campus to make it more easy for holistic learning to occur.

    24. (Boyer, 1987; Greene, 2013).

      This annotation is not about the text, but rather the sources being used. I believe that it is important and helpful that the authors decided to use so many sources because they make this article very credible. However, essentially every sentence is being cited, and this is making the writing very hard to read (because there are so many citations). Also, the fact that the authors are citing after about every sentence makes me think that they did not contribute a lot to the paper, but rather wrote an article consisting of just quotes from others' works.

    25. must be perceived as a holistic learning space that provides a holistic learning experience

      I was confused on what the term "holistic learning" meant so I did some research on it. Holistic learning is philosophy where a person does more than just sit in a classroom and learn. They are suppose to find purpose and meaning in their life and the community and basically surround themselves with knowledge and learning.

    26. By 2019, enrollments are expected to rise 9% for students under age 25, and rise 23% for students over the age of 25 (Snyder & Dillow, 2011).

      Here is a link to a chart showing that college enrollment has increased over time. This supports the author's points and proves that universities now have to adjust to the increasing number of students on campus.


    27. Continued enrollment growth, societal and technological changes, financial challenges, and a need for increased universal and open access create ever more diverse, changing and complex US university systems.

      This is a point that we have encountered throughout all of our classes. As times change, society and organizations are forced to change with it. As the times change, technology gets better, and the needs/wants of students evolve, public and private universities are forced to adjust to these changes and shifts or risk being left behind.

  3. www.histarch.illinois.edu www.histarch.illinois.edu
    1. As a servant to a congressman, he lived in Washington and traveled to England.

      Being a slave to an upper-class member of society, James Burr got opportunities that his ancestors did not get. Most notably, records about him. He also was most likely treated better than slaves of a lower class member of society. This is demonstrated in this portrait of slaves from a wealthy family below. The slaves are well-dressed and seem to be treated fairly well (at least from the picture's perspective). This of course, was not the reality for all slaves, but is a snapshot of slave life for the rich.

      Source: https://www.pinterest.com/pin/516506650991376779/

    2. The article I read to relate to this one was the CNN article detailing how historical objects were lost in the recent Italian earthquake (http://www.cnn.com/2016/08/25/europe/italy-earthquake-historic-sites-damaged/ ). The article states that multiple historic sites in Italy were damaged structurally by the earthquake. Many historic churches suffered structural cracks and some even partially collapsed and sites dating back to the medieval times were damaged, much to the disappointment and saddening of Italy's Minister of Culture, Dario Franceschini and historians everywhere. Because of this destruction to Italy's historical objects, on August 28 all proceeds from state museums went to a fund to help start rebuilding the damage. Hopefully soon, these ancient sites will be repaired.

      This article relates to "Parting Ways" because both deal, obviously, with historical objects. Also, in both articles, a historical object gets destroyed. In "Parting Ways," the house burns down, and in the CNN article ancient structures are damaged because of the earthquake. In both articles, archaeologists have to use the past in order to draw conclusions in the present. For Italy, the rebuilt churches will not be the same as the original, but they will come close. This is because we have so many ancient buildings to learn from. We know how people back then built structures. We know the techniques and the styles from studying buildings and art. By studying the buildings so intently, we know how to recreate them. So, by studying past culture and tradition, we know more about the present than we would otherwise. In "Parting Ways," this is similar. Because the houses are gone we cannot study the actual thing. However, with the help of photographs, oral histories, and excavations, we learn clues about how past people lived. We can learn about their culture and their traditions, and ways that they took their own culture and morphed it in some ways to make it more modern and useful. In both these articles, people studying the past are using what they learned to impact the present. Archaeologists who look to and learn from the past can use their knowledge of past tradition and culture and techniques to further understand and shape the present, whether it be to see how freed slaves lived, or to rebuild medieval churches.


      Orjoux, Alanne. "Historical Treasures Lost, Damaged in Italian Quake." CNN. Cable News Network, 25 Aug. 2016. Web. 06 Sept. 2016.

    3. associated with African American ritual practices and their West African roots.

      The huge importance of culture again being seen here. This connects to annotations I had above about culture influencing society.

    4. Such conditions did not prevail in the Plantation South, where the yoke of slavery was not removed until the time of the Civil War.

      This is an example of social environment impacting culture. Below is a timeline from an AP World History website showing how slavery changed over the of the civil war years. This timeline supports what Deetz is writing here.

    5. These jars were made in the West Indies, and served as sugar containers for shipment to various colonial ports.

      By studying buildings, we not only learn about the building itself and who lived there, but we also learn about interactions inhabitants of the building had with other humans--interactions we did not previously think had happened or were possible.

    6. complete agreement among all sources is rare indeed.

      This is obviously the downside to oral history. Each person is going to remember the same event or thing a little differently and that can throw off the actual description. That is why archaeologists must use good judgement when listening to a person recall a memory or a story and use common sense when comparing it to other's. This connects to my annotations on pages 194 and 195.

    7. The man was ninety-one years old and remembered walking past the house as a child

      This is a great example of oral history filling in the blanks for what is not there (the actual house). Because of this old man's memory and story, we are able to visualize the town more clearly and know that there was a house there.This supports my annotation from page 194.

    8. For this reason, the archaeological dimension of the study of the community assumes a much greater significance. In some respects, such investigations take on some of the aspects of prehistoric archaeology

      When we are studying a person whose life does not have much record, we must turn to outside sources to help fill in the gap. These outside sources can be anything, and sometimes can take the researcher as far back as to prehistoric times.

    9. In 1975 an archaeological investigation of the Parting Ways community was begun.

      It was probably at this archaeological investigation that archaeologists began to learn about Cato Howe and the town that he was a part of. Below is a link to the project's website. Here there is more information available to the reader than what is provided in this article.


