174 Matching Annotations
  1. May 2021
    1. But if a paradigm is ever to triumph it must gain some first supporters, men who will develop it to the point where hardheaded arguments can be produced and multiplied.

      But if a paradigm is ever to triumph it must gain some first supporters, men who will develop it to the piont where hardheaded arguments can be produced and multiplied.

  2. Mar 2021
    1. Table 3 also displays the results for the property crime rate as a depen-


    2. Our analysis strategy is to test whether suburbanization predicts crimerates at the metropolitan level.


    3. This situation is depicted in the top panel of Figure 1. From thisbase, we examine three different possible patterns of suburbanization. Thefirst, shown in the middle panel of Figure 1


    4. The next section reviews the prior literature on the relationship betweencrime and suburbanization, highlighting methodological difficulties encoun-tered in previous research. The section after that discusses a framework forthinking about the relationship between suburbanization and crime thatpoints to an empirical strategy with the potential to isolate the causal effectof suburbanization on crime. Succeeding sections present the data and vari-ables used in our analysis, the regression models employed, the findings ofour analysis, and concluding remarks.


    5. Our findings suggest that the rapid sub-urbanization of U.S. metropolitan areas does not merely redistribute crimes andvictims but also contributes to higher overall levels of criminal activity.

      FINDINGS. Contributes to overall levels of criminal activity WHERE? (couldn't added crime and victims in numbers be attributed to population growth and expansion?)

    6. metropolitan-level crime rates

      RECOMMENDS CHANGE IN THE UNIT OF ANALYSIS. Unit of analysis should change to Metro-level, rather than central city.

    7. pastresearch has failed to demonstrate this relationship and propose a method thatdoes have the potential to identify this relationship.


    8. whether there is evidence thatsuburbanization leads in a causal way to increases in crime


    9. Using themetropolitan area as the unit of analysis


    10. article addresses the potential causal effect of suburbanization on crimeusing data from the U.S. Census Bureau and Uniform Crime Reports


    11. Crime Reports and census data from 2000

      DATA SET.


  3. Dec 2020
    1. ssumptions implicit within discussing‘trapped’ popula

      Purpose - unpack the hidden assumptions about what it means to be trapped.

    2. we apply a Critical DiscourseAnalysis to the academic literature on the subject to revealsome of the assumptions implicit within discussing‘trapped’ populations.



  4. Nov 2020
    1. he time and efforts needed to organize detracts from theability of collectives to focus on the goals of new development (and thisis one of the ways in CLTs and MHAs differ from co-ops, that is,expansion is an inherent goal of the former and not of the latter).

      CLT want to expand and MHA don't

    2. ree of long-termdebt servicing and can be maintained much more cheaply.

      long term debt doen't have anything to do with maintenance costs.

    3. for-profit real-estatemarket is unable to produce enough adequate, affordable housing,

      a problem looking to be solved.

    4. ommunity involvemen

      cited benefit of Mutual Housing.

    5. f organizationscontinuously need to go hat-in-hand to funding agencies—be theypublic, private, or not-for-profit—then the ability of the organizationsto control their development and organizing projects will beconstrained by those funders. Accordingly, fiscal self-sufficiency is agoal of all MHAs (and CLTs), but it has thus far been unrealized bythose organizations. Mutual housing in Stamford seems unlikely to doso anytime soon.

      beause the ownereship is not a model based on p&L, highly dependent on grants, which means residents loose control./ autoonomhy.

    6. they exert little control overeither investment capital or their homes, they are facing the “choices”of either continued disinvestment and decline in the quality of thehomes they live in, or reinvestment that results in their displacement

      false dichotomy. If you own a home you "own" the responsibility for its maintenance.


    1. From the viewpoint of the formal theory of sto- chastic processes, what we are looking at now is equivalent to a generalized "Polya urn scheme.

      random processes theory explains: a Pólya urn model, named after George Pólya, is a type of statistical model used as an idealized mental exercise framework, unifying many treatments. In an urn model, objects of real interest are represented as colored balls in an urn or other container - wikipedia ---- the proverbial plucking a ball from a jar to explain randomness.

    2. The advent of "touch" typing, a distinct advance over the four-finger hunt-and-peck method, came late in the 1880's and was critical, because this innovation was from its inception adapted to the Remington's QWERTY keyboard. Touch typing gave rise to three features of the evolving production system which were crucially important in causing QWERTY to become "locked in" as the dominant keyboard arrangement. These features were technical interrelatedness, econ- omies of scale, and quasi-irreversibility of investment. They constitute the basic in- gredients of what might be called QWERTY- nomics.

      Explanatory variables as to why qwerty became a thing.

    3. Thomas Edison had done in his 1872 patent for an electric print-wheel device which later became the basis for teletype machines. Lucien Stephen Crandall, the inventor of the second type- writer to reach the American market (in 1879) arranged the type on a cylindrical sleeve: the sleeve was made to revolve to the required letter and come down onto the printing-point, locking in place for correct alignment. (So much for the "revolutionary" character of the IBM 72/82's "golf ball" design.

      competing visions for the typewriter

    4. an effort to reduce the frequency of typebar clashes, there emerged a four-row, upper case keyboard approaching the mod- ern QWERTY standard

      qwerty emerged as a way of avoiding jamming keyboards.

