2,594 Matching Annotations
  1. Jun 2024
    1. More than 95% of people could be using a computer from 2008 or before without any problems. Needing a recent machine is limited to people who: Do extreme, professional, processor-intensive video-rendering. Compile massive programs and operating systems with severe time constraints. Play recent triple AAA video-games on high settings. Use many massive Electron apps and other inexcusably bad software written by soydevs and other people who shouldn't be writing software.

      Next, I need to find out how to fit this sentiment on a bumper sticker.

    1. Time, Work-Discipline, and Industrial Capitalism - Author(s): E. P. Thompson - Source: Past & Present, No. 38 (Dec., 1967), pp. 56-97 - Published by: Oxford University Press on behalf of The Past and Present Society - Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/649749

      <small><cite class='h-cite via'> <span class='p-author h-card'>Dan Allosso (@danallosso)</span> in Howard Zinn's A People's History, Part 1 (YouTube) (<time class='dt-published'>09/16/2021 09:28:56</time>)</cite></small>

    1. David Hollinger’s notion of“communities of discourse.” First forwarded at the 1977 WingspreadConference, he emphasized this mechanism as a way to wrest thefocus from singular individuals (great men) identified as intellectu-als and situate them among specific social and cultural contexts
  2. May 2024
    1. The earliest known version of Sternberger’s creation of the cheeseburger was recently discovered by food historian Andrew Smith, author of Hamburger: A Global History. It is in an article in The Pasadena Post, a now defunct newspaper. Published July 23, 1931, it sheds light on Sternberger’s early life and innovative ideas.
    1. You can cross check the data in the typewriter database for most of the big US and European brands to see the slow merging and dying out of the typewriter through the late 60s and early 70s onward. See, for example, Royal: https://typewriterdatabase.com/royal.72.typewriter-serial-number-database which has buyouts and mergers listed at the top. The database also has a huge volume of references for how it was compiled which will give you additional history.

      The early 70s saw a lot of plastic entering the space where more durable steel used to be. Most major US firms were shifting to electric after IBM in roughly 1961. Post war manufacture of machines picked up significantly in Italy, Spain, Holland, and even Wales which displaced some of the manufacturing in the US, where solid machines of the prior generation still worked and only needed servicing rather than outright replacement. (Planned obsolescence wasn't as much of a thing during the 30s and 40s, and in fact, [maintenance was heavily highlighted during the war](https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ocdxgkxKAKo) when most US manufacturers ceased production of most models.) Eventually Japan displaced the business followed by India (which ceased in 2009) and China. Wrexham, Wales ceased manufacture of electronic Brother typewriters in 2012.

      Ever decreasing costs of materials and manufacturing, improved manufacturing technology, increased competition in the space, combined with containerized shipping, competition from computers, etc. all contributed to the cheapening of the typewriter and hastened the death of manufacturing (though not the use) of manual typewriters.

      Richard Polt's The Typewriter Revolution (2015) has a "microhistory" of typewriters in chapter 2 with references to some addition histories if you're interested.

      Your question about Olympia manufacture dates (and more) can be found via: https://typewriterdatabase.com/olympia.61.typewriter-serial-number-database

      x over it has a good two part series about the evolution of Olympias at:



  3. Apr 2024
    1. for - progress trap - Prometheus complex - Dan Carlin - Gaston Bachelard - philosopher

      summary - This short article brings up an interesting connection between - the Prometheus complex, - a term coined by the French philosopher Gaston Bachelard and - progress traps, - the unintended consequences of progress - The key insight is that human beings may have an Achilles Heel - the desire to know, even at the cost of harm - could be such a powerful impulsive urge - that we throw caution to the wind and - Icarus mythology may be a self-fulfilling prophecy - This also echos the views of my colleague Gyuri Lajos, - that invention for invention sake possesses this very dark side. - This is an important adjacency - as it questions the ethics of knowledge for knowledge sake - As we know from - the history of - progress and its shadowy counterpart, - the progress trap - our impulsive urge to invent has harmful impacts on everyone, - and these continually compound with time

