228 Matching Annotations
  1. Nov 2022
    1. Cohen was reluctant to provide reference values for his standardized effect size measures. Although he stated that d = 0.2, 0.5 and 0.8 correspond to small, medium and large effects, he specified that these values provide a conventional frame of reference which is recommended when no other basis is available.
  2. Sep 2022
    1. The server possibly can send back a 406 (Not Acceptable) error code when unable to serve content in a matching language. However, such a behavior is rarely implemented for a better user experience, and servers often ignore the Accept-Language header in such cases.
  3. Jun 2022
    1. Fig. 6

      Accuracy percentage as a function of confidence within male and female participants in experiment 3.

      Accuracy and confidence were significantly positively correlated for both males and females.

    2. Fig. 5

      Accuracy percentage as a function of confidence between male and female participants in Experiment 3.

      Accuracy and confidence were significantly positively correlated for both males and females, and females increased their accuracy as a function of confidence more so than males did.

    3. Fig. 3

      Accuracy percentage as a function of confidence rating within male and female participants in experiment 1.

    4. Fig. 2

      Accuracy percentage as a function of confidence rating between male and female participants in experiment 1.

    5. Table 1

      Mean accuracy percentage (along with sample size and standard deviation) for males and females and effect size of sex difference in accuracy percentage for all conditions of each experiment.

      Effect size of sex difference in accuracy percentage was significant in the first and second experiments (p < .05; p < .01), the confidence condition of the third experiment (p < .001), the high confidence condition of the fourth experiment (p < .01), and the low confidence condition of the fourth experiment (p < .06).

    1. Table 1

      Average percentage of problems attempted for males and females in sets 1 and 2 for the 3 minute and 6 minute time conditions in study 2. Significant overall effects are shown for time (3 min or 6 min), test half (set 1 or 2), sex (male or female), interaction between time and sex, and interaction between time and test half.

      Percentage of problems attempted was generally higher in the 6 min condition than in the 3 min condition (time difference), in the 2nd set than in the 1st set (practice effect), and for males than for females (sex difference). The interaction effect between time and sex indicates that males attempt more problems than females throughout, but that the difference decreases as more time is given. The interaction effect between time and test half indicates that participants attempt more problems in the second half of the test than in the first half, but that the difference decreases as more time is given.

    2. Table 2

      Mean amount of problems solved (with SD) for males and females in the 3 minute and 6 minute time conditions of study 2. Significant main effects are shown for sex (male or female) and time (3 min or 6 min).

      Main effect of sex indicates that on average, males solved more problems than females. Main effect of time indicates that on average, participants solved more problems in the 6 min condition than in the 3 min condition.

    3. Fig. 3.

      Magnitude of effect size in sex differences as a function of problem position.

      Shows that the magnitude of sex difference effect size increased the further subjects got into the set. I.e., the further subjects got into the set, the greater the sex difference in performance was (males outperformed females).

    4. Fig. 1.

      The figures that are shown in the Vandenburg and Kuse MRT. The target stimulus is the leftmost stimulus shown here. Two of the stimuli to the left of the target figure are rotated versions of the target figure, and two of them are distractor figures. Participants had to identify which figures were rotated versions of the target figure.

    5. Fig. 2.

      Percentage of problems attempted as a function of problem position for males and females in the first and second sets of study 1.

      Both males and females would attempt less problems the further they got in the set, but this effect was greater for females than for males. Also, both males and females attempted more problems the further they got in the second set than in the first set, revealing a practice effect.

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    1. C

      Alpha lateralization index scores for correct and incorrect responses to valid and invalid trials in the 75% condition. Alpha lateralization index score showed no statistical trends (p = 0.532).

    2. (B)

      Differences in alpha lateralization index between high and low RT trials by cue reliability percentages. Differences in alpha lateralization index between high and low RT trials significantly decreased with cue reliability percentages (p < 0.01).

    3. (A

      Differences in alpha lateralization index between correct and incorrect trials by cue reliability percentages. Differences in alpha lateralization index between correct and incorrect trials showed a statistical trend of decreasing with cue reliability percentages (p = 0.081).

    4. D

      Alpha lateralization index scores for high and low RT responses to valid and invalid trials in the 75% condition. Alpha lateralization index score showed a near statistically significant trend of having a higher ratio of low RT to high RT trials for the invalid trials than for the valid trials (p = 0.056).

    5. B

      Alpha lateralization index scores for low RT and high RT trials in the 100% reliability condition. Alpha lateralization index score is significantly higher for low RT than high RT trials (p < 0.05).

    6. A

      Alpha lateralization index scores for correct and incorrect trials in the 100% reliability condition. Alpha lateralization index score is significantly higher for correct than incorrect trials (p < 0.05).

    7. A

      Topographical plots showing pre-stimulus alpha power in sensors as a contrast between attention left and attention right (-0.06 to 0.06) in the 100%, 75%, and 50% conditions. Pre-stimulus alpha power in sensors over left and right somatosensory regions showed significant lateralization in the 100% and 75% conditions. Pre-stimulus alpha power in the sensor over the left somatosensory region showed significant lateralization in the 50% condition, and the effect was much weaker than in the other conditions.

    8. B

      Bar graph showing alpha lateralization index (0 to 0.06) for the 100%, 75%, and 50% cue reliability conditions. Alpha lateralization index significantly decreased with cue reliability percentage.

    9. C

      Standardized brain volume showing pre-stimulus alpha power sources as a contrast between t-values (-5 to 5) for attention to left hand and attention to right hand in the 100% condition. Pre-stimulus alpha power in sources from the right and left sensorimotor cortices showed significant lateralization such that t-scores were higher in the right somatosensory region during left hand attention and higher in the left somatosensory region during right hand attention.

