125 Matching Annotations
  1. Apr 2024
  2. Mar 2024
    1. . We note, however, a few limitations ofour work
    2. the sample differed along a number of other dimensions (e.g., non-DDP minestended to produce gold; DDP mines produce 3T)

      why IPIS/ULULA study is not representative or generalisable

    1. IPIS research teams collect quantitative and qualitative data through a combination of observations andinterviews with a selection of stakeholders at and around ASM sites, support villages, and trading hubs.Data collection methods and verification rely extensively on triangulation of sources, and intervieweesinclude artisanal miners, representatives of cooperatives, heads of miner camps, state agents and CSOrepresentatives.
    2. IPIS visited 354 active mining sites, which employ an estimated 55,604 miners (Table A). Gold mines ac-counted for 86% of mines visited, followed by tin, tantalum, and tungsten (3T) mines, which accountedfor 20% of mines (Table B). These proportions are consistent with the larger IPIS database on ASM sitesin eastern DRC
    1. When comparing data collected on the mining sites during field visits with data from mobilesurveys, it is important to keep in mind the two levels of analysis employed: mining sites and individualexperience and perception.It worth noting that the low number of gold mining sites covered by due diligence programmes meansthat comparing DDP and non-DDP mining sites will inherently be subject to any difference between 3Tand gold exploitations.

      methodological 'problems'

    2. IPIS surveyors visited mine sites andtrading centres (so-called points de vente) in two consecutive field missions, during which they collectedphone numbers of community members, made observations, and conducted interviews with several keyinformants so as to complete an extensive questionnaire on each mine site (using the OpenDataKit tool)

      field visits? visit surveys and observations ODK

  3. Feb 2024
  4. Oct 2023
    1. y combining social science methods and underwater reef surveys we identify a number of countervailing challenges and opportunities presented by globalization that both nurture and suppress the island's resilience to high amplitude, low-frequency disturbances like tsunamis

      Mathodology: Combining social science methods and underwater reef surveys.

  5. Mar 2023
    1. things to do to understand text:

      • visualize single texts
      • measure features of text
      • identify distinctive words
      • find or organize works
      • model literay forms
      • model social boundaries
      • unsupervised modeling
  6. Dec 2022
    1. Investigating social structures through the use of network or graphs Networked structures Usually called nodes ((individual actors, people, or things within the network) Connections between nodes: Edges or Links Focus on relationships between actors in addition to the attributes of actors Extensively used in mapping out social networks (Twitter, Facebook) Examples: Palantir, Analyst Notebook, MISP and Maltego
  7. Jun 2022
    1. two-tailed t-test

      Statistical significance test evaluating whether a sample is greater than or less than a specific value range. Critical distribution area is two-sided.

    2. Significance levels

      The probability of rejecting the null hypothesis when it is true.

    3. between-subject

      Variability for individuals themselves in the sample.

    4. within

      Variability of specific scores for individuals in the sample.

    5. voxel

      A value on a regular grid in three-dimensional space. In this case, composes the 3-dimensional brain image.

    6. T2*-sensitive functional imag-ing

      MR imaging frequency that displays CSF as the brightest contrast, white matter as the second brightest contrast, and gray matter as the third brightest contrast. Stronger than T2 MR imaging frequency.

    7. 3-T Siemens Trio MRI scan-ner

      3 Tesla-powered scanner model. In our replication, we will be using a different scanner.

    8. fixation cross

      A cross presented to research participants in a perception task with the intent directing the participants' attention to wherever the investigator wants them to look.

    9. inter stimulus intervals

      The amount of time between the end of one stimulus being presented and the start of another stimulus being presented.

    10. T1-weighted images

      MR imaging frequency that displays gray matter as the brightest contrast, white matter as the second brightest contrast, and CSF matter as the third brightest contrast.

    11. cerebellum

      Structure at the lower back of the brain, associated with motor control.

    12. cortex

      Outermost brain layer, associated with higher order cognitive abilities.



  8. Apr 2022
  9. Feb 2022
    1. The waterfall methodology for software development is rapidly losing popularity, while the Agile methodology is increasingly used for software development by companies around the world.

