53 Matching Annotations
  1. Oct 2016
    1. It’s common sense,

      It is common sense. Common sense is not always right however, as it is only the construct of the society in which you belong too. One persons common sense may differ entirely from another, in the case of gender roles and who can use what, the common sense between the two parties are extremely skewed away from one another. To those who are for the movement believe it is common sense for a child to feel safe in their expression of who they are, while others, who do not share the same sentiments, common sense would dictate their aversion. In "His & Hers: Designing for a Post-Gender Society" by Emma Green, Green's common sense differs from others as she believe it is fundamental to create an environment where people can safely express their individuality.

    2. thus risking certain health problems

      “1600-Genderbread-Person.jpg (JPEG Image, 1600 × 1035 Pixels) - Scaled (22%).” N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Oct. 2016

      As the graph above illustrates, gender identity comes from the mind, the expression of which is the embodiment of the human psyche. The mind is a very complex and delicate piece of machinery, so much so that the entirety of its functions, what it can do, still remains a mystery. Gender identity, being connected to something so profound and delicate, is a topic of utmost sensitivity. The constant denial of what the mind believes itself to be causes anxiety, depression, and an overall feeling of difference. The pile up of these emotions have, as Jen mentioned, led to very high rates of suicides. They view health problems in terms of the "victim" however, they do not consider the strain it causes on the transgender student.

    3. These kinds of exemption bills, ostensibly created to protect religious conscience, are still being debated in statehouses around the country.

      The same sex marriage law catered to a certain minority so that they can express their right to marry whomever they wish. The law was made to allow the basic right to marriage, yet proposed bills that cater to people who otherwise find the act repulsive, due to religious belief, are on the chopping board. Religious right is inalienable, so is the right to marry, what then, is the problem if legislation are in place to allow people to practice their belief and not attend ceremonies where the act offends their religion?

    4. women will be in danger of sexual assault.

      The age old argument. If men (identify as female) are allowed to use the bathroom, and the situation arises, they can overpower their women counterparts and sexually assault them. What these supporters fail to mention is that, even without legal allowance of men going to into women bathrooms, people who wish to do such acts do so without regards. These acts, despicable to the highest of levels, still happen on a daily basis. Men who wish to assault women in bathrooms exists, and will continue to do so with or without the law on their side.

    5. where women and men are divided and body parts exposed

      Are they exposed, though? Occupants are not openly exposed when they use the restrooms. There are dividers, stalls, that separate and hide body parts. Since that is the case, what is the problem with having an identified female going to the room in which they identity with? Major concerns over privacy are no doubt just, but there is a solid metal wall that separates you from the other.

    6. making sure transgender people can move through the world free from violence and harassment,

      Replace "transgender" with African-Americans and the argument resembles those of past gross negligence towards the injustice faced by black citizens on issues of violence and discrimination. We now look towards that point in history with contempt and disgust, yet in today's society, we are doing just that which we criticize our predecessors for. Not unlike the past, we are not acting fast enough on these issues; we let them foster on and on. The time has come for these problems to be addressed, with clear and comprehensive legislation passed for accommodations.

    7. America’s Profound Gender Anxiety

      "His & Hers: Designing for a Post-Gender Society" by Emma Green. Summary:

      The article starts off with the acknowledgment of the changing in gender roles. Because of such changes, Green appeals that designers should take note of these differences and help promote acceptance and change through their designs. Green then goes on mentioning the condition of design within the working world of today, to which she attributes to the modernism movement; a movement deeply connected to the male perspective, as they are the ones that dominate the working force. Green makes the claim that a wave of feminism will hit the work force, in response, Tick reaches out to designers on that they should focus on incorporating "gender sensitivity" into the workplace. Giving examples of the type of changes, such as adding more windows, more "softness in texture," in essence, a re-haul of the old solid workplace catered to the male perspective, to that one that focuses on softness and hospitality.

      The article then shifts gear to the actual instances where gender sensitivity has made its way into the way things are designed. Tick adds that the fastest field to incorporate this sensitivity is within fashion, due to its rapid movement. Tick gives examples of designs, such as a woman's military coat, and masculine designs for male makeup, which have been made in attempts to accommodate the changing gender roles. Ending the article, Tick brings up transgenders face on a daily basis, the use of bathrooms. Tick argues that the very first step should be providing an environment that allows an individual to express his or her identity, the issue of bathroom usage then, is the stepping stone towards creating such an environment.

