261 Matching Annotations
  1. Apr 2016
    1. How little they differ from animals

      How disturbing is the notion of dehumanization as it as attached to a photocentric/audist perspective.

    2. Moreover, if the assault on the Deaf body was not a severeenough example

    3. ntarity, and trace. In the Derridean sense, signed languages, ofcourse are forms of writing. But could one be so bold as to say as well, that writing was a form ofSign4—and that gesture is at heart “making meaning through movement.” In this respect, speech isclearly a form of gesture, only we can’t see it, all covered up by the mout

    4. may speak outside the reach

    5. On the horizon is the technology of usingstem cells to implant into the ears of deaf children, making them not like hearing people, butmaking them hearing.

    6. The forces of bio-power are alive and well

    7. developed pedagogies to discipline the deaf bodyinto normative language practices

    8. Users of signlanguage

    9. wandering outcast” of linguistics

    10. Sign Language

    1. Punitive Practices

      Punitive practices are key to the "pushing-out" function that fuels the school-to-prison pipeline. What's at stake here is the way race marks identity in the rhetorical space of school; students of non-white racial identity are exponentially more at-risk of being pushed into the judicial system.

      These students receive harsher disciplinary actions and more of them. This also raises the question of how behavior is monitored and policed inside the school system. Another important question is this: How well can hungry students pay attention, learn, and behave, when they are surviving poverty and depending on the support of the schools that are, indeed, pushing them out?

      This raises questions of how the body of the student is connected to the ideological model of systemic racism and oppression, which serves to restrict access to literacy and quality education for the marginalized and objectify them through the phenomenon of the school-to-prison pipeline, which is enabled through systemic poverty and policy responses to problems in the educational system which are not being adequately addressed on a global level.

    1. listening
    2. the disembodiment of the voice

      Recording as disembodied—sounds like the issue of embodiment and writing.

    3. But in fact, white supremacy provided the fuel for many early commercial phonographic recordings, including not only ethnic humor and “coon songs” but a form of “descriptive specialty”—the period name for spoken-word recordings about news events and slices of life—that reenacted the lynchings of black men

      This is a disturbing fact about the connections between the commercial and systemic racism.

    4.  World Listening Day is a time to think about the impacts we have on our auditory environments and, in turn, their effects on us.

      This is definitely something I've thought about in general—the sound of spaces and the way those sounds affect my experience of the space—and also, it's interesting to think about how I impact on my "auditory environment."

    1. That is, hearing without listening is response without responsibility; it is a form of pseudodialogue without ethics.

      This seems to be a key facet of the argument being made for listening as ethical—by critiquing Gadamer's omission of the difference between hearing and listening, pointing to the role of intention/focus and agency which points to unfocused hearing as "without ethics."

      p.236 para1

    2. oral and literary

      It's very interesting to see this argument take up the issue of the oral/literate binary—looking at the binary through the eyes of literacy studies, a privilege of print literacy has been a way that the other has been subjugated in different historical contexts.


    3. Scholars of nonverbal communication understand the importance of a listening eye that attends not only to words but also to the sounds and sights that comprise and surround them.

      This emphasizes polymodality.


    4. Listening, as noted, however, is a radically different epistemic process from that of visual perception—vision distances and separates while listening connects and bridges.

      This explains the links between vision/violence and voice/nonviolence


    5. Levinas’s ethics of the face implies a seeing eye/I that is grounded in the subjectivity of vision’s objec-tification but that is also accompanied by the transcendent possibilities invoked by nonviolent speech.

      It's interesting how Lipari makes this case for violence (vision) and nonviolence (speech). p.233

    6. This idea of a polymodal “face that speaks” introduces an interesting con-tradiction that Levinas himself addresses in 1951 when he asks, “How is the vision of the face no longer vision, but hearing and speech?” (1987, 11). That is, how can the face, a visual phenomenon in which seeing is the primary experience, manifest not in sight but in hearing?


      We often say, "I see what you're saying," or "I feel that." It's this kind of "polymodality" wherein the modes are remixed in our commonplace language

    7. Thus the contra-diction of face arises from the fact that it is both particular (in that every “other” is a completely unique and specific “other”) and at the same time universal (insofar that everyone is an “other”).

      Simple explanation of the contradiction of the face


    8. According to Derrida (1978), this depiction of the irreducible and infinite alterity of the other produces an unsolvable logical contradiction, because it is impossible to think the other without simultaneously thematizing, or containing, the other. In Perpich’s words, because “Levinas’s notion of an absolute other forbids us from assigning to the other any determinate predicate, it seems as if all unique, singular faces are the same” (2005, 104

      2nd logical paradox of Levinas.

      p.232 para1

    9. alterity

      otherness—the state of being different

    10. One paradox resides in the fact that as an image, the face resists conceptual representation—it is unthinkable, ungraspable, unrepresentable. Yet so deeply does the modality of vision dominate that, ironically, even these remarks tend to reinforce a visual ren-dering of the face.

      Paradox of visual representation of the face p. 231

    11. Ethics “begins in the face of the exteriority of the other, in the face of the other—that face which enlists my responsibility by its human expression” but that can be neither assimilated by interiority nor reduced to “the same” (1984, 317

      This idea of the face as irreducible and unique argues against the idea of "otherness." p.230 para1

    12. he face is the manifestation of the ethical exigency that is woven into the very structure of human being

      This idea of the face appears to be very important to Lipari. p. 229

  2. Mar 2016
    1. The diagrams reinforce the very anthropocentrism I’m seeking to resist. To address this concern, I’ve begun playing with other kinds of visualizations including the network graphs below.

      Considering the idea of object-oriented ontology, the network graphs complicate the idea of anthropocentric agency, in a way decentering the human subject, realizing human agency as interconnected or braided into a wider ecological agency of objects.

    2. triptych

      noun a picture or relief carving on three panels, typically hinged together side by side and used as an altarpiece. a set of three associated artistic, literary, or musical works intended to be appreciated together.

      via google

    3. As human dramas increase, mentions of flora generally decrease.

      How might this notion be reflected in the acceleration of industry in late capitalist society?

    4. trace major connections among living beings and patterns across texts

      The idea of these major connections brings up the notion of agency as relational.

    5. leaf

      Many different kinds of representations of "leaf" can signify different rhetorical implications.

    6. the intellectual work that goes into designing a markup schema is integral to the success of addressing the research questions.


    7. Webb characterizes Hazel’s suitors as “Reddin the destroyer” and “Edward the savior” (final page of novel)—a description that also maps onto Tess where Alec is the destroyer and Angel the savior. And yet both Angel and Edward are failed saviours: in each novel neither the protagonist nor her child survives. The similarities in the plots and themes of the two novels make them ideal for comparison.

      Here, the idea of consonances comes up again.

    8. To be too close is to lose sight of the larger systems in which we are imbricated. To be too distant is to remain outside, to see patterns without acknowledging one’s complicity within those systems.