      Important differences between Agile and Waterfall methodology

      The waterfall methodology for software development is rapidly losing popularity, while the Agile methodology is increasingly used for software development by companies around the world.

  10. Jan 2022
    1. Users are shown four animated GIFs, each correspondingto modifying an attribute for a given image.
    2. ee Sec. 4.2.2 for user studiesthat further demonstrate this

      Quite nice that they strengthened their analysis with user studies, something that I haven't seen often in these type of ML papers.

    3. AttFind proceeds as follows: At each iteration it consid-ers all K style coordinates and calculates their effect on theprobability of y.3 4 It then selects the coordinate with largesteffect, and removes all images where changing this coordi-nate had a large effect on their probability to belong to classy
    4. AttFind takes as input the trained model and a set of N im-ages whose predicted label by C is different from y. Foreach class y (e.g., y=“cat” or y=“dog”), AttFind then findsa set Sy of M style coordinates (i.e., Sy ⊂ [1, . . . , K] and|Sy|= M ), such that changing these coordinates increasesthe average probability of the class y on these images.

      Question: How can you actually define a style coordinate? How should I envision this?

  11. Dec 2021
  12. Nov 2021
    1. Grimmer & Stewart (2013) - Text as Data: The Promise and Pitfalls of Automatic ContentAnalysis Methods for Political Texts

    1. (the VTA is also part ofthis system, but is too small to image with standard fMRImethods, but see [35] for successful imaging methods).

      All imaging studies face questions of validity and should (and many do) link to comprehensive details on instrumentation, methodology, and interpretation. Apparently, the professional consensus remains that, properly executed and interpreted, fMRI and other functional imaging techniques based on detection of oxygenation can lead to highly valid conclusions. (See Nautil.us article.)

  13. Oct 2021
    1. rank correlation analysis, using Kendall's tau-c. For this purpose the three urban renewal status classes are assumed to constitute a scale. Evidence that such an assumption is reasonable is present in Tables 1 and 3.

      Kendall's tau-c

      a non-parametric measure of relationships between columns of ranked data. The Tau correlation coefficient returns a value of 0 to 1, where: 0 is no relationship, 1 is a perfect relationship. source: https://www.statisticshowto.com/kendalls-tau/)

    2. Two other controls having to do with the socioeconomic level of the resident pop- ulation are used

      Control variable (alternative explanations) **Socioeconomic level of residents: When controlling for High socioeconomic factors (such as high education and high income in relationship to median income).

      **Region Assumes there may be regional difference between cities, such as how old they are, their state of disrepair)_ Categorized regions northeast, north central, south and west.

    3. Since the significance of the number of functions varies with the number of all other functions (i.e., the size of the employed labor force), it should be ex- pressed as a ratio to the latter. Hence the lower the ratio of managers, proprietors, and officials7 to the employed labor force the greater is the concentration of power. (This measure will hereafter be called the MPO ratio.

      Sub: The ability to mobilize community people and resources requires a management class.

      Independent Variable: Managers, Proprietors and officals/ to employed labor force. Census data, number of managers

      Dependent Variable: Success in Urban Renewal: Stages: Planning, Execution, Completion She classifies cities by: Those that exectued Those the abandoned the problem (for whatever reason) Those who never tried urban renewal - although they quality..

      Intervening variables:



    1. Too bad there wasn't more information in the citations, even just the author & title, let alone a short summary. I wouldn't follow the link.

  14. Sep 2021
    1. acknowledge the value of the knowledge thatis held by research communities in the data collection process

      Dealing with power asymmetries.

    2. requested consent to quote brief,anonymized portions of conversations to provide anecdotalcontext.




  15. Aug 2021
  16. Jul 2021
  17. Jun 2021
  18. May 2021
  19. Apr 2021
    1. In this practice, only errors from outside the program's control are to be handled (such as user input); the software itself, as well as data from within the program's line of defense, are to be trusted in this methodology.
  20. Feb 2021
    1. n any nonviolent campaign there are four basic steps: collection of the facts to determine whether injustices exist; negotiation; self purification; and direct action. We have gone through all these steps in Birmingham

      He is detailing his methodology - it’s not random

    1. Untools - Tools for better thinking

      Collection of thinking tools and frameworks to help you solve problems, make decisions and understand systems.