    8. Gender is not going to disappear.

      Gender is not going to disappear, in fact, not only is it not going anywhere, but it is also changing at a rapid pace. The rapidity to which gender roles are changing is the focus of the article by Emma Green, "His & Hers: Designing for a Post-Gender Society," in which, she implores designers to incorporate gender sensitivity into their works, allowing for an accommodation of the differing roles.

    9. America is experiencing a period of profound gender anxiety.

      This can be attributed to the phenomena Green mentions in her article "His & Hers: Designing for a Post-Gender Society". The world, as of now, is shaped by "modernism", a movement that centers itself around the male perspective. A new wave however, is coming, to which feminism is the cause. The shift creates anxiety within the population as the foundation on which it was built upon begins to crack, causing Americans to experience this "profound gender anxiety".

    10. But why did bathrooms come next?

      The reasoning behind bathrooms and its centrality to the argument is because they are "...spaces that are sensitive to such personal issue." (Green) Everyone can accept you for who you are, use the proper pronoun when addressing you, support you and your identity, however, that all comes to nothing when you are forced to enter a room that spells out, in big letters, the gender that you are not. That is profoundly personal, and it affects the psyche, so much so that it destroys the identity that you have built for yourself, the bathroom signs will always be there to tell you that you are not who you say you are. That is why bathrooms came next, and that is why bathroom neutrality, advocated in "His & Hers: Designing for a Post-Gender Society" is so important.

    11. “religion.”

      As the post above mentions, religion should not have any ties to government. The issue at hand is a state problem, not one of religion. Therefore, religion should in no way be under consideration when deciding the course of action on bathroom access.

    12. There’s this belief that God created man, and out of man, he created woman.

      Scientifically, during the process of fetal development, everyone starts off as females and it is only later on when its sex changes according to genetic makeup.

    1. obvious forms of architectural exclusion: the walls, gates, and guardhouses of gated communities

      I never thought of gated communities as an "obvious [form] of architectural exclusion", It simply did not strike me as such. I still think however, that gated communities are not necessarily a regulatory tool for segregation. They keep non residents out, yes, however if you were to be apart of that neighborhood, then you are included. The gate sets up a boundary, but it is not like the boundary is unassailable. Then again, if we look too segregation as the separation of difference as a whole, then the gated communities would not serve as a tool towards race segregation, but towards one of wealth. Though, that is only true if the community catered to the rich; if a similar community were to pop up that catered to the poor, where does the gate fit in then? It it still a form of exclusion and regulation? Rather, in this scenario, I see the gate as a form of security.

    2. I

      "Why Breastfeeding Rooms Are a Victory for California Students" by Michelle Miller, Summary:

      Miller introduces Fresno High School and how it has "...changed a lot..." since she herself attended the school. The change taking place in the school; the opening of an area specifically catered to teen moms/ soon to be teen moms. In the first half of the article, Miller goes into how she herself, while attending the school, and even after, could not imagine there being any sort of "accommodation" for teen parents. In the second paragraph, she introduces the experience of her sister, who was a teen mom during her high school days; specifically going into the hardships her sister faced while attending school and taking care of a child. The middle half of the article focuses more on the room and gives detailed descriptions; calling it "...peaceful and inviting". Miller also goes into the practicality of the room, how it provides an area for moms to pump milk, to store milk, and to even learn about the various aspects of being a mom.

      Afterwards, Miller takes a turn away from the room itself, and focuses more primarily on the positive impact the room will have for teen moms across the state. With the state of California passing the AB 302 law, high schools in the state of California are required to have separate rooms for pregnant teens, and accommodations for class/class work. She gives a very real statement, that "pregnant and parenting teens want to stay in school, graduate with their class, and be productive, successful adults" however because of the pressure and stress of juggling school and child care, teen moms are left with little to no choice but to drop out. She then goes back to the room, and how it will provide equal opportunities to moms, giving them a chance at graduation and success.

      “Why Breastfeeding Rooms Are a Victory for California Students.” ACLU of Northe rn California. N.p.,n.d. Web. 22 Sept. 2016.

