55 Matching Annotations
  1. May 2022
    1. The test cases is made to look at the model holistically and determine the scenarios thatneed to be tested and benchmarked to certify that the model has performance criterionsimilar to pre-existing libraries. The purpose of a test case is to determine if differentfeatures within a system are performing as expected and to confirm that the system satisfiesall related standards, guidelines

      Also add the validationd and testing research paper

    2. MethodologyAs mentioned earlier, various methodologies are integrated in this thesis work. In thischapter, a brief description of each methodology and how they contribute towards the goalis explained.2.1 Model Driven System EngineeringTo engineer large, complex, and interdisciplinary systems, modeling is considered as theuniversal technique to understand and simplify reality through abstraction, and thus, mod-els are in the center as the most important artifact throughout interdisciplinary activitieswithin model-driven engineering processes. Model-Driven Systems Engineering (MDSE) isa systems engineering paradigm that promotes the systematic adoption of models through-out the engineering process by identifying and integrating appropriate concepts, languages,techniques, and tools. A key principle of MDSE is to address engineering with formalmodels, i.e.,machine-readable and processable representations. Based on this foundation,modeling provides a set of advantages for driving the engineering process. The applicationof model validation, testing, verification, simulation, transformation, and execution enablesthe automation of engineering process steps and supports the traceability of engineeringartifacts to improve quality management. The models can be:•Compared to reason about differences between model versions•Merged to unify different versions of a model•Aligned to create a global and integrated representation of the system from differentviewpoints to reason about consistency•Refined to produce platform-specific models from platform-independent models•Translated to other formalism for code generation, verification, and simulationModels are used to explore the structure, behavior, and operational characteristics of

      As a chapter this is acceptable, but this much detail might not be required, if too many pages then change to the including more in software development

    3. Summary

      Change the summary at the end of the finished report

    4. a software/model involves multiple complex steps. Without a properstructured architecture, there can be a misalignment between the users’ and developers’needs or the end product may sometimes be far from the stakeholders’ expectations. Toresolve this, Model Driven Software

      Change abstract according to the format of the report and explain it in the same order

    5. Future RecommendationsThe following can be the possible recommendations as s future work of this thesis:•Requirement analysis for detailed communication between IBM, Visual Studio andMATLAB.•Implementation of a more complex Bouc-Wen equation or using different methodo-logies for hysteresis modeling which contain optimization algorithm for defining thehysteretic curve.•Scaling the Quarter car to a bicycle model and eventually to a full car model.•Coupling of Newmark-β solver with the existing Quarter car model.•Core automation for conversion of the frequency response functions into .dll fileformat which can be directly implemented into the OptimumG software.

      Add one other future requirement mentioned in todo

    6. FFTThe Fast Fourier Transform of the received data is done using an external library. Thelibrary selected to use was ”FFTW3” for c++. Research was conducted on other librariesas well but the functional complexity along with ease of use made “FFTW3” the FFTlibrary of choice. A FFT plan has to be made alongside the already existing functionsprovided by “FFTW3”. This is shown below.void fft(fftw_complex *in, fftw_complex *out){// create a DFT planfftw_plan plan = fftw_plan_dft_1d(N, in, out, FFTW_FORWARD, FFTW_ESTIMATE);// execute the planfftw_execute(plan);

      Explain more about the FFTW3 library

    7. Data ProcessingThe Quarter Car model in MATLAB & Simulink saves the data in a “.txt” file format withthe required output for the given input and time. This “.txt” file is accessed by the DataProcessing part of the code and is stored in variables with the type, vector < float >. Ituses the getline command to read each line and store it in specified variables.ifstream coeff(file); //opening the file.if (coeff.is_open()) //if the file is open{//ignore first linestring line;getline(coeff, line);

      4.1 to 4.4 come under its repective block in FRTS architecture

    8. Generally the code could also be implemented under IBM Rhapsody using sequence orstate machine diagrams. This helps to keeps the overall process automated and well struc-tured. But, due to the lack of a vector macro in IBM Rhapsody, the task of coding insidethe diagrams is made almost improbable. In this case, the functionality,i.e. the coding isdeveloped in Visual Studio 2017. The current release of IBM Rhapsody(version 9.2) doesnot support the required macros, but future releases are being developed to support vectormacros. Implementing the code in C++ and visual studio makes the importing of codeinto IBM Rhapsody in future releases relatively straightforward. The rest of the chapter,shows the code developed in Visual Studio. This tool implementation method is shown inFigure 4.1 The main functions in the code are displayed, whereas the rest of the code isgiven in the Appendix E.Figure 4.1: Tool Implementation Flow