  21. Nov 2020
  22. Oct 2020
    1. This article introduces a special issue of Qualitative Inquiry that focuses on using "concept" as method in the education and social sciences. They describe this exploratory approach where the method emerges during the process of research.

  23. Sep 2020
  24. Aug 2020
  25. Jul 2020
  26. Jun 2020
  27. May 2020
    1. Analyses linking Pentecostalism to the pursuit of personal gain through the breakdown of social relationships are problematic on at least two fronts. First, the vast majority of these studies are based largely, if not exclusively, on sermons and interviews with church leaders. While these are certainly an important part of any anthropological discussion of Pentecostal ritual life, in the absence of a robust ethnographic engagement with those who spend their time listening to these messages, it is impossible to determine the extent to which believers are putting their leaders' words into practice (see Engelke 2010).

      The author also harshly criticizes non-ethnographic qualitative studies solely based on sermons and interviews that try to argue for a individualizing, socially corrosive prosperity Pentecostalism without data that actually documents sociality.

  28. Sep 2019
    1. “To me, this is symptomatic of a much larger problem of transparency within the company. Nobody is forthcoming with information that dramatically affects editorial,” Binkowski said. “One of those things was me not knowing if I was in trouble.”

      This firing of Snopes managing editor reiterates previous concerns over an unhealthy working environment. This article is old enough I'd like to see followups.

    1. When I asked Barbara to comment on the GoFundMe page, she noticed her erasure. “Was surprised to see my life’s work described as having been ‘a small one-­person effort,’”

      Diminishing your 50/50 partner's contributions & erasing their attributions (accidentally or not) is one of the things I find the most annoying.

    2. When I asked how many articles she’d written for the site, she came back with a “verified count” of 1,905. She told me how she came to that number: “By examining every Snopes.com HTML file on my computer, rereading every email David and I exchanged from 1997 until now, and in cases where doubt still existed, examining my research files. The task took a week, but I am satisfied I now have a fair list and that all lurking doubles (a result of David’s penchant for renaming files) have been excised.”

      Impressive. Her alleged painstaking data-hoarding makes me like her. I'm not sure what to think of David's ambiguity yet.

  29. May 2019
    1. Methodology The classic OSINT methodology you will find everywhere is strait-forward: Define requirements: What are you looking for? Retrieve data Analyze the information gathered Pivoting & Reporting: Either define new requirements by pivoting on data just gathered or end the investigation and write the report.

      Etienne's blog! Amazing resource for OSINT; particularly focused on technical attacks.

  30. Jan 2019

      Comparing survey data (i.e. individual/public opinion) with news coverage (media framing)



  31. Dec 2018
    1. To be sure, the topicality, novelty or potential benefits of a given line of research might help it attract notice and support, butscientific researchfundamentally stands or falls on the thoroughness with which activities and reasoning can be tied together. You just can’t get in the game without a solid methodology.

      Methodology is the critical factor for scientific study, not the result.

  32. Oct 2018
  33. www.projectinfolit.org www.projectinfolit.org
    1. telephone interviews with 37 participants

      I have to wonder at telephone samples of this age group given the propensity of youth to not communicate via voice phone.

  34. Aug 2018
    1. "A través de las dificultades de acceso al agua, lo que estaba en juego no era pues solamente una mejora de las condiciones materiales de existencia, sino una lucha por el reconocimiento de su existencia social. Y en la medida en que mi compromiso etnográfico afectaba la dimensión material de las condiciones de vida de los residentes, se inscribía también, de hecho, en la dimensión simbólica de la vida del barrio, revelando así que incluso en las zonas más marginales en apariencia, la vida social tiene que ver con una «doble verdad»16 que el trabajo etnográfico debe aprehender. En este caso preciso, el acceso a la propiedad y a los servicios es el primer momento del acceso a la existencia social, y a su reconocimiento político. " P. 358


