102 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
  2. Oct 2021
    1. My mistake was thinking I could be anythingother than hungry.My mistake was thinking I could be anything other

      three lines three different way to interpret. to be anything to be anything other than XXX to be anything other (is this the same as to be anything else? )

    2. could not get to return

      Not just he could not, he could not get to

    3. attempts

      The woods as an action, like a quest where the speaker attempts and works towards a connection.

    4. I looked back and could never quite touch it

      Again reference to a memory -- a past that is real but can't be touched

    5. ived a recall

      Again reference to the past

    6. windy

      Strong wind contrasts the stillness of the people. Just because there is movement of the wind does not mean it is not idle. Rather, it enhances it.

    7. could not understand why, corrected or destroyed, I used to be delighted

      Such a strange remembrance of the past. "miserable" and "harm" is the result of "correction" or "destruction" of what used to be "delight".

    8. pardon

      Both as a verb as tomorrow will pardon (whom?) and as an expression of hesitation after a comma.



  3. clas3209.files.wordpress.com clas3209.files.wordpress.com
    1. Massinissa was caught between human pietas to wife and tofriend, fides to personal and (as king) political morality. Powerless to keep herphysically safe, he could only help her to die –a classic Punic honour-suicide,like that of her brother Hannibal, self-poisoned c. 183 BCE to escape imprison-ment, and of Hasdrubal’s wife in 146.15

      A tragic love story. Cleary, people at time had a lot of pride. They would rather die than be held captive. While this is still held today, it is nearly not as popular as it was before. It is also very similar to the ancient samurai Japanese practice of seppuku.

    2. Romanists gain the onlytriumphal narrative-painting we can truly glimpse.

      As they say, history is written by the winners. Despite the many battles and deaths, Rome will have the upper hand because they won. They will be placed on a higher pedestal.

    3. the Tombof Lyson and Kallikles (n. 23), design troped armoury and hall, contentshung away from damp and vermin, ready for civic defence and the king’swars.

      Even in death, kings had power. Not only does it display that, it also represents their position of power. Everything is meant to be a show of authority.

    4. The Senate courteously declined the king’s request to visitand sacrifice, which would have given him the chance to showcase his ownhuge aid to that victory; instead they awarded him again the consular regaliathat they and Scipio had given him in his youth.

      With this humble decline, they show that they are willing to put away their pride of victor. They honor the king by not letting him "waste their time" on them.

    5. Caesar thus showed offthe toddler as a rightful prince. Foreign hostages had been quar-tered well before, but it must have startled Romans, and greatly pleasedNumidians, that Caesar then fostered in his own domus a Numidian prince-ling, whom Octavian later raised like an adoptive half-brother.

      Another action with a political motive. Similar to how Alexander had a mass marriage at Susa in 324, Caesar clearly wanted to be connected to the royal family. It is still unusual, as political ties are made through marriage. Caesar clearly saw an opportunity and took it.

    6. Caesar allied with hissuccessful claimant Cleopatra VII. No such easy assignment here of the‘Other’to lesser, enemy people. This triumph tacitly engaged Roman civilconflict, too: Caesar could appear to avenge the murder by Cleopatra’sbrother of Roman Pompey, even though Pompey was his political enemy

      In this situation, both Cleopatra and Caesar are equals. Like most wars, there is always a hidden political agenda. Caesar improved his reputation in both lands by appearing charitable and sympathetic.

    7. No legend, history, or myth Greek or Roman accountsfor a ‘black’, diademed prince, or for his wedded princess with a ‘black’African entourage and thus also from a people prepotent in Africa. Noknown ‘genre scene’has ‘black’servants, either.

      This is a good point, since race had a clear role in this. Showing race means showing a true depiction of what happened. It adds a layer of history to it. It is interesting that in U,S history, being black meant being a slave. While Rome did have slaves, they were not predominantly black.