      Explain this part in the introduction to the FRTS Structure

    9. lities revealed by the KANO analysis. The test case is modelled asa combination of requirement and use case because it acts as a need as well as a service. Anew stereotype, called test case, was created in IBM Rhapsody to combine the use case andrequirement. This is modelled in a requirements diagram to show and maintain structurein the test cases as well.Figure 3.21: FRTS Test Cases Requirement Diagram

      After this show a flowchart with all the steps involved in the methodology



  2. Feb 2022
    1. hese functions contain the basic functionality of the system as visualized in the require-ment analysis. These functions fall under the ”Must-have” category of KANO analysis.Based on the structure, shown in section 3.4,

      Why exactly bode for non linear systems

    2. The FRTS tool suite needs to contain certain frequency response functions which are re-quired to study and analyze the effect the of input parameters on the output of the system.Plotting the different frequency response functions of a model helps to gain insight into thecharacteristics of linear model dynamics[11], including the frequency of the peak responseand stability margins. Frequency response plots provide insight into linear systems dynam-ics, such as frequency-dependent gains, resonances, and phase shifts. Frequency responseplots also contain information about controller requirements and achievable bandwidths.Finally, frequency response plots can also help you validate how well a linear parametricmodel, such as a Quarter Car transfer function [18] or a state-space model, captures thedynamics. Another major advantage is to estimate a frequency response from the datausing spectral analysis (non-parametric model), and then plot the spectral analysis resulton top of the frequency response of the parametric models. Because non-parametric andparametric models are derived using different algorithms, agreement between these modelsincreases confidence in the parametric model results. Therefore the following frequencyresponse functions[5] need to be modelled in the software tool suite for a complete analysisof the model:•Frequency Response of the Plant•Bode Diagram– Magnitude– Phase•Spectral Density calculation– Fast Fourier Transform(FFT)– Windowing method– Overlapping method– Power Spectral Density(PSD)

      Explain this first page before the activity diagram at the start of the software development chapter, also add as to why these functions are required using the research papers

    3. Functional Implementation

      Implement this whole section under the FRTS Arhitecture

    4. of flow into and out of the Block by associating them on the Block with aValue Property. Two flow ports in different blocks are connected using a connector whichlets the variable pass through. Multiple connectors can be connected to/from one flowport. This internal structure in FRTS i

      Explain the IBD in more detail

    5. FRTS StructureThis is the system of system architecture that depicts the hierarchy of the system func-tionality. These are created out of the use cases that have been established in the previoussection. Since, use cases cannot be used to build code, the block element in SysML is usedas the structure for each use case functionality. The system architecture is developed usingthe block definition diagram(BDD) in SysML, as shown in the Figure 3.19.Figure 3.19: FRTS System Architecture - Block Definition Diagram3.4.2 Internal FRTS Structure & CommunicationThe internal structure of the system is used as an Internal Block diagram(IBD) in SysMLlanguage. It captures the internal structure of a Block element, in terms of its properties(Ports and Parts) and the connections between those properties. The IBD is an instanceof the Block element, and the Block is the classifier for the IBD. The elements in the IBD

      Add the functional implementation part into each of the blocks and also the the linkage between each block. Also add the IBM rhapsody problem into it

    6. FRTS - System Architecture

      Explain why an architecture is required then reference the research papers that says it is required.