    1. Dynastic cycle (traditional Chinese: 朝代循環; simplified Chinese: 朝代循环; pinyin: Cháodài Xúnhuán) is an important political theory in Chinese history. According to this theory, each dynasty of China rises to a political, cultural, and economic peak and then, because of moral corruption, declines, loses the Mandate of Heaven, and falls, only to be replaced by a new dynasty. The cycle then repeats under a surface pattern of repetitive motifs.[1]

      Dynasties rising to a peak, then, corrupting, losing Mandate of Heaven, which another dynasty gains.

    1. 1:09 He puts the question forward: "why is the material on zettelkasten so divergent?" Well, it has been, historically speaking. There is no one way to keep a zettelkasten. What the person is pointing at, I think, is why are practices so divergent from Niklas Luhmann?

      • for: Michel Bilbot, transcendental, transcendental - Kant, awakening, non-dual, nondual, nonduality, non-duality, emptiness, epoche, Maurice Merle-Ponty, perspective shift, perspective shift - transcendental

      • summary

        • Michel Bilbot gives an extremely important talk on two related themes
          • Kant's concept of the idea of transcendental
          • Husserl's concept of epoche / phenomenological reduction
          • comparison of two perspectives of science as
            • panpsychism where atomic theories of materialism are held to be theories of everything
            • Husserl's phenomenology of human experience
        • Bilbot points out the situatedness each individual is born into life with. Even acts such as visually seeing reveal our situatedness as a seer with clues such as perspective that reveals structures of the seer such as vanishing point.
      • adjacency