    10. B

      Average frequency versus time for alpha power in sensors over right and left somatosensory regions in the 100% condition. Alpha power showed a sustained decrease during the prestimulus interval (t = -1 to 0 s). Left hemispheric sensors were mirrored to combine them with right-hemispheric sensors, which is why only attention left alpha power is shown in this plot.

    11. A

      Topographical plot showing pre-stimulus alpha power in sensors as a contrast between attention left and attention right (-0.06 to 0.06) in the 100% condition. Pre-stimulus alpha power in sensors over left and right somatosensory regions showed significant lateralization such that alpha power was higher in the right somatosensory region during the left trials and higher in the left somatosensory region during the right trials.

    12. B

      Discrimination rate (% correct) for valid and invalid cue trials in the 50%, 75%, and 100% cue reliability conditions, and reaction time (in ms) for valid and invalid cue trials in the 50%, 75%, and 100% cue reliability conditions.

    13. A

      Experimental procedure. Subjects were cued on which hand they should attend to using an arrow (0.2 s), presented with a pre-stimulus interval fixation cross (1.0-1.8 s), presented with an electrical target stimulus to the cued hand and an electrical distractor stimulus to the non-cued hand (0.24 s), presented with a fixation cross during which they performed the discrimination task (max 1.5 s), and then presented with a fixation cross that indicated whether or not they successfully performed the task (0.2 s).

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    1. Table 6

      No idea how to interpret this. Seems to be statistical figures for questions on the perceived spatial ability test.

    2. Table 4

      Correlations between performance measures for males and females. All correlations were positive and significant at a minimum level of p <.05. Not sure how to interpret this one.

    3. Table 5

      Correlations between measures of absolute and relative accuracy of metacognitive judgments for males and females. Some correlations were significant positive or negative at various levels (p < .05; p < .01; p < .001), and others weren't. Not sure how to interpret this one.

    4. Table 1

      Female performance, female confidence judgment, female global prediction, female global postdiction, male performance, male confidence judgment, male prediction, male postdiction, t-value, degrees of freedom, p-value, Cohen's d, and 95% lower and upper confidence intervals for Raven's matrices test, symmetry span test, paper folding test, spatial relations test, and PSVT:R test.

    5. Table 2

      Female score, male score, t-value, degrees of freedom, p-value, Cohen's d, and 95% lower and upper confidence intervals for absolute accuracy and relative accuracy of spatial relations, paper folding, and PSVT:R.

    6. Table 3

      Female score, male score, t-value, degrees of freedom, p-value, Cohen's d, and 95% lower and upper confidence intervals for global prediction and postdiction of spatial relations, paper folding, and PSVT:R.

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    1. Table 3

      Fixed effect estimates and random effects estimates for confidence predictions using only the participants' gender (Model A) and confidence predictions using the participants' gender and the participants' trial-level PAE as a control. Models A and B demonstrated significance for fixed effects estimates only. Not sure how to interpret this.

    2. Table 2

      Proportion of absolute error and confidence judgment means, standard deviations, minimums, and maximums at the trial level.

    3. Fig. 2

      Effect size, lower confidence interval, and upper confidence interval (with grand mean for each) for all studies analyzed (with experiment and grade for each) with Forest Plot of effect sizes.

    4. Table 1

      Sample size, grade level, percentage of males, number lines/scales used, number of estimations used, and confidence judgment scale used for each study included in the meta-analysis.

    5. (c)

      five-point confidence judgment scale, from least to most confident.

    6. (b)

      three-point confidence judgment scale, from least to most confident.

    7. (a)

      Number that will be estimated and number line that will be used to estimate on number line estimation task.

    1. Figure 1

      Mean values of contrast thresholds for MC-biased and PC-biased stimuli in men and women. Contrast thresholds for the MC-biased stimuli were significantly lower than contrast thresholds for the PC-biased stimuli in both men and women.

    2. Table 1

      Table depicting main effects (F and p values) of stimulus type, gender, and an interaction between stimulus and gender on contrast thresholds and mean reaction times, as well as the gender effects (t and p values; independent t-test of [values for men - values for women]) of MC-biased stimuli and PC-biased stimuli on contrast thresholds and mean reaction times. Stimulus type, and an interaction between stimulus type and gender, had significant main effects on contrast threshold, and PC-biased stimuli had a significant gendered effect on contrast thresholds. Stimulus type and an interaction between stimulus type and gender had significant main effects on mean reaction times. There was no significant gendered effect of MC-biased or PC-biased stimuli on mean reaction time.

    1. (k)

      Slope for visual search reaction time (measured in ms) in women (white) and men (black). No significant differences.

    2. (j)

      Visual search reaction time (measured in ms) in women (white) and men (black). No significant differences.

    3. (i)

      Threshold for which participants achieved 75% correct responses in identifying the orientation of a Gabor patch in women (white) and men (black). No significant differences.

    4. (h)

      % of correct interpretation for upright 800ms biological motion in females (white) and males (black). No significant differences.

    5. (g)

      % of correct interpretation for upright 200ms biological motion in females (white) and males (black). No significant differences.

    6. (f)

      % of correct interpretation for inverted 800ms biological motion in females (white) and males (black). Men had a significantly higher percentage of correctness than women at the p<0.05 level.

    7. (e)

      % of correct interpretation for inverted 200ms biological motion in females (white) and males (black). No significant differences.

    8. (d)

      % of coherent dots needed to detect motion direction for females (white) and males (black). Females needed significantly more dots to detect motion direction than males did at the p<0.05 level.

    9. (c)

      Contrast detection threshold for females (white) and males (black) measured in cd/m^2. No significant differences.

    10. (b)

      Reaction time on the Simon task for females (white) and males (black) measured in ms. No significant differences.