    1. Since married women do work much less than single women and married men work more than single men, an increase in the wage rate of women relative to men would decrease the incentive to marry.2

      If women's wages increased and men's decreased, it would be a disincentive to marry. So sexist!!

    2. t utility depends directly not on the goods and services purchased in the market place, but on the commodities produced "by" each househ

      defines utility's ouputs

    3. marriage is no exception and can be successfully analyzed within the framework provided by modern economic

      rational choice can be used in Economic analysis to study marriage.

    4. Yet, one type of behavior has been almost completely ignored by economists,1 although scarce resources are used and it has been followed in some form by practically all adults in every recorded society. I refer to marriage

      highlights a gap in study - underscoring the importance of his work.



    1. An important step in extending the traditional analysis of individual rational choice is to incorporate into the theory a much richer class of attitudes, preferences, and calculations.

      attitudes preferences and calculations should be added to the analysis

    2. ut what parents try to do can be greatly affected by public policies and changes in economic and social conditions.

      public policies, economic and social conditions can also set values in the family.

    3. Many economists, including me, have excessively relied on altruism to tie together the interests of family members. Recognition of the connection between childhood experiences and future behavior re- duces the need to rely on altruism in families. But it does not return the analysis to a narrow focus on self-interest, for it partially replaces altruism by feelings of obligation, anger, and other attitudes usually neglected by models of rational behavior.

      Note how he sets up the refutation that altruism isn't all that binds a family.

    4. Again, I am trying to model a commonsense idea, namely, that the attitudes and values of adults are enormously influenced by their childhood experience

      what happened to a person as a child influences their behavior as an adult.

    5. Part of my current research considers an indirect way to generate commitments when promises and written agreements are not bind- ing. I shall describe briefly some of this new work because it carries the economic approach to the family onto uncharted ground related to the rational formation of preferences within families

      here he begins to describe how the absence of written agreements that might support personal welfare - have an effect on the family.

    6. the assumption that when men and women decide to marry, or have children, or divorce, they attempt to raise their welfare by comparing benefits and costs. So they marry when they expect to be better offThis content downloaded from on Thu, 05 Nov 2020 14:33:48 UTC All use subject to https://about.jstor.org/terms

      Thesis: people marry or divorce seeking to maximize their personal welfare.

    7. they have higher IQs and score better on other aptitude tests.

      Intervening variables.

    8. effort to calculate both private and social rates of return to men, women, blacks, and other groups from investments in different levels of education. After aThis content downloaded from on Thu, 05 Nov 2020 14:33:48 UTC All use subject to https://about.jstor.org/terms

      Possible to calculate ROI on human capital investments for different classes of people.

    9. preferences of would-be criminals but also by the economic and social environment created by public policies, including expenditures on police, punishments for different crimes, and opportunities for em- ployment, schooling, and training program

      the variables that may correlate to criminality.

    10. Rationality implied that some individuals become criminals because of the financial and other rewards from crime com- pared to legal work, taking account of the likelihood of apprehension and conviction, and the severity of punishment.

      Rational motivation for crime is that it has its rewards and balanced by the likelihood of not getting caught.

    11. theo- retical and empirical implications of the assumption that criminal behavior is rationa

      Implications of criminality being rationally motivated.

    12. A novel theoretical development in recent years is the analysis of the consequences of stereotyped reasoning or statistical discrimina- tion (see Phelps 1972; Arrow 1973). This analysis suggests that the beliefs of employers, teachers, and other influential groups that minor- ity members are less productive can be self-fulfilling, for these beliefs may cause minorities to underinvest in education, training, and work skills, such as punctuality. The underinvestment does make them less productive (see a good recent analysis by Loury [1992])

      Uses theoretical evidence of others to support his theory.

    13. actual discrimination in earnings and employment is deter- mined by tastes for discrimination, along with the degree of competi- tion in labor and product markets, the distribution of discrimination coefficients among members of the majority group, the access of mi- norities to education and training, the outcome of median voter and other voting mechanisms that determine whether legislation favors or is hostile to minorities, and other considerations

      Variables that influence discrimination

    14. Actual discrimination in the marketplace against a minority group depends on the combined discrimination of employers, workers, con- sumers, schools, and governmen

      actors in discrimination are institutions.

    15. Unlike Marxian analysis, the economic approach I refer to does not assume that individuals are motivated solely by selfishness or ma- terial gain.

      Theories aren't based on Marxist selfish motivation for capitalistic gain.

    16. theory of individual rational choice to analyze social issues beyond those usually consid- ered by economists is to incorporate into the theory a much richer class of attitudes, preferences, and calculations. While this approach to behavior builds on an expanded theory of individual choice, it is not mainly concerned with individuals. It uses theory at the micro level as a powerful tool to derive implications at the group or macro level.