    10. Cato Howe was black.

      By introducing the reader to his fact right from the start, we now can start forming ideas about the sorts of troubles and problems Cato Howe faced in his time serving in the Army and also in life afterwards.

    11. People who held such a status could hardly be expected to have recorded a history of their own in any conventional way, although the strength of oral tradition has preserved more than we might hope.

      Slavery and the way blacks were treated at this time period not only affected them in the present but also in the future. Because of this, it is harder for us now to study their lives and find the details about their lifestyles.

    12. Nothing is known of Cato Howe's early life, before his military service.

      It is ironic and sad that the government (and no one else) cared to take any record of Cato until he had to serve for the country. This is the sad truth that the government (and white people) did not care about blacks back then until they needed their help.

    13. "voted and granted a strip of land about twenty rods wide and about a mile and a half long on the easterly side of the sheep pasture, to such persons as will clear the same in the term of three years."

      It's very cool that we still have records like this today. These records can help tell us a lot about who owned certain properties of land. This will help immensely when studying architecture and landscape and the histories of both.

    14. Cato married Lucy Prettison of Plymouth in 1821.

      What I am finding intriguing about all these details about Cato's life is earlier the author stated that there are few records about Cato before he served in the Army (besides his unconfirmed slave records). However, after he serves, there are plenty of records about where he lived, how much he was worth, who he married, when he died, etc. This shows that after a slave won their freedom (in this case Cato earning it by fighting in the war) they could become a true member of society even though society looked down on them because of their skin color.

    15. Were it not for Howe's having served in the Continental Army, we would know hardly a thing about him.

      This supports the annotation I said previously. It took Cato serving in the war to be recognized as a true and free member of society and to have records about himself be written down.

    16. He was a slave, owned first by Dr. William Thomas and then by his son, judge Joshua Thomas.

      It is disappointing that the only reasons we have records of Prince Goodwin is because he was a slave. It just shows how different society was back then and how class played such an important role on your place in society.

    17. Melted window glass, heavy charcoal and ash deposits, and large numbers of nails all attest to the house's having burned in place.

      I think it is amazing how archaeologists can look at these ruins (broken glass, ash, nails, etc.) and use that to determine the house's fate. Being able to analyze clues like this can be really beneficial in learning about a building's past.

    18. Types such as handpainted creamware are not often encountered on New England sites representing people of average means.

      If only the upper-class had pottery like this, it makes us wonder, why did low-income, freed blacks have this type of pottery? Who gave it to them? And why did they keep it and not sell it for a profit?

    19. What degree of African cultural survival can be detected and described when dealing with the material remains of African Americans at an earlier time in the country's history?

      This is a great question to pose, and one that is very hard to answer. However, through archaeology and archaeological digs, we can hope to come close to an answer.

    20. So it is that while the artifacts available to the members of the Parting Ways settlement were of necessity almost entirely Anglo-American, the rules by which they were put to use in functional combinations might have been more African American.

      Here is a prime example of two cultures colliding, and us learning about it only by excavating the site to learn more about it. The archaeologists just wanted to learn more about the building site, and ended up discovering something about culture, too.

    21. But the negative evidence is strong, so there had to be some accommodation for one within the building.

      Here, the picture is helping the archaeologists draw conclusions that would have otherwise baffled them. Even though there is no physical evidence that a fire place existed, because the picture shows one, that means it was there and was there with some purpose. Working backwards from this, archaeologists know what to search for to find more evidence of the fire place.

    22. Beyond this, there are differences.

      Culture changes over time. The basis can remain the same, but key aspects can and will change. Adjusting to the new environment always occurs.

    23. At the time of the community's formation, the usual pattern of Anglo-American house placement was a scattered one, each family on its own property.

      A key example to support my previous point. The settlers built their houses in accordance to tradition and culture, but modified key things, such as living patterns.

    24. they were able to organize their world on their own terms from the late eighteenth century onward.

      These African Americans who shared this land were a special group of people because they were not only freed slaves, but they also took culture and modified it and impact future generations. And by looking at their lifestyles and how they lived, we now in present time have a better understanding of life and culture back then.

    25. Prior to the excavations at Parting Ways in 1975 and 1976, the site was known only as the location of a tiny cemetery

      Examining the history and previous culture of a site can unlock clues for us in the present to learn what really happened there. That's why it's important for us now to study the past.

    26. Such a pattern has a striking parallel to grave decoration practices as they are known from the American South.

      By finding this shattered pottery, we are able to learn that there could be a potential grave here! Culture practices spread all over and fundamentally stay the same. This is really interesting.

    27. graves and their decorations are seen as inviolate, not to be stolen from.

      This explains why these fragments were never removed or touched or bothered. The cultural traditions continue on.

    28. But because the artifacts themselves were so familiar to us, the essential differences were disguised behind them, and only when a more basic consideration of different perceptions of the world was made did the picture come into focus.

      What the author is trying to say here is that since everything was grounded in similar habits and culture, it was easier to draw connections.

    29. Since the artifactual and architectural remains of these communities are a better index of the life of African Americans in their own terms, they hold great promise of supplementing American black history in a different and important way.

      The author here is saying that while oral history and stories are helpful, archaeology can unlock secrets we would not have known otherwise. We can learn about lifestyles and culture through archaeology and see hands-on the lives these people were living.

    30. African heritage surfaced one more time.

      The freed slaves united and came together through the common-ground of pure African culture, tradition, and, most importantly, heritage.

    31. In their own way, the black settlers of Parting Ways maintained their cultural heritage in the face of adversity.

      Through archaeology, we are able to see that the freed slaves were not just people, they were freed African American slaves and veterans who overcame racism and poverty to unite and form a bond and keep their African heritage alive, not only for them, but for future generations.