        • between
          • Kant's transcendental
          • Husserl / Maurice Merle-Ponty / Heidegger's phenomenology and epoche / phenomenological reduction methodology
          • eastern mysticism and philosophical ideas:
            • nonduality - dissolution of the self / other dualism
            • awakening
            • enlightenment
            • emptiness
        • adjacency statement
          • Michel Bilbot establishes the important foundation of one of Kant's major life works on the transcendental, and how Husserl's phenomenology and related process of the phenomenological reduction (epoche) is critical to understanding Husserl and Kant.
          • He then applies it to an analysis and comparison of science seen from two contrasting perspectives, atomic theories of panpsychism vs phenomenology.
          • Bilbot reveals that Husserl was deeply influenced by Buddhist thought
    1. 刚看了电影,我对它的理解和博主大致相同:这是宫崎骏作为战后一代人对日本人这一身份的历史性反思。我想补充几点博主没提到的,还有我几点我不太认同博主的分析的。 首先,全片的故事的时间上的起点是作为塔的根基的黑色巨石在明治维新前几十年从天而降,把原地的池塘完全摧毁。联系到这个巨石最终赋予了建于其上的塔「连通世界」的能力,我们不难推论出巨石所代表的,就是黑船来航以及随之而来,西方意识形态和经济制度在日本的入侵。 巨石降落之后,下一个重要的时间节点是真人的叔公(舅爷?)在二三十年之后在巨石周边建立了这座塔。叔公一直都对这座塔分外着迷,而他在修建这座塔的时候也付出了许多生命的代价。如果我们认为这座巨石所代表的是日本国内的西方影响,那么如博主所说,叔公这个人明显就象征着诸如福泽谕吉,西乡隆盛,伊藤博文等明治维新的志士。他们拥抱了西方代表的近代化,以血与火的代价建立了一个幕府之后的新日本,一个在他们眼中充满希望的,可以与西方国家所比肩的华丽高塔:日本帝国。 在这个基础之上,叔公的下一代,也就是真人的两个母亲,也自然应该被理解为叔公的下一代日本人,也就是主导了日本军国主义化最终引向战争的大正一代人。这里我与博主的理解有所不同:火美和夏子都应该被理解为大正一代的日本人。她们的不同点在于火美所代表的是积极西化的所谓「进步」的大正日本城市精英阶层,而夏子所代表的是更加拥护日本传统文化的保守主义的大正日本农村阶层。这一点可以从她们二人的生活方式的不同中看出:现实世界中,火美(真人的妈妈)住在大城市东京,而夏子住在农村;塔中世界的火美穿着西式连衣裙(我不觉得这是魔女服,就是连衣裙而已),而夏子除了最后一幕之外一直都是穿着和服(最后一幕这个例外很重要,一会儿再说);火美给真人的食物是吐司,而夏子一开始给真人端来的是更为传统的茶。 这种分析对理解真人的两个母亲的行为,境遇,以及他与他两个母亲的关系,是非常重要的。首先,火美为什么能够掌控火焰,而又为什么最终命丧火海?正如博主所说,火焰,代表着现代战争的暴力;它是从枪口,炮口,还有炸弹的弹壳中喷涌的毁灭性力量。火美作为西化派的大正一代人掌握了这种力量,并用这种力量保护着下一代的日本(warawara)不受西方列强(鹈鹕)的吞食。然而战争永远都会有牺牲;战争的火焰平等地消灭着每一个人,然而作为日本的守护者的大正精英阶层的火美,却只将被烧焦的 warawara 看作保卫国家的必要的牺牲,而对真人的呐喊无动于衷。(无责任推测:我感觉火美大战鹈鹕的那一段就是在隐喻日俄战争)掌握暴力,愿意运用暴力的大正精英阶层是日本战争罪行的直接责任者;他们也是受到战争冲击最大的人。于是,在现实世界中,真人的母亲,以及她所代表的旧日本精英及其意识形态,最终也在比自己更强大的火焰中毁灭。 影片中夏子有着一个典型的居家大和抚子形象,并且在登场时怀有身孕。夏子的性格是她作为保守日本人代表的理所当然的结果。她的肚子里孕育着的是在战后的保守主义农村阶层的后代。保守派的大正日本人从意识形态上不支持战争;他们更倾向于把自己看作是日本战争罪行的受牵连一方甚至是受害者。因此,夏子在对真人悉心照顾和关心之余,也有着对他作为战争直接责任人的后代的厌恶和排斥。相对的,真人作为从小穿西式服装,吃果酱面包长大的日本城市精英的下一代,他在故事一开始所怀念的也是自己的生母,而把夏子只当成是「父亲喜欢的人」。宫崎骏让他们在故事中从互相排斥到相互认可和相互扶持,所代表的正是老爷子对于日本社会各方互相理解,正视共同的历史,共同创造一个新日本的美好期待。 说完了真人的两个母亲,我们再回到叔公。他在真子走入塔中时已经垂垂老矣,而他所创造的塔中世界也已经被鹦鹉墨索里尼和他的法西斯党人占据,并且随时都有结构性倒塌的危机。然而,塔中世界毕竟是叔公所创造出来的;塔中世界的所有东西,包括鹈鹕和鹦鹉,都是他自己带进来的。鹦鹉和鹈鹕都是当时西方现代性的一部分,没有它们就不会有明治志士所期待的旧日本帝国。然而鹦鹉最终法西斯化,并试图占据和控制整个塔中世界,也是旧日本帝国发展内部逻辑的必然。叔公让真子进入塔中的目的,是让他接替自己,继续延续他所一手创造的旧帝国体制。真子拒绝了,因为他认为叔公的积木是用不洁的石块堆砌的;叔公也认同这一点。然而即使当叔公从世界的角落找来了洁净的木头,真子也还是拒绝了叔公的委托,坚决要会到现实世界。这一分歧说明了叔公和真子对旧日本帝国军国主义化,并最终失败的原因有着截然不同的理解:叔公认为失败的原因只是因为用了不洁的石块,而只要我们换上洁净的木块,我们就可以在不改变搭积木这一体制的前提下延续日本帝国。而真子认为我们在重新搭积木之前需要先更加严肃地面对现实。说得明确一点,叔公认为旧日本帝国的失败不是体制的问题,是人的问题;而真子认为事情没那么简单。当然,到最后,鹦鹉墨索里尼重新摆积木的尝试导致了一切的崩塌。 说句题外话:鹦鹉墨索里尼严格看守着怀孕的夏子,其目的是获取和控制夏子的孩子(日本的下一代),维持法西斯主义在这个国家的存在。这和叔公想要引真子前来的目的在维持旧帝国体制这一层面上是一样的。在这一层面上,他们都是帝国主义者,而与真子不同。 影片最后,真子回到现实世界,手里拿着 Kiriko 的玩具和一个砖块。博主说这个砖块是搭建新世界的木砖;我认为这是不洁净的石砖。因为叔公说洁净的木头只有他手上的十一块,而真子说他的砖是在最后在地上捡来的。联系到真子最后一次上岛给到他脚下的石砖的镜头,我认为他的砖就是不洁净的石砖。真子最后拿的是石砖而不是木砖是一个非常重要的细节:他象征着真子对业已崩塌的旧日本帝国的罪恶的记忆。诚然,一个真诚的人在面对自己国家和民族的不堪过往时,如果不能辩证地进行理解,不能在恶中找到美丽的种子,那么他将无法创造本民族的未来,将无法作为该民族的一份子继续生存。但是,真子手握砖块这一细节也表达了真子承认和试图背负本民族过去的恶行的意向。面对过去恶的勇气,同样是真诚的生活的必要条件。苍鹭对此的评论是也许真子过不久就忘了吧。这一略带犬儒气质的发言正是当代日本社会所面临的令人可叹的现状。
    1. Mueller, Hans-Friedrich. The Pagan World: Ancient Religions Before Christianity (Course Guide). 1st ed. The Great Courses: History - Civilization and Culture 2852. Chantilly, VA: The Teaching Company, 2020. https://www.amazon.com/Pagan-World-Ancient-Religions-Christianity/dp/B084YV1YYT/.<br /> @Mueller2020a