      RC theory can be used for analysis of a broad set of social issues by adding into the development of the theory more "attitudes, preferences, and calculations" --- resulting in a theory of individual choice. BUT by studying at the micro level - it's possible to understand implications at the macro.

    1. The goal Rational Choice Institutionalism is different. For Rationalist scholars, the central goal is to uncover the Laws of political behavior and action.

      What are Rational Choice Institutionalists after?

    2. In either case, the Historical Institutionalist is interested in developing a deep and contextualized understanding of the politics.

      Thesis about Historical institutionalists

    3. Historical Institutionalists are first interested in explaining an outcome (say, for example, why France and Britain have pursued such different styles of industrial Policy (Hall 1986) or why some welfare states generate more popular support than others (Rothstein 1998) ) they THEN proceed to explore alternative explanations for the outcomes they observe.

      Historical institutionalist – approach is explaining outcomes based on theories. They take inductive approaches – observe the outcomes and then attempt to create alternative explanations for the outcomes (Steimo p 2)

    4. In both schools, institutions are important for politics because they structure political behavior.

      the idea that people act on rational interests is commonality.

    5. Hobbesian

      Remember: Thomas Hobbes Political philosopher: "we will better understand how individuals interact in groups if we understand how individuals work" - source: https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/hobbes/

      Also the naming of things as a way to describe the universe.



    1. Over a 10-month period, background information on the commu-nity structure, governance and use of natural resources was collectedfrom interviews with all relevant groups within the two communities(including decision-makers, men and women, elders and youth).

      gathered about natural resources, community organization, governance.

    2. semi-quantitative assessment




    1. Case study analysis of the communities of Shishmaref, Newtok,Kivalina, and Quinhagak, Alaska, USA, was the primary methodused to understand the environmental impacts



    1. new models of risk assessment, planning and co-productionare required to address these limitations



    1. land-use planningwill be increasingly required to manage climigration events over the coming decades and willrely on input and guidance from other disciplines to do so effectively



  5. Oct 2020
    1. rms of Global Systems, but we do need an earth- wide network of connections, including the ability partially to translate knowledges among very different-and power-differenti- ated - communities. We need the power of modern critical theories of how meanings and bodies get made, not in order to deny meanings and bodies, but in order to build meanings and bodies that have a chance for life.

      Arguing against Marxist feminists. And for the preservation of theories and an appreciation of people's actual experiences in order to make meaning of things and give non-white bodies a chance of life. (Beyond the white male understanding.... )

    2. ntific truth. History is a story Western culture buffs tell each other; science is a contestable text and a power field; the content is the fo

      Feminists have made these arguments: History is story-telling, science is the analysis of truth through analyzing texts from a place of power And the content of these arguments is the form ( of how meaning is produced, distributed and consumed) (Hayden White) ---the feminist critique is that science isn't objective. ---

    3. es.' According to these tempt- ing views, no insider's perspective is privileged, because all draw- ings of inside-outside boundaries in knowledge are theorized as power moves, not moves toward truth. So, from the strong social constructionist perspective, why should we be cowed by scien- tists' descriptions of their activity and accomplishments; they and their patrons have stakes in throwing sand in our eyes. They tell parables about objectivity and scientific method to students in the first years of their initiation, but no practitioner of the high scien- tific arts would be caught dead acting on the textbook versions. Social constructionists make clear that official ideologies about ob- jectivity and scientific method are particularly bad guides to how scientific knowledge is actually made. Just as for the rest of us, what scientists believe or say they do and what they really do have a very loose fi

      Criticism of social constructionists - that the elite (insiders) espouse to objectivity and method - but they don't actually use objectivity and method - hypocrites. SHe is making reference to Kuhn.

    4. e vision. All Western cultural narratives about objectivity are allegories of the ideologies governing the relations of what we call mind and body, distance and responsibility. Feminist objectivity is about limited location and situated knowledge, not about trans- cendence and splitting of subject and object. It allows us to become answerable for what we learn how to see.
    5. w to have simul- taneously an account of radical historical contingency for all knowledge claims and knowing subjects, a critical practice for recognizing our own "semiotic technologies" for making meanings, and a no-nonsense commitment to faithful accounts of a "real" world, one that can be partially shared and that is friendly to earthwide projects of finite freedom, adequate material abun- dance, modest meaning in suffering, and limited hap

      Refuting Feminist Marxists

    6. iences. From this point of view, science -the real game in town - is rhetoric, a series of efforts to persuade relevant social actors that one's manufactured knowledge is a route to a desired form of very obje

      The concepts of objectivity are invented through rhetoric. (persuasive arguments)

    7. any ca

      Social constructionism is a theory of knowledge in sociology and communication theory that examines the development of jointly-constructed understandings of the world that form the basis for shared assumptions about reality. https://www.google.com/search?client=firefox-b-d&q=social+constructionists

    8. e the law of the fath

      "The “law of the father” is a term usually associated with the work of Jacques Lacan in his psychoanalytic account of the way in which children enter into patriarchal culture. Lacan identified three phases of psychosocial development involved in this process: the “imaginary order,” the “mirror stage,” and the “symbolic order.” Lacan's work has been contested to the extent that it has been interpreted as a justification for patriarchal social relationships, as well as being developed and utilized by feminists, particularly French feminists. Marxist feminists have also utilized the work of Lacan." https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/9781118663219.wbegss446

    9. ra's "special-interest groups" in the rarified realm of epistemology, where traditionally what can count as knowledge is policed by philosophers codifying cognitive

      Marginalization of feminists in Reagan era...Resistance to traditional thoughts about the construct of knowledge.

