21 Matching Annotations
  1. Sep 2016
    1. multi-dimensional

      By which they mean not only visual but also spatial interactions which distract form directed learning.

    2. miniature cities

      Or cities themselves. I'm looking at you GSU!

    3. Spaces between campus buildings Outdoor water features Green roofs Rain gardens

      Perfect description of the Langdale quad.

    4. Interaction with natural environments (especially green nature) employs faculties of concentration not normally used – involuntary ones – thus allowing the neural mechanisms underlying directed attention a chance to rest and replenish

      I would like to see the sources for this claim as it proposes an interesting idea.They are saying our minds literally switch gears subconsciously, and allow "gears" (by which I assume the authors mean either neural pathways or regions of the brain associated with studying) to cool off. Research does show that different area of the brain react differently to certain stimuli, and I would have liked to know which portion nature effects.

    5. . After a period of prolonged cognitive demands and mental saturation, difficulties in concentrating, reduced performance on tasks, higher rates of irritability and tension, and more impulsive and hostile behavior may arise

      AKA Stress. In this regard its not only students, but most humans who need to interact with "nature" once in a while to cool off.

    6. ring road” type of plan, in which vehicles were mostly kept outside the pedestrian oriented campus core

      Some times I wish GSU had this plan, it would sure make going from Sparks to Aderhold a lot easier!

    7. Furthermore, increased technology use within today’s multitasking society is likely to hijack a student’s attentional resource placing her/him at risk of underachieving academic learning goals and undermining success at a university

      This might be true for student attention. What the author is trying to say is that students can get side tracked very easily. Speaking from personal experience, I believe this may be somewhat true, I am doing three other things right now other than this. Procrastination is not a new thing though, its just more apparent in our generation.

    8. Americans expect a university campus to look different than other places (Gumprecht, 2007) and that the campus “expresses something about the quality of academic life, as well as its role as a citizen of the community in which it is located”

      I never really thought about it, but I guess subconsciously it was true, before applying for college, my vision of what a college would look like was Hogwarts, from Harry Potter, not really sure why though.

    9. an attentional learning

      Not sure what this meant, quick google search lead me to this article. Completely irrelevant, but seems to have something to do with the acquisition of language through modeling. Is that wat attentioninal learning means?

    10. s. In 2009, 20.4 million students were enrolled in 2- or 4-year colleges and universities. By 2019, enrollments are expected to rise 9% for students under age 25, and rise 23% for students over the age of 25 (Snyder & Dillow, 2011)

      This is an appeal to logos for her argument, which they have yet to clearly state. The statistic itself is also interesting; has there been an increase in demand for education, or is it simply a result of the population increase? This article explores a similar topic in regards to demand for education.

    11. American higher education institutions face unique twenty-first century changes and challenges in providing good, holistic learning spaces for the diverse and evolving needs of today’s college student.

      This seems to be the main claim that she will try to resolve in this article. The sentence itself is really long, with a lot of moodifiers

  2. Aug 2016
    1. Miami intentionally located I-95 so that it would cut through Overtown, an inner-city black community.161 Although it had previously been known as “the Harlem of the South,” Overtown became “an urban wasteland dominated by the physical presence of the expressway.”

      This is similar to fractional gerrymandering, where the base is split, Gerrymandering could very well have been the reason for the highway's relocation, as it would serve as a convenient border between districts.

    2. Because there are a number of benefits to living near a transit stop,122 the Homevoter Hypothesis suggests that homeowners will readily lobby for them.

      I thought that home owners would be opposed to being near a transit station, like the MARTA rails, because of the increase in noise pollution. Historically speaking property values are lower near transit stations than in surrounding areas, which might be the point she is trying to make.

    3. n some communities, the purpose of rerouting traffic is to inhibit harmful behaviors tied to drugs and crime. Concrete barriers were put in place near the highways of Bridgeport, Connecticut, to block quick access into the city by those who wanted to buy drugs

      That's like saying "lets build a vacuum chamber, because drug dealers breathe oxygen!"