      and the Streaming video version (Hoopla):<br /> Pagan World: Ancient Religions before Christianity. Streaming Video. The Great Courses. Chantilly, VA, 2020. https://www.hoopladigital.com/television/pagan-world-ancient-religions-before-christianity-hans-friedrich-mueller/14601704.<br /> @Mueller2020

    1. Historians pilloried the show as historically illiterate, but they were missing the point. It wasn’t really about the past. It was a blueprint for the future.

      Bad history can be paraded under the umbrella of propaganda, not to serve to tell the story of the past, but to tell a story about a coming future.

    1. Muhanna, Elias. “A New History of Arabia, Written in Stone.” The New Yorker, May 23, 2018. https://www.newyorker.com/culture/culture-desk/a-new-history-of-arabia-written-in-stone.

    2. The history of Arabia just before the birth of Islam is a profound mystery, with few written sources describing the milieu in which Muhammad lived. Historians had long believed that the Bedouin nomads who lived in the area composed exquisite poetry to record the feats of their tribes but had no system for writing it down. In recent years, though, scholars have made profound advances in explaining how ancient speakers of early Arabic used the letters of other alphabets to transcribe their speech. These alphabets included Greek and Aramaic, and also Safaitic; Macdonald’s rock was one of more than fifty thousand such texts found in the deserts of the southern Levant. Safaitic glyphs look nothing like the cursive, legato flow of Arabic script. But when read aloud they are recognizable as a form of Arabic—archaic but largely intelligible to the modern speaker.

      Safaitic is an example of the beginning of writing in Arabia at the rise of Islam and may have interesting things to reveal about orality on the border of literacy.

      Compare this with ancient Welsh (and related Celtic languages and stone inscriptions) at about the same time period.