    1. it may be necessary for researchers to considerdangers seen, unseen, and unforeseen in conducting research
    2. when they do not pay careful attention to their ownand others’ racialized and cultural systems of coming to know, know-ing, and experiencing the world.

      Reminds me of Haraway's writings about embodied and situated knowledge.



    1. Law professors of color such as Derrick Bellwere among the ªrst to notice this trend.

      Trend of formalist positions on civil rights - narrow jurisprudence. The judicial system was once a voice for civil right - now it became a threat due to conservative political - which were aligned to whites and power structures.

    2. critical race theorists had as their objective, ending ex-clusive reliance upon civil rights litigation, storytelling to broaden public con-sciousness of racism and discrimination under the law



    1. eoliberalism can beframed as a productive power which has created new competencies in thefield and a new professionalism shaped by the strategic priorities of themarket-led state.

      He thinks neoliberalism has been good for the profession??

    2. neoliberalism, can be seen not only as destructive of trad-itional versions of Professionalism, but as Foucault argued, is also product-ive of new practices shaped by the market.
    3. ‘old professionalism’included therelative autonomy of the profession to control the‘field of judgement’(Ball, 2003, p. 216) and determine its own professional remit (seeTett, 2010;Ledwith, 2011). In contrast, the main features of this new version of profes-sionalism are centred on the ways in which the profession has been trans-formed into an instrument of economic policy and, in particular, thechanges in competencies which have accompanied this development.

      Now the professional is an instrument of economic policy

    4. ‘organisational’professional-ism (seeEvetts, 2009) - that is—a profession whose remit is controlled byemployers—in this instance the local state.Evetts (2009)argues that‘organisational professionalism’has displaced an older model of profes-sionalism -‘occupational’professionalism, whereby professions were sub-ject to internal regulation and control by ethical standards that wereoccupationally defined

      shift from standards of ethics and regulations in control to the employer standard of new profesionalism - data- and evidence-driven decisionmaking.

    5. managers and practitioners regularly discuss their‘work’in terms of‘measuring outcomes’,‘improving outputs’,‘promotingbest practice’,‘promoting sector leading practices’,‘benchmarking’,‘qual-ity assurance’,‘better outputs’,‘continual improvement’and being‘BOLD’(better outcomes leaner delivery).
    6. The perform-ance targets for community development should be based on a strategicanalysis of performance. The data should tell us about how we prioritiseour work and where it is we should be working
    7. performance targets’of practitioners, for example, I noted that many targets are related to themanagement of austerity in one way or another. Typical‘performance tar-gets’include such objectives as‘increase the number of DevelopmentTrusts and Social Enterprises providing services’,‘increase the number ofasset transfers’;‘increase the number of volunteers engaged in servicedesign and delivery’

      performance targets - illustrated to support his argument and framework.

    8. omputerised management information systems,workplans and team plans with quantifiable targets and measurable out-comes, audits and appraisals whose introduction largely correlates withthe advent of fiscal austerity around 2010. Whilst on the surface, new man-agerial techniques appear to be concerned with administration, bureau-cracy and‘good housekeeping’and are justified in terms of holdingprofessionals accountable, I would suggest that they also constitute‘tech-nologies of performativity’

      These are all examples of the systems that power puts in place.

    9. Moreover, in contrast with claims that neo-liberalism dilutes or undermines professional values associated withcommunity development, I noted that practitioners regularly drew uponthe‘official values’of the profession in Scotland such as‘self-help’,‘self-determination’,‘empowerment’and‘collaborative working’(seeCLDStandards Council, 2009)–in order to describe and provide an ethicalrationale for outsourcing services to communities and Third Sector organi-sations. This highlights how professional values are subject to multipleinterpretations, and how their inherent ambiguity all too easily becomescompatible with neoliberalisation.

      People think that they are liberated, but they are enslaved further.

    10. ‘entrepreneurial citizenship’(Newman, 2014).Entrepreneurial citizenship is framed around communities‘learning’theentrepreneurial skills required for self-government in order for them to sur-vive (and thrive) in a world where the welfare state is in retreat.
    11. communitygroups and management committees had the potential to be transformedinto Registered Charities, Social Enterprises, Development Trusts or com-munity businesses to be tasked with‘co-producing’services and acquiringassets

      new power entrenched through systemization

    12. These expectationsinclude the ability to write business plans and present business cases,alongside a functional knowledge of procurement law, local governmenttendering processes and governance issues for community based organisa-tions.

      new structures under new power dynamic.