    3. architectural exclusion: practice

      A good article that gives yet another example of exclusion by architecture is the article featured in The New York Times entitled, "The Architecture of Segregation" by the editorial board. The article focuses on fair housing and its connection to "...racial and economic segregation". Below is the link.


      “The Architecture of Segregation - The New York Times.” N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Sept. 2016.

    4. For example, a cafeteria manager who places healthier food items in a more visible and accessible location than junk food in order to nudge people toward healthier choices is guiding actions through architectural decisions

      If we compare the cafeteria manager's decision on healthy food to that of the breastfeeding room, then the relationship would go something like this. The introduction of the breastfeeding room mentioned in "Why Breastfeeding Rooms Are a Victory for California Students", represents the healthy food, whereas the original state of the school, depicts unhealthy food. The cafeteria manager, or in the case of the school, the principle, decided that the school should be more accommodating to its student, so he/she puts the breastfeeding room (the healthy food) out in the open so as to nudge people to use the room. Much like how the cafeteria manager placed the healthier choices in the more visible and accessible areas. This allows for a healthy environment where the student body can relax and live a healthier lifestyle. They are guided by the architectural decisions of the school board.

    5. Placement of Highway Routes

      “untapped_LAX_manchester_aerial.jpg (JPEG Image, 640 × 400 Pixels) - Scaled (57%).” N.p., n.d. Web. 30 Sept. 2016.

      This image shows exactly how highway placement can affect a neighborhood. This neighborhood, Manchester Square,a primarily African American community, is completely isolated on all sides due to the uncanny placement of highway routes. The highway system has successfully cut off any and all access to the neighborhood. Demonstrating that architecture can indeed act as a tool of exclusion. Here's a link to a little more detail about the neighborhood http://www.theatlantic.com/video/index/389967/the-ghost-town-of-los-angeles/

    6. placement

      Placement in this context pertains to highways, however it also can relate to other things; quite possibly even a specific type of room, inside a school. Schindler goes into the importance of placement, and how the location of a structure can be a regulatory measure, such as a highway cutting across a "poor black neighborhood"; resulting in its destruction. The same process of examining location can also be put in context with "Why Breastfeeding Rooms Are a Victory for California Students". The breastfeeding room was built inside the school, rather than outside of the school. Why does its placement matter? If the room was outside the school, it would be detached; an area where teen moms would feel even more alienated from their student body. By having the room inside the school, the school itself is including teen moms into its fabric, creating a sense of connection between mom and student; allowing for both to exist independently, but working together cohesively.

    7. The architecture of the built environment directs both physical movement through and access to places

      Over the summer my friends and I went on a road trip cross country, and one of the place we visited was Kentucky. When we got into the suburbs, as the person driving, I realized a lot of one way streets; so much so that it seemed as if the entire grid system functioned on these one way streets. They're presence made it unnecessarily hard to get from point a to point b; even when the two points were no more than a couple feet apart. The road itself however, did not seem to be a from of exclusionary practice, though I am not 100% confident, as we did not stay long. The one way streets however, does correlate to the above quote, as it directed both movement and access.

  2. Sep 2016
    1. That a highway divides two neighborhoods limits the extent to which the neighborhoods integrate.

      A clear cut example that gives credence to the notion that the built environment of a place can be a form of regulatory practice. The highway itself may indeed provide for the residents, however, the deliberate placement of said highway between two neighborhoods, who very well may be of different ethic cultures, would show otherwise.

    2. a private developer constructed a six-foot-high wall—known as Eight Mile Wall

      Part 1 and part 2 introduces architecture as a tool for regulation and how the built environment reflects this idea. This one quote is an example of how architecture serves to exclude, however, I want to note that not all structures are built with the goal of exclusion. Some, much like the breastfeeding room mentioned in "Why Breastfeeding Rooms Are a Victory for California Students" by Michelle Miller, are built with the goal of inclusion. The contrast between the breastfeeding room and the eight mile wall though, is very stark; the first is one of the extremes of inclusion, while the other, the complete opposite. The two however, are both architectural works, I find it astonishing, and this example furthers the point Schindler is trying to make; that the built environment does in fact have the capability to be regulatory.