    2. "Inversamente, los esclarecimientos metodológicos aportados por las otras técnicas de investigación, y la multiplicación de los lugares estudiados, me permitían dirigir otra mirada sobre mi campo etnográfico, y de alguna manera «revisitarlo» (Burawoy, 2010). Retomando el vocabulario de Burawoy, yo pasaba de la «revisita de confirmación» a la «revisita en continuo», pero de tipo «empirista», cuando el investigador descubre dinámicas que superan la comunidad previamente estudiada." P. 356

    3. El enfoque etnográfico efectuado inicialmente me permitía reintegrar, en el momento de la objetivación, el «sentido vivido» por los agentes (Bourdieu, 1980b): me daba cuenta que este me había servido de aquello que Loïc Wacquant llama un «instrumento de deconstrucción de las categorías» (Wacquant, 2008) utilizadas en los enfoques estadísticos. p. 356

    1. Because of both the content that people upload and the behavioral traces that they leavebehind, social network sites have unprecedented quantities of data concerning humaninteraction. This presents unique opportunities and challenges. On one hand, SNSs offera vibrant “living lab” and access to behavioral data at a scale inconceivable to manysocial scientists. On the other, the data that are available present serious research ethicsquestions and introduce new types of biases that must be examined (boyd and Crawford2012)

      The scope and scale of trace data —from settings, public facing fatures, and server-side — presents similar challenges as technological platform changes = new ethics/privacy issues.

    2. For those of us who believe that social network sites are socio-technical systems, in whichsocial and technical factors shape one another, failing to describe the site under studyignores the fact that the technological constraints and affordances of a site will shapeuser practices and that social norms will emerge over time. Not including informationabout what the feature set was at the time of data collection forecloses the possibility ofidentifying patterns that emerge over time and through the accumulated scholarshipacross a range of sites and user samples. Unfortunately, because they have no knowledgeabout how things will continue to evolve and which features will becomeimportant to track, researchers may not be able to identify the salient features to reportand may struggle with devoting scarce publication space to these details, but this doesn’tundermine the importance of conscientious consideration towards describing the artifactbeing analyzed.

      What about documenting technological features/artifacts on a stand-alone website or public repository, like Github to account for page limits?

    3. In order to produce scholarship that will be enduring, the onus is on social mediaresearchers to describe the technological artifact that they are analyzing with as muchcare as survey researchers take in describing the population sampled, and with as muchdetail as ethnographers use when describing their field site. This is not to say thatresearchers must continue to describe technologies as if no one knows what they are—weare beyond the point where researchers must explain how electronic mail or “email” islike or unlike postal mail. But, rather, researchers must clearly describe the socio-technical context of the particular site, service, or application their scholarship isaddressing. In addition to attending to the technology itself, and the interchange betweentechnical and social processes, we believe SNS researchers should make a concertedeffort to include the date of data collection and to describe the site at the moment of datacollection and the relevant practices of its users. These descriptions will enable laterresearchers to synthesize across studies to identify patterns, much in the same wayreporting exact effect sizes allows for future meta-analyses

      Excellent point and important for my SBTF studies.

  35. Jul 2018
    1. I think of research as a conversation, and it really is very much like a conversation. No single person dominates it, but what does happen is when you interject something, when you contribute something to a conversation, you want to be understood, you want to be heard, you would like people to pay attention, you would like it to have some influence on the way the conversation goes. You don't control it. But thinking in conversational terms and trying to say something that is interesting as a criteria, not merely publishable but actually is interesting -- that's been part of what moved me.
  36. Oct 2017
    1. Emma’s multiplicity of subplots, andits preoccupation with the reading, rereading and misreading of writing within,and events internal to, the text, renders the novel a manifesto for Austen’sapproach to the‘‘judicious’’, critical reading necessary to understanding thefunction of literary influence in her fiction

      The author makes it clear that she will be explicating her thesis via the example of Emma. In this sentence, she connects Austen's approach to reading, writing, and readership to the notion of literary fiction. Again, I'm not sure if the following paragraphs do live up to the expectation she sets up here.

    2. The catalyst forthe novel, however, seems to have been a straightforward reaction to a newwork by an author Austen considered her competition*the Scottish MaryBrunton’sDiscipline(1814).Disciplineis a fictional autobiography with the strong religious themes ofsin, repentance and redemption.