    11. (a)

      Reaction time on a simple reaction time task for females (white) and males (black) measured in ms. Females had significantly slower reaction time than males at the p<0.001 level.

    12. (c)

      Stimulus onset asynchrony time (measured in ms) to show 75% accuracy rate for the Vernier discrimination task with the 25 element mask in women (white) and men (black). Women needed a significantly longer SOA time than men to show a 75% accuracy rate (p<0.05).

    13. (d)

      Stimulus onset asynchrony time (measured in ms) to show 75% accuracy rate for the Vernier discrimination task with the 5 element mask in women (white) and men (black). Women needed a significantly longer SOA time than men to show a 75% accuracy rate (p<0.05).

    14. (b)

      Performance of females (white) and males (black) on the Vernier discrimination task (measured in ms). No significant difference.

    15. (a)

      Performance of females (white) and males (black) on the Freiberg visual acuity task (measured in decimals). Males performed significantly better on this task than females at the p<0.001 level.

    16. Table 2.

      Tests taken by participants, number of participants for each test, independent samples t-test results for each test, p value for each test, and Cohen's d for each test. The visual acuity, visual backwards masking (25 and 5 gratings), simple reaction time, motion direction, and biological motion (inverted 200%) tests showed significant differences between male and female participants.

    17. Figure 2

      The illusions that participants were tested on, including the Ebbinghaus illusion (EB), the Muller-Lyer illusion (ML), the Ponzo illusion (PZ), the Ponzo-hallway illusion (PZh), and the tilt illusion (TT). For each illusion, the participants were presented with two versions of the illusions that were different sizes (EB, PZh), lengths (ML, PZ), or orientations (TT), and were asked to alter one of the illusions to match the size, length, or orientation of the other illusion.

    18. (h)

      Simon task, which measured participants' difference in accuracy or reaction time between trials in which stimulus and response are congruent and trials in which they are incongruent.

    19. (g)

      Visual search task, which measured participants' ability to select a specific image within an array of similar images.

    20. (e)

      Contrast detection threshold task, which tests the participants' contrast detection threshold. Participants were presented with a red circle and then a green circle over time, and were told to indicate in which circle an image appeared.

    21. (d)

      Orientation discrimination task, which tests the participants' orientation discrimination ability.

    22. (f)

      Biological motion direction discrimination task for upright and inverted point-light walkers, which tests the participants' biological motion direction discrimination ability.

  4. May 2022
    1. (c)

      Freiburg visual acuity task, which tests the participants' visual acuity.

    2. (b)

      Visual backwards masking task, which tests the participants' visual backwards masking ability. First stimulus is shown, then an inter-stimulus interval (ISI; blank screen) is shown, then one of two second stimuli are shown.

    3. (a)

      Vernier duration task, which tests the participants' ability to detect a misalignment between visual stimuli.

    4. Table 1.

      Sampling information for participants that engaged in various visual perception tests. Information for each test includes the amount of participants that took the test, their mean ages (plus standard deviation), and their age range, in addition to the p-value for mean ages (plus standard deviation).

    1. Table 5

      EEG activations for contextually incorrect tool use over contextually correct tool use from 300ms to 400ms by specific brain lobe and region. "Lobe" refers to the specific lobe within the brain, "region" refers to the specific region within that lobe, and "XYZ(TAL)" are the 3-dimensional Talairach coordinates for the voxel encompassing that region. Z-value and k value need definition.

    2. Table 3

      EEG activations for contextually incorrect tool use over contextually correct tool use from 0ms to 100ms by specific brain lobe and region. "Lobe" refers to the specific lobe within the brain, "region" refers to the specific region within that lobe, and "XYZ(TAL)" are the 3-dimensional Talairach coordinates for the voxel encompassing that region. Z-value and k value need definition.

    3. Table 4

      EEG activations for contextually incorrect tool use over contextually correct tool use from 100ms to 200ms by specific brain lobe and region. "Lobe" refers to the specific lobe within the brain, "region" refers to the specific region within that lobe, and "XYZ(TAL)" are the 3-dimensional Talairach coordinates for the voxel encompassing that region. Z-value and k value need definition.

    4. FIGuRE 6

      Comparison of fMRI and EEG imaging of activations from 0ms to 100ms and 100ms to 200ms using identical Talairach Z planes. Activation was very similar between the two (EEG confirms fMRI data).

    5. FIGuRE 5

      Visual depiction of significant brain activity recorded by EEG 0ms to 100ms following image presentation, 100ms to 200ms following image presentation, and 300ms to 400ms following image presentation. Activation for correct over incorrect tool use are shown in red, and activation for incorrect over correct tool use are shown in green.

    6. Table 2

      fMRI activations for contextually incorrect tool use compared to contextually correct tool use by specific brain lobe and region. "Lobe" refers to the specific lobe within the brain, "region" refers to the specific region within that lobe, and "XYZ(TAL)" are the 3-dimensional Talairach coordinates for the voxel encompassing that region. Z-value and k value need definition.

    7. Table 1

      fMRI activations for contextually correct tool use compared to contextually incorrect tool use by specific brain lobe and region. "Lobe" refers to the specific lobe within the brain, "region" refers to the specific region within that lobe, and "XYZ(TAL)" are the 3-dimensional Talairach coordinates for the voxel encompassing that region. Z-value and k value need definition.

    8. (C,D)

      EEG recordings of the left and right parietal regions of the brain showing ERPs (magnitude over time) when presented with images of contextually correct tool use, contextually incorrect tool use, and tools only. The first line represents when participants were presented with the cue, and the second line represents when participants were presented with the image. For both the right and left parietal regions, magnitude immediately following image presentation was significantly higher for incorrect tool use than for correct tool use and tools only, and magnitude at about 300ms to 400ms following image presentation was significantly lower for correct tool use than for incorrect tool use or tools only.