    13. ‘contracting out’is driven by a political desire to‘rollback’the social state, and forms part of a government strategy to imple-ment austerity-related reforms
    14. Foucault’s ideas influenced the research design and method-ology as well as the wider theoretical perspective; for example in relationto the methodology which informed governmentality theory, he wrote that‘the target of analysis wasn’t institutions, theories or ideology, but prac-tices, with the aim of grasping the conditions which make these acceptableat any given moment’

      explains how foucault informed his methodology

    15. My research suggests that a model of prac-tice which can broadly be characterised as‘neoliberal community develop-ment’has now become normalised in the field.
    16. ‘if power were never anything but repressive, if it never did any-thing but to say no, do you really think one would be brought to obey it?

      the repressive force of power brings people into obedience. cohersive.

    17. Foucault’s proposition that neoliberalism‘penetrates more deeply intopeople’s psyches’

      this is a description of how neoliberalism has reconceived power.

    18. I wantto argue that its methodology provides rich theoretical insights into contem-porary practices in community development.

      introduces the framework of Foucault.

    19. neoliberalism is productive of a new form of profes-sionalism is theoretically indebted to Foucaul
    20. an increased role for community development in facilitating thecommissioning, outsourcing, and transferring of public assets and man-agerial responsibilities to communities and voluntary groups in a contextshaped by fiscal austerity

      illustrates how community development can function as an extension of neoliberal goals of austerity

    21. It is these‘regressivepossibilities’which interest me in this article. As my research shows theypotentially involve an increasing role for community development infurthering the political project of neoliberalisation, austerity and themarketisation of public services.
    22. Community development is also a problematic concept, subject to differ-ent meanings and multiple interpretations. In this work, community devel-opment is understood as a‘social profession’(seeBanks, 2004), situatedinside the welfare state—readers should note that my focus is not on formsof community development which takes place in other areas—for example,the Third Sector.

      defines community development in terms of part of the gvt. welfare state and not 3rd sector (ngos)

    23. quantifiable outcomes and outputs

      new managerialism -

    24. eoliberalism as‘the elevation of market-based principles andtechniques of evaluation to the level of state-sponsored norms’

      defines neoliberalism

    25. community development emerges not so much as a social professionrooted in the needs and aspirations of communities as a technology ofgovernment which is deployed by local states to facilitate neoliberalisa-tion, austerity and the marketisation of public services
    1. It is true that it is society that defines, in terms of its own interests

      Utility argument. Rational utility.

    2. The age of sobriety in punishment had begun. By 1830-48, public executions, preceded by torture, had almost entirely disappeared.

      patterns / variations highlighted.

    3. By the en of the eighteent an the beginning of the nineteenth : ~(l.·4century, the gloomy festival of punishment was dying out, though . ~1; here and there it flickered momentarily into life. In this transforma-..:::::::;: J /tion, two processes were at work. They did not have quite the same · chronology or the same raison d' erre. The first was the disappearance of punishment as a sp~ctacle. The ceremonial of punishment tended to decline; it survived only as a new legal or administrative practice. The amende honorable was first abolished in France in 1791, then again in 1830 after a brief revival; the pillory was abolished in France in 1789 and in England in 1837.

      Here describes how patterns began to shift.

    4. And yet the fact remains that a few decades saw the disappearance of the tor-tured, dismembered, amputated body, symbolically branded on face : /J(j j or shoulder, exposed alive or dead to public view. Ihe body as th.~ lo ma"or tar et of enal re ression disa eared.

      How the logic of punishment transformed over time.

    5. h · nee of ublic executions marks therefore the decline 1!~~ of the s ectacle; but it also mar s a s ackening o t e old on the ~j·-\.> ~I
    6. Damiens the regicide

      was a servant who attempted to murder Luis XV, king of france.



    1. wer comes from below; that is, there is no binary and all-encompassing opposition between rulers and ruled at the root of power relations, and serving as a general matrix -no such duality extending from the top down and react-ing on more and more limited groups to the very depths of the social body.

      he's still defining what power it.

    2. The omnipresence of power: not because it has the privilege of consolidating everything under its invincible unity, but because it is produced from one moment to the next

      preceded by what his definition of power isn't to defining it.

      power is always present.

    3. The doubts I would like to oppose to the repressive hy-pothesis are aimed less at showing it to be mistaken than at putting it back within a general economy of discourses on sex in modern societies since the seventeenth century.

      Here he outlines his approach. Not to refute the repressive hypothesis. Rather, put it into context of "discourse of sex in modern society since the 17th century". Answering all the questions that follow. Why is sex such a topic or interest? What are people saying about it? How has talking about it generated power? How do the conversations link together?

    4. eeressive hypothesis

      The repressive Hypothesis. Based on suppositions: Historically sex is repressed through a 17th century regime?Mechanism of repression is through the exercise of power through prohibition censorship, denial. *Critical discourse is lacking to question the power.

      He seeks to refute this.

    5. Why do we say, with so much passion and so much resentment against our most recent past, against our present, and against ·~ We "Other Victorians" 9 ourselves, that we are repressed? By what spiral did we come to affirm that sex is negated? What led us to show, ostenta-tiously, that sex is something we hide, to say it is something we silence?