    1. If people have no awareness of history, and society suffers because of it, they also have no awareness of art history. So no awareness of cabaret history either. Werner Schneyder

      Werber Schneyder on Cabaret, art and history.

      German-German history as reflected in political cabaret': ridiculed separately and laughed together. Cover poster: Klaus Staeck. The poster texts are accompanied by text panels. A version in Polish is available.

    1. [Narrator]: The Cluttered Desk, Index Card,file folders, the in-out basket, the calculator.These are the tools of the office professional's past.Since the dawn of the computer age, better machines have always meant bigger and more powerful.But the software could not accommodate the needs of office professionals who are responsiblefor the look, shape and feel of tomorrow.

      In 1983, at the dawn of the personal computer age, Apple Inc. in promotional film entitled "Lisa Soul Of A New Machine" touted their new computer, a 16-bit dual disk drive "personal office system", as something that would do away with "the cluttered desk, index cards, file folders, the in-out basket, [and] the calculator." (00:01)

      Some of these things moved to the realm of the computer including the messy desk(top) now giving people two messy desks, a real one and a virtual one. The database-like structure of the card index also moved over, but the subjective index and its search power were substituted for a lower level concordance search.

      30 years on, for most people, the value of the database idea behind the humble "index card" has long since disappeared and so it seems here as if it's "just" another piece of cluttery paper.

      Appreciate the rosy framing of the juxtaposition of "past" and "future" jumping over the idea of the here and now which includes the thing they're selling, the Lisa computer. They're selling the idealized and unclear future even though it's really just today.

    1. 由此可见,在两次鸦片战争时期,清廷相继任命钦差大臣、钦差便宜行事全权大臣,都是采取的权宜之策,并不打算继续使用。而从战争之后的中外议订通商条约时期开始,清廷认识到逐渐进入与列国频繁交往的新时代,设立总理各国事务衙门、南北洋通商大臣等机构,并向各国派遣出使大臣,主动任命全权大臣也成为对外议约交涉的例行事务。此时清廷还对西方国家进行重新定位,考虑到共性在于「中外两国大臣公订约章,盖印画押「,因而称呼他们是「有约之国」,并且在后来编撰的《光绪会典》中进行了归纳。以此来看,在 19 世纪 60 年代中外议订通商条约期间,清朝的全权大臣正式形成,并成为与有约国全权代表谈判订约的执行者。


    2. 需要注意的是,中俄勘界议约交涉也正在进行。虽然俄国官员没有要求清政府派遣全权大臣,咸丰帝在四月初十日命令奕等总理衙门大臣议复是否需要向仓场侍郎成琦、吉林将军景淳发出全权大臣便宜行事上谕。奕等人对咸丰帝此举颇感意外,但随即大力支持。四月十四日,清廷正式下发谕旨,成琦、景淳就以清朝全权大臣的身份开始与俄国官员进行谈判。清廷此时主动授予本国议约官员全权便宜上谕,不能排除受到了同时期中普交涉的影响,这种影响还进一步扩展,在以后的中外通商条约交涉中有所体现。


    3. 咸丰十一年一月底普鲁士全权代表艾林波(Graf F.A.zu Eulenburg)率领使团来到中国,「全权」问题在中普交涉时又再次出现。二月十九日,清廷派遣总理衙门大臣仓场侍郎崇纶、三口通商大臣崇厚办理对普议约事宜。鉴于和英法等国议约交涉的先例,奕领衔总理衙门大臣上奏,请求授予崇纶等人便宜行事谕旨。咸丰帝此时已认识到「各国公使于钦派大臣接见时,往往求看谕旨,以为凭据」为西方外交惯例,但他指出刚刚成立的总理各国事务衙门正是负责办理各国通商事宜,此时再授予钦差大臣便宜行事的谕旨,则会事权不一,没有接受总署诸位官员的建言。


  4. Mar 2024
    1. ProslaveryGeorgians were not above accusing Oglethorpe of running a prisoncolony.50

      My early memory of Georgia history in 4th grade (1984) was that Georgia was founded "as a penal colony".