    7. The SYSMOD method also states that alongside defining use cases, there must be atraceability between the use case and the requirement it is satisfying, both textually andgraphically. So, a requirement

      Attach the explanantion of the traceability research paper

    8. Use CasesThe next step in SYSMOD methodology is to specify what a system needs to do as aconsequence of the requirements, SysML makes use of Use Cases. Use Case blocks describethe operations within FRTS and the communication between FRTS and its external actorsthat are required to satisfy the requirements. These Use Case blocks are then linked withother Use Case blocks and the external actors in a Use Case diagram to visualize the orderof execution to satisfy the requirements. These Use Case diagrams are further stored underpackages to visualize the order of execution of the overall functionality of FRTS. Each UseCase has a description of functionality and external actors in the following format:•Requirement addressed•Name

      Explain each use case in more detail



  3. Jan 2022
    1. The hysteresis requirement is an important aspect in modelling

      Explain Why hysteresis

    2. quarter car model requirements

      Explain a bit about how the quarter car is included in the project and explain the requirements in detail

    3. Project Requirements

      Explain in detail alongwith where it was derived from



  4. Dec 2021
    1. n to the intra-requirement dependency inside each major requirement, thereare relations among different requirements that have a cross dependency

      Explain cross dependency with example

    2. nother important factor in this dependency diagram is that the lower priority re-quirements always depend on the higher priority requirements

      Give Example

    3. Bode requirements

      In detail

    4. Some of the requirements under FRTS has a dependency

      Explain why dependency

    5. System Requirements

      Explain each requirements in detail and also mention where are they derived from if necessary

    6. Requirement AnalysisIn FRTS, the requirements are divided into two main sub categories:•System Requirements - Features regarding the Frequency Response functions•Project Requirements - Feature regarding the thesis and Quarter Car modelIn addition to sub dividing the requirements itself, a package is added in IBM Rhapsodyto encapsulate the structure provided in the requirements. A package is akin to a folder ina personal computer and a set of packages can be shown using a package diagram. Thisfacilitates a structured hierarchy to requirements engineering and maintaining traceability

      Change the order of requirements, start with project and then move onto FRTS

    7. Requirements

      Explain how requirements were obtained from research and stakeholder analysis and thus loop in KANO analysis into it.

    8. System Context

      Explain why System Context and all the actors and information flow in detail and as to why these flows are required

    9. The next step to TRIZ analysis is defining the three pillars of MDSE in the context ofthis thesis. The 3 pillars are shown in the Figure 3.1:

      Add the functional implementation intoduction after this paragrapgh

    10. establish a solid base to start the SYSMOD part of the softwaredevelopment life cycle process. Each SYSMOD process is described in the sections below.The system is titled as “Frequency Response

      Add Stakeholder analysis right after this

    11. Software Development - FRTSAll software tools must tackle 3 major factors: Complexity, Lack of Understanding andCommunication. The methodologies introduced in chapter 2 are used to provide solutionfor these 3 issues. In software development, to counter complexity, the model based systemengineering along with SYSMOD is implemented and is communicated through SysMLlanguage. The lack of understanding at the early stage of software development is tackledusing the TRIZ 9 box diagram.One of the main criterion to begin the thesis is to understand the current system availableto OptimumG. In order to pinpoint the exact system that needs to be worked on as wellas to understand the complexity involved in such a system, a TRIZ 9-box diagram isused. TRIZ helps to uncover the scope of the problem and also helps in derivation of highlevel requirements. TRIZ 9-box is useful to have a holistic view to the overall system.Therefore, in this 9-box diagram not only the Frequency response tools are analyzed butalso the requirement of quarter car model as a proof of concept is taken into account. TheTRIZ 9-box was created in conjunction with OptimumG, as shown in Figure 3.2.Figure 3.1: The Three Pillars of MDSE specific to FRTS

      Reference the research papers for better software architecture with SYSMOD again. Such that you reiterate the sentiment.

    12. tware tool suite

      Give a short intro to testing and becnhmarking chapter

    13. Chapter 5

      Change the name of the chapter from Quarter car to System Testing and Benchmarking

    14. Scope of ThesisThe Scope of this thesis research is based on the proposed research questions defined insection 1.4 and is confined to five major objectives. Extensive research will be conductedon the following which could be extended to future works. The objectives are describedbelow:•Requirement Analysis of Frequency Response tools•Architectural design of the tool suite.•Develop behavioral or logical algorithmic diagrams for various frequency responsefunctions.•Benchmarking developed system against existing libraries.•Framework for code modularity and maintainability into OptimumG’s future soft-ware, i.e. conversion of framework from SysML to C++ .dll files.The following topics are considered to be out of scope or future works for the thesis:•Scalability of the model to Full Car model.•Modularity validation of the model.•Overall super-system level requirements of the future software.•Usage of commercial benchmarking tools.•Closed-loop frequency response tools.•Optimization or optimization techniques on the developed code or system.