  4. Sep 2021
    1. With wealth your state, your mind with arts improve,                 Take you a course, get you a place,                 Observe his honor, or his grace, Or the king’s real, or his stampèd face

      These are exactly what John Donne had lost after his improvident marriage with Anne More; wealth, education, social standing, and post at the Parliament. Maybe Donne is ironically showing his slight feeling of reluctance through this conversation with the silent addressee.

    2. chide

      Chiding an innocent person with physical unattractiveness is an act of demeaning oneself. Also, the "ruined fortune" is not due to one's extravagance but caused by inevitable outer forces. The author seems to approve his physical shortcomings, however, is also implicitly rebuking the provoker's imprudence and wasteful usage of his or her time in trivial (only materialistic) matters.

    1. These stages postdate the Permo‐Carboniferous glaciation but retain a moderately steep equator‐to‐pole gradient, judging by the level of floral and faunal differentiation

      overall gradient?

  5. Aug 2021
    1. we find that fixing fossil ages to the midpoint or a random point drawn from within the stratigraphic age range leads to biases in divergence time estimates, while sampling fossil ages leads to estimates that are similar to inferences that employ the correct ages of fossils. Second, we show a comparison using an empirical dataset of extant and fossil cetaceans, which confirms that different methods of handling fossil age uncertainty lead to large differences in estimated node ages

      dealing with uncertainties carefully actually matters

    1. Because the influence of early diagenetic cements on the bulk δ13Ccarb signal can, but need not be synchronized, chemostratigraphy should not be used as a stand-alone method for trans-continental correlation, and especially minor isotopic shifts have to be interpreted with utmost care

      how shall we deal with "local" anomalies

  6. Jul 2021
    1. ll these tools help with organizing and analyzing and thus facilitate the real work of the humanist, which, as noted, is to interpret the evidence of human lives, thoughts and actions.

      This definition of the work of the humanist is interesting to me. The question it creates for me is how the tools themselves dictate or influence the humanists' 'interpretation of human lives, thoughts and actions'? There are so many digital tools and and platforms that allow for expression of ideas but inherently must limit this expression based on their design. As well the tools the humanist chooses are also an expression of their personal bias potentially affecting what they communicate to the reader/viewer.

  7. May 2021
  8. Apr 2021
    1. the term historical revisionism identifies the re-interpretation of a historical account.[1] It usually involves challenging the orthodox (established, accepted or traditional) views held by professional scholars about an historical event or time-span or phenomenon, introducing contrary evidence, or reinterpreting the motivations and decisions of the people involved.
    1. I respectfully disagree with your assessment. You are referencing the quote "It's not appropriate to use the aside element just for parentheticals, since those are part of the main flow of the document." However the OP specifically said that they are looking for a semantic element for "a note that may be useful to read at a given point of a tutorial, but is not part of the main tutorial flow". That is what "aside" is for. It's not part of the main content flow.

      That's a tough one. I can see it both ways.

  9. Mar 2021
  10. Feb 2021
  11. Jan 2021
    1. Instead of securing fundamental rights grounded in nature, government—operating under a new theory of the “living” Constitution—should constantly evolve to secure evolving rights.

      Again, natural law is a specific, historically rooted branch of philosophy, and so is this. But what's happening here is not a debate between two schools of philosophy, but an argument against certain schools of legal thought. Conservative constitutional legal thought (embodied most famously by Scalia but also by much of the right wing of the current SCOTUS) is originalist. Originalism opposes the idea of "novel rights" and the "living Constitution," and insists on interpreting the Constitution as people theoretically would have done at the time of its writing.

      The takeaway here is the foregoing screed on Progressivism and philosophy is actually a warm-up to an subtextual argument about Constitutional interpretation that is the bedrock of how conservatives view the Judicial Branch.

    1. ensure the relevance, accuracy and effective communication of its interpretation and education programs (see above for A.O.D.A. requirements) by: establishing clearly defined and measurable learning objectives and outcomes, and undertaking a process of program evaluation using appropriate expertise – including staff, volunteers, community groups, or consultants carrying out research ensure all staff involved in the development and delivery of interpretation and education programs, have the appropriate skills and training

      (2) Volunteer opportunities (programming).