      Again, speaking to relationship on an ideological level.

    9. consonances

      In this case, harmony or interrelation, to borrow from musical consonance.

    10. corporeal

      relating to the body

    11. We are perhaps most familiar with “black box” technologies that separate user from code and mystify the processes through which new knowledge creation is facilitated.

      The ideological implications of mystification

    12. Technology is often characterized in opposition to the natural world (and sometimes with good reason). But it is clear from Macfarlane’s account of his own research that digital technology has not displaced the language of the natural world—it has recorded, transmitted, publicized, and preserved it.

    13. “Now I know the word ‘smeuse,’” Macfarlane writes, “I notice these signs of creaturely commute more often.”

      Linking ecology and language

    14. He cites the Oxford Junior Dictionary’s contentious decision to “cull” many “nature words” (Macfarlane n.p.) from its list,  removing words like “adder, ash, beech, hazel, and willow” and replacing them with “attachment, blog, broadband, and chatroom.”

      Could we collectively consider all words about a particular subject field as a "hyperobject"?

    15. This is very much a work-in-progress talk, and I welcome feedback, questions, suggestions, and collaborations! 

      The idea that the scholar is open to collaboration suggests a reflective approach to composition that is not established in a hierarchical form of discourse.

    1. humanity implies rights that are neither alienable, divisible, deferable, or debatable even if we are mired in discourses that make them seem

      Mired in discourses—ideology.

    2. The more reflective and attentive we can be when tutoring writing, the more we can slow down the action, remember our commitments, and see challenging moments as moments both for teaching and for learning

      Here's the big idea!!!!

    3. should resist assumptions of deficiency and embrace a critical, reflective use of hybrid linguistic resources. This post-structuralist linguistic

      post-structuralism—reflexive language use

    4. epresentations of multilingual writers limit our perceptions of the students and the instructional models available to us

      constructing the Other

    5. Geneva Smitherman, Suresh Canagarajah, Bruce Horner, Min-Zhan Lu, and Paul Matsuda, among others, have shed light on how language policies and perceptions of the racialized Other disguise and hide racial attitudes and prejudice

      Mystification, in the Marxist sense!

    6. We learn to see these actions (and occasions that call for action) not as isolated events, but as multiple iterationsin an ongoing and always-striving process against racism and toward racial jus

      iterative, processual, engaged, attentive

    7. ge. As we consider multiple interventions, we consider the ways power operates for the multiple players, and we become co-learners who occupy multi-dimensional roles in the process.


    8. we step intoinstead of away from difficulty

      This is social justice action—leaning in. How can we be primed to engage?

    9. Our recognition of a larger context needs to leave us with nuanced understandings of both the historical legacies and current systems of power and privi

      We are in need of heightened awareness; also the anti-racial pedagogy can't be easily reducible

    10. We believe these articulations are especially important, for, as Nancy Grimm explains, “If we want to avoid complicity with racism and other forms of exclusion, then those tacit theories about language, literacy, and learning need to be made explicit and open to revision” (78).

      Impermanence as a way of being open or as a way of seeing.

    11. n all three l

      This connects the social and the need for personal introspection; the ideological and our positions as students and tutors within that. How do we deal with our own role?

    12. cally, we value the work beforeconferences as we study and construct our pedagogy and beyondas we reflect on our praxis;

      Very mindful!

    13. eflectiveandattentive—meaning that, as tutors and administrators, weare observant throughout our interactions with others and adaptable to the ways in which power and privilege manifest in given moments. Third, because the work is sustained over time in deeply reflective and attentive ways, a pedagogy for racial justice recognizes the full personhood of all those involved: teacher and student, tutor and writer. As such, this pedagogy is embodied and engaged—affective, tangible, and holistic

      This speaks to that awareness, on-purpose & in real time. Adding to this notion of "engaged and embodied" mindfulness offers that through introspection, a greater communal awareness can be cultivated by which social justice actions can be taken.

    14. such, processual and reiterativ

      In this sense, processual and reiterative make this pedagogy sound like a "practice" or a "path"

    15. justice when working with writers one-with-one?

      This begs the question of how we can "pay attention on purpose" do draw from that definition of mindfulness

  3. www.praxisuwc.com www.praxisuwc.com
    1. Jody Shipka argues for a broader understanding of multimodal texts within our pedagogical frameworks, expanding the definition to include print and digital texts, embodied performances, photographs, videos, physical objects, and repurposed or remediated objects (300). This definition speaks to the multiplicity of UDL and allows for a richer understanding of pedagogical accessibility: if students want to compose essays, collages, videos, or webtexts, these all fit within multimodal pedagogies.

      Expanding the idea of text. How do these different modes perform the role of text differently?

    2. The principles of UDL—multiple means of representation, actions and expression, and engagement—can help expand our teaching, learning, and composing practices. They can also help us to configure multiliteracies more inclusively.

      How might UDL and mindfulness interface in useful or interesting ways?

    3. As spatial theorist Henri Lefebvre argues, the physical spaces we inhabit affect our actions within those spaces; in turn, our actions and social practices impact those spaces. Thus, the material spaces of writing centers greatly impact what kind of pedagogy those spaces can enact.⁵ Even if a center is physically accessible, students cannot benefit from inaccessible pedagogy.

      Mindful design is important—meaning and mode inseparable—the material and the social are intertwined and co-informed.

    4. The push toward multiliteracy centers provides opportunities for spatial reconsiderations of how well centers support accessible literacy practices.

      The intersection of literacy and access. Is mindfulness something that everyone can access? Retreats and centers that charge fees for classes or getaways create the same kind of discrimination or disability in that access is a limitation based on financial ability to participate.

    5. that physical environments construct disability because, as tools and technologies become naturalized, people who cannot use them are positioned as disabled (297).

      Disability as a construct—ideologically, physically.

    6. Similarly, a multimodal pedagogy recognizes students as “agentive, resourceful and creative meaning-makers”

      How could the internal experience or perhaps "pre-pre-writing" exist in a modal sense? Multimodality leads to critical thinking according to Hitt, here. Or could mindfulness take on the role of a kind of literacy?

    7. agency

      Mindfulness as a way to enhance agency is something that I want to investigate further. I do not hold with the idea that meditation or Buddhism offers a path of passivity. Rather, it is through mastering inner states of consciousness that one can get a clearer picture of how external social and ideological forces have impact on the individual. From here, this embodied mindfulness points towards active agency that catalyze meaningful social change.

    8. embodied

      Embodiment is important for critical and feminist pedagogies, and mindfulness has the grounding effect of being involved with body awareness, of being in the body.

    9. the dominating limitations of print- and word-based literacies

      Other modalities can help destabilize the hegemony of print.

    10. How do our current pedagogical practices exclude particular students

      Mindfulness can be a pedagogical tool towards resisting forms of oppression, including exclusivity.

    11. rethink their practices in light of others who learn differently” (28)

      In mindfulness, we could align this toward the idea of attunement or towards a sense of compassionate understanding: trying to meet each student where they are, regardless of their ability.

    12. Sherwood makes the argument that tutors are not trained for working with LD students, while he simultaneously argues that writing centers are incapable of helping students with LD. Tanya Titchkosky identifies this impasse as a “You can’t accommodate everybody” attitude that identifies some students, particularly those with disabilities, as “‘naturally’ a problem for some spaces” (35).

      This labeling of the problem as "natural" or arguments which create a fulfilling prophecy must be met with curiosity about a solution.

    13. as Other

      This notion must be destabilized by certain means or affordances, pedagogically speaking.

    14. reposition representations of disability in both writing center scholarship and tutoring practices.

      How does one achieve a new representation? What does that look like?

    15. A multiliteracy center that applies principles of UD and UDL can support students’ different physical abilities, modes of learning, types of knowledge, and literacies.

      In a sense, this is talking about a heightened awareness.

    16. its attention to multiplicity in various modes and media and in its focus on flexibility in processes and products

      Attention and flexibility here are important toward considering this mindful.

  4. www.digitalhumanities.org www.digitalhumanities.org
    1. Rius' "iconoclastic" avoidance of the globalizing features of digital composition raise interesting concerns about the affordances of pen and paper and also about how the visual and spatial can mix with the linguistic and create a unique synergetic effect: http://danieltlamb.tumblr.com/post/141489115893/synergy-by-masterdiwo-via-flickr-this-is. The combination of modes by which meaning is located functions in a fluid kind of way—http://danieltlamb.tumblr.com/post/141489175838/fluidity-by-robertojeda-via-flickr-fine. For Humphrey, comics have a special rhetorical power for reclaiming the power of underprivileged modes, moving away from the hegemony http://danieltlamb.tumblr.com/post/141489327288/hegemony-by-gaiastreetart-via-flickr of print literacy.

    1. As archives proliferate digitally, so do occasions for manipulating and modifying their contents—and, in the process—for engaging with voices of difference in the writing classroom.
    2. use, remix, and repurpose
    3. body
    4. using “communication technologies in the interrogation of such constructions” ( Alexander & Banks, 2004, p. 273). The incongruity in the archive can help encourage more complex, multifaceted understandings of identity.
    5. productive uncertainty and sensations of contradiction
    6. incongruous and even contradictory elements
    7. archive of historical material
    8. gender-critical self-reflection
    9. most alarming
    10. homophobic
    11. If two women were walking down the street holding hands/Would they be mistaken for sisters, relatives, best friends?
    12. she began to notice that women's voices were few and far between
    13. Despite their resistance to feminism earlier in the semester, many students elected a gender-critical approach in charting their line of inquiry through the archive.
    14. this increased desire to keep working is particularly pointed in audio composing because of the kind of listening it demands:As our students have discovered, listening to recordings.. inspires a self-conscious perspective (a form of analytical listening) on what's being said, how it is being said, who is saying it, and to whom. Along with this self-consciousness comes the impetus to revise and revise again in order to achieve resonance (or dissonance) with an audience. (n.p.)7
    15. But, while parodic remix is an effective and popular form of argumentation, it does not afford a stance of openness when engaging with the existing media—quite the opposite, in fact, since these remix practices often intentionally undermine the original source.
    16. In these two examples, moments of awareness that the students’ lives might require the negotiation of gendered power imbalances—this was productive uncertainty—were quickly closed down and abandoned.
    17. most students tended to reduce and silence the blogger to justify their resistance to feminism in their informal responses to the reading
    18. gender-themed first-year writing course
    19. gay liberation radio shows
    20. Listening's dual meaning of understanding and hearing suggests that audio composing can be harnessed in affording a stance of openness to difference.
    21. engagement is fundamentally guided by social relations of difference: “we pay closest attention to the optical and acoustic information that specifies what the other person is, invites, threatens, and does,” before acting accordingly (1979, p. 128). Paying attention to how students engage with sources before and during multimodal composing means shifting our understanding of affordance back to Gibson and back to difference.
    22. challenge
    23. an imagined user
    24. listening
    25. particular affordances of sound”
    26. openness
    1. Capitalism's

      This image can be applied, ideologically, to either Bogost or Bennett—the agency of the individual as mediated or interrupted by objects; the interruption of fundamentally simplistic approaches to complex subjects; the way ideology reproduces itself in capital systems or how subjects are interpellated.

    1. Ian Bogost

      o How are digital media transforming the potential audiences for academic discourse?

      Bogost’s concept could open the door for widening that audience beyond the academy, considering that his main focus is on the gamification of complex systems through the use of procedural rhetoric which endeavors to destabilize the culture of simplicity.

      o Should academic discourse be evolving in response to changes in the rhetorical situation caused by the proliferation of digital and social or participatory media?

      In the light of Bennett and Bogost, the proliferation of the social and digital are indicative of the need for a more interrelational understanding—Bogost’s idea is that a more nuanced, complex understanding of issues can be nurtured through operationalizing rhetoric through the use of games, whereas Bennett looks at the nature of human agency as inextricably connected to the agency of objects, from an ontological perspective. Both of these theories point to more structural relationships among concepts, humans, and objects or “hyper-objects.”

      o How is our relationship to the environment, the world of things around us affected by rhetoric?

      If rhetorics have the power to inform or change a perspective, newer emergent rhetorics can therefore participate in a consciousness-raising event concerning the exigency of circumstances that arise—acceleration, accumulation, climate change, global economic crises, and the rise in human populations, for example.

      o Should teaching and learning be evolving in response to changes in the rhetorical situation caused by the proliferation of digital and social or participatory media?

      To the end that Bogost argues, teaching and learning should embrace fundamental complexitites and move towards furthering a focus on critical thinking. I think he implies the role of critical thinking when he takes up a postmodern point of view in his refusal to assign meanings or outcomes, as he argues that procedural rhetoric can create the ideal conditions for inquiry while avoiding providing concrete answers to specific problems.

      o To what extent are classical models or definitions (Socratic, Aristotelian, Pre-Socratic, etc.) of rhetoric still relevant?

      I think that for Bogost, the idea of sophistic rhetoric is still alive—the university as a model for “a rhetorical personal trainer” might be an apropos analogy. The places where these rhetorics hold up is in their ability to be cross-applied; as rhetors in the present, we aim to examine the strengths, limits, and liabilities that certain rhetorics offer. Plato weighed some of the benefits and limits of writing in the Phaedrus, and considering the Aristotelian form, the idea of rhetoric as being aware of the available modes of persuasion, this form still remains as a function that informs the proliferation of rhetoric—understanding rhetoric’s past, coming to terms with the present, and envisioning the next iteration or rhetorical movement.

    1. Fixed social structures produce an impoverished form of agency because agency always belongs to the same components or groups.

      In the case of "fixed social structures" I can't help but make the connection to the idea of Marxist theory—the ideological state apparatus; the idea of agency and interpellation is complicated and perhaps disrupted by this consideration of agency as "multi-determinate and inclusive."

    2. Assemblage theory does not treat agency as something that belongs to or stems solely from humans or from technology alone but from the interaction of a number of heterogeneous tendencies that together produce emergent properties that enable new capacities. In addition, every assemblage contains actants, like Go, that can modify other entities giving them new functions and abilities. Without new associations or without continually forming new connections this process cannot take place and agency cannot occur.

      This seems to point to the idea of agency itself as being emergent given the fact that "assemblages contain actants."

    3. The examples of Foxtel Go and the LetsPlay channels demonstrate how new television can be thought of as an assemblage of heterogeneous elements that has moments of stability and moments of transformation depending on the kinds of connections that are formed. They also demonstrate how the social is refigured through the new productions and viewing practices they engender.

      One of the interesting things about the social is the idea of impermanence or its quality of being subject to change—television is but one analogy of how seemingly stable concepts can be changed, disrupted, broken down, or reconfigured, given a change in the constraints that mediate those concepts.

    4. For them, the transmission of television via a simultaneous schedule is an entirely foreign concept, even though this has been one of the defining elements of television as a medium for decades

      This difference in viewpoint that children experience—"emergent viewing practices—is very interesting in the light of the way television has been experienced across its history.

    5. Latour argues that it is through the process of reshuffling agency that associations between objects are revealed as social. He argues that the social ‘is an association between entities which are in no way recognizable as being social in the ordinary manner, except during the brief moment when they are reshuffled together’ (Latour, 2005: 65).

      It's interesting how Latour uses the idea of "social" outside its normal context to talk about relationships between "entities." That word keeps the door open to consider the agency of non-human objects and the interrelational connections among them.

    6. Reciprocal determination is a non-linear form of determination that emerges from a process of interaction. To appreciate the importance of this concept to the functioning of assemblages, it is necessary to understand how it relates to both the virtual and the actual. Assemblages function on two planes: the plane of consistency or virtuality, which is made up of becomings or pure differentiation; and, a plane of organisation that actualises these virualities by segmenting and stratifying them

      Defining reciprocal determination

    7. Processes of deterritorialisation, on the other hand, undo fixed orderings, disrupt hierarchical power structures, and by privileging contingent relations between heterogeneous parts, open the assemblage to new possibilities (Deleuze and Guattari, 1987: 3–25)

      In terms of destabilization and withdrawing privilege from hierarchical structures, deterritoialisation could be seen as valuable for feminist critique as a way or process of challenging binaristic qualities and dominant/patriarchal power structures.

    8. Actants are entities that contribute something new to the assemblage and can be human or non-human.

      This concept would support the kind of "relational" ontology that Nancy Tuana offers in her considerations of the Anthropocene and the concept of viscous porosity.

    9. Complicating matters is the fact that different theorists use different terminology to describe what might appear to be similar phenomena.

      This is an important quality to consider when comparing theories. The absence of standardized terms and analogies leads to nomenclature which can often be confusing.

    10. The implication of this is that social theory misses transformations in culture and the social itself.

      As culture is fluidly experienced and is indeed changing, this seems like an important point to note.

    11. in favour of a multi-determinate trajectory

      How will multi-determinate trajectory be dealt with?

    12. deterritorialised and reterritorialised,

      These terms are an application of Deleuze. The terms are described here on the Deleuze wiki:


    13. ‘takes seriously the particular objects, technologies, and forms through which culture is brought together’

      If this assemblage theory is inclusive, does it also consider the interrelational quality of of the connections among technology, objects, forms and agents?

    14. television once had a stable identity that is now being called into question

      The concept of identity as a stable concept or entity, in general, is interesting towards feminist considerations of how gender and sexuality can be described using the concept of "fluidity." How can this notion be cross-applied to the issue of ever-changing technological media?

    15. theorists suggest that there is a need to develop new theoretical frameworks that encompass more than the analogue broadcast model.

      Therefore, we are to assume a discussion of interactivity and reciprocal determination; I am curious as to how newer theories might deal with the idea of consumer/commodity or consumer as commodity.

    16. emerged

      Data is being modulated in different kinds of display states: smartphones, computers, t.v.'s, and through different protocols which offer that modulation: Netflix, Hulu, etc.

    17. the way television culture can be deterritorialised and reterritorialised through new connections and in doing so introduce new qualities such as interactivity and reciprocal determination.

      This is pointing to the focus of the argument or thesis idea.

  5. Feb 2016
    1. Perhaps Plato is right—storytelling is the foundation of rhetoric, and I am above all a storyteller.

      Since this is still a draft,I do think that there are some places on the rubric that you'll need to revisit to fill in the gaps, like with your critical thinking definition and some of the points.

      I think it's interesting how you talk about storytelling (orality) in this Platonic way. I think it's a good thing to end with this positive and strong identity you have cultivated as a storyteller.

      Overall, it looks like you're on the right track with the CRE. Perhaps in your development of the essay, you could enhance the modality and the navigation to your artifacts with image/video/audio and hyperlinks.

    2. My goals have evolved from just get in, get the most practical knowledge, and get out to more thoughtful academic pursuits

      This sentence is a little confusing because of the colloquial structure. Reading it aloud, I totally get what you're saying, but I think that the tone/voice here is a departure from the tone you employ elsewhere in your essay that's more clear and academic.

    3. As a rhetor I am obligated to create a new, more vibrant, and sustainable truth for the emerging New South.

      I think it's great that you acknowledge your own unconscious bias as a writer and your subsequent awareness and identification of that. This really shows growth and agency.

    4. I began to think in a much broader sense about communication and how unconventional platforms could ultimately provide a voice for traditionally marginalized groups, e.g. women, the elderly, African Americans, and animals.

      This is a really great statement!

    5. I used expository writing, Google timeline application, and virtual modeling

      Perhaps you could elaborate on how those modes served your purpose in constructing that history.

    6. The CTW assignment exploring the possible causes of Alexander the Great’s death reflected Plato’s theory that texts can indeed be misleading when the authors are long dead and conclusive evidence no longer exists, if it ever did.

      I think this sentence ties together an important connection between writing, meaning, and embodiment, but the ending confuses the focus a little bit.

    7. divine inspiration

      This reminds me of how we studied "the sublime" in Dr. Burmester's 3050 class.

    8. Kenneth Burke’s

      It's good that you're tying in a key rhet/comp figure as an influence on your evolving idea of rhetoric.

  6. www.jstor.org.ezproxy.gsu.edu www.jstor.org.ezproxy.gsu.edu
    1. aetiology,

      the investigation or attribution of the cause or reason for something, often expressed in terms of historical or mythical explanation.

    2. the transitoriness of all levels of experienc


    3. s meditation traditions have shown, one can most effectively remove the attachment to the ideas that structure and may contaminate our lives by a direct and deliberate confrontation with their manifestations on all levels of experience.


    4. Dogen maintained throughout his work, perhaps most accessibly in his Instructions for the Cook (2001), that this attitude should extend into all of one's daily life. With it, one is able to act and respond freely and spontaneously, unimpeded by preconceptions or biases.

      Attention to present moment awareness throughout the day.

    5. takes neither an affirming nor a negating attitude for its intentionality. Since it does not objectify ideas, there is no object for it to either affirm or deny. For Dogen, this pre- reflective or pre-conceptual state of mind is more fundamental than the other two and it is the proper attitude to assume in seated meditation

      This is better—there's no implication of a semi-conscious state.

    6. Thinking, then, is the tendency to reify concepts and thus to react to them as permanently existing entities. Not-thinking is simply the opposite of thinking, the rejection of thinking, its refusal, perhaps an attempt to achieve a sort of blanking out or a state of sleep (

      I disagree with the idea of blanking out or going into a sleep state. Mindfulness would be alert, thought-free awareness of being.

    7. designed to bring to experiential awareness the ways in which a distorted or false idea manifests in an individual's life and, in the process of achieving this awareness, create the possibility of change. What, then, is the proper use of concepts? The proper attitude to them? And how could using concepts in this way help the hypothetical male student I described above deal with his internalized ideology of masculinity, the effects of that ideology on his own experiences, and its effects on his reactions to others?

      Here's the "So What" question.

    8. Likewise, and following the logic of emptiness, the self can not be accorded a fixed ontological status, although its phenomenal reality is not denied (p. 18). But if language is empty, that is, if it does not function to pick out essentialized entities, and if at the same time people are constituted by language-games and deeply attached to their linguistic categories, then what attitude ought one assume to language, to others, and to oneself? This is a key issue, or complex of issues, that yogic meditation techniques were designed to address.

      Pantanjali's yoga sutras, as a text, address the end of conceptualization as the achievement of "yoga" or a oneness state unsupported by mental constructs, but rather offer a direct experience or realization of existence-being.

    9. linguistic categories do not function to denote essences or natural kinds

      The name of the thing is not the thing itself; language is just a pointer as is conceptualization. Objects and concepts are not the individual's perception of the thing, but exist unto themselves.

    10. Although Western readers have often mistakenly understood Nagarjuna as an academic-style philosopher, his philosophical work is more accurately seen as one phase of a broader program of transformation of the self in the context of his home culture. He designed his anti-essentialist and anti-dualist arguments to be used in conjunction with other meditation practices and techniques to help overcome obstacles to the experiential understanding of emptiness

      Zen- Mahayana Buddhism; Nagarjuna approx 100 CE


    11. essentialism

      Essentialism is the view that, for any specific entity (such as an animal, a group of people, a physical object, a concept), there is a set of attributes which are necessary to its identity and function.

    12. manifestations of alterity

      the state of being other or different; otherness.

    13. a central concern of feminist discourse

      The disruption of binaries and oppressive discourses—

      the master dichotomization of mind and body and the subsequent formations that have been attached to it and that reproduce its valorization of the first term - being/becoming, male/female, reason/ This content emotion, culture/nature, polis/domus, transcendent/immanent, good/evil - have been a central concern of feminist discourse since its early, first- wave inception.

    14. hey have arrived independently at surprisingly similar positions with respect to human ontology, epistemology, and conceptual logic.

      Gudmunsen (1977) Streng (1967)

      Wittgenstein, 1968, passim; see also Pye, 1978; Schroeder, 2001

    15. reductio argumentation

      Definition of reductio ad absurdum. 1 : disproof of a proposition by showing an absurdity to which it leads when carried to its logical conclusion. 2 : the carrying of something to an absurd extreme.

    16. oosen attachment to dualistic and essentialized thinking and consequently to the destructive ways of living that all cultures produce in their members

      The goal of meditation practices.

    17. not simply by replacing problematic ideas with ideas they deem to be better

      Therefore, beyond the cognitive level. Should/can school address issues behind/beyond the cognitive level? Does schooling really acknowledge levels beyond that of mind? What about spirit and body?

    18. The theoretical confrontation of ideology is of the utmost importance, of course, but it is limited in its potential to effect liberation because its impact is largely limited to one level of a student's being: the cognitive. The second point, which follows from the first, is that the full scope of a student's relationship with ideology - what Nagarjuna's tradition identified as the person's forms of attachment to ideation - must be addressed as such and in ways that can enable a student to effect broad-based change in her or his life

      Fleshing out the holistic approach to deconstructing ideology

    19. Change, then, may involve a broad range of things including any or all of a student's beliefs, attitudes, behaviours, values, dreams, and aspirations.

      She argues that alterations to language games (conceptual foundations) would change the whole person.

    20. cathected

      verb (used with object), Psychoanalysis. 1. to invest emotion or feeling in (an idea, object, or another person).

    21. On an ideological level a pedagogy that deconstructs masculinity to expose its contradictions and to reveal to the male student his own conflicted position as both oppressor and oppressed might successfully challenge sexism (Orr, 1993). Although this deconstruction might successfully change ideology, and even have a quite strong impact on behaviour, Wittgenstein's holistic human ontology suggests that important levels of a student's being remain unaffected by his new knowledge.

      Levels of being remain untouched—simply intellectualized experiences have their limitations.

    22. In a very real sense, then, with this work Wittgenstein has shown that people are the language-games they learn to play.

      In this sense, all of a person's outer experience is socially constructed—language shapes identity and informs mentative processes and the internal cognitive experience of the person. Can mindfulness offer, then, the affordance that all thought is technology, and to disengage from thinking mind is to disengage with "language games" as Wittgenstein would put it?

    23. Language, he held, is part of human "natural history" (sec. 25) that serves to shape pre- and non-linguistic human experience in a range of culturally established ways. For example, in one well-known passage that throws light on the development of sexism, he maintained that in teaching a child the language of sensations, such as the word pain, adults teach the child "new pain-behaviour" (Sec. 244). The significance of this example becomes apparent on considering the differences in the uses boys and girls are taught to make of this word. In the modern West many boys are socialized to the mandated masculine identity by being taught that "big boys don't cry." Thus they learn that it is not appropriate for them to engage in a language-game that is strongly endorsed for girls. And along with the acquisition of their differential uses of language, boys and girls "swallow down" (1969, sec. 143) associated sexist attitudes and behaviours, as this simple example clearly demonstrates. In their differential learning of the language-game of pain their culture subtly shapes boys and girls in ways of which they may be largely unaware.

      Enculturation of pain through language use sounds like the mechanics of ideology.

    24. It will colour, as McLaren (1989) has pointed out, the entirety of an individual's being - behaviours, feelings, values, aspirations, orientation of spirit - and often in very subtle and subconscient ways.

      McLaren's concept of learning

    25. What is being foregrounded throughout Wittgenstein's work is that, because the person as a whole learns, not a disembodied mind or mechanistic body, learning affects the whole person.

      Here is an argument pro-embodiment.

    26. concepts of mentation - knowing, believing, doubting, understanding, and others - lie in human experience and behaviours, not in the occurrence of inaccessible events in a hypothetical mind, nor in mere overt behaviour. To know, believe, doubt, or understand something is logically internally related to human behaviour in the broadest sense of the word

      Links to human behavior undermine a phenomenological perspective, calling for an ontology outside of the humans-only variety.

    27. His attention to the role of language in language-games weakens the plausibility of purely cognitive models of learning and gives credibility to a more holistic and experiential model.

      Holistic and experiential—expressive discourse offers invention as a means to mindfulness.

    28. For Wittgenstein a language-game consists of "the language and the actions into which it is woven" (Sec. 7).

      This sounds like "literacy event."

    29. sui generi


    30. by ostentation

      pretentious and vulgar display, especially of wealth and luxury, intended to impress or attract notice.

    1. concept of rhetoric

      Stacy, your concept here in the draft you’ve provided still needs development in order to satisfy the prompts. I noticed that you still haven’t made visible your 8 artifacts on your site—making connections to your work in this particular essay will thread together evidence of your learning. You might want to think about how your personal narrative aspects serve the focus of your portfolio, in terms of audience and purpose. I understand you’re working with a hybrid format. Maybe consider pointing out how your experience in the department is unique because of that hybridity and how elements from each concentration have helped you grow as a writer. In addition, I’d be sure to address the aspects of the rubric that are most pertinent to each concentration, but I think the big take away is giving the evidence of your learning, providing a narrative for your accomplishments.

    2. I agree with Mercedes here about your graphic. It gives your portfolio a great contextual texture.

    1. The thirst for the Common World is what there is of communism in compositionism, with this small but crucial difference: that it has to be slowly composed instead of being taken for granted and imposed on all.

      So, by a deconstruction of the modern and a call for the inclusion paradoxes and the affirmation of thing-power, Latour argues against the corrosive thread of the logic that human agency exists in a mental vacuum of thought, that rather, the universe/pluriverse is interdependent, in the face of the apocalypse.

    2. eikos

      Greek word which meant 'probable' as in the modern sense of probablility: "To be expected with some degree of certainty."

    3. a metanoia of sorts

      change in one's way of life resulting from penitence or spiritual conversion.


    4. The increase of disputability—and the amazing extension of scientific and technical controversies—while somewhat terrifying at first, is also the best path to finally taking seriously the political task of establishing the continuity of all entities that make up the common world.

      Disputability—ambivalence—sounds again like a synonym for paraconsistency, which has the capacity for holding paradoxes within a logical framework.

    5. the notion of matter is too political, too anthropomorphic, too narrowly historical, too ethnocentric, too gendered, to be able to define the stuff out of which the poor human race, expelled from Modernism, has to build its abode. We need to have a much more material, much more mundane, much more immanent, much more realistic, much more embodied definition of the material world if we wish to compose a common world.

      So then the argument is for remediating what constitutes the materiality of the universe.

    6. They simply transform this discrepancy (which would make their worldview untenable) into a radical divide between human subjects and nonhuman objects.

      This is a simple summary of the modernist rationalist which locates agency only within human actants.

    7. concatenations

      a series of interconnected things or events.


    8. This conceit has the strange result of composing the world out of long concatenations of cause and effect where (this is what is so odd) nothing is supposed to happen, except, probably at the beginning—but since there is no God in these staunchly secular accounts, there is not even a beginning. . . . The disappearance of agency in the so-called “materialist world view” is a stunning invention, especially since it is contradicted every step of the way by the odd resistance of reality: every consequence adds slightly to a cause. Thus, it has to have some sort of agency. There is a supple-ment, a gap between the two. If not, there would be no possible way of discriminating causes from consequences. This is true in particle physics as well as in chemistry, biology, psychology, economics, or sociology. Thus, although in practice all agencies have to be distributed at each step of the whole concatenation, in theory nothing goes on but the strict and unaltered transportation of a cause.27 To use my technical language, although every state of affairs deploys associations of media-tors, everything is supposed to happen as if only chains of purely passive intermediaries were to unfold.28 Paradoxically, the most stubborn realism, the most rational outlook is predicated on the most unrealistic, the most contradictory notion of an action without agency.

      Here, he argues against the concept that things or non-human bodies exist without agency of some kind.

    9. One of the principal causes of the scorn poured by the Moderns on the sixteenth century is that those poor archaic folks, who had the misfortune of living on the wrong side of the “epistemological break,” believed in a world animated by all sorts of entities and forces instead of believing, like any rational person, in an inanimatematter producing its effects only through the power of its causes.

      Jane Bennett mentions the problematic concept of animism in her discussion of thing-power and thingness.

    10. proliferation

      rapid increase in numbers.


    11. neologism

      a newly coined word

    12. the agreement that created the Bifurcation in the first place now lies in ruin and has to be entirely recomposed. This is why we seem to experience a sense of familiarity with the times before its invention and implementation.21

      Here he's arguing for a repair or remediation of this Great Bifurcation between subjectivity and objectivity.

    13. For we have simply conjoined the worst of politics and the worst of science, that is, the two traditional ways of producing indisputability. We have been here already

      So we have a critique of the status quo in science and politics.

    14. We compositionists want immanence and truth together. Or, to use my language: we want matters of concern, not only matters of fact. For a compositionist, nothing is beyond dispute. And yet, closure has to be achieved. But it is achieved only by the slow process of composition and compromise, not by the revelation of the world of beyond.

      This is in line with Clemens and Nash as a form of inclusive theory.

    15. es extensa

      Res extensa is one of the three substances described by René Descartes in his Cartesian ontology (often referred to as "radical dualism"), alongside res cogitans and God. Translated from Latin, "res extensa" means "extended thing". Descartes often translated it as "corporeal substance".

      via Google

    16. The idea was that the more natural we became, the more rational we would be, and the easier the agreements between all reasonable human beings. (Remember the big bulldozers and warships of Avatar in their irreversible—in fact, fully reversible—advance to destroy the great tree of life?) This agreement now lies in ruins, but without having been su-perseded by another more realistic and especially more livable project. In this sense, we are still postmodern.

      The initial thought is a simplistic linear concept, yet the linear outcome, as with the example of Avatar is that of ruin, followed by an absence of further development, so Latour locates us within the postmodern.

    17. his was the time of the great political, religious, legal, and epistemological invention of matters of fact, embedded in a res extensa devoid of any meaning, except that of being the ultimate reality, made of fully silent entities that were yet able, through the mysterious intervention of Science (capital S) to “speak by themselves” (but without the mediation of science, small s, and scientists—also small s!).

      This sounds like the ideology of dominant power structures, especially referring to his mention above of the silencing power of "matters of fact."

    18. Nature is not a thing, a domain, a realm, an ontological territory. It is (or rather, it was during the short modern parenthesis) a way of organizing the division (what Alfred North Whitehead has called the Bifurcation)13 between appearances and reality, subjectivity and objectivity, history and immutability. A fully transcendent, yet a fully historical construct, a deeply religious way (but not in the truly religious sense of the word)14 of creating the difference of potential between what human souls were attached to and what was really out there.

      He seems to connect the concept of nature to the idea of a framework of order.

    19. Which is another way of saying that we don’t wish to have too much to do with the twentieth century: “Let the dead bury their dead.”

      This reminds me of the comment one audience member offered Jane Bennett: are the hoarders actually in touch with the reality of death and decomposition as opposed to their inherent ability to hear the living call of material things? It's a subtle difference that I don't accept just yet, but this idea of reassembly made the thought of the hoarder connect with Latour.

    20. But when there is nothing real to be seen behind this destroyed wall, critique suddenly looks like another call to nihilism. What is the use of poking holes in delusions, if nothing more true is revealed beneath? This is precisely what has happened to postmodernism, which can be defined as another form of modernism, fully equipped with the same iconoclastic tools as the moderns, but without the belief in a real world beyond. No wonder it had no other solution but to break itself to pieces, ending up debunking the debunkers. Critique was meaningful only as long as it was accompanied by the sturdy yet juvenile belief in a real world beyond. Once deprived of this naïve belief in transcendence, critique is no longer able to produce this difference of potential that had literally given it steam.

      He argues that the absence of a (R)eality and (T)ruth for critique to reveal has rendered the concept of critique impotent and vulnerable to a deferral to nihilism.

    21. iconoclasts

      a person who attacks cherished beliefs, traditional institutions, etc., as being based on error or superstition. 2. a breaker or destroyer of images, especially those set up for religious veneration


    22. veil of appearances

      Here, Latour seems to be arguing against inherent (T)ruth, advocating for a reconsideration of what critique might offer.

    23. compositionism takes up the task of searching for universality but without believing that this universality is already there, waiting to be unveiled and discovered. It is thus as far from relativism (in the papal sense of the word) as it is from universalism (in the modernist meaning of the world—more on this later). From universalism it takes up the task of building a common world; from relativism, the certainty that this common world has to be built from utterly heterogeneous parts that will never make a whole, but at best a fragile, revisable, and diverse composite material.

      Here his description of the compositionist philosophy feels tentative, ambivalent and perhaps as the digital ontologists claim, paraconsistent.

    24. Zeitgeist

      the defining spirit or mood of a particular period of history as shown by the ideas and beliefs of the time.

    25. a new search for hope on condition that what it means to have a body, a mind, and a world is completely redefined.

      This is interesting in league with what Clemens and Nash offer on digital ontology. The notion of the body being remediated into a display state via the avatar is a compelling idea.

    1. technics

      Hood gives the traditional definition of technology originating with Aristotle as “a human arrangement of technics—tools, machines, instruments, materials, sciences, and personnel—to make possible and serve the attainment of human ends” (Hood, 1983, p. 347).

      Philosophy of Technology- Erwin Marquit, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota,

      Published in vol. 13 of the Encyclopedia of Applied Physics (entry “Technology, Philosophy of”), pp. 417–29. VCH Publishers, Weinheim, Germany, 1995.

    2. Or, to put this differently, we have argued that: logic is the medium of being, insofar as it inscribes the necessity of pure minimal differences before contradiction; mathematics the medium that concretises minimal differences into consistency-without-phenomenal-identity as the possibility of any actualisation; technics the actualising medium of modulating these consistencies in turn. This tripartite distinction—difference, consistency, modulation—entails that all phenomenal presentations are at once infinitely variable as they are entirely constrained in specific ways.

      The use of medium as a way of discussing digital ontology makes sense: logic as medium of being, mathematics as a substantiating medium, and technics as the medium of modulation and actualization.

    3. otiose

      serving no practical purpose or result.


    4. Yet our point here is that, at base, the digital is a model of logic, not a specific technology (Chun, 2011: 140). Second, and just as importantly, because the physical reality of the computer is an electronic and magnetic enactment of this logic, it is impossible to ever identify any specific being of digital data, since the ‘movement’ of data back and forth between disks, RAM (Random Access Memory), caches and registers on the CPU (Central Processing Unit), is in fact a constant process of modulation between states of magnetic polarity or electric charge in these physical objects. Because of this, it is impossible to say that any given bit of digital data is even the same as itself, or point to its localisation or appearance in the world as a criterion or determinant of its identity, laying bare the fundamental spuriousness of the concept of a ‘copy.’ Data’s ‘identity’ is a pure, non-phenomenal, distributed-cohering-across-materials. And, ‘underneath’ that, there are simply absolutely minimal differences or pure binaries—which are thus differences-without-identity, not subject to the laws of non-contradiction.

      Here again, there is this summation and recontextualization of what is meant by digital and the ambivalence of identity as a result of modulation and display states.

    5. ferromagnetic

      (of a body or substance) having a high susceptibility to magnetization, the strength of which depends on that of the applied magnetizing field, and that may persist after removal of the applied field. This is the kind of magnetism displayed by iron and is associated with parallel magnetic alignment of neighboring atoms.


    6. digital ontology as founded on pure differences established by the primacy of excluded middle, data should be considered a hyperdifferentiated consistency without identity. We thereby reiterate and extend our fundamental point about digital data, which is that it scrambles inherited metaphysical polarities. The principle of excluded middle rules the foundations of the digital universe, not the principle of non-contradiction. Digital ontology is paraconsistent, not classical or intuitionist.

      So, in a sense, digital ontology is dualistic, but with a caveat— digital data "scrambles inherited metaphysical polarities." Therefore, it creates an monistic effect while underlining the paradoxical concept of paraconsistency, rejecting the "classical or intuitionist."

    7. incommensurable

      not able to be judged by the same standard as something; having no common standard of measurement.


    8. Yet recent developments in logic—those broadly denominated ‘paraconsistent’—have attempted to construct logical systems in which contradictions are not necessarily ‘explosive.’ In traditional propositional logic, everything follows from a contradiction, but variants of para-consistent logic propose otherwise. As Greg Restall explains: Paraconsistent logics are distinctive in that they do not mandate explosion. […] Instead, for paraconsistent logics the entailment fails […] in the semantics for these logics there are interpretations in which A and -A may both be taken to be true, but in which not everything is true (Restall, 2006: 76). - 36 - It is essential here to understand that paraconsistency separates out contradiction from consistency, such that certain contradictions might be true, without all of them being so. Whereas consistency and the foreclosure-of-contradiction are identical in classical and intuitionist logics, this is not the case for paraconsistent ones. Moreover, this situation establishes the actuality that there may well be many different modes of constructing logical systems, even a kind of logical pluralism. This reopens the old question regarding the foundations of logic in a radical new fashion. - 37 - What we want to underline is that the instantiation of Boolean logic in post-war computing led very quickly to the appearance of a vacillation in the data computers were handling, such that paraconsistent logics initially came to be developed “to prevent computers, such as expert medical systems, from deducing anything whatsoever from contradictory data… because of the principle of ex falso quodlibet” (Meillasoux, 2009: 76). [12] Unlike regimes governed by classical logic, then, such a digital ontology would render pure difference (not identity) fundamental; unlike intuitionist logic, digital ontology could also affirm actual infinities. One corollary is the possibility, even actuality, perhaps even necessity, of true contradictions; another is the patency of contingency in any modulation.

      The concept of paraconsistency allows room for paradoxes to occur without the collapse of the logical system. This seems within the spirit of postructuralist rhetoric.

    9. But we, four, disagree that ontology must be classical, as well as, five, that logic can only describe (and therefore does not prescribe) existents. So it is time for us to bring together all the points we have made above into a clear and distinct summary of digital ontology.

      Here's the difference from Badiou.

    10. they are ideological in this new sense, that they are produced on the basis of absolute binary operations whose operations vanish in the presentation of numbers, thereby also remodulating the data they present. The very organisation of data through various forms of modulation puts all sorts of pressures on the numbers that numbers themselves cannot say (Mackenzie, 2012: 335–350). We are thus committed here to understanding the digital as prior to number. Above all, we use this fact as a hint in our construction of a digital ontology. We maintain that it is vital to understand that to construct a digital ontology is to have recourse to a logical and not a mathematical ontology. But what does this mean?

      The concept of ideology enters the conversation in an interesting way: since data is fundamentally represented in "absolute binary operations," the numbers are the substance of the ideology, and the ideological apparatus could be said to be the forms of modulation, where numbers are interpellated as subjects of that ideology, where the forms "put all sorts of pressures on the numbers that the numbers themselves cannot say."

    11. The move to pure quantities is far easier to understand when we accept the numerical as simply another parameter in the modulation process between data and its display, and may help us move closer to an understanding of the relationship between the contemporary technical interdependence of virtual/material and the Deleuzian interdependence of virtual/actual (Nash, 2012).

      Here, digital as an ontological metaphor is further clarified as numerical is represented as a parameter of modulation rather than the "substance" of being.

    12. it is that the unprecedented powers of thought and action that derive from the electrification of Boolean algebra first established by Shannon, and now incarnated globally in the form of contemporary computing, must have some fundamental anchoring in ‘being’ for it to function at all (Shannon, 1937). Second, this means that to speak of ‘digital media’ is not simply to speak of a set of hardware and software components developed by a particular species on a particular planet at a particular time using particular materials: it is rather to be given a new access to being itself, and one which must thereafter guide our thinking of natural processes more generally. Third, if there remains something unthought in the Wolfram-Fredkin hypothesis, it is simply that there is something preprogrammed, indeed too representational, about the direct projection of a contemporaneously-dominant media paradigm onto being itself. Moreover, if the social conditions of such a projection are occluded, then we should expect such an occlusion to create certain symptoms too; not least the immediate carrying-across of a number of features of contemporary computing to nature itself in an unjustified manner. What we wish to do here, then, is radicalise the Wolfram-Fredkin hypothesis along logical lines. Above all, we agree that when we speak about the ‘digital,’ this must have an extension far greater than simply referring to the actualities of new media, at the same time that these new media must simultaneously function as our primary mode of access to this recognition. But we disagree that the universe is a computer. We believe, rather, that being is digital, if in a very particular sense.

      Here, there is a summation of the basic argument and a refutation of the idea of the universe as a computer. The concept of "being is digital" then remediates the word digital into a way of negotiating meaning through the understanding of being and reality through the apparatus of modulation and display state, from the unmodified to the experienced, from the non-ontological to that which is conceptualized.

    13. at all other times it exists as unmodulated digital data with no clear ontological state. This is true of all digital data. These may perhaps be termed ‘immanently digital entities,’ and could be said to be true of any and all of the excess of data created by the use of digital data and networks. ‘Likes’ and ‘friends’ and ‘photos’ and ‘text’ and ‘links’ and ‘Tweets’ and ‘followers’ and all other ostensibly differentiable digital phenomena–some of these may have identifiable provenance in the non-digital world, and some may be uniquely generated by and in the digital sphere, but all can be said to be ‘immanently digital entities.’ It is this problem, unique to the non-medium of the digital, that leads thinkers such as those mentioned above to concepts of ‘inorganic life’ and technogenesis, as well as scientists like Stephen Wolfram and Edward Fredkin to posit—in a move emblematic of Kittler’s assertion that “media determine our situation”—an hypothesis of the universe as a digital computer (Kittler, 1999: xxxix; Chaitin, 1999: 108).

      The unmodifed raw data exists in kind of a formless state, before it is modulated into a display state. This analogy of the universe as a digital computer kind of sounds like a borrowing from some Eastern ontological ideas like that of Hinduism and the Purusha Sukta from the Rigveda, where the universe is a kind of display state that results from a modulation of consciousness within the godhead, or create force manifest as a deity known as Purusha. The analogy might not be useful, but it serves as a way to connect thought conceptually for me.

    14. chimeric


      1 a capitalized : a fire-breathing she-monster in Greek mythology having a lion's head, a goat's body, and a serpent's tail b : an imaginary monster compounded of incongruous parts 2 : an illusion or fabrication of the mind; especially : an unrealizable dream <a fancy, a chimera in my brain, troubles me in my prayer — John Donne> 3 : an individual, organ, or part consisting of tissues of diverse genetic constitution

      (Merriam Webster)

    15. the ‘experience’ of the digital becomes one of process, a performance (Groys, 2008: 84). As we have already implied, being qua data proceeds from its operations. When modulating some digital data into a display state and experiencing it as an image (say, in order to show a picture of your child to a friend on your phone), you can no more say that it is the same, or even a copy of the image you showed a different friend yesterday than you could say the D flat played by Martha Goldstein in her 1970 performance of Chopin’s “Etude Op.25 No. 8” was the same D flat that Hermann Scholtz played in his 1879 performance of the same work, let alone the same D flat that Abel Tesfaye sang in The Weeknd’s 2011 performance of their song “The Knowing”.

      This example of display state, I really get the sense of the notion of individuation through the musical analogy, and the concept of process/performance is made clear. The idea of privileging process over product applies to the valuation of what is experienced rather than the means of production.

    16. phenomenological


      a philosophical movement that describes the formal structure of the objects of awareness and of awareness itself in abstraction from any claims concerning existence

      (Merriam Webster)