      Here explain what to do instead of the research quastions

    15. The thesis also depends on a number of human aspects. This is taken into account usinga stakeholder analysis [4]. The stakeholder matrix defines the influence and the interest ofstakeholders in this system as well as the thesis, as shown in Figure 1.1. The stakeholdersare in the order of decreasing power :•OptimumG - The company proposing the project has a high influence as well asinterest in the final product.•Thesis Supervisor & University - In charge of thesis, again has both high influ-ence and interest.•Pre-Existing Libraries - The libraries which are available online majorly affect thecourse of the thesis.•Standards and Legal Regulations - Using the libraries involves working withlegal regulation for use in a proprietary software and also following certain codingand automotive software standards.•Developers - Technical people who work in aspects related to the product have anelevated interest as it effects part of the thesis.•Users - Users are the final consumers of the product. They have moderate interestbut low power to affect the product development.

      Move the entire stakeholder analysis to the Software development chapter

    16. Project ContextTo simulate a dynamic system, computation of its states at successive time steps over aspecified time span is required. This computation is carried out using numerical solversusing the information provided by the model of the system. The output from these numer-ical solvers needs to be analyzed, which can be done in both time-domain and frequencydomain. It is difficult to analyze the large and complex outputs in time domain since it isbased on differential equations[15]. Whereas in frequency-domain analysis, it is convertedto algebraic equations that are easier to solve[15]. Thus, OptimumG expects to have boththe functionalities implemented on Quarter Car model as a proof of concept [17]. Thoughthe quarter car is a simple vehicle model, it covers a variety of performance metrics thatneeds to be analyzed in a vehicle. The time constraint on this thesis and the complexity in-volved with the full car model makes the quarter car an ideal proof of concept. OptimumGhas already implemented the Time-Domain simulation of the quarter car model. Therefore,

      Also add why hysteresis and attach a research paper that says an unknown concept would be helpful and also how it would benefit optimum G with the known concept

    17. Problem Context

      3 major references

      1. Frequency response tools
      2. Quarter Car
      3. Software architecture with SYSMOD This applies to project context as well



  5. Nov 2021
    1. he simplicity of the model is both a strength and a weakness. On the one hand, the smallnumber of parameters all

      Say why the quarter car and why in controll applications it is very useful and extrapolate such that since control applications it can also be used in freq resp applications


    1. Bode Tes

      Make sure to differentiate between linear and nonlinear systems here

    2. Bode DiagramSimilar to the spectral density the bode diagram is plotted and cross verified with theMATLAB function “tfestimate” to obtain the frequency response for the Quarter Carmodel, as shown in Figure 5.27. The Magnitude tends to have similar mean curve and thephase matches exactly in both the libraries.Figure 5.27: Bode DiagramThe PSD and CPSD have a difference between both libraries, but the transfer func-tion is almost similar. This is because both the CPSD and PSD have a lower magnitudeand power respectively, as explained above, which would have been cancelled out in theTFestimate, since the tfestimate = CPSD/PSD Thus the general shape of the graphsseem similar, the difference could be due to the windowing and the overlapping factors.

      THe bode diagram can only be used for linear systems, so a two diagrams need to showd one for igo's notes and one a general frequency resposne of the system.

    3. Quarter Car Model Implementation

      Validation of this model using Igo notes

    4. Conclusion

      If required change it to reslts and discussions or conclusions and discussions or add both

    5. ork focuses on developing a frequency analysis tool suite for OptimumG’snew vehicle dynamics software. Traditionally, no software development methodologies areused for any tool suite development which focuses on implementation using libraries andcode. Though this method ensures successful implementation of the software, it doesnot guarantee an structural architecture or the fact that all stakeholder expectations aresatisfied. The lack of a proper architecture makes it difficult for a new user to understandthe tool suite and might cause hindrance on the future development and advancement.Tofacilitate this, methodologies such as SYSMOD, MDSE, TRIZ and IBM Rhapsody withSysML diagrams are integrated which helps in the development of a software tool suitethat is architecturally sound and easy to maintai

