17 Matching Annotations
  1. Oct 2016
    1. obvious forms of architectural exclusion: the walls, gates, and guardhouses of gated communities

      I never thought of gated communities as an "obvious [form] of architectural exclusion", It simply did not strike me as such. I still think however, that gated communities are not necessarily a regulatory tool for segregation. They keep non residents out, yes, however if you were to be apart of that neighborhood, then you are included. The gate sets up a boundary, but it is not like the boundary is unassailable. Then again, if we look too segregation as the separation of difference as a whole, then the gated communities would not serve as a tool towards race segregation, but towards one of wealth. Though, that is only true if the community catered to the rich; if a similar community were to pop up that catered to the poor, where does the gate fit in then? It it still a form of exclusion and regulation? Rather, in this scenario, I see the gate as a form of security.

    2. I

      "Why Breastfeeding Rooms Are a Victory for California Students" by Michelle Miller, Summary:

      Miller introduces Fresno High School and how it has "...changed a lot..." since she herself attended the school. The change taking place in the school; the opening of an area specifically catered to teen moms/ soon to be teen moms. In the first half of the article, Miller goes into how she herself, while attending the school, and even after, could not imagine there being any sort of "accommodation" for teen parents. In the second paragraph, she introduces the experience of her sister, who was a teen mom during her high school days; specifically going into the hardships her sister faced while attending school and taking care of a child. The middle half of the article focuses more on the room and gives detailed descriptions; calling it "...peaceful and inviting". Miller also goes into the practicality of the room, how it provides an area for moms to pump milk, to store milk, and to even learn about the various aspects of being a mom.

      Afterwards, Miller takes a turn away from the room itself, and focuses more primarily on the positive impact the room will have for teen moms across the state. With the state of California passing the AB 302 law, high schools in the state of California are required to have separate rooms for pregnant teens, and accommodations for class/class work. She gives a very real statement, that "pregnant and parenting teens want to stay in school, graduate with their class, and be productive, successful adults" however because of the pressure and stress of juggling school and child care, teen moms are left with little to no choice but to drop out. She then goes back to the room, and how it will provide equal opportunities to moms, giving them a chance at graduation and success.

      “Why Breastfeeding Rooms Are a Victory for California Students.” ACLU of Northe rn California. N.p.,n.d. Web. 22 Sept. 2016.

    3. architectural exclusion: practice

      A good article that gives yet another example of exclusion by architecture is the article featured in The New York Times entitled, "The Architecture of Segregation" by the editorial board. The article focuses on fair housing and its connection to "...racial and economic segregation". Below is the link.


      “The Architecture of Segregation - The New York Times.” N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Sept. 2016.

    4. For example, a cafeteria manager who places healthier food items in a more visible and accessible location than junk food in order to nudge people toward healthier choices is guiding actions through architectural decisions

      If we compare the cafeteria manager's decision on healthy food to that of the breastfeeding room, then the relationship would go something like this. The introduction of the breastfeeding room mentioned in "Why Breastfeeding Rooms Are a Victory for California Students", represents the healthy food, whereas the original state of the school, depicts unhealthy food. The cafeteria manager, or in the case of the school, the principle, decided that the school should be more accommodating to its student, so he/she puts the breastfeeding room (the healthy food) out in the open so as to nudge people to use the room. Much like how the cafeteria manager placed the healthier choices in the more visible and accessible areas. This allows for a healthy environment where the student body can relax and live a healthier lifestyle. They are guided by the architectural decisions of the school board.

    5. Placement of Highway Routes

      “untapped_LAX_manchester_aerial.jpg (JPEG Image, 640 × 400 Pixels) - Scaled (57%).” N.p., n.d. Web. 30 Sept. 2016.

      This image shows exactly how highway placement can affect a neighborhood. This neighborhood, Manchester Square,a primarily African American community, is completely isolated on all sides due to the uncanny placement of highway routes. The highway system has successfully cut off any and all access to the neighborhood. Demonstrating that architecture can indeed act as a tool of exclusion. Here's a link to a little more detail about the neighborhood http://www.theatlantic.com/video/index/389967/the-ghost-town-of-los-angeles/

    6. placement

      Placement in this context pertains to highways, however it also can relate to other things; quite possibly even a specific type of room, inside a school. Schindler goes into the importance of placement, and how the location of a structure can be a regulatory measure, such as a highway cutting across a "poor black neighborhood"; resulting in its destruction. The same process of examining location can also be put in context with "Why Breastfeeding Rooms Are a Victory for California Students". The breastfeeding room was built inside the school, rather than outside of the school. Why does its placement matter? If the room was outside the school, it would be detached; an area where teen moms would feel even more alienated from their student body. By having the room inside the school, the school itself is including teen moms into its fabric, creating a sense of connection between mom and student; allowing for both to exist independently, but working together cohesively.

    7. The architecture of the built environment directs both physical movement through and access to places

      Over the summer my friends and I went on a road trip cross country, and one of the place we visited was Kentucky. When we got into the suburbs, as the person driving, I realized a lot of one way streets; so much so that it seemed as if the entire grid system functioned on these one way streets. They're presence made it unnecessarily hard to get from point a to point b; even when the two points were no more than a couple feet apart. The road itself however, did not seem to be a from of exclusionary practice, though I am not 100% confident, as we did not stay long. The one way streets however, does correlate to the above quote, as it directed both movement and access.

  2. Sep 2016
    1. That a highway divides two neighborhoods limits the extent to which the neighborhoods integrate.

      A clear cut example that gives credence to the notion that the built environment of a place can be a form of regulatory practice. The highway itself may indeed provide for the residents, however, the deliberate placement of said highway between two neighborhoods, who very well may be of different ethic cultures, would show otherwise.