    4. “[s]idewalks and bike paths are rare and do not connect to those in other communities inhabited by residents of lower social and racial status.”87 If someone wanted to walk or bike to another area, then, it might have to be along the shoulder of a busy road or on the road itself.

      I never realized this before, but my home in the suburbs fits this description perfectly, it is in what used t be a predominately wealthy, white area, and I have often been confused about the lack of sidewalks. There are no sidewalks anywhere, even though the road outside of the subdivisions is known for vehicle collisions, people still walk along the sides of the road when walking their dogs or kids, and looking very foolish.

    5. By including these features in a common interest community, a developer can deter unwanted potential residents—generally poor people and people of color—from buying homes in that development

      So this was like preemptive, architectural, redlining, where the banks would purposefully refuse loans to low income households?

    6. prioritize the flow of pedestrians and traffic through a physical space, with a focus on civil engineering, rather than prioritizing equal access to a physical space for all, with a focus on civil rights

      Although both efficiency and civil liberties should both be held in high esteem, it is a bit harsh to blame planners for failing to see the consequences of their action when they were just trying to increase the efficiency in a system. Which brings up the question, is it discrimination when its completely unintentional? Well, since the broad definition of discrimination is the favor of or treatment towards a particular group or class, I would say that yes, it is discrimination, and people should be held responsible.

    7. “monumental structures of concrete and steel embody a systematic social inequality, a way of engineering relationships among people that, after a time, becomes just another part of the landscape

      It seems so simple now that she points it out, its literally social psychology. The placement and posture of an individual is used to indicate their status and power in a culture, that's why kings sat on thrones above the people, (that and the illusion of divine rights), to demonstrate their power. The same thing was being done with architecture, and I just never realized it. Wow.

    8. This Article examines the sometimes subtle ways that the built environment has been used to keep certain segments of the population—typically poor people and people of color—separate from others. Further, it considers the ways in which the law views and treats the exclusionary effects of these seemingly innocuous features of the built environment—which the Article terms “architectural exclusion”—as compared to more traditional and more obvious exclusionary practices. Although exclusion is perhaps the most important stick in the bundle of property rights, and although certain forms of exclusion can have beneficial results,18 this Article focuses on forms of exclusion that result in discriminatory treatment of those who are excluded. This Article builds on Lawrence Lessig’s regulatory theory, which asserts that behavior may be regulated or constrained, in part, by “architecture.”19 Lessig broadly defined architecture as “the physical world as we find it, even if ‘as we find it’ is simply how it has already been made.”20 The Article also employs the term “architecture” quite broadly to encompass civil engineering, city planning, urban design, and transit routing. The decisions of those who work in these varied fields result in infrastructure that shapes the built environment. The resulting infrastructure is included in this broad definition of architecture and functions as a form of regulation through architecture.21

      This seems to be the "thesis" paragraph, and the official start to the paper, which means that the previous paragraphs were background information to keep in mind while reading the text, or examples of exclusionary built environment. I really like this arrangement I had mistakenly assumed that the article itself started after the abstract, and the intro was the first paragraph

    9. At the request of white residents, in 1974 the city of Memphis closed off a street that connected an all-white neighborhood to a primarily black one.9 Supporters of this measure argued that it would ostensibly reduce traffic and noise, in addition to promoting safety.

      This is horrible. Not only did the city close of a street upon request but the arguments they used to justify themselves were just wrong, closing off the street may reduce traffic there, sure, but every other road would have to suffer increased burdens. And what about the people who used that specific road to get to work, that isn't "burden of citizenship" that's outright discrimination.

    10. Wealthy, mostly white residents of the northern Atlanta suburbs have vocally opposed efforts to expand MARTA into their neighborhoods for the reason that doing so would give people of color easy access to suburban communities.

      I have often wondered why MARTA doesn't go farther, South, well now I know, although it seems to me that most individuals now days use MARTA to get to work at Metro Atlanta from their homes in homes in the suburbs. Perhaps time has passed since the publication of the research she uses here, or perhaps I am missing a larger trend.