    3. Law and lawmakers habitually overlook68 the way that the built environment functions as an express tool of exclusion.

      Exclusion is a form of, or rather, it is segregation. Where one group, not necessarily a race, is alienated/neglected from the whole. In the case of "Why Breastfeeding Rooms Are a Victory for California Students" by Michelle Miller, it is the teen moms who are, in a sense, "segregated" from the rest of the student body. The school, before the passage of AB 302 in California, did not provide to its teen moms population. This caused the teens moms to feel a form of exclusion, an alienation that eventually lead to their dropping out; an aspect Miller touches upon in her article. The school, the built environment within the school, does not cater to these moms, and it is within these context that it excludes, and alienate them; focusing/catering primarily on non pregnant students.

    4. physical architecture as a constraint

      The architecture of high schools are in such a way that it does not provide for certain groups of individuals; teen moms for example. Because they do not have these accommodations, teen moms do not have an outlet in which they can relieve the stress of school and parenthood; specifically pumping milk/breastfeeding. A form of constraint appears, limiting the moms only to school work. Although, the statement alone would appear to incorporate all forms of architecture as a from of constraint, I do not believe so. The breastfeeding room mentioned in the article "Why Breastfeeding Rooms Are a Victory for California Students" by Michelle Miller, prove otherwise. The room is an addition to schools, it is apart of the physical architecture, I however, do not see it as a from on constraint.

    5. idea that spaces themselves have racial meanings.

      It would be an understatement to say that spaces have racial meanings; they most certainly do. Each "space" has its own history of exclusion that gives it a certain tag, an identity almost. Take for example Auburn Avenue, or "Sweet Auburn" to residents, in Atlanta. That space was known for its thriving African American population, a thriving business center that was recognized nationally as the economic hub for black Americans. The exclusion the African Americans felt propelled the streets identity, giving the area meanings associated with the black community.

    6. architecture and design can be employed to steer human behavior and to promote desired ends.

      In relation to "Why Breastfeeding Rooms Are a Victory for California Students" by Michelle Miller, this statement proves to be true. If we look at the behavior and ends of teen moms before the introduction of the "breastfeeding room", then it would be something along these lines: A teen gets pregnant, she has the baby, she must now juggle between school and child, however the school does not give any sort of leniency for these moms, so unable to bear under the pressure, 9 times out of 10 they drop out of school. The end; having no little to no chance at monetary success. However, with the introduction of the room, a new behavior can be see. Now they have more opportunities, more accommodations by the school, leading to decrease drop out rates and increased graduation rates; therefore resulting in a much more desirable end. The design and function of the room led to a change in behavior, which in turn promoted the desired ends of the state.

    7. people tend to believe that the plan and structures of cities are created for purposes of efficiency or with the goal of furthering the general public interest

      I can associate this claim to myself, as before reading this article, I never thought of the built environment being anything more than a tool of cultural expression; built for the betterment of people. Now however, it would seem that the built environment has more to it than meets the eye. If I were to think about it, the highway that passes through Auburn Avenue (known as Sweet Auburn), effectively destroyed the once bustling African American business district. Though, I choose to not believe this too much, as I can think of a good number of designs that do in fact help further the general interest. Take for example, the breastfeeding room mentioned in "Why Breastfeeding Rooms Are a Victory for California Students" by Michelle Miller, the room by no means function as a tool for regulation and exclusion. Its whole design is meant for the inclusion of teen moms in the school dynamic.

    8. “there is no such thing as a ‘neutral’ design.”

      Building a structure, of any size, first requires an outline; a design. It is within this process that regulatory tendencies of the built environment comes to life. The design of any building is within the hands of the architects, there architects all have their own separate opinions, their own views; a product of their upbringing. Because of this, the building design they make will be a representation of their perceived culture; as such, there is and never will be, a "'neutral design'". The breastfeeding room in "Why Breastfeeding Rooms Are a Victory for California Students" is a perfect example of the non neutrality of building designs. The room was made to specifically cater to the pregnant/ teen mom population in schools, it wasn't made to just exist, it was created with a clear image, and a clear goal in mind; to provide accommodations to teen moms.

    9. architecture itself is a form of regulation.