  12. Nov 2020
  13. Oct 2020
    1. Atitre d’exemple, n’est pas illégale l’apposition sur la façade d’un collège public d’un logotype du département composé de deux cœurs entrelacés surmontés d’une couronne portant une croix, référence jugée historique plus que religieuse
    1. And would a hip hop fan question, much less downvote, a “verified” Genius annotation authored by Kendrick Lamar that explains the meaning behind his music?

      But if we're going to consider music as art, isn't a lot of the value and power of art in the "eye of the beholder"? To some extent art's value is in the fact that it can have multiple interpretations. From this perspective, once it's been released, Lamar's music isn't "his" anymore, it becomes part of a broader public that will hear and interpret it as they want to. So while Lamar may go back and annotate what he may have meant at the time as an "expert", doesn't some of his art thereby lose some power in that he is tacitly stating that he apparently didn't communicate his original intent well?

      By comparison and for contrast one could take the recent story of Donald Trump's speech (very obviously written by someone else) about the recent mass shootings and compare them with the polar opposite message he spews on an almost daily basis from his Twitter account. See: https://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/teleprompter-trump-meets-twitter-trump-as-the-president-responds-to-mass-slayings/2019/08/05/cdd8ea78-b799-11e9-b3b4-2bb69e8c4e39_story.html

    1. If any of you has a dispute with another, do you dare to take it before the ungodly for judgment instead of before the Lord’s people? 2 Or do you not know that the Lord’s people will judge the world? And if you are to judge the world, are you not competent to judge trivial cases? 3 Do you not know that we will judge angels? How much more the things of this life! 4 Therefore, if you have disputes about such matters, do you ask for a ruling from those whose way of life is scorned in the church? 5 I say this to shame you. Is it possible that there is nobody among you wise enough to judge a dispute between believers? 6 But instead, one brother takes another to court—and this in front of unbelievers!

      Interesting that this is interpreted in modern times in the same way as it was in ancient. A lot of this writing had to have been specific to it's political context at a time when keeping things in house was both to the benefit of the individuals as well as the Church which was a minority within a broader Roman protectorate.

      Why can't Christians manage to see any historical context for a 2000 year old document that is far from a living one?

    1. someday, NVIDIA GPUs in the cloud will enable real-time transcription and translation for videoconferencing

      ... and that will be also the day when most of the simultaneous interpreters will go out of business https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Simultaneous_interpretation

  14. Sep 2020
    1. In the computer science sense, interpretation refers to a kind of translation that seeks out one- to- one cor-respondences.

      l'interprétation vernaculaire de la machine est stricte, contrairement à l’herméneutique pratiquée en sciences humaines

  15. Jul 2020
  16. Jun 2020
  17. May 2020
    1. While there are no legal precedents to spell out specifically what the actual terms mean, it can be interpreted from the testimony of people like Professor Mark Lemley from Stanford University, in front of the United States Senate Committee on the Judiciary that the individual terms are defined as follows
    1. it buys, receives, sells, or shares the personal information of 50,000 or more consumers annually for the business’ commercial purposes. Since IP addresses fall under what is considered personal data — and “commercial purposes” simply means to advance commercial or economic interests — it is likely that any website with at least 50k unique visits per year from California falls within this scope.
  18. Apr 2020
  19. Mar 2020
    1. prove that your interpretation of EU laws (“My Privacy Policy covers everything, explicit consent isn’t required, I don’t have to give my visitors any kind of control because they can block cookies before visiting my site,” etc) is right
    1. However, we recognise there are some differing opinions as well as practical considerations around the use of partial cookie walls and we will be seeking further submissions and opinions on this point from interested parties.
    2. While we recognise that analytics can provide you with useful information, they are not part of the functionality that the user requests when they use your online service – for example, if you didn’t have analytics running, the user could still be able to access your service. This is why analytics cookies aren’t strictly necessary and so require consent.
  20. Nov 2019
    1. were the peoples of the world to grasp the true significance of the words of God, they would never be deprived of their portion of the ocean of His bounty

      Bounty comes from understanding the words. The Revelation is, firstly, the words (and the spiritual energy they contain).