      We are we resentful in the assertion that we are repressed and that sex is negated - hidden?

    6. To say that sex is not repressed, or rather that the relationship be-tween sex and power is not characterized by repression, is to risk falling into a sterile paradox. It not only runs counter to a well-accepted argument, it goes against the whole economy and all the discursive "interests" that underlie this argument.

      The relationship between sex and power is characterized by repression.



    1. knowledge of reality with respect to its culturalsignificance and its causal relationships, can be attained through the quest for recurrentsequences.

      Weber is saying that our understanding of an event and how it relates to other events can be understood by looking for a relationship between events - boiled down to its elemental elements.

    2. The type of social science in which we are interested is an empirical science of concrete reality.Our aim is the understanding of the characteristic uniqueness of the reality in which we move. Wewish to understand on the one hand the relationships and the cultural significance of individualevents in their contemporary manifestations and on the other the causes of their beinghistorically so and not otherwise.

      CRITICAL: This is where Weber states what he is attempting to accomplish. He is an Empiricist. He wants to understand the meaning of the distinctive observable facts or events that form our reality. Social scientists only focus on a particular part of scientific investigation - breaking it down to its tiny components. He uses the term "astronomical" - to explain a "constalation" of events that can *divine (see middle of page 15) causality and the relationship between one thing and another.



    1. To practice alternative media as critical media allows to question rulingideas and to contribute to the realization of suppressed societal alternatives. Such alternatives are based on the vision of atruly democratic society without oppression, in which grassroots participation is not restricted to interaction, but shapes allrealms of society.

      Why is this critique important. Positions itself into an ideology of radical humanism.

    2. or politically effectivealternative media that in order to advance transformative political can include certain elements of capitalist mass mediaas well as elements of the ideal type of alternative media.

      argues that the ideal-type needs to be rethought to allow a new niche of Alternative Media in order - one that can maximize the effectiveness as a participant in transforming society and politics. The authors say that Alt media must be permitted to have some form of revenue to support its reach to the masses. They don't argue against giving up control production, but they do argue for the professionalism of the media. (not open to everyone) and also be should be able to finance itself to such a scale that it can reach a mass audience.

    3. An example for a dialectical alternative media strategy is the Canadian Adbusters magazine. It is financed by donationsand sales and has a paid circulation of about 120.000.

      The authors cite the Canadian Adbusters magazine as an example of an alternative media that is radical while remaining separate for commoditization of its readership to capitalistic ends. And also Mother Jones. THey both reach broad audiences.

    4. The notion of critique that underlies our concept of alternative media is the Marxian one as laid out in theIntroductionto the Critique of Hegel’s Philosophy of Right

      References a Marxian critical of using capitalistic means for achieving radical ends.

    5. The minimum requirement for speaking of an alternative medium is critical content and/orcomplex form.



    6. Critical media are negative in so far as they relate phenomena to societal problems, to what societyhas failed to become and to tendencies that question and contradict the dominant and dominative mode of societal opera-tion and have the potential to become positive forces of change towards a better society. Critical media in one or the otherrespect take the standpoint of oppressed groups or exploited classes and make the judgement that structures of oppressionand exploitation benefit certain classes at the expense of others and hence should be radically transformed by social strug-gles. They aim at advancing social struggles that transform society towards the realization of co-operative and participatorypotentials.

      Explains why it's important to produce media that is critical of societal problems and the effects of being critical. .

    7. by providing critical content alternative media canhelp advancing societal transformations and contribute to the realization of a truly participatory society, because criticalcontent expresses progressive political interests and tries to give attention to the realization of suppressed possibilities ofsocietal developmen


    8. alternative media at some levels can also employ capitalist tech-niques of media production in order to advance their political aims.

      Alt media bust break from the ideal-type to use "capitalist structures" to its benefit.

    9. Realizing an ideal model of alternative media presupposes different societal conditions. This means that itrequires that people have enough time and skills for not only consuming, but also producing media content and that thenecessary technologies for media production are freely available.

      Authors discuss the societal, economic constraints around an ideal model of alternative media.

      They cannot reach a broad audience So they cannot effect much transformation politically

    10. dialectical understanding

      Here, authors refer to Hume framework to contrast opposing idea of Capitalist Mass Media System with Ideal Alternative Media System, highlighted with 1 and 2, below. 1--- structure of the media products (differ from mainstream in that their products aren't commodities to be marketed and sold and that they content is critical of the mainstream ideology) 2---actors (alt media has no division btwn consumer and producer, they can be one in the same. )

      the above are discussed in terms of ideal-typical alternative media.

      --- idea types again

      • Producer
      • Recipient
      • Economic product
      • Media content
      • Media technologies
      • Media institutions
    11. oppositionalmedia that provide critical content, but make use of professional organization structures.

      It doesn't have to be alternative media to present points of view that criticize capitalism and the mainstream. Sites examples (observation) of professionally produced media

    12. ‘Alternative med-ia” should be discussed in relation to the role they play in capitalism and therefore in the context of capitalism.

      Supports the author's thesis.

    13. ‘‘participatory culture” can easily turn into an ideology that affirms the capitalist economy

      Notion - clue that an ideal type is coming

      "participatory culture" "capitalist economy" "Alternative Media" "Main stream media"

    14. The category of the produser commodity

      MY THESIS AH - HA - The author is using Weber's methodology by creating Categories of ideal types - and using this to framework to support at mezo analysis of the alternative media institutions.

    15. participatory production processes are often subsumed under capital interest.

      Social media - participatory/alternative - is being used to further the production of wealth through the exploitation of participants' who become advertising targets. quotes sources who thing the same.

    16. But not only conservatives, also far right groups make use ofparticipatory tools on the internet. One example is the online forum of the National Democratic Party of Germany

      Author supports the alternative theory that alt media may also be alt right.

    17. participatory production processes can be used for producing conservative or even far right content

      Here the author introduces the perspective that alt media can be used by conservative groups. and supports this by citing other others. as evidence.

    18. Participatory production processes need not necessarily be emancipatory, but can also be used for advancing repressivepurposes.

      Alt media can be used for other things than freeing people from oppression. It can be used for repressing people, too. .... follows assertion with evidence from other thinkers.

    19. Giving ordinary peoplea voice by opening up access to media production is not enough for a truly democratic media system to emerge. Participationremains very limited if people can only talk but are not heard. Thus, the discussion on emancipatory media potentials alsohas to consider structural inequalities as a central feature of capitalism.

      The authors summarize the idea that access to production isn't enough to democratize the media. (again, this appears to be just wrong based on today's evidence)

    20. Public visibility is still stratified through powerrelations.

      False, doesn't include observations about influencers and their role in increasing visibility of alternative points of view.

    21. Also on theM. Sandoval, C. Fuchs/Telematics and Informatics 27 (2010) 141–150143

      Refutes that the Internet will democratize media. (also turned out to be incorrect by not considering other empirical evidence that should have been available to the others at the time) False.

    22. But at the same time with the internet another important problem foralternative media production becomes more evident: not every media content, which is produced and distributed receivespublic visibility and is consumed

      Criticizes and supports the criticism citing people who think the same. - of course, this argument turned out to be false and reflects the date of the thinkers (think blogs)

    23. it is often argued that with the internet new possibilities for a cheap, participatorymedia production

      Provides another point of view that the internet will transform alt media. and presents evidence by citing theorists that hold this opinion.

    24. alternative media are not located outside the capitalist system and therefore are dependent on financial resources for theproduction and distribution of their products, which can hardly be obtained without making use of commercial mechanismsof financing.

      To be alternative doesn't signify separateness.

    25. alternative media as participatory media often also include non-commercial financing

      The author introduces evidence and then criticizes the lack of financing of alt media as exploitative. Without resources, the alternative media extract talent and money from the very people who create it.

    26. reporting about topics, which capitalist mass media tend to neglect and by criticizing structures ofdomination and oppression. Such alternative media need to gain public attentio

      The author advocates for a media the covers alternative topics and that evaluates existing societal constructs and presents different points of view than what's in the mainstream.

    27. Some representatives of the participatory media approach like

      Provides support from other theorists about the dangers of remaining isolated. Unless its about community building on a small geographic scale. There's limited value to being separated and having a small projection to ones voice.

    28. a statement that does not reachthe masses is not a significant statement at all, only an individual outcry that remains unheard and hence ineffective.

      Refutes the idea that something of value is obtained when alt media remain entrenched in isolation from other alt media groups and social movements.

    29. mar-ginalization or abandonment of radical content in order to reach broader audience

      To make it more commercial, alt media covers topics that have a broad appeal and can therefore appeal to economic interests.

    30. confronted with the antagonism between dominative structures and emancipatory goals. It isimpossible to act outside of these structures within a capitalist society.

      Paraphrases Knoche - Capitalist constructs constrain alt media.

    31. alternativemedia should recognize that ‘‘capitalist skills as marketing and promotion can be used to further their political goals”

      Authors sites other author to support their case.

    32. In the 1980s, the Comedia research group criticized approaches that define alternative media as participatory med-ia. According to Comedia, the public marginality of many alternative media projects stems from a lack of professionalorganization structures

      Evidence to support the author's position that access as a participant in the creation of alt media doesn't define what alt media is.

    33. lack of re-sources

      Can't compete financially

    34. remain margina

      Here the authors begin to support the criticism that alternative media is niche and won't have much effect on broader society.

    35. Nevertheless we doubt that alternative media can effectively challenge corporate media power

      Participatory media won't cause the overthrow of mass media conglomerates.

    36. emancipatory societal effects of participatory production

      Participatory media provides a democratic venue accessible to people who want to work at changing and developing society from present constructs.

    37. Bertolt Brecht,Walter Benjamin and Hans Magnus Enzensberger, who imagined a media system in which media enable dialogue

      Sites examples of alt media institutions that use the participatory model.