    9. (A,B)

      EEG recordings of the left and right temporal regions of the brain showing ERPs (magnitude over time) when presented with images of contextually correct tool use, contextually incorrect tool use, and tools only. The first line represents when participants were presented with the cue, and the second line represents when participants were presented with the image.

    10. FIGuRE 3

      fMRI images of brain areas significantly activated by comprehension of incorrect tool use (green) vs correct tool use (red) from different orientations (anterior, posterior, lateral (left), lateral (right), dorsal, and ventral).

    11. FIGuRE 2

      fMRI images of significant differences in brain activation for identifying correct tool use when compared to identifying tools alone (above), and identifying incorrect tool use when compared to identifying tools alone (below).

    12. (B)

      Participants were recorded using EEG for 2 15 m blocks with a 3m resting period between each block. During each block, participants were presented with twenty-five images of incorrect tool use (2s), twenty-five images of correct tool use (2s), and twenty-five images of tools alone (2s; control), with fixation crosses (4s to 6s) and a cue (500 ms) being presented before each image and fixation crosses (4s to 6s) being presented after each image.

    13. (A)

      Participants were recorded using fMRI for six 5m trials with 1m rest periods between each trial. During each trial, participants were presented with eight images of correct tool use (2s), eight images of incorrect tool use (2s), and eight images of tools alone (2s; control), with fixation crosses presented between each image (6s to 8s).

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  5. Apr 2022
    1. L’analyse de Louise Merzeau fait en effet ressortir quatre propriétés constitutives de ce dispositif d’éditorialisation : 1) sa bienveillance, 2) sa réflexivité, 3) son appropriabilité et 4) sa distance. Ces quatre éléments assurent respectivement les fonctions 1) d’établir entre les individus et le dispositif la confiance nécessaire à tout engagement, condition pour ouvrir un espace où penser collectivement, 2) d’établir par la visualisation les conditions de l’élaboration d’une finalité commune, 3) de favoriser la circulation et la redocumentarisation des contenus catalysant des associations nouvelles, 4) d’aménager à l’interstice de ces associations « une glose critique et documentaire », lieu même de l’interprétation.
  6. Mar 2022
    1. (f)

      Paired-pulse facilitation did not yield significant differences between groups.

    2. (e)

      Input/output curve plotting EPSP slope against presynaptic fiber volleys. fEPSP slopes were significantly different for the juv-adol ELE and adol ELE mice but not for the juv ELE mice when compared to controls.

    3. (c)

      input/output curve plotting EPSP slope against stimulus intensity showed a main effect of ELE group, effect of stimulus intensity, and significant interaction between ELE group and stimulus intensity. fEPSP slopes were significantly higher for the juv ELE and juv-adol ELE mice but not for the adol ELE mice when compared to controls.

    4. (a)

      LTP significantly increased in response to theta burst stimulation for juv-adol ELE mice, but not for juv ELE or adol ELE mice in comparison with controls.

    5. (b)

      Enhanced LTP in juv-adol ELE mice lasted for 50-60 minutes following the theta burst stimulation, significantly more than it did for controls.

    6. (i)

      There were no significant differences between any groups of male and female mice in terms of total time spent exploring objects.

    7. (h)

      In male mice, juv-adol ELE mice and juv ELE mice showed a significantly higher preference for the object placed in the novel location when compared to no ELE mice and adol ELE mice. In female mice, juv ELE mice showed a significantly higher preference for the object placed in the novel location when compared to no ELE mice, juv ELE mice, and juv-adol ELE mice. All male ELE mice demonstrated significant object preference from acquisition to testing when compared with male no ELE mice. Female juv ELE and juv-adol ELE mice demonstrated significant object preference from acquisition to testing when compared with female adol ELE mice and no ELE mice.

    8. (g)

      The 3 min OLM acquisition task did not result in significant object discrimination (object preference) in any groups of mice, regardless of sex. 3 min-trained, sedentary male and female mice demonstrated significantly lower object discrimination than 10 min-trained, ELE male and female mice.

    9. (f)

      There were no significant differences between any groups of male and female mice in terms of total time spent exploring objects.

    10. (e)

      For all groups of male and female mice, a 5 min OLM testing task 24 h after the 10 min OLM acquisition task resulted in significant object discrimination (object preference) for the object placed in the novel location. No group demonstrated discrimination for the novel object significantly more than any other group.

    11. (d)

      The 10 min OLM acquisition task did not result in significant object discrimination (object preference) in any groups of mice, regardless of sex.

    12. (b,c)

      For both male and female mice, distance traveled significantly decreased over the six OLM trials, indicating that the mice were habituated to the OLM chambers.

    13. (a)

      Two groups of mice did an object location memory (OLM) task for either 3 or 10 minutes, and then all mice did that same task again for 5 minutes 24 hours later with one of the objects moved to a different location.

    14. (c–e)

      All mice in the juv-adol ELE group, juv ELE group, and adol ELE group significantly increased their running distances during the three week exercise period.

    15. (f–h)

      In the juv-adol ELE group, the juv ELE group, and the adol ELE group, there were no significant differences in distance ran between male and female mice.

    16. (b)

      In male mice, the juv ELE group gained significantly more weight than the juv-adol ELE group. In female mice, the stationary group gained significantly more weight than the sedentary group, the juv-adol ELE group, and the adol ELE group.

    17. (a)

      Young male and female mice were split into four groups over a period of three weeks. One group of mice was sedentary from the first to the third week (sed), one exercised for the first week (juv ELE), one exercised from the first to the third week (juv-adol ELE), and one group of mice exercised for the third week (adol ELE). After this, all mice were either tested for object location memory or sacrificed for electrophysiology.