    2. According to Francis Moore, who visited the settlement in its secondyear of operation, two “peculiar” customs stood out: both alcohol and dark-skinned people were prohibited. “No slavery is allowed, nor negroes,”Moore wrote. As a sanctuary for “free white people,” Georgia “would notpermit slaves, for slaves starve the poor laborer.” Free labor encouragedpoor white men in sober cultivation and steeled them in the event they hadto defend the land from outside aggression. It also promised to cure settlersof that most deadly of English diseases, idleness.41
    3. The compression of history, the winnowing of history, may seem naturaland neutral, but it is decidedly not. It is the means by which grade schoolhistory becomes our standard adult history.

      Broad ideas which are scaffolded in youth should be more closely examined as children grow and develop. Being left with only basic "myths" is a disservice not only to the students, but to the societies in which they live and the early education would be better left off if it isn't followed up on in stages at later times. Or if it's the case, then stronger versions of the basics should be included for better long term outcomes.

    4. the first volume of GeorgeBancroft’s widely praised History of the United States (1834) may be thebest example of how the Mayflower and Arbella washed ashore and seededthe ground where love of liberty bore its ripest fruit
    5. promoters imagined America not as an Eden of opportunity but as a giantrubbish heap that could be transformed into productive terrain.

      Looking for evidence (to come) of this statement

    6. The hallowed American dream is thegold standard by which politicians and voters alike are meant to measurequality of life as each generation pursues its own definition of happinessunfettered by the restraints of birth (who your parents are) or station (theposition you start out from in the class system).

      Did it help that America was broadly formed during the start of the Industrial Revolution and at a time in which social mobility was dramatically different than the period of history which proceeded it?

      And how much of this difference is split with the idea of the rise of (toxic) capitalism and the switch to "keeping up with the Jonses" which also tends to drive class distinctions?

    7. Isenberg, Nancy. White Trash: The 400-Year Untold History of Class in America. 1st ed. New York, New York: Viking, 2016.

      annotation link: urn:x-pdf:417c67707ad8fbb5300140892c8666cc<br /> alternate annotation link: JH facet

    1. 关家垴战斗,八路军以 8 个团、1 万余人的绝对优势兵力进攻日军半个大队、500 多人,在付出巨大牺牲的情况下,依然未能完成预定战役目标,其原因是多方面的,比如日军占据地形优势等。但是,归根结底,还是双方「硬实力」的差距。首先,日军的武器装备占据优势。在此战中,日军配备了 3 门山炮,每门山炮备弹 100 发,此外,还配备了 50 具掷弹筒,每具掷弹筒备弹 16 发(这里多说一句,掷弹筒的知名度不高,影视剧中也少有反映。其实,每具掷弹筒就相当于一门迷你版的迫击炮,在日军近战战术中扮演着极为重要的角色。关于这一点,我们将来专门写一篇文章聊一聊)。相比之下,八路军的重火力就只有迫击炮,而且炮弹数量也非常有限。在近战中,八路军能够依靠的「重火力」就只有手榴弹了。其次,日军的战术素养确实了得。日军的训练一向以严苛著称,所以,日军的「步兵基本技术」即射击、投弹、拼刺、土工水平比较高,组织度、执行力也比较强。一方面,在决定固守关家垴等待援军之后,连夜修筑了「山脚-山坡-山顶」的三重防御阵地,特别是南坡那片窑洞阵地,给八路军造成了很大的伤亡。另一方面,在此战中,指挥官冈崎谦受在 10 月 30 日的战斗中就被击毙。但是,在其他下级军官接管指挥之后,日军的作战也基本未受影响,依然负隅顽抗了两天。
    1. for - kinship - history of human kinship - evolution - extended to nuclear family

      paper details - title: Family Institution and Modernization: A Sociological Perspective - author: Ilori Oladapo Mayowa - date: 2019

      summary - A paper that describes the evolution of human kinship from extended familly to nuclear family in modernity.

