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  1. Nov 2020
    1. Thomas Edison had done in his 1872 patent for an electric print-wheel device which later became the basis for teletype machines. Lucien Stephen Crandall, the inventor of the second type- writer to reach the American market (in 1879) arranged the type on a cylindrical sleeve: the sleeve was made to revolve to the required letter and come down onto the printing-point, locking in place for correct alignment. (So much for the "revolutionary" character of the IBM 72/82's "golf ball" design.

      competing visions for the typewriter

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  2. Oct 2020
    1. eeressive hypothesis

      The repressive Hypothesis. Based on suppositions: Historically sex is repressed through a 17th century regime?Mechanism of repression is through the exercise of power through prohibition censorship, denial. *Critical discourse is lacking to question the power.

      He seeks to refute this.

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    1. The notion of critique that underlies our concept of alternative media is the Marxian one as laid out in theIntroductionto the Critique of Hegel’s Philosophy of Right

      References a Marxian critical of using capitalistic means for achieving radical ends.

    2. dialectical understanding

      Here, authors refer to Hume framework to contrast opposing idea of Capitalist Mass Media System with Ideal Alternative Media System, highlighted with 1 and 2, below. 1--- structure of the media products (differ from mainstream in that their products aren't commodities to be marketed and sold and that they content is critical of the mainstream ideology) 2---actors (alt media has no division btwn consumer and producer, they can be one in the same. )

      the above are discussed in terms of ideal-typical alternative media.

      --- idea types again

      • Producer
      • Recipient
      • Economic product
      • Media content
      • Media technologies
      • Media institutions
    3. oppositionalmedia that provide critical content, but make use of professional organization structures.

      It doesn't have to be alternative media to present points of view that criticize capitalism and the mainstream. Sites examples (observation) of professionally produced media

    4. participatory production processes can be used for producing conservative or even far right content

      Here the author introduces the perspective that alt media can be used by conservative groups. and supports this by citing other others. as evidence.

    5. Participatory production processes need not necessarily be emancipatory, but can also be used for advancing repressivepurposes.

      Alt media can be used for other things than freeing people from oppression. It can be used for repressing people, too. .... follows assertion with evidence from other thinkers.

    6. it is often argued that with the internet new possibilities for a cheap, participatorymedia production

      Provides another point of view that the internet will transform alt media. and presents evidence by citing theorists that hold this opinion.

    7. emancipatory societal effects of participatory production

      Participatory media provides a democratic venue accessible to people who want to work at changing and developing society from present constructs.

    8. Rodriguez (2003) or Dagron (2004)stress that reachingbroad audiences is not an aim for alternative media projects: ‘‘Anyone asserting that alternative media are fine but their cov-erage is to limited geographically or in terms of users does not understand what alternative media really are”

      the goals of alternative media aren't about making a large impact for the masses.

    9. production processes are at the core of alternative media projects: ‘‘In my own view alternativecommunication is in essence participatory communication, and the alternative spirit remains as long as the participatorycomponent is not minimized and excluded”

      Theory that central to alternative media is the way it is collectively produced

    10. Many current approaches on alternativemedia pick up this vision of a democratic media system. So for example Nick Couldr

      Here sites Nick Couldry - ... alternatives power is about its accessibility to anyone who wants to participate.

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