      This is essentially a study of the vernacular culture of modern day society. Never have I thought about associating the built environment with regulatory practices, rather, I viewed it as a means for fostering community interactions; a tool for bypassing cultural barriers. However, the article demonstrates the opposite, presenting points and evidence that the built environment can act as an exclusionary tool that works against certain ethic groups.

    10. physical exclusion by walls and barriers is nothing new.

      “History_Builders_of_The_Great_Wall_42710_reSF_HD_still_624x352.jpg (JPEG Image, 624 × 352 Pixels).” N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Sept. 2016.

      An architectural landmark that is still celebrated today, the Great Wall of China was build on the premise of exclusion; A measure to ensure the safety of Central China from the Huns.

    1. The study of vernacular architecture

      "MARTA Breaks Ground On First Transit-Development Project," by Tasnim Shamma, Summary: The article starts with the ground breaking of MARTA’s “‘transit-oriented developments'" (Shamma) at Edgewood-Candler Park. The project was sponsored by a private developer who poured 40$ million dollars into the project; MARTA did not have to pay a single cent. The development will feature apartments, restaurants and even a theater; basically a living complex that centers around MARTA’s Edgewood-Candler Park station, for ease of access. The article then introduces a native to Edgewood, Eric Kronberg, and his interactions with his neighbors on ideas for the area, a vision they have been working on for well over a decade. The ground breaking has left him speechless, he described it as a kind of thing "...you don't even wish for because you don't believe it's possible." (Shamma) The development hopes to increase density capacity so that it can accommodate new ridership. Ridership, compared to last year statistics, is low. General manager Keith Parker however, expects things to pick up again describing it as only a "matter of time" (Shamma).

      This development anticipates the return of old members, as well as new patrons; an outcome MARTA is pretty confident in. With the building where it is, and the function it serves, people will be "'...right here to ride our services '" (Shamma). Expected to finish by the end of 2017, Amanda Rhein, senior director of the transit-oriented development, focuses on the other 5 locations where such developments will take place; for a total of 6. The article then briefly mentions the other location and their readability for work. According to Rhein, there are still a lot to figure out, but they have contact with a development partner they wish to work with, and have a good grasp on the projects.

      Shamma, Tasnim. "MARTA Breaks Ground On First Transit-Development Project." 90.1 FM WABE –<br> Atlanta's NPR Station. NPR, 23 Aug. 2016. Web. 31 Aug. 2016.

    2. Vernacular architecture research implies a marriage of sources: oral history written documents, and the buildings themselves.

      Word and physical image must come together in an interplay of information so that we can get the perfect grasp on what it is we want to learn from the building. Lets then take a look at the MARTA transit buildings. Image Credit: (“SpokeEdgewoodCandlerPark.jpg (JPEG Image, 2400 × 1078 Pixels) - Scaled (53%).” N.p., n.d. Web. 6 Sept. 2016.)

      Looking at just the building itself (or how it is supposed to look when finished), a researcher wouldn't be able to tell that it was a building meant for ease of transportation. Without some inkling of a background, this building just resembles an apartment complex. This is where the article, "MARTA Breaks Ground On First Transit-Development Project" comes into play. In the article, it is revealed that these structures are "'transit-oriented developments'" (Shamma), with this information, the entire view of the structure, and all its connection to this concept of transit, comes to life. For example, the apartments we see, their purpose serves more than just housing, they provide ease of access to those who wish to live closer to their bus stops. Without the accompany of text, vernacular research can not commence, because what is needed is both the physical, as well as the abstract.

    3. Maps, blueprints, historic photo­graphs, and paintings can also reveal information about vernacular architecture.

      Perfectly complies with the "MARTA Breaks Ground On First Transit-Development Project" article by Tasnim Shamma. The building is not complete, all there is are rendered images, floor plans, and blueprints, yet, with just that, the meaning of the building and its purpose can already be assessed.

    4. people need things— objects, artifacts, however they are referred to— to live in the world, and we make those things, not randomly or by chance, but systematically and intentionally through our culture.

      The things we make/use contain our cultural upbringing/views; we can then use the artifacts to reconstruct the past and get a more in depth view of the people who lived in and used those objects.

    5. questions about time, form, context, and ultimately function are necessary to a dec iphering of tbe building’s content

      You have to look at a whole lot of aspects in order to properly analyze a building.