    1. (B)

      The group that was administered oxytocin was significantly less likely to sacrifice an in-group member than an out-group member when compared with the group that was administered placebo.

    2. . (A)

      The group that was administered oxytocin was significantly less likely to sacrifice an in-group member than an out-group member when compared with the group that was administered placebo.

    3. Fig. 2

      Both groups associated uniquely human emotions with in-group members more frequently than with outgroup members, but the oxytocin group associated uniquely human emotions with in-group members more frequently than with outgroup members significantly more than the placebo group.

    4. {A)

      In experiment 1, both in-group regard and out-group disregard were significantly higher for the group administered oxytocin than for the group administered placebo.

    5. (B)

      In experiment 2, in-group regard was significantly higher for the group administered oxytocin than for the group administered placebo. Out-group disregard was not significantly different between groups.

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  7. Feb 2022
    1. Development in America is an incredibly risk-averse business, overwhelmingly dictated by banks, and more directly, what is replicable.

      While watching the film owned it made me think about how the banks were in much control towards the housing problem. The banks were selective in who they gave loans to and minorities had a problem getting approved for the loans. In the 90s I remember the film talking about the banks giving loans with extra money that people would spend on personal needs which minorities would get approved for then end up in debt.

    2. And in that same time, the size of the average single-family home went from 900 square feet to 2,700 square feet. So, fewer people were inhabiting far more space.

      2 people to a 2,700 sq ft space. This has to mean people who are well off cuz if you can afford that much space with only two people contributing to rent. This obviously makes me curious about where people who cannot afford these spaces, where are they sleeping? and i think the answer is obvious. There sleeping in spaces that are way too crowded or are housless

  8. Jan 2022
    1. The server generating a 401 response MUST send a WWW-Authenticate header field (Section 4.1) containing at least one challenge applicable to the target resource.

      Meaning that 99% of the people use it are using it "wrong" because they're not using it for HTTP authentication and don't send a WWW-Authenticate header field with their 401 response?

      Hmm. That's a tough one. On the one hand, the spec does say they must send it.

      Initial opinion

      But on the other hand, one could argue that that requirement only applies if using 401 for HTTP authentication. And that saying it's wrong to do so (as they claim at https://stackoverflow.com/questions/3297048/403-forbidden-vs-401-unauthorized-http-responses/14713094#14713094 and https://hyp.is/JA45zHotEeybDdM_In4frQ/stackoverflow.com/questions/3297048/403-forbidden-vs-401-unauthorized-http-responses) is having a too strict/narrow/literal interpretation.

      HTTP is meant to be used widely in many very different uses and contexts, most of which do not use this very specific HTTP authentication scheme; my opinion is that they shouldn't be denied from using it, just because they don't have anything useful WWW-Authenticate header field. (Or (which is also fine with me), just put something "emptyish" in the field, like "Unused". Unless that would trigger a Basic auth modal in the browser, in which case we shouldn't, for practical reasons.)

      Why shouldn't we be able to repurpose this same status code for uses that are still authentication, but just not HTTP authentication per se?

      Is it really wrong to repurpose this useful status code for other contexts, like cookie-based app-defined authentication systems?

      I say that it's okay to repurpose/reuse 401 for any authentication system (that uses HTTP as a part of it, even though not using HTTP's own authentication system), as long as we try to maintain the same semantic as originally intended/described here. I think it's okay to use 401 as a response to a XHR request, and then have the client redirect to a login page, which provides a way to authenticate again (reattempt the authentication challenge), analogous to how it works for HTTP authentication.

      Revised opinion

      https://stackoverflow.com/questions/3297048/403-forbidden-vs-401-unauthorized-http-responses/14713094#14713094 has made me change my mind and convinced me that...

      Authentication by schemes outside of (not defined by) RFC7235: Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Authentication should not use HTTP status 401, because 401 Unauthorized is only defined (by current RFCs) by RFC7235: Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Authentication, and has semantics and requirements (such as the requirement that "A server generating a 401 (Unauthorized) response MUST send a WWW-Authenticate header field containing at least one challenge.") that simply don't make sense or cannot be fulfilled if using a non-HTTP authentication scheme.

      403 Forbidden, on the other hand, is defined by the broader HTTP standard, in RFC7231: Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Semantics and Content and RFC7235: Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Authentication.

      In conclusion, if you have your own roll-your-own login process and never use HTTP Authentication, 403 is always the proper response and 401 should never be used.

      Couldn't a custom auth system use WWW-Authenticate header?

      The question was asked:

      Doesn't RFC7235 provide for "roll-your-own" or alternate auth challenges? Why can't my app's login flow present its challenge in the form of a WWW-Authenticate header? Even if a browser doesn't support it, my React app can...

      And I would say sure, if you want (and if the browser doesn't automatically show a Basic auth modal in this case and thwart your plans).

      They might be on to something here with that question!

      But that should probably be the test of whether you can/should use 401: are you actually using WWW-Authenticate header?

      Indeed I found an example where it is used for OAuth2.

    1. Authentication by schemes outside of RFC2617 is not supported in HTTP status codes and are not considered when deciding whether to use 401 or 403.

      What does "are not considered when deciding whether to use 401 or 403" mean exactly? What exactly should not be considered, and what exactly should be considered instead? In other words, how did someone arrive at the conclusion that "if you have your own roll-your-own login process and never use HTTP Authentication, 403 is always the proper response and 401 should never be used."? Why is 403 okay to use for non-HTTP authentication, but not 401?

      Oh, I think I understand the difference now.