  21. Jun 2019
  22. www.theatlantic.com www.theatlantic.com
    1. putatively natural state

      To be clear, Cronon is both an environmentalist AND a critic of the pristine myth. See, for example, his article "The Trouble with Wilderness, or Getting back to the Wrong Nature"

    2. make the meager evidence from the ethnohistorical record tell you anything

      If this is true, isn't it equally a danger for the theories that just happen to be older and more advantageous for white Europeans?

  23. May 2019
  24. Feb 2019
    1. The organs of hearing in each species, are tuned only to the sounds of their own;

      What about in the instance where an animal, such as a dog, makes sounds which humans interpret? For instance, I am thinking of a dog whining for more water if its dish is empty or growling at the sight of danger.

  25. Jan 2019
    1. This is the meaning of the “Day of Resurrection,” spoken of in all the scriptures, and announced unto all people. Reflect, can a more precious, a mightier, and more glorious day than this be conceived, so that man should willingly forego its grace, and deprive himself of its bounties, which like unto vernal showers are raining from the heaven of mercy upon all mankind?

      I think this meaning is that "Resurrection" is the return of a Manifestation in another human frame. And this is stated to be clearly more glorious than the literal interpretations of past scripture.

      Why is it clearly more glorious?

      1. Everyone has access. And it leads to empowerment.
      2. It allows us to keep science, which is pretty awesome.
      3. It doesn't allow us to just wait for the rapture - see point 1 about empowerment.
      4. It allows us to see all religions as united in spirit.
      5. Related to point 3 and 4, it allows us to unite with non-religious people.
      6. All of this without "doing violence to the facts".
  26. Oct 2018
    1. yet the response of Kleaf to mean maximum mesophyll path length (Dm) fell into two distinct groups.

      Two groups

      1. highly signficant regression
      2. Conifers and cycads with schrieds.
    2. an intimate association between light-saturated net CO2 assimilation rate (Amax) and the hydraulic conductance (Kleaf) of whole leaves was found
  27. Sep 2018
    1. The least important question you can ask about Engelbart is, "What did he build?" By asking that question, you put yourself in a position to admire him, to stand in awe of his achievements, to worship him as a hero. But worship isn't useful to anyone. Not you, not him. The most important question you can ask about Engelbart is, "What world was he trying to create?" By asking that question, you put yourself in a position to create that world yourself.

      That's a really empowering conclusion, I'm happy that he's vetting that point of view as I've trying to articulate it for myself for a long time now.

  28. Jul 2018
    1. Truly astonishing, that even critics of the orthodox interpretation are unable to simply consider the most important alternate theory (de Broglie - Bohm).

  29. Feb 2018
    1. Depiction of cumulative probabilities in proportional odds version of cumulative logitmodel. Each curve has the same effect paramete

      Lav det her plot, hvor vi fixerer alle kovariater undtagen screentime, som vi lader løbe fra 0 til 100



  30. Nov 2017
    1. Education, in like manner engrafts a new man on the native stock, & improves what in his nature was vicious & perverse, into qualities of virtue and social worth; and it cannot be but that each generation succeeding to the knowledge acquired by all those who preceded it, adding to it their own acquisitions & discoveries, and handing the mass down for successive & constant accumulation, must advance the knowledge & well-being of mankind: not infinitely, as some have said, but indefinitely, and to a term which no one can fix or foresee.

      In my engagement "Individual and Society", we center our discussions around the importance of one over the other and its pros and cons. With this phrase, it is definitely obvious that the importance of unification is crucial to our human existence. We cannot survive off of merely being here but rather incorporating the values and teachings of those who come before us. Granted we use current knowledge and beliefs to tweak these ideologies and we often times make them our own. But it is imperative that we give credit to those who set the foundation for us to discuss and challenge what we hold as human truths. - Kayla Thomas

  31. Oct 2017
    1. estab-lish their authority

      It was very difficult to find an interpretation I disagree with, so I'll be super nit-picky here! I disagree with this because for a group of people so devoted to their religion (and although there still lay a pattern of male figure-heads and assumed authority), I think the rabbis are actually genuine in their beliefs and application of their beliefs to their student's problems. I think, rather than seeing it as wanting to "establish their authority" - we can picture it like how a mother would try and reprimand her daughter not be careless with a boy when drinking. It's not because the mother wants to establish authority, but because the mother might've experienced a mistake similar - or witnessed someone make that kind of decision and its consequences. Therefore, they wish to prevent their daughter from making the same mistake. In this case, the rabbis, in terms of their principles and what they believe is right according to their "world," describe their students' problems in a way that fits according to that world - not for some power-hungry desire, but because they apply their culture (what they've embodied) to their students (the students who ought to be following that very same culture).

    1. It was the degree of centrality to the white population of the state which alone then constituted the important point of comparison between these places

      I find this statement in the document appalling. The founders portray blatant racism within the first paragraph as they decide upon the foundation for the University. I find it baffling that a university designed for the bettering of an entire state would exclude its benefits from such a large segment of the population for which it was designed. Furthermore, it is concerning that issues regarding the exclusion of certain groups of the population remain an issue today amidst the twenty-first century. However, it is encouraging that the University and the larger population of the United States have made great progress towards removing these racist beliefs.

      -Jenna Taylor

    2. Education, in like manner engrafts a new man on the native stock, & improves what in his nature was vicious & perverse, into qualities of virtue and social worth

      I found this section of the document inspiring. This empowering belief regarding education is still held today at the University of Virginia and in today's broader society. Although the founders of the University prove to be quite discriminatory and immoral throughout many sections of the document, their argument here, that education betters a man, brings a hint of optimism to this section of the report.

      -Jenna Taylor

    3. We should be far too from the discouraging persuasion, that man is fixed, by the law of his nature, at a given point: that his improvement is a chimæra

      Within this paragraph, the authors and early founders of UVA made several points on why education was necessary by countering some of the current one-sided beliefs of society, with some key words. Man was not stagnant and his improvements did not need to be a chimaera, or a thing that is hoped or wished for but in fact is illusory or impossible to achieve. The other definition of chimaera is a fire-breathing monster from Greek mythology, which I think can be an interpretation that improvements to one’s morality and state of mind did not need to feel like some huge obstacle that we needed to face, but rather were very possible through knowledge. Then later, they speak about how the effects of education are not some far-fetched, optimistic, or “sanguine” hope, and marketing strategy, but a reality that is backed by proof. I found this all very interesting because, back then, education was still a point of debate, whereas now it’s one the most easily agreed solutions for a various of world problems.

  32. Jul 2017
  33. learn-us-east-1-prod-fleet02-xythos.learn.cloudflare.blackboardcdn.com learn-us-east-1-prod-fleet02-xythos.learn.cloudflare.blackboardcdn.com
    1. How has the chronicler interpreted this invasion in religious terms? Why?

      Interpreted in religious terms for the Chronicle was maintained by Orthodox monks. The monks gave the dates of attacks in relation to religious days. With the end of the attacks they attributed it to the Church of St. Sophia and prayers "of the faithful". To them, such a bloody, relentless invasion by foreign people was not comprehendible within their own religious and societal views. Their religious interpretation, and view of the Mongols as lawless, godless pagans, was a way to try and make sense of a completely new culture and invasion style they deeply feared.

  34. Jun 2017
    1. 27 Und fing an von Mose und allen Propheten und legte ihnen alle Schriften aus, die von ihm gesagt waren.

      "Eine absolute Hermentuik kündigt sich an, und dann bringt sie nicht nur nichts zum Vorschein, sondern glänzt selbst durch Abwesenheit; kaum genannt, verschwindet sie schon wieder zugunsten des Augenblicks der Eucharistie (Lk 24,28-33). Ist ein solch abrupter Übergang von der Hermeneutik zur Eucharistie nicht das Eigenständnis der Unmöglichkeit der Ersteren? Zweifellos, aber auch nur dann, wenn man hier, wie es ein hartnäckig sich haltendes Vorturteil nahelegt, ein Unterscheidung zwischen zwei unterschiedlichen Handlungen vornimmt, zwischen der Hermeneutik und der Eucharistie. Ansonsten wäre hier eine andere Hypothese in Anschlag zu bringen: Die hermeneutische Schriftauslegung erscheint nur dann wie abgeschnitten oder gar wie nicht existent, wenn man sie von der eucharistichen Feier unterscheidet, in der das Erkennen sich ereignet; denn nicht nur "erkannten" seine Jünger ihn gleich nach dem Brechen des Brotes und "gingen ihnen die Augen auf" (Lk 24,31), sondern vor allem auch durchdrang die Hermeneutik den Text bis hin zu dessen Referenten: "Und sie sagten zueinander: Brannte uns nicht das Herz in der Brust, als er unterwegs mit uns redete und uns den Sinn der Schrift erschloß?" (Lk 24,32). Die Eucharistie bringt, als ihren zentralen Moment, die Hermenutik zur Vollendung [...]."

      Marion, Jean-Luc: Gott ohne Sein. Paderborn/München/Wien/Zürich, 3 2014. S. 232f.

    1. A 2004 study found that students more fully remembered what they’d read on paper. Those results were echoed by an experiment that looked specifically at e-books, and another by psychologist Erik Wästlund at Sweden’s Karlstad University, who found that students learned better when reading from paper.

      My stance on e-reading vs paper reading is definately pro-paper. But, as I read this stastitic, the year 2004 stood out to me. This upcoming year, my students will have been born in inbetween 2001-2003. They didn't start kindergardten until 2006-2008. Most of them started the same time the first Iphone came out. Therir earliest years begin with the e-reader craze. I wonder if the data is different for these digital-super natives.

    1. The direction of my inferences is critical: first the interpretive hypothesis and then the formal pattern, which attains the status of noticeability only because an interpretation already in place is picking it out.

      Is this really how it played/plays out? I have an idea about something that I then confirm in the facts?

  35. Jan 2017
    1. Aus dem Munde der jungen Kinder und Säuglinge hast du eine Macht zugerichtet Um deiner Feinde willen, Daß du vertilgest den Feind und den Rachgierigen.

      Grundsätzlich: 2 Gegensätze in V. 3:

      1) "Macht / Festung" als das gegen die "Feinde"

      2) "Kinder und Säuglinge" vs. "Feind und Rachgieriger".

    1. par ces usages, c’est-à-dire par la génération de ces formes intermédiaires encore à interpréter, que l’archive peut accéder au statut d’objet culturel.
    2. l’éditorialisation instaure ainsi les conditions de possibilité pour l’appropriation des enregistrements en servant de support à la fois de questionnement, de requêtage, puis d’interprétation.

      premier enjeu de l'éditorialisation : l'appropriation

  36. Dec 2016
    1. when you say, "I create my reality," what you are saying is that you are creating an interpretation of what you can experience. If you can only experience this much of life, and it is all your interpretation, then you see your range of perception is very limited. But your Knowledge, which you carry within yourself, is capable of opening your perception completely. Without so much incessant thinking, wondering, asking, pondering, manipulating, planning and scheming, and so forth, the greater part of your mind, your Knowledge, can begin to show you things. It is not difficult to have direct experience. You simply must not be doing anything else.
    2. The fact is you only create interpretations of reality. A better interpretation may be more pleasant temporarily, but you are still disassociated from yourself and life. It is this disassociation that must be bridged. Life is happening all around you, an incredible panorama. But you cannot experience it. Your Teachers are with you, helping you in amazing ways, but you do not know that they are there. There are genuine relationships waiting for you in life, waiting for you to be ready and desirous of them, but you must have the capability and the desire.
    3. When we speak of perception, we are speaking of your interpretation of the reality that you can experience. What you experience is interpretive. It is very rare that people have a direct experience of anything! Direct experience means that you are experiencing a reality that is beyond your interpretation. A very rare and great experience this is. It could be the common denominator of your experience, but in fact it is quite rare and phenomenal because 99.9% of your experience is interpretation of the reality that you can experience. When I say "the reality that you can experience," I mean that you can only experience a little bit of reality because of your limited capacity and range of perception. So, it is not merely the interpretation of reality at large; it is interpretation of the reality that you can experience.
    4. he world needs the truth you have within yourself. The world cannot give it to you. But once you give it, the world will bear witness to Knowledge because Knowledge is everywhere. A mind without fear can see this. A mind with fear can only see its own thoughts and interpretations. It is not free to see or to know. It is out of relationship with life. Your life must be beyond this world for you to experience this because you are here such a short time. It is very important, then, to think about your life beyond the world.
    1. Atem Gottes

      Umstrittene Stelle; Heb. ruach haelohim. Weil ruach theoretisch "Geist", "Atem" oder "Wind" und elohim "Gott" oder "stark" bezeichnen kann, sind die beiden verbreitetsten Deutungen (1) "Der Geist Gottes schwebte" und (2) "Ein starker Wind stürmte".

      Deutung (1) geht nicht an, weil es die Vorstellung eines eigenständigen "Geistes Gottes" im AT noch nicht gibt, die Rolle dieses Geistes Gottes in dieser Schilderung des Urzustands der Welt unklar wäre und das Verb von einer schnellen Bewegung spricht und daher nicht mit einem "Geist Gottes" vereinbar ist. Deutung (2) geht ebensowenig an, weil elohim in Gen 1 sehr häufig und stets in der Bedeutung "Gott" verwendet wird. Die Rede muss also sein von einem heftigen "Atem Gottes" oder einem starken "Wind Gottes".

      Biblische Parallelen lassen sich grob in zwei Gruppen aufteilen: (1) Solche vom mächtigen Atem Gottes, mit dem er häufig gerade auf das Wasser einwirkt, und (2) solche vom Atem Gottes als etwas, mit dem er schafft.

      Der mächtige Atem Gottes:

      Ex 15,8.10:

      *8 Durch dein Blasen taten sich die Wasser empor, und die Fluten standen in Haufen; die Tiefe wallte voneinander mitten im Meer. ... 10 Da ließest du deinen Atem/Wind ( ruach ) blasen und das Meer bedeckte sie, und sie sanken unter wie Blei im mächtigen Wasser.*

      2 Sam 22,16 // Ps 18,16:

      Da sah man das Bett der Wasser, und des Erdbodens Grund ward aufgedeckt, HERR, von deinem Schelten, von dem Odem und Schnauben deiner Nase.

      Ps 29,3f.:

      *3 Die Stimme des HERRN geht über den Wassern; der Gott der Ehren donnert, der HERR über großen Wassern. 4 Die Stimme des HERRN geht mit Macht; die Stimme des HERRN geht herrlich.*

      Ps 104,7:

      *Aber von deinem Schelten flohen [die Wasser], von deinem Donner fuhren sie dahin.**

      Atem Gottes als Schöpfungskraft:

      Ps 33,6.9:

      *6 Der Himmel ist durch das Wort des HERRN gemacht und all sein Heer durch den Geist seines Mundes. ... 9 Denn so er spricht, so geschieht’s; so er gebeut, so stehet’s da.*

      Am klarsten ist dieses Motiv natürlich in Gen 1 selbst.

      Kombiniert sind beide Motive auch in Jdt 16,17f.:

      *17 Alle deine Kreatur muß dir dienen; denn was du sprichst, das muß geschehen. Wo du einem einen Mut gibst, das muß fortgehen, und deinem Wort kann niemand Widerstand tun. 18 Die Berge müssen zittern, und die Felsen zerschmelzen wie Wachs vor dir.**

      Orientiert man sich an diesen Parallelen, sind Vv. 1f. wahrscheinlich so aufzufassen und zu strukturieren:

      • V. 1: Zeitlicher Nebensatz zu V. 2: Erzählt wird vom Beginn von Gottes Schöpfungshandeln
      • Vv. 2ab: Urzustand der Erde: Zu Beginn von Gottes Schöpfungshandeln liegt die Welt im Finstern und ist von Wasser bedeckt.
      • V. 2c: Gottes Stimme, die so mächtig ist, dass sie geradezu "stürmt", ist die "Gegen-kraft" des Urmeers: Mittels ihrer wird das Urmeer "besiegt" und "gespalten" und eine ganze neue Weltordnung ins Sein gesetzt. Von diesem Ins-Sein-Setzen berichten dann Vv. 3ff. Vgl. ähnlich z.B. Di Lella 1985, S. 130.

      • Di Lella, Alexander A.: Genesis 1:1-10: A Formal Introduction to P's Creation Account, in: A. Caquot u.a.: Mélanges bibliques et orientaux en l'honneur de M. Mathias Delcor. Kevelaer/Neukirchen-Vluyn, 1985. S. 127-137.
    2. der erste „Tag“

      W. "1 Tag" (statt "ein Tag"): Vv. 3-5 berichten von der Schöpfung der zeitlichen Ordnung, nicht von der Schöpfung der Helligkeit. Funktion der Formel "Es wurde Abend usw." ist hier also nicht nur, davon zu berichten, dass der erste Schöpfungsabschnitt nun abgelaufen ist, sondern ineins damit wird vorgeführt, wie Gott die zeitliche Ordnung ins Sein setzt. Nach der Unterscheidung von Hellem und Finsterem, von Tag und Nacht, muss es 1x Abend und 1x Morgen werden, dann ist die Zeitspanne von "1 Tag" vergangen. Vv. 6ff. berichten dann von der Einsetzung des Raumes.

      Vgl. dazu Sasson 1992, S. 191; Steinmann 2002, S. 583f. u.a.

    1. aber

      Warum "aber"? Die folgenden Tiere fallen doch gar nicht unter die Gruppe der Tiere, für die beides gilt? Vgl. Lev 11,20; gemeint ist also sicher: 1) A dürft ihr essen 2) Was aber davon... leitet Teilmenge A' in A ein, die doch gegessen werden dürfen.

      Da passt was nicht.

    1. 37 Richtet nicht, so werdet ihr auch nicht gerichtet. Verdammet nicht, so werdet ihr nicht verdammt. Vergebet, so wird euch vergeben. 38 Gebt, so wird euch gegeben.

      Stoßrichtung: Die Hoffnung auf die endzeitliche Vergeltung Gottes wird zum Anlass für gutes und wider schlechtes Handeln.

      (Heininger, VL 2016/17)

    2. so wird euer Lohn groß sein, und ihr werdet Kinder des Allerhöchsten sein; denn er ist gütig über die Undankbaren und Bösen

      "Problem" dieses Abschlusses: Nachdem zuvor gerade die Gegenseitigkeitsethik kritisiert wurde, wird hier sozusagen "unter der Hand" doch wieder eine Reziprozität eingeführt: Für gute Taten wird man zu "Kindern des Allerhöchsten".

      (Heininger, VL 2016/17)

  37. Nov 2016
    1. Und wie ihr wollt, daß euch die Leute tun sollen, also tut ihnen gleich auch ihr.

      Warum steht die goldene Regel eigentlich gerade nach dem Gebot der Feindesliebe? Diese ist ja viel radikaler; die goldene Regel dagegen basiert auf dem Prinzip der Gegenseitigkeit (=> Bultmann, Luz)

      <=> Heininger, VL 2016/17: Wie ihr wollt...: Maßstab der goldenen Regel ist nicht das Verhalten anderer, sondern ein Verhalten, wie ich es mir von anderen wünsche.

  38. Jul 2016
    1. In contrast to the cortical results, where a linear reduction in strength of the relationship with age was seen, the relationship between ADC/FA and cognition was strongest around 6–10 and above 16 y, with correlations not significant in the middle part of the age range (Fig. 3)
    2. The relationship between right anterior cingulate surface area and incongruent RT was plotted as a continuous function of age. The relationship was strongest for the youngest part of the sample, and it decreased linearly in strength with age