      The author claims here that Emma was inspired by the 1814 novel Discipline by Mary Brunton, which surely is not part of the male literary canon laid out earlier in the article. The author outlines the main themes of Discipline and explains the relationship between the two authors.

      I feel like a broken record here, but again, this seems to be a very tenuous point without computational analysis. The author's own language belies this tenuousness as she says that the novel's inspiration "seems to have been a straightforward reaction" to another novel. The word "seems" does not inspire confidence.

    1. Still, it may not be others' actual behavior that drives ourown ad-dictive behavior, but our perceptions of their behavior, where the twoconflict.

      This relates to the above annotation. I also agree that people's perceptions of others behaviors are unreliable; but this is an interesting point that in this case, perception may be more important than reality. Of course, that would need to be tested for us to know for sure. I think an interesting future study would be to use SNA and have both the egos and their alters actually track their substance use activities day by day. This would address the perception vs reality issue, as well as the underestimation of own behavior issue. There could still be some social desirability bias though.

    1. This suggested that for this survivor, those feelings were the most powerful aspects of her experience.  

      This is an excellent use of SNA. I have never seen it used chronologically to map feelings. I love it!

  37. Sep 2017
    1. snowball sampling method where we initially asked 17 re-spondents about their social and expert networks. This in-volved asking informants to name the seven most importantpersons in their lives, starting with the most important, outsideoftheir household

      Think about this for your own research. Pay attention to the methods so you can begin to think about how you will collect your own data.

    1. Austen allows Emma to imaginatively misattribute herself. In doing so,she offers the reader a literary red herring. While Harriet may fall in and out oflove as if she is subject to one of Puck’s spells,Emmatakes its cues from adifferent Shakespearean comedy.24Emma, who has‘‘very little intention of ever marrying at all’’, yet is happyto consider Frank Churchill as a potential husband (84), resembles Olivia, the‘‘too proud’’heiress of Shakespeare’sTwelfth Night, whose resolution to live‘‘like a cloistress’’is quickly abandoned when she meets Viola, disguised as aboy.25

      In this brief introduction to the next section of the paper, Murphy challenges existing scholarship that aligns Emma with Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream. Rather, the author outlines the parallels between Shakespeare's Twelfth Night. I find the connection somewhat tenuous as it almost ignores all of the gender bending and performance of Twelfth Night. While the author's later claim that "the broader themes of deliberate misrepresentation and self-serving delusions" are the tie between the two plays, I find that ignoring the aspects of performance and disguise is problematic.

      I also think that this takes away from Murphy's main argument, which is that Austen's view of influence is broader than the historically main canon, evidence by her parody of Brunton's novel. This section seems to show the opposite, which is a parallel between Austen and Shakespeare.

    2. It is not to be expected that any character withinEmmamight be able toexercise the kind of judgment of its creator or perform the kind of judiciousreading that Austen’s text ultimately demands. This does not prevent Austenfrom demonstrating how her characters can betaughtto read and to judgeclearly.

      Here, Murphy makes the connection back to readership and the characters of Emma.

      This, incidentally, made me think of the quote on the new British ten pound note: "I declare after all there is no enjoyment like reading!" which was certainly a satirical denotation.

    3. If we enlarge our understanding of the concept of‘‘influence’’, we canbegin to see the ways in which artistically unremarkable, canonicallydisregarded works inform the development even of masterpieces. Ros Ballastercorrectly states that:[...] most women novelists of the eighteenth century tended to locatetheir own writing in relation to a strong line of male predecessors orcontemporaries [...] if women read each other’s work they did not, forthe most part, openly acknowledge influence.16Jane Austen is the exception to this rule. Far from shamefacedly concealing herdebt to Brunton’s novel, on the contrary, Austen’s linguistic allusions toDisciplineinEmmadraw the reader’s attention to the two novels’intimateconnection

      This is a key section. Here, the author claims that Jane Austen's Emma is influenced by the rather unremarkable and certainly much less well known novel Discipline. This is in contrast to the existing tradition. Murphy cites and agrees with Ballaster's argument that 18th century women authors situated their own work within the male tradition and did not seek recognition for the influence of other female authors. However, Murphy argues that Austen makes obvious the connection to Brunton.