      They should have said:

      Authentication by schemes outside of (not defined by) RFC7235: Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Authentication should not use HTTP status 401, because 401 Unauthorized is only defined (by current RFCs) by RFC7235: Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Authentication, and has semantics and requirements (such as the requirement that "A server generating a 401 (Unauthorized) response MUST send a WWW-Authenticate header field containing at least one challenge.") that simply don't make sense or cannot be fulfilled if using a non-HTTP authentication scheme.

      403 Forbidden, on the other hand, is defined by the broader HTTP standard, in RFC7231: Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Semantics and Content and RFC7235: Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Authentication.

      In conclusion, if you have your own roll-your-own login process and never use HTTP Authentication, 403 is always the proper response and 401 should never be used.

      See also my comments in https://hyp.is/p1iCnnowEeyUPl9PxO8BuQ/www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc7235

    2. The statement is "If the request already included Authorization credentials". That means if this is a response from a request which provided the credential (e.g. the response from a RFC2617 Authentication attempt). It is essentially to allow the server to say, "Bad account/password pair, try again". In the posed question, the user is presumably authenticated but not authorized. 401 is never the appropriate response for those circumstances.
    3. 401 is only appropriate for HTTP Authentication
  9. Dec 2021
    1. there's an expectation that in "good history" (or probably good anything else) reading and understanding primary sources precedes interpretation.

      —Dan Allosso

    1. Without sharp north, without declining west?

      Interpretation 1 Our love is not subjected to cold(bleakness) or time but is eternal.

      Interpretation 2 We do not need directional hints to explore the world since we can easily find the wholesome world just by looking at each other.

    2. plain hearts

      The heart is an organ that does not lie. It truthfully presents the changes of emotion by beating up fast or slow. If the heart is seen on the face, the speaker is no more worried about reading his lover's mind (no more place for suspicion).

      It conveys the same message as the second line of the second stanza.

    3. eye

      The another spherical image in the poem

      Each eye, which is able to be interpreted as each hemisphere, is really a perfect world because, though they are not combined into one, when facing each other, contains both lovers (the one who is reflected and one who reflects is in unity in the eye).

      Source: The Visual Paradigm of 'The Good-Morrow': Donne's Cosmographical Glasse (1986)

    4. little room

      The little room can be interpreted to be the poem itself. Since the literal meaning of the stanza is a little room. Through this poem, the lovers can build their small rooms everywhere, in any circumstances.

    5. Let us possess one world, each hath one, and is one

      The one world either wants to possess is the world of the other and the possession makes them one.

      Due to the harmonious internal rhymes and confident tone of conviction, we might not sense the disturbance of the line at first. Nevertheless, as we look closely analyze the line, it is not as straightforward as it first seemed.

      Donne is exploiting the ambiguity of the word world to confuse the readers. The world can either mean the whole planet, earth, or the hemispheres that need to be combined from the spherical earth. Each of the lovers belongs (or themselves are) to each hemisphere, and they can possess a more wholesome world by uniting together. However, there is a dilemma in constructing full spherical earth: each hemisphere should face the opposite direction to form a sphere seamlessly. Though they are now one, they cannot meet each other anymore.

      However, this dilemma is somewhat resolved in the following stanza.

      Source

      1. Book: Redpath, The Songs and Sonnets of John Donne (1956)
      2. Book: John Donne, The Complete English Poet (1971)
    6. worlds

      Can be either interpreted as continents or celestial bodies.

    7. little room

      Donne is envisioning a small area as equivalent to a more enormous space. It's an example of microcosm that views human nature or a well balanced natural phenomena as an perfect example for understanding a bigger world and the order of the universe.

    8. souls

      Usually, in Christianity, the soul, psyche, is a superior state to a materialistic body. Here, the speaker is saying that Platonic love achieved by the lovers, through the incident last night, has awakened their souls and transcended them from worldly immature love to a higher spiritual state.

      However, in John Donne's other love poems, the sensational and sexual relationship is also emphasized, suggesting that love is not a static concept, but almost as complex as God, raising its multiplicity almost up to a level of deity. Love can be an experience of the body, the soul, or both; it can be a religious experience or merely a sensual one, and it can give rise to emotions ranging from ecstasy to despair.

      Source: https://www.lsj.org/literature/essays/donne

    9. fear

      fear for betrayal

      There is no more suspicion between the lovers, and only love is the guiding force of their relationship.

    10. snorted

      Snored

      It seems disrespectful to use a verb such as 'snored', which has lowly imagery, adjacent to a religious allusion. Maybe Donne was purposeful with this uncommon decision in order to diminish the power of religious interpretation and draw the readers' attention more onto the power of love itself.

    11. fancies be

      All pleasures the speaker and the lover experienced before there relationship was like mere pastimes, enjoyable but not as powerful and significant as they are experiencing now.

    12. For love, all love of other sights controls,

      'For love inhibits all desire to see other people or things.'

      Source: Redpath, The Songs and Sonnets of John Donne (1956)

    1. Disentangling the relationships is difficult since Etruscan, Italic and Greek speakers were in close contact for long

      It makes sense the history is so intertwined. Jupiter is Zeus reformed. Trying to distinguish them in the beginning would be like trying to find an off-color version. The close contact also muddles the history.

    2. There is no canonical list of ancient gods and goddesses. Quite apart from deciding what to do about those gods with multiple names, or those who seem different in one place to another, it is not easy to know what to do with heroes, nymphs, daemons, divine emperors, personifications like fides and spes, and other creatures of myth and cult who blur the boundary between gods and humans.

      Perhaps the reason behind this is because Greek gods are considered a mythology, not a religion. With this difference, anybody could create a story or a new figure. Religion has specific rules and a determined list of figures. This difference in freedom allowed the seemingly infinite figures and names. Not to mention, there are probably more lost to local towns.