    1. Daarbovenop nog een ander waardevol ding, waarvoor ik de woorden nog niet precies van vinden. Een vorm van bewustzijn over tijd en ruimte, en de loop der dingen in mijn leven daarin. Het klinkt vast vaag, maar dagelijks moeiteloos kunnen zien waar je vandaag de afgelopen 20 jaar mee bezig was doet iets met een mens, en op een goede manier.

      Dit doet me denken aan dat PKM kan functioneren als een persoonlijke geschiedenis van jezelf.

    1. By having a longer historical view, it actually tends to extend our time horizons in both directions. So, by thinking more about the past, it sets us up to think more about a long-term future and to challenge ourselves to think more expansively and ambitiously about what might come by having the sense of a wider aperture to think about rather than just thinking about the here and now or what’s coming out in the next cycle.
    1. When the animals and plants were first made–we do not know by whom–they were told to watch and keep awake for seven nights, just as young men now fast and keep awake when they pray to their medicine.

      Seven is a sacred number but I do wonder why it is always seven? I also wonder why the young men had to pray to their medicine. I saw a source that seven represents the highest spiritual power and I wonder if that is true.

    2. Coyote was quite willing and complied, but immediately afterwards lay down and died.

      Why and how did Coyote die after having intercourse with the woman? I guess I'm confused on why it took so much out of him. Did anything happen to the woman after he died? I understand this is about reproduction but I wonder if he could have gone about it a different way.

    3. The Salinian and Cherokee

      These stories are about the Salinian and Cherokee tribes. They are stories about how human and animals were created. The Salinan story was written by John Alden Mason in 1912. The Cherokee story was written by W.Powell, Nineteenth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology to the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution in 1897-1898. Both are these stories were created in what is now California.

    4. Gälûñ’lätï

      Gälûñ’lätï is defined as the sky world or realm.

    5. When the animals and plants were first made–we do not know by whom

      The language of this suggests that the identity of the creator is unknown. It almost seems like this was supposed to remain a mystery to prevent people questioning the presence of the creator. This is significant because it will not disrupt the harmony created. It was expected to understand the activities of the creator. Without balance the creator and people would not be able to keep each other in check.

    6. It was afterward fastened to the sky with four cords, but no one remembers who did this.

      The four cords seem to represent a compass. This is significant because it shows Earth was created with stability and balance that should be maintained. Although no one remembers who did it, it can be indicated that God created it. This differentiates the Earth. The audience are the people who came to be after and were told this story of how life on Earth was created, even if there are questions with how it came to be. This also shows that Earth was created from the efforts of the water-beetle.

    7. When the world grows old and worn out, the people will die and the cords will break and let the earth sink down into the ocean, and all will be water again. The Indians are afraid of this.

      The Cherokee made this story to describe the beginning of life. This is important because it shows there is a genuine concern for Native's to be extinct. This shows significance in taking care of Earth because life is precious. This also shows how Earth came to be and how fast it can disappear. This is significant because harmony is important to live.

    8. When all was water, the animals were above in Gälûñ’lätï, beyond the arch; but it was very much crowded, and they were wanting more room.

      This almost indicates that the animals create the earth and determine how it is shaped. This seems to take place before humans were created. Before them, there was no Earth and the animals lived on a land in the sky. They would also need to make sure every animal could survive and thrive in the new room. The animals had to get Earth ready to prepare for human creation so they could live.

    9. When the world was finished, there were as yet no people, but the Bald Eagle was the chief of the animals. He saw the world was incomplete and decided to make some human beings

      The Native Eagle Symbol is known as “The master of skies” and is believed to be the creature with the closest relationship with the creator.

    1. Cahoone, Lawrence. The Modern Intellectual Tradition: From Descartes to Derrