11 Matching Annotations
  1. Oct 2016
    1. American higher education institutions face unique twenty-first century changes and challenges in providing good, holistic learning spaces for the diverse and evolving needs of today’s college student

      Being a student at Georgia State, a school that has been listed as one of the top 5 most innovative universities in America, I've noticed that this claim holds much truth. Georgia State's continuous innovation caught my attention in 2015, thus being the reason I chose to attend the university. Here is the article listing Georgia State as one of The US's most innovative universities: http://colleges.usnews.rankingsandreviews.com/best-colleges/rankings/national-universities/innovative

  2. Aug 2016
    1. One reason that restrictive covenants and zoning for exclusion were so common is that they were preceded by a long history of norms in support of segregation in the United States2

      I hope one day the "norm" isn't accepting architecture and transportive services that served as the foundation of historical segregation. I hope one day we can all move on and be more progressive in eliminating architecture that reminds us of our frightening past.

    2. The bottom line seems to be that the Supreme Court has been fairly active and responsive in striking down laws that create “formal racial barriers”—racial zoning, racially restrictive covenants, Jim Crow laws requiring physical separation in public places266—but not so when considering other “less obvious forms of discrimination”—including (to some extent) exclusionary zoning and architectural exclusion.

      This paragraph alone is enough to make an individual super angry about past architectural decisions, and angry over the fact that the truth is just now being heard by me and I'm certain many others.

    3. nother method of exclusion involves the creation and use of one-way streets. These streets function to funnel traffic away from certain areas and into others.173 There are sometimes health- and safety-based reasons for the creation of one-way streets, including traffic-calming and pedestrian safety

      I didn't even think about one way streets being a means of exclusion, I thought about it as just a way to handle traffic. Living in Atlanta, though, this article has caused me to make some shocking connections. I wonder what would happen if one-way streets in Atlanta were changed?

    4. This was the scenario faced by Cynthia Wiggins, a seventeen-year-old woman who was hit and killed by a dump truck while she was attempting to cross a seven-lane highway to get to the mall where she worked.

      This is so sad. It makes me question why changes weren't immediately dynamic.

    5. Communities also engage in architectural exclusion in the way they design and place public transit and transportation infrastructure. The siting of bus stops and subway stations changes the built environment

      It still continues to disturb me that bus stops and transportation services are manipulated strategically. I'll definitely be more aware while I'm living here in Atlanta.

    6. And although the law has addressed the exclusionary impacts of zoning ordinances and restrictive covenants, courts, legislatures, and most legal scholars have paid little attention to the use of less obvious exclusionary urban design tactic

      Why haven't new forms of architecture replaced the old? Why do we continue to ignore the issues in today's seemingly "progressing" infrastructures? Why don't we fully educate/ go into further detail of the extent of discrimination that took place? I'm just now learning about some of these forms of discrimination and it disheartens me greatly.

    7. The U.S. Supreme Court dismissed a challenge to this action, stating that the road closure was just a “routine burden of citizenship” and a “slight inconvenience.

      It frightens me to know that the Justice System attempted to cover up the true motives to closing the road down. It makes me wonder what other frightening things the government has tried to hide.

    8. Wealthy, mostly white residents of the northern Atlanta suburbs have vocally opposed efforts to expand MARTA into their neighborhoods for the reason that doing so would give people of color easy access to suburban communities.

      Until now, I didn't even realize the extent of discrimination in MARTA's history. I'm a bit shocked that I didn't put the pieces together, but I've always wondered why MARTA, with its may benefits, hasn't been expanded.

    9. During the time that he was appointed to a number of important state and local offices,

      I actually would like to know exactly what time this Robert Moses curated this infrastructure to get a better idea of the exact history that ties along with this discrimination. You read about segregation in history textbooks, but often aren't given details of discrimination to this extent.

    10. In this way, the exclusionary built environment—the architecture of a place—functions as a form of regulation

      I never really thought that the architecture of a place could function as a regulation, but it makes a lot of sense thinking about it. Many forms of architecture and infrastructure are still the same and have an almost eerie history, and we still use them today without realizing the history.