    2. a private developer constructed a six-foot-high wall—known as Eight Mile Wall

      Part 1 and part 2 introduces architecture as a tool for regulation and how the built environment reflects this idea. This one quote is an example of how architecture serves to exclude, however, I want to note that not all structures are built with the goal of exclusion. Some, much like the breastfeeding room mentioned in "Why Breastfeeding Rooms Are a Victory for California Students" by Michelle Miller, are built with the goal of inclusion. The contrast between the breastfeeding room and the eight mile wall though, is very stark; the first is one of the extremes of inclusion, while the other, the complete opposite. The two however, are both architectural works, I find it astonishing, and this example furthers the point Schindler is trying to make; that the built environment does in fact have the capability to be regulatory.

    3. Law and lawmakers habitually overlook68 the way that the built environment functions as an express tool of exclusion.

      Exclusion is a form of, or rather, it is segregation. Where one group, not necessarily a race, is alienated/neglected from the whole. In the case of "Why Breastfeeding Rooms Are a Victory for California Students" by Michelle Miller, it is the teen moms who are, in a sense, "segregated" from the rest of the student body. The school, before the passage of AB 302 in California, did not provide to its teen moms population. This caused the teens moms to feel a form of exclusion, an alienation that eventually lead to their dropping out; an aspect Miller touches upon in her article. The school, the built environment within the school, does not cater to these moms, and it is within these context that it excludes, and alienate them; focusing/catering primarily on non pregnant students.

    4. physical architecture as a constraint

      The architecture of high schools are in such a way that it does not provide for certain groups of individuals; teen moms for example. Because they do not have these accommodations, teen moms do not have an outlet in which they can relieve the stress of school and parenthood; specifically pumping milk/breastfeeding. A form of constraint appears, limiting the moms only to school work. Although, the statement alone would appear to incorporate all forms of architecture as a from of constraint, I do not believe so. The breastfeeding room mentioned in the article "Why Breastfeeding Rooms Are a Victory for California Students" by Michelle Miller, prove otherwise. The room is an addition to schools, it is apart of the physical architecture, I however, do not see it as a from on constraint.

    5. idea that spaces themselves have racial meanings.

      It would be an understatement to say that spaces have racial meanings; they most certainly do. Each "space" has its own history of exclusion that gives it a certain tag, an identity almost. Take for example Auburn Avenue, or "Sweet Auburn" to residents, in Atlanta. That space was known for its thriving African American population, a thriving business center that was recognized nationally as the economic hub for black Americans. The exclusion the African Americans felt propelled the streets identity, giving the area meanings associated with the black community.

    6. architecture and design can be employed to steer human behavior and to promote desired ends.

      In relation to "Why Breastfeeding Rooms Are a Victory for California Students" by Michelle Miller, this statement proves to be true. If we look at the behavior and ends of teen moms before the introduction of the "breastfeeding room", then it would be something along these lines: A teen gets pregnant, she has the baby, she must now juggle between school and child, however the school does not give any sort of leniency for these moms, so unable to bear under the pressure, 9 times out of 10 they drop out of school. The end; having no little to no chance at monetary success. However, with the introduction of the room, a new behavior can be see. Now they have more opportunities, more accommodations by the school, leading to decrease drop out rates and increased graduation rates; therefore resulting in a much more desirable end. The design and function of the room led to a change in behavior, which in turn promoted the desired ends of the state.

    7. people tend to believe that the plan and structures of cities are created for purposes of efficiency or with the goal of furthering the general public interest

      I can associate this claim to myself, as before reading this article, I never thought of the built environment being anything more than a tool of cultural expression; built for the betterment of people. Now however, it would seem that the built environment has more to it than meets the eye. If I were to think about it, the highway that passes through Auburn Avenue (known as Sweet Auburn), effectively destroyed the once bustling African American business district. Though, I choose to not believe this too much, as I can think of a good number of designs that do in fact help further the general interest. Take for example, the breastfeeding room mentioned in "Why Breastfeeding Rooms Are a Victory for California Students" by Michelle Miller, the room by no means function as a tool for regulation and exclusion. Its whole design is meant for the inclusion of teen moms in the school dynamic.

    8. “there is no such thing as a ‘neutral’ design.”

      Building a structure, of any size, first requires an outline; a design. It is within this process that regulatory tendencies of the built environment comes to life. The design of any building is within the hands of the architects, there architects all have their own separate opinions, their own views; a product of their upbringing. Because of this, the building design they make will be a representation of their perceived culture; as such, there is and never will be, a "'neutral design'". The breastfeeding room in "Why Breastfeeding Rooms Are a Victory for California Students" is a perfect example of the non neutrality of building designs. The room was made to specifically cater to the pregnant/ teen mom population in schools, it wasn't made to just exist, it was created with a clear image, and a clear goal in mind; to provide accommodations to teen moms.

    9. architecture itself is a form of regulation.

      This is essentially a study of the vernacular culture of modern day society. Never have I thought about associating the built environment with regulatory practices, rather, I viewed it as a means for fostering community interactions; a tool for bypassing cultural barriers. However, the article demonstrates the opposite, presenting points and evidence that the built environment can act as an exclusionary tool that works against certain ethic groups.

    10. physical exclusion by walls and barriers is nothing new.

      “History_Builders_of_The_Great_Wall_42710_reSF_HD_still_624x352.jpg (JPEG Image, 624 × 352 Pixels).” N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Sept. 2016.

      An architectural landmark that is still celebrated today, the Great Wall of China was build on the premise of exclusion; A measure to ensure the safety of Central China from the Huns.