    4. Such active, criticalreading, of course, distinguishes the work still expected of students andscholars of literature, and Austen’s assumption of this ability in her readers wasunderpinned by historic changes in the study of literature.

      Here, Murphy makes a claim and supports it with a secondary source on the place of literature in English education. In doing so, Murphy is illuminating the basis of Austen's assumption of a certain body of literary knowledge.

    5. ‘‘I do not write for such dull Elves’’, wrote Jane Austen to her sisterCassandra in 1813,‘‘As have not a great deal of Ingenuity themselves’’.

      Here, the author turns to a primary source, a letter by Jane Austen, to research her views of her readers. While authorial intention is often inscrutable, such a primary source can assist in evaluating Austen's notions of readership.

    1. look at the edges, the connections between the nodes.

      This is what we mean with the term 'sociological imagination'. Theory allows us to 'see' below the surface of society and to understand the invisible network of norms, values, structures, institutions and systems of inequality that shape individual choice and behavior. In this way, SNA should be fundamental to sociological methods.

    1. descriptive analysis

      The challenge of descriptive research for traditional social scientists is the change in how questions are asked. Questions should focus on describing something in a deep and informative way. Traditional social science relies more on predictive and inferential analysis. Can I predict what will happen if this variable changes in this way? Research questions identify the independent and dependent variables. SNA does not have IV and DV so questions are more about revealing what is going on underneath; i.e. how do the members of corporations know each other?

    1. challenging for those using SNA.

      It is the blessing and the curse of SNA--it can do so much but it can also do too much. The analyst has to be clear in their question, defining what is a node and what is a link. It can get even trickier since nodes and links can also be reversed. Sometimes a node can be a link and a link can also be a node!

    1. interaction of two actors.

      Excellent! Therefore SNA requires three points of data--Node A, Node B and the link between them. There is no dependent and independent variable. The means there is no inferential or predictive questions. Questions are more descriptive and comparative.

    1. relational data

      There are three points of data in SNA; node A, node B and the link between them. Traditional social science requires only two--independent variable and dependent variable.

    1. heart of sociological thought is the belief that we are all  a part of a vast tapestry of social connections.

      As I think about this, I am always a bit perplexed as to why SNA is not more foundational to Sociology. SNA reveals that which is very fabric of our society. Why is is not more utilized as a methodology? I suspect it has something to do with how hard it is to collect data.

    1. aspect of an average person’s life to very soundly prove their point.

      These outcomes have been linked to friends and social contacts. Research asks how many friends or how often do you socialize? While this hints at the issue of networks, asking for lists or numbers does not produce network data. You have to find the links between people and between those people that people know.

    2. just how important our social networks are to every aspect of our lives

      Social networks are like 'air'; they surround us and we don't even see them. To me, this is what makes the methodology of SNA harder to grasp; how to access the data for 'air'? How to understand the discreet influence of 'air'? But once you see it, you can't unsee it! Very powerful!

    1. ask people to list those in their social circles who have intervened in abusive situations, people they have talked to about bystander intervention, or people whose opinion on intervening is important to them.

      What would be the links between these people? If you asked someone to list their friends, you will get lists which produce a star network. There needs to be a second round of questions involving friends of friends. Getting network data requires asking interrelated people.

    2. individuals, groups, or systems.

      This perspective of looking at individuals in categories is the foundation of statistics--two variables that are mutually exclusive and the goal is to see if they relate in any way. SNA is very different--all variables are related and dependent. That is why SNA is descriptive--can't do predictive without mutually exclusive variables.

  38. Jul 2017
  39. Mar 2017
    1. So with social networking graphs, we will be able to get a better view on connections and their movement in the #rhizo14 constellation.

      Different methodology for research.

  40. Sep 2016
    1. n total we received 40 faculty and 39 student

      What this doesn't tell us is how many of the faculty/students were reporting experiences on the same projects.

  41. Aug 2016
    1. Page 8

      Jockers talking about the old approach in the 1990s to anecdotal evidence:

      … in the 1990s, gathering literary evidence meant reading books, noting "things" (a phallic symbol here, a bibliographical reference there, a stylistic flourish, an allusion, and so on) and then interpreting: making sense and arguments out of those observations. Today, in the age of digital libraries and large-scale book-digitization projects, the nature of the "evidence" available to us has changed, radically. Which is not to say that we should no longer read books looking for, or noting, random "things," but rather to emphasize that massive digital corpora offer is unprecedented access to literally record an invite, even demand, a new type of evidence gathering and meaning making. The literary scholar of the 21st-century can no longer be content with anecdotal evidence, with random "things" gathered from a few, even "representative," text. We must strive to understand the things we find interesting in the context of everything else, including a massive possibly "uninteresting" text.

    2. Pages 7 and 8

      Jockers is talking here about Ian Watt’s method in Rise of the Novel

      What are we to do with the other three to five thousand works of fiction published in the eighteenth century? What of the works that Watt did not observe and account for with his methodology, and how are we to now account for works not penned by Defoe, by Richardson, or by Fielding? Might other novelists tell a different story? Can we, in good conscience, even believe that Defoe, Richardson, and Fielding are representative writers? Watt’s sampling was not random; it was quite the opposite. But perhaps we only need to believe that these three (male) authors are representative of the trend towards "realism" that flourished in the nineteenth century. Accepting this premise makes Watts magnificent synthesis into no more than a self-fulfilling project, a project in which the books are stacked in advance. No matter what we think of the sample, we must question whether in fact realism really did flourish. Even before that, we really ought to define what it means "to flourish" in the first place. Flourishing certainly seems to be the sort of thing that could, and ought, to be measured. Watt had no yardstick against which to make such a measurement. He had only a few hundred texts that he had read. Today things are different. The larger literary record can no longer be ignored: it is here, and much of it is now accessible.

  42. Jul 2016
    1. Page 217

      Methods for organizing information in the humanities follow from their research practices. Humanists fo not rely on subject indexing to locate material to the extent that the social sciences or sciences do. They are more likely to be searching for new interpretations that are not easily described in advance; the journey through texts, libraries, and archives often is the research.

    2. Page 213

      Humanities scholarship is even more difficult to characterize than are the sciences and social sciences. Generally speaking, the humanities are more interpretative than data driven, but some humanists conduct qualitative studies using social sciences methods, and others employ quantitative methods. Digital humanities scholarship often reflects sophisticated computational expertise. Humanists value new interpretations, perspectives, and sources of data to examine age-old questions of art and culture.

    1. But the passage from de man does disservice to the discussion of close reading in one important respect. It makes it sound as though all you need is a negative disci-pline, a refusal to leap to the kind of paraphrases one has been led to expect, so that effective close reading requires no technique or training, only an avoidance of bad or dubious training. The suggestion seems to be that if one strips away these bad habits and simply encounters the text, without preconceptions, close reading will occur. If, as de man puts it, you are “attentive” and “honest,” close reading “cannot fail to respond to structures of language” that most literary education strives “to keep hidden.” atten-tion is important but not, alas, enough. Readers can always fail to respond—though then de man might not want to dignify the practice with the name of reading.

      Discussion of the methodological difficulties involved in close reading: i.e. there is no such thing as "just reading."

    2. Culler, Jonathan. 2010. “The Closeness of Close Reading.” ADE Bulletin, 20–25. doi:10.1632/ade.149.20.

    3. Distant Reading: Performance, Readership, and Consumption in Contempo-rary Poetry, Peter middleton calls close reading “our contemporary term for a hetero-geneous and largely unorganized set of practices and assumptions”

      Discussion of the methodology of close reading: middleton, Peter. Distant Reading: Performance, Readership, and Consumption in Contemporary Poetry. Tuscaloosa: U of alabama P, 2005. Print.

