37 Matching Annotations
  1. Mar 2018
    1. “Framing the conversation about gun violence in the context of mental illness does a disservice both to the victims of violence and unfairly stigmatizes the many others with mental illness,”

      Blaming gun violence on mental health does negative effects for victims and suffers of mental health.

    1. Deforestation and soil erosion

      Climate change

    2. Land pollution, in other words, means degradation or destruction of earth’s surface and soil, directly or indirectly as a result of human activities

      Definition of land pollution

    1. Every year, 20,000 to 30,000 people in the United States are sickened by accidental carbon monoxide poisoning

      Deaths of CO

    1. Natural sources include volcanoes and forest fires while human sources (which make up over half of all carbon monoxide produced) are mainly vehicle emissions and slash and burn agriculture, but also include some industrial activities.

      Sources of CO

    2. Topic(s): Atmosphere, Climate, Lithosphere, Oceans   Scenario: "Carbon monoxide suspected in teen deaths" This headline was from a national news presentation, but all too often, we see similar headlines throughout the United States due to faulty heaters or cars left running in a closed garage. Fortunately, carbon monoxide is present in much smaller concentrations in the atmosphere. There is no question that carbon monoxide is a pollutant with potential to harm all living things. But, does CO also affect Earth's climate? Unlike carbon dioxide, a compound that contains the same atoms as carbon monoxide, carbon monoxide is not known as a direct contributor to climate change. It does, however, play a role in this area.Carbon monoxide is different than most pollutants. It can persist in the atmosphere for about a month and can be transported long distances. However, it is not uniformly distributed around the Earth. This NASA Science Brief on Carbon Monoxide explains the issue further.Although carbon monoxide is only a weak greenhouse gas, its influence on climate goes beyond its own direct effects. Its presence affects concentrations of other greenhouse gases including methane, tropospheric ozone and carbon dioxide.Carbon monoxide readily reacts with the hydroxyl radical (OH) forming a much stronger, greenhouse gas--carbon dioxide. This, in turn, increases concentrations of methane, another strong greenhouse gas, because the most common way methane is removed from the atmosphere is when it reacts with OH.

      CO triggering

  2. Feb 2018
    1. Its presence affects concentrations of other greenhouse gases including methane, tropospheric ozone and carbon dioxide

      CO effect other greenhouse

    2. persist in the atmosphere for about a month and can be transported long distances.

      CO last long distances

    3. carbon monoxide is not known as a direct contributor to climate change. It does, however, play a role in this area

      CO also plays a role

    1. Particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) Ozone (O3) Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) Carbon monoxide (CO) Sulphur dioxide (SO2)

      Common pollutants

    1. Lab and field studies are showing that the more carbon dioxide pollen-producing plants—especially ragweed—are grown in, the bigger they grow and the more pollen they produce,”

      Plants producing more pollen

    2. Knowlton says. “Mold exposure can precipitate asthma attacks or an allergic response, and some molds can even produce toxins that would be dangerous for anyone to inhale.”

      Dangers of mold

    3. Climate change also increases the production of allergenic air pollutants including mold (thanks to damp conditions caused by extreme weather and increased flooding) and pollen (due to a longer pollen season and more pollen production).

      Increase in allergic molecules

    4. air pollution not only contributes to climate change but is also exacerbated by it

      Air pollution contributes and speeds it up

    1. We know a lot about how cigarette smoke can cause [health] problems; air pollution is doing the same thing,


    2. increased risk for heart disease and lung cancer


    3. The smoke from wildfires remains in the air for a long time and can travel long distances, Kinney said. This type of air pollution kills nearly half a million people prematurely every year, worldwide

      Wildfire last long in atmosphere and kills half million people every year

    4. Higher temperatures draw moisture out of the soil and into the air; this dries out the soil and, in turn, dries out the vegetation, making it more vulnerable to wildfires,

      High temps take soil out and into air, casuing drying of vegetation and vulernable to fires

    5. "While we've been damaging the Earth's climate system … we've also been damaging our own health in the process," Kinney said,

      Hurting ourselves and the Earth

    6. Air pollution is one human-made factor that is trapping sunlight and causing climate change,

      Air pollution man-made

    1. Age is a big component, but it can depend on things like the time of day

      Age can affect kids attention spans, especially elementary school students. But also the time of day also affects attention spans in students.

    1. Trees, like other green plants, use photosynthesis to convert carbon dioxide (CO2) into sugar, cellulose and other carbon-containing carbohydrates that they use for food and growth. T

      Oxygen-carbon dioxide cycle

    2. Carbon needs to be pulled out of the atmosphere and put into long-term storage elsewhere

      Trees pull out carbon into the air and hold it for long term storage

    1. As a result of these elevated levels of carbon, our forest ecosystems are changing.

      With humans using more fossil fuel (new carbon), trees are trying to adapt to climate change. This also affects how they store CO2 (and reducing storage).

    2. Carbon returned to the atmosphere when it has been used by trees or other organisms as energy for life is called “respired carbon.

      Once the plants die, carbon is released back into the air and made into soil (respired carbon).

    3. whether that is 10 or 500years.

      Trees can hold in CO2 between 10 to 500 years (depends on species).

    1. Land pollution is the deterioration (destruction) of the earth’s land surfaces, often directly or indirectly as a result of man’s activities and their misuse of land resources.

      Land pollution definition

    1. But kids who do chores see the fruits of their labour; they’re encouraged to work harder and do more

      Kids are more focused on tasks if they understand the benefits of the task (receiving a reward or boost of self-esteem).

    1. hest pain, coughing, throat irritation, and airway inflammation

      Ozone symptoms

    2. oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and volatile organic compounds

      Bad ozone reactives

    3. ood ozone occurs naturally in the upper atmosphere

      Good ozone is

    1. Depending on the level of exposure, lead can adversely affect the nervous system, kidney function, immune system, reproductive and developmental systems and the cardiovascular system. 

      Lead effects

    2. At the national level, major sources of lead in the air are ore and metals processing and piston-engine aircraft operating on leaded aviation fuel. Other sources are waste incinerators, utilities, and lead-acid battery manufacturers.

      Source of lead

    1. produced by combustion engines running without modern catalytic convertors. Other common sources of Carbon Monoxide are old gas and fuel appliances, incinerators, and even cigarettes.

      Sources: combustion engines w/o modern catalytic, old gas and fuel appliances, incinerators, cigs

    2. ighly toxic and dangerous pollutant

      CO dangerous

    1. ause cancer or other serious health effects, such as reproductive effects or birth defects, or adverse environmental and ecological effects.

      Definition of air pollutants