    3. The range of deities worshipped generally reflected those worshipped by the social groups

      I believe a great example of this is Greek versus roman gods. Greek gods came first, the adapted by Romans. Greek gods are less cohesive as some gods have many variations of the same story. Roman gods were able to look at Greek gods and be inspired (and unified) to create their own stories.

  10. Nov 2021
  11. Oct 2021
    1. My mistake was thinking I could be anythingother than hungry.My mistake was thinking I could be anything other

      three lines three different way to interpret. to be anything to be anything other than XXX to be anything other (is this the same as to be anything else? )

    2. could not get to return

      Not just he could not, he could not get to

    3. attempts

      The woods as an action, like a quest where the speaker attempts and works towards a connection.

    4. I looked back and could never quite touch it

      Again reference to a memory -- a past that is real but can't be touched

    5. ived a recall

      Again reference to the past

    6. windy

      Strong wind contrasts the stillness of the people. Just because there is movement of the wind does not mean it is not idle. Rather, it enhances it.

    7. could not understand why, corrected or destroyed, I used to be delighted

      Such a strange remembrance of the past. "miserable" and "harm" is the result of "correction" or "destruction" of what used to be "delight".

    8. pardon

      Both as a verb as tomorrow will pardon (whom?) and as an expression of hesitation after a comma.

    Tags

    Annotators

  12. clas3209.files.wordpress.com clas3209.files.wordpress.com
    1. Massinissa was caught between human pietas to wife and tofriend, fides to personal and (as king) political morality. Powerless to keep herphysically safe, he could only help her to die –a classic Punic honour-suicide,like that of her brother Hannibal, self-poisoned c. 183 BCE to escape imprison-ment, and of Hasdrubal’s wife in 146.15

      A tragic love story. Cleary, people at time had a lot of pride. They would rather die than be held captive. While this is still held today, it is nearly not as popular as it was before. It is also very similar to the ancient samurai Japanese practice of seppuku.

    2. Romanists gain the onlytriumphal narrative-painting we can truly glimpse.

      As they say, history is written by the winners. Despite the many battles and deaths, Rome will have the upper hand because they won. They will be placed on a higher pedestal.

    3. the Tombof Lyson and Kallikles (n. 23), design troped armoury and hall, contentshung away from damp and vermin, ready for civic defence and the king’swars.

      Even in death, kings had power. Not only does it display that, it also represents their position of power. Everything is meant to be a show of authority.

    4. The Senate courteously declined the king’s request to visitand sacrifice, which would have given him the chance to showcase his ownhuge aid to that victory; instead they awarded him again the consular regaliathat they and Scipio had given him in his youth.

      With this humble decline, they show that they are willing to put away their pride of victor. They honor the king by not letting him "waste their time" on them.

    5. Caesar thus showed offthe toddler as a rightful prince. Foreign hostages had been quar-tered well before, but it must have startled Romans, and greatly pleasedNumidians, that Caesar then fostered in his own domus a Numidian prince-ling, whom Octavian later raised like an adoptive half-brother.

      Another action with a political motive. Similar to how Alexander had a mass marriage at Susa in 324, Caesar clearly wanted to be connected to the royal family. It is still unusual, as political ties are made through marriage. Caesar clearly saw an opportunity and took it.

    6. Caesar allied with hissuccessful claimant Cleopatra VII. No such easy assignment here of the‘Other’to lesser, enemy people. This triumph tacitly engaged Roman civilconflict, too: Caesar could appear to avenge the murder by Cleopatra’sbrother of Roman Pompey, even though Pompey was his political enemy

      In this situation, both Cleopatra and Caesar are equals. Like most wars, there is always a hidden political agenda. Caesar improved his reputation in both lands by appearing charitable and sympathetic.

    7. No legend, history, or myth Greek or Roman accountsfor a ‘black’, diademed prince, or for his wedded princess with a ‘black’African entourage and thus also from a people prepotent in Africa. Noknown ‘genre scene’has ‘black’servants, either.

      This is a good point, since race had a clear role in this. Showing race means showing a true depiction of what happened. It adds a layer of history to it. It is interesting that in U,S history, being black meant being a slave. While Rome did have slaves, they were not predominantly black.

  13. Sep 2021
    1. With wealth your state, your mind with arts improve,                 Take you a course, get you a place,                 Observe his honor, or his grace, Or the king’s real, or his stampèd face

      These are exactly what John Donne had lost after his improvident marriage with Anne More; wealth, education, social standing, and post at the Parliament. Maybe Donne is ironically showing his slight feeling of reluctance through this conversation with the silent addressee.

    2. chide

      Chiding an innocent person with physical unattractiveness is an act of demeaning oneself. Also, the "ruined fortune" is not due to one's extravagance but caused by inevitable outer forces. The author seems to approve his physical shortcomings, however, is also implicitly rebuking the provoker's imprudence and wasteful usage of his or her time in trivial (only materialistic) matters.

    1. These stages postdate the Permo‐Carboniferous glaciation but retain a moderately steep equator‐to‐pole gradient, judging by the level of floral and faunal differentiation

      overall gradient?

  14. Aug 2021
    1. we find that fixing fossil ages to the midpoint or a random point drawn from within the stratigraphic age range leads to biases in divergence time estimates, while sampling fossil ages leads to estimates that are similar to inferences that employ the correct ages of fossils. Second, we show a comparison using an empirical dataset of extant and fossil cetaceans, which confirms that different methods of handling fossil age uncertainty lead to large differences in estimated node ages

      dealing with uncertainties carefully actually matters

    1. Because the influence of early diagenetic cements on the bulk δ13Ccarb signal can, but need not be synchronized, chemostratigraphy should not be used as a stand-alone method for trans-continental correlation, and especially minor isotopic shifts have to be interpreted with utmost care

      how shall we deal with "local" anomalies

  15. Jul 2021
    1. ll these tools help with organizing and analyzing and thus facilitate the real work of the humanist, which, as noted, is to interpret the evidence of human lives, thoughts and actions.