    1. Page 16

      One benefit of traditional hermeneutical practices such as close reading is that the trained reader need not install anything, run any software, wrestle with settings, or wait for results. The experienced reader can just enjoy iteratively reading, thinking, and rereading. Similarly the reader of another person's interpretation, if the book being interpreted is at hand, can just pick it up, follow the references, and recapitulate the reading. To be as effective as close reading, analytical methods have to be significantly easier to apply and understand. They have to be like reading, or, better yet, a part of reading. Those invested in the use of digital analytics need to think differently about what is shown and what is hidden: the rhetorical presentation of analytics matters. Further, literary readers of interpretive works want to learn about the interpretation. Much of the literature in journals devoted to humanities computing suffers from being mostly about the computing; it is hard to find scholarship that is addressed to literary scholars and is based in computing practices.

    2. Page 6

      Computer-assisted research in the humanities, by contrast to the Cartesian story and traditional humanities practices, has almost always been collaborative. This is due to the variety of skills needed to implement digital humanities projects. It is also linked to the relationship between the practices of interpretation in the development of the tools of interpretation, be the tools for analyzing text or digital editions. Anyone who has used tools forged by another person is in collaboration, even if one isn't personally influencing the provider of the tools. The need to collaborate, though acknowledged in various ways, has been a professional hindrance, as anyone who submits a curriculum vitae for promotion listing nothing but co-authored papers knows.

    3. Pages 6-7

      Collaboration is not always good. It separates the interpreter/scholar from the designer/programmer who implements the scholarly methods. Willard McCarthy notes that the introduction of software "separated the conception of the problems (domain of the scholar) from the computational means of working them out (baliwick of the programmer) and so came at a significant cost.” As computing is introduced into research, it separates consumption, implementation, and interpretation in ways that can be overcome only through dialogue and collaboration across very different fields. Typically, humanities scholars know little about programming and software engineering, and programmers know little about humanities scholarship. Going it alone is an option only for the few who have time to master both. The rest of us and up depending on others.

    1. do these analyses without ever mentioning diversity when we recruit survey-takers or within our survey

      Indeed, a major advantage, in terms of methodology. Bias is introduced in myriad ways, but that one way would likely have a much deeper effect than many others.

  43. Jun 2016
  44. content.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.alu.talonline.ca content.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.alu.talonline.ca
    1. DARIAH the challenge involved conducting, analysing and understandingresearch practices of arts and humanities researchers, a largely ill-definedcommunity encompassing a wide spectrum of disciplines. Each of them dealswith a variety of objects employing an extensive number of methods. In thecontext of EHRI, the challenge is slightly different, due to the involvementof a better-defined research community. Holocaust researchers share well-identified objects, common ground on methods, and handle similar setbacks. In

      Really interesting idea: do an analysis of humanities researchers in general (DARIAH) and Holocaust researchers in specific (EHRI). One is very heterogeneous, the other very homogeneous (at least in terms of working conditions and, broadly speaking, data sources).

    2. argely ill-definedcommunity encompassing a wide spectrum of disciplines.

      description of "arts and humanities researchers"


      Benardou, Agiatis, Panos Constantopoulos, and Costis Dallas. 2013. “An Approach to Analyzing Working Practices of Research Communities in the Humanities.” International Journal of Humanities and Arts Computing 7 (1–2): 105–27. doi:10.3366/ijhac.2013.0084.

    1. is wiseto avoid generalizations and to concentrate instead on show-ing how interactions between coworkers, specifically theorchestration of information exchange and coauthorship, aregrounded in local culture.

      "it is wise to avoid generalizations and to concentrate instead on showing how interactions between coworkers, specifically the orchestration of information exchange and coauthorship, are grounded in local culture."

  45. Jun 2015
    1. to research ‘sensory perception and reception’ requires methods that ‘are capable of grasping “the most profound type of knowledge [which] is not spoken of at all and thus inaccessible to ethnographic observation or interview” (Bloch 1998: 46)’ (Bendix 2000: 41). Thus sensory ethnography discussed in the book does not privilege any one type of data or research method. Rather, it is open to multiple ways of knowing and to the exploration of and reflection on new routes to knowledge.

      Hawhee: why do I buy the "profound," the "most profound" as a description of sensory knowledge?

  46. Nov 2013
    1. A major problem is that this possibility of exploring a network is often lost when it is published. The rich experience of interacting with the network within Gephi is converted to a pdf or png format,

      Is it not the task of simplifying, that the research denies herself, when dreaming of showing the full complexity of a phenomenon to it audience?