    6. tell us about human behavior both past and present.

      Lets apply this idea to the developments Tasnim Shamma talks about in the article "MARTA Breaks Ground On First Transit-Development Project". Vernacular studies can give insights into human behavior, both from the past, as well as the present. Then looking at the rendered image of the building, along with the text of course (mentioned before that vernacular studies incorporates both physical and written) can the past and present be told? Yes. The past: hundred of thousands of people ride MARTA on a daily basis, the building is to make it easier for commuters, as they can now live near the station. The present: MARTA is promoting the use of it's transportation by providing these structures.

    7. Material culture m aybe defined, following Deetz, as “that segment of [the human] physical environment which is purposely shaped . . . according to culturally dictated plans

      I agree with Harry (Mr_Jenius), the physical change we experience in our environment is the direct result of our change in culture. Harry brought up the change in roadways in the article "The morbid and mortal toll of sprawl", I also read the article, and it talks about the change in roadway construction from the 50's and how it actually causes more death then pre-50's constructions; cities who adopted a new road plan, compared to those who kept the same form since the 50's,have much higher traffic death rates. Harry mentioned the reason for this change; the MARTA transit oriented buildings, in the article "MARTA Breaks Ground On First Transit-Development Project", are also the result of cultural change. They are built to accommodate those who wish to live closer to the bus stops, so they do not have to travel far, to do more traveling. We are physically changing our environment to better fit our everyday needs.

    8. Mark Gottdiener, “possesses the dual characteristics of being both a product of social relations and a producer of social relations.”1

      In simpler words, buildings are made due to social interaction, which then causes more interaction to occur; its a cycle. The MARTA transit buildings possess such traits/characteristics. The building is a direct consequence of the interaction between transportation personnel, and the working class who use said transportation; in this case, MARTA. "'Once you build these types of developments...people will be right here to ride our services.'" (Shmma), these transit oriented buildings play the role of product, as well as producer.

    9. discovei highly complex meanings in even the simplest of forms.

      Essentially, a very in depth, close reading.

    10. such as class differences— rarely talked about in the United States— that becom e evident in the architectural landscape.

      Buildings represents culture. How we build them, their functions, everything about a building, is built based upon our perception; and what is our perception if not a cultural construct? Take for example, in the article "'MARTA Breaks Ground On First Transit-Development Project'" Within the article, there is a section where they talk about the housing plans "'MARTA expects to allocate about 20 percent of the apartment units as affordable housing – for those who make less than 80 percent of the area median income.'" (Shamma), why did they include this? Because there's class difference, and they want it to be known. Not the developers per se, but rather the whole of our society. Class difference is something that prevails throughout history, and will continue to prevail, because it is so ingrained upon our culture as human beings. So much so, that it appears in our "'architectural landscape'" (Carter, Cromley, 10) We may not talk about the existence of classes, but we don't have too, the things we make speak volumes. That is why vernacular studies has such a profound effect on understanding history.

    11. To understand how people bring beauty to their lives, one must study the buildings themselves

      I find this to be true while reading the article "MARTA Breaks Ground On First Transit-Development Project" by Tasnim Shamma. Space allocation of a building speaks volumes about what holds precedence over another; for example, in relation to this reading, the MARTA article talks about an entire hall "...dedicated..." (Shamma) to a educational dance group. Reading into the design of such a hall could quite possibly lead to the idea that, this is one way that beauty is brought into the architecture. Giving credence to the previous sentence that "...Objects are essential in the study and understanding of the artfulness of a culture" (Carter, Cromley, 10).

    12. If culture determines behavior, and we can see such behavior in the things people make, it is logical that we can also move in the opposite direction, working back from the object in an attempt to explain the ideas, values, and beliefs— the culture— that caused that object to com e into being.1

      Reiterates previous remark on the use of artifacts/objects as tools to reconstruct cultural views; essentially, the essence of the article. The reading "MARTA Breaks Ground On First Transit-Development Project" provides and excellent example. By reading the text, we already know why the buildings are being made, but lets say we don't. Then, from a vernacular study of these "'transit-oriented developments'"(Shamma), we can probably find out that these buildings were complex, incorporating both living and entertainment, and were built around MARTA stations. If such a building was centered around a transport station, well, that explains itself.