      This definition of the work of the humanist is interesting to me. The question it creates for me is how the tools themselves dictate or influence the humanists' 'interpretation of human lives, thoughts and actions'? There are so many digital tools and and platforms that allow for expression of ideas but inherently must limit this expression based on their design. As well the tools the humanist chooses are also an expression of their personal bias potentially affecting what they communicate to the reader/viewer.

  16. May 2021
  17. Apr 2021
    1. the term historical revisionism identifies the re-interpretation of a historical account.[1] It usually involves challenging the orthodox (established, accepted or traditional) views held by professional scholars about an historical event or time-span or phenomenon, introducing contrary evidence, or reinterpreting the motivations and decisions of the people involved.
    1. I respectfully disagree with your assessment. You are referencing the quote "It's not appropriate to use the aside element just for parentheticals, since those are part of the main flow of the document." However the OP specifically said that they are looking for a semantic element for "a note that may be useful to read at a given point of a tutorial, but is not part of the main tutorial flow". That is what "aside" is for. It's not part of the main content flow.

      That's a tough one. I can see it both ways.

  18. Mar 2021
  19. Feb 2021
  20. Jan 2021
    1. Instead of securing fundamental rights grounded in nature, government—operating under a new theory of the “living” Constitution—should constantly evolve to secure evolving rights.

      Again, natural law is a specific, historically rooted branch of philosophy, and so is this. But what's happening here is not a debate between two schools of philosophy, but an argument against certain schools of legal thought. Conservative constitutional legal thought (embodied most famously by Scalia but also by much of the right wing of the current SCOTUS) is originalist. Originalism opposes the idea of "novel rights" and the "living Constitution," and insists on interpreting the Constitution as people theoretically would have done at the time of its writing.

      The takeaway here is the foregoing screed on Progressivism and philosophy is actually a warm-up to an subtextual argument about Constitutional interpretation that is the bedrock of how conservatives view the Judicial Branch.

    1. ensure the relevance, accuracy and effective communication of its interpretation and education programs (see above for A.O.D.A. requirements) by: establishing clearly defined and measurable learning objectives and outcomes, and undertaking a process of program evaluation using appropriate expertise – including staff, volunteers, community groups, or consultants carrying out research ensure all staff involved in the development and delivery of interpretation and education programs, have the appropriate skills and training

      (2) Volunteer opportunities (programming).

  21. Nov 2020
  22. Oct 2020
    1. Atitre d’exemple, n’est pas illégale l’apposition sur la façade d’un collège public d’un logotype du département composé de deux cœurs entrelacés surmontés d’une couronne portant une croix, référence jugée historique plus que religieuse
    1. And would a hip hop fan question, much less downvote, a “verified” Genius annotation authored by Kendrick Lamar that explains the meaning behind his music?

      But if we're going to consider music as art, isn't a lot of the value and power of art in the "eye of the beholder"? To some extent art's value is in the fact that it can have multiple interpretations. From this perspective, once it's been released, Lamar's music isn't "his" anymore, it becomes part of a broader public that will hear and interpret it as they want to. So while Lamar may go back and annotate what he may have meant at the time as an "expert", doesn't some of his art thereby lose some power in that he is tacitly stating that he apparently didn't communicate his original intent well?

      By comparison and for contrast one could take the recent story of Donald Trump's speech (very obviously written by someone else) about the recent mass shootings and compare them with the polar opposite message he spews on an almost daily basis from his Twitter account. See: https://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/teleprompter-trump-meets-twitter-trump-as-the-president-responds-to-mass-slayings/2019/08/05/cdd8ea78-b799-11e9-b3b4-2bb69e8c4e39_story.html

    1. If any of you has a dispute with another, do you dare to take it before the ungodly for judgment instead of before the Lord’s people? 2 Or do you not know that the Lord’s people will judge the world? And if you are to judge the world, are you not competent to judge trivial cases? 3 Do you not know that we will judge angels? How much more the things of this life! 4 Therefore, if you have disputes about such matters, do you ask for a ruling from those whose way of life is scorned in the church? 5 I say this to shame you. Is it possible that there is nobody among you wise enough to judge a dispute between believers? 6 But instead, one brother takes another to court—and this in front of unbelievers!

      Interesting that this is interpreted in modern times in the same way as it was in ancient. A lot of this writing had to have been specific to it's political context at a time when keeping things in house was both to the benefit of the individuals as well as the Church which was a minority within a broader Roman protectorate.

      Why can't Christians manage to see any historical context for a 2000 year old document that is far from a living one?

    1. someday, NVIDIA GPUs in the cloud will enable real-time transcription and translation for videoconferencing

      ... and that will be also the day when most of the simultaneous interpreters will go out of business https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Simultaneous_interpretation

  23. Sep 2020
    1. In the computer science sense, interpretation refers to a kind of translation that seeks out one- to- one cor-respondences.

      l'interprétation vernaculaire de la machine est stricte, contrairement à l’herméneutique pratiquée en sciences humaines

  24. Jul 2020
  25. Jun 2020
  26. May 2020
    1. While there are no legal precedents to spell out specifically what the actual terms mean, it can be interpreted from the testimony of people like Professor Mark Lemley from Stanford University, in front of the United States Senate Committee on the Judiciary that the individual terms are defined as follows
    1. it buys, receives, sells, or shares the personal information of 50,000 or more consumers annually for the business’ commercial purposes. Since IP addresses fall under what is considered personal data — and “commercial purposes” simply means to advance commercial or economic interests — it is likely that any website with at least 50k unique visits per year from California falls within this scope.