      Look at how each conclusion from the presentation is validated, if it is not validated then dont mention them

    6. ned earlier, MATLAB is used as the reference library and for power spectraldensity the “pwelch” function was used. The “cpsd” function is used for Cross powerspectral density. The deviation

      Explain more about the overlapping and windowing against the matlab function that is used to change

    7. FTW3 library does not allow to control the scaling factors of the overlappingand windowing. A different library could be used which gives access to such factors or thewindowing and overlapping functions could be manually coded in by the user

      Gice a proper performance related coclusion and how the results can be improved

    8. pectral density can be seen in Figure 5.25 and Figure 5.26 respectively. Thisis due to the scaling factors that the FFTW3 library introduces for the overlapping andwindowing functionality. This makes the mean curve have a similar shape but the powerof the output is scaled down. Thi

      Show how the scaling factors were varied for each test case to get better results and update all the diagrams

    9. Test Cases

      Write a lot more about the quarter car model, and make them understand why it is required? and also how and why the test cases are derived Include the necessities of the test case, that is what is required to be checked based on becnhmarking

    10. Quarter Car Coilover Deflection

      Explain in detail what each test is and what it is required to do and also what do you read from every graph

    11. BenchmarkingThe Benchmarking of the FRTS library is done by using the Quarter Car model as the proofof concept. The test cases mentioned in Figure 3.21 are carried out. The benchmarkingof FRTS does not consider any performance metrics or error estimation, because the maingoal of the project is to develop the model and tool suite under a systematic and methodicalprocess rather than pure results.

      Explain why and how benchmarking and link it to the test cases already mentioned in above section

    12. Revised Hysteresis RequirementsThe hysteresis concept was a relatively unknown concept to the thesis author as well as tothe stakeholders, i.e. OptimumG. The initial research carried out to elicit the requirementsregarding the hysteresis was pretty basic. Now, equipped with further understanding of thehysteresis concept, the requirements have changed based on the modelling technique. Thisis a very pivotal tool in using SYSMOD and SysML along with the SDLC framework whichlets the users perform repeat iterations as the model evolves and is made better overtimeor new features are added which helps in maintaining the software for long duration. Thenew Hysteresis Requirements are in the Figure 5.18.Figure 5.18: Modified Hysteresis Requirements

      Explain again why the above research was done and why it was a useful exercise to establish the need for a relatively new product. Explain the requirements in detail as well

    13. Quarter Car

      Explain why any physical system is required to test the FRTS then include that OptimumG is a VD software so in the end Full car is the aim and link TRIZ to it to show the future of where that software want to go. Then make sure that the quarter car is well justified using the literature.

    14. ms 00 mu)( ̈zs ̈zu)+( −FC −FD + mS g + FaeroFC + FD + mug −

      Go through all equations and sentences in the report

    15. Quarter Car Inputs and Outputs

      Explain more into why this table is required?

    16. Hysteresis

      Include why hysteresis is required for this project

    17. β sweeps (Figure 5.14) were performed with the values set to A = 1 and γ = −1.Increase in the value of β leads to larger area under the curve and slight increase in slopeand amplitude.The γ sweeps (Figure 5.15) were conducted using A = 1 and β = 0.1. Increasingthe value of γ results in decreasing slope but more importantly change of direction fromconcave to convex with change in sign of the γ value.Figure 5.15: γ Sweep Hysteresis CurveTable 5.9: Bouc-Wen System ClassificationCase Ω Upper Boundon |z(t)| ClassA > 0 β + γ > 0 and β −γ ≥0 R max(|z(0)|,z0 Iβ −γ < 0 and β ≥0 [−z1,z1] max(|z(0)|,z0 IIA < 0 β −γ > 0 and β + γ ≥0 R max(|z(0)|,z0 IIIβ + γ < 0 and β ≥0 [−z0,z0] max(|z(0)|,z0 IVA = 0 β + γ > 0 and β −γ ≥0 R |z(0)| V

      Explain in detail about why the changes and what is the effect, if possible