    13. figure out when and under what circum­stances buildings and landscapes become the best documents for answering particular kinds of historical questions,

      Vernacular architecture is not an all the time kind of thing, sometimes its actually best not to use vernacular studies in answering historical question. Like how math is not the answer to everything, we have to determine whether or not it is plausible to use buildings as the tool to historical understanding; if its the best way.

    14. watch and observe how people behave in various archi­tectural environments.

      Observing the interactions of people around a building will help determine the place in which the building holds in society.

    15. There is a great deal to learn about studying buildings for meaning.

      In "MARTA Breaks Ground On First Transit-Development Project", the idea behind the development of these buildings lie with the nature of urban sprawl. Transportation plays a huge role in our identity, as such, we as a community, go to great lengths to provide said transportation. It could be said then, that the development of these buildings, projects our views and encompasses our cultural presence. "'Our hopes have been exceeded greatly'" (Shamma) Hope in itself holds our dreams, dreams come from our perception of society, and society comes from culture. So, a simple building of a transit oriented complex can have insights into the workings of our world.

    16. Sometimes, in studying contemporary buildings, you may find the people who made or used the buildings speaking about bow they were used or what they meant.

      The purpose of a building lies in its use, and it is through that use that vernacular studies can try and interpret the cultural meaning of the building, and what it represents. in "MARTA Breaks Ground On First Transit-Development Project", there is a section of the article where Erick Kronberg talks about how much the development means to him and his community. Stating that his "'...hopes have been exceeded greatly'" (Shamma). The building, he says, will "'...help pay for things..." (Shamma), this would give insights into economic activity during the time, as well as a key function to the building. This further complementing the notion that we build things not by chance, but through culture. An aspect of our collective culture is that we are movers, we like to move around, from point A to point B. So, with a building solely dedicated to the ease and access for those who seek transit, we can see its cultural importance, and people in the distant future, were they to stumble upon these transit buildings and perform some vernacular readings, will find that we were a culture fixated on the notion of movement.

    17. We would not suggest that the study of buildings is some kind of academic panacea.

      Not some sort of "end all" to the endeavor to understand human culture, just another way of looking at things.

    18. We have to be careful to reconstruct the proper per­centages of houses in each economic level in the past and not to take the standing evi­dence for granted (

      Reconstructing history is a very powerful ability, therefore, it is crucial that the one reconstructing these histories be scrupulous in there work; or else history may be interperated wrongly.

    19. uneven rate of survival of building

      Vernacular studies deal with buildings and artifacts, so when you use vernacular studies to determine history, it may be difficult due to the fact that, a lot of the buildings, during whatever time period you're studying, are probably gone. That is when, in the aforementioned text, we reconstruct them through records and accounts; going into the written to rebuild the physical; all very abstract.

    20. The physical properties of the room, so constructed, ensure that these values are enforced and that those who use the room adhere to them as well.

      Great example of how our values are projected through the layout of buildings/rooms. Not only that, through this projection, we add a sense of...purpose into the room, we give it substance. It is this substance that almost makes the room/building alive; representing values and enforcing them onto whoever uses the building/room.

    21. best reason for studying buildings is the poten­tial they hold for helping us in the humanistic endeavor of better understanding who we -are and why we have done the things that we have.

      Unlike some animals in the wild, we are a species driven by our sense of community; take that away and it all crumbles. That's why we have so many laws and regulations that governs us as a whole, instead of laws for individuals. This humanistic quality that practically defines us as a species, can be seen not only through our interactions with one another, but also in the architecture that we have built over the years; architecture that binds us together into communities.

    22. the study o f thosehuman actions and behaviors that are manifest in commonplace architecture.

      Definition of vernacular Architecture.

    23. find meaning in buildings

      When we try to find meaning in buildings, we are are deconstructing the physical materials and turning them into words. Incorporating both word and image, something we talked about in our graphic novels class.

    24. We apply the known to the unknown, saying that “the house is significant because it is associated with such and such person or this or that event,” but we still have not studied the materiality of the building

      When analyzing a building, you have to analyze the building itself, not the events that took place there. You have to look at the style, why was that style chosen? what were the materials, the plan?; everything that made that building must be looked at so that we may get a glimpse to the human behavior during the time of construction.