    38. We first discuss exam-ples of this model and then formulate a critique of it. Based on this discussion, we introdu

      Here the authors tell us the structure of the article - presentation of evidence and then a critique of this evidence - adding their perspectives.

    39. According to them

      Using "alternative media scholars" to support the thesis - illustrating their observations about the characteristics of alternative.

    40. alternative media differ from mainstream media in re-gard to their organizational principles.

      Organizing principles of alternative media make it something distinct from mainstream media.

    41. Does the term alternativemedia exclusively refer to politically progressive, left-wing media that aim at challenging capitalism and corporate (media)power, or does the term also include conservative, right-wing, and repressive media (Downing, 2001, p. 88)

      Refining the definition of "alternative media"

    42. theoretical conceptualization of the term alternative media is needed.

      explaining the preceding quote, the authors indicate that they are taking a Meso (institutional approach) to analyzing "alternative media"

    43. Indymedia. Indymedia uses a ‘‘democratic open-publishing system”,is‘‘collectively run”, and ‘‘a decentralized and autonomousnetwork”(Indymedia, 2009).

      giving an example of alternative type of media and characterizing it.

    44. alternative to mainstream media, or if the term implies thatsuch media want to challenge all forms of domination and foster societal alternatives to capitalism

      defining the term alternative in terms of media.

    45. Rodriguez (2003) or Dagron (2004)stress that reachingbroad audiences is not an aim for alternative media projects: ‘‘Anyone asserting that alternative media are fine but their cov-erage is to limited geographically or in terms of users does not understand what alternative media really are”

      the goals of alternative media aren't about making a large impact for the masses.

    46. large counter-public sphere that is accessible for allexploited, oppressed, and excluded groups and individuals as an important foundation for political change processes.

      Authors are illustrating that collective alternative media can be more productive in raising awareness to political alternatives.

      It's a matter of scale - small are less effective.

    47. 3. A critique of the participatory media approach

      begins to refute the idea that participatory media has positive externalities for society.

    48. production processes are at the core of alternative media projects: ‘‘In my own view alternativecommunication is in essence participatory communication, and the alternative spirit remains as long as the participatorycomponent is not minimized and excluded”

      Theory that central to alternative media is the way it is collectively produced

    49. serve a specific geographic community or a community of interest, and allow non-professionalsto actively engage in media production, organization and management (

      characteristics of community media

    50. Many current approaches on alternativemedia pick up this vision of a democratic media system. So for example Nick Couldr

      Here sites Nick Couldry - ... alternatives power is about its accessibility to anyone who wants to participate.

    51. Participatory media approaches stress that democratic media potentials

      Participatory media is good for democracy because it opens up production to people with other ideas and perspectives.

    52. One examplefor a conservative participatory medium is the online communitywww.townhall.com,

      Here the author cites an example to support the idea that conservatives use collective production, too.

    53. not only progressive social movements and left-wing political activist employ ‘‘participa-tory” production principles

      collective production isn't just the purview of progressives.

    1. Social action, like all action, may be oriented in four ways

      4 orientations of social action.

      1) conditions of the environment (mean to an end)

      2) action motivated by conscious belief in the value of the action

      3) affectual -based on someone's feelings (emotions)

      4) traditional, ie. habitual actions.

    2. all reacting in the same way to the like need of protection from the rain-

      Social action that is related to an event, but not related to collective benefit.

      Narrows here the idea of social action.

    3. Not every type of contact of human beings has a social character

      here social action considers events of chance, such as collision of two cyclists.

      Natural events.

    4. Social action

      defined as action and passive inaction. (colt be motivated by past present or future). .

    5. sociological generalizations

      Abstracts from reality imprecise.

      Pure types - theoretical explanations -- can approach precision.

    6. Action
      • in terms of being able to cognitively understand something
    7. Processes and uniformities

      Referring to the subjective undestanability of phenomena .

      • a class apart in terms of method for their understanding...<br> example must be conditions, stimuli (circumstances that allow for or constrain action)
    8. A motive

      Subjective grounds for conduct. may involve a complexity, such as a sequence of events. An interpretation of causality.

    9. judged in terms of its results


    10. Understanding

      Direction oberservation (direct rational understanding of ideas) ex 2x2 = 4 or an emotional outbreak that we can see in facial expressions of body language.

      Or explanatory understanding - (ex understanding the context of why someone is noting that 2x2= 4, as in the case of someone working on a ledger).

      Or being able to understand the motivations behind something.

    11. treat all irrational, effectually determined elements of behavior as factors of deviation from a conceptually pure type of rational action

      Meaning is not defined here as emotional meaning or "irrational concepts"

    12. Meaning
      1. actual existing meaning in the given concrete case of a particular actor, or to the average or approximate meaning attributable to a given plurality of actors;

      2 theoretically conceived pure type* of subjective meaning attributed to the hypothetical actor or actors in a given type of action.

      *In no case does it refer to an objectively "correct" meaning or one which is "true"

    13. Sociology

      interpretive understanding of social action and thereby with a causal explanation of its course and consequences

    14. An introductory

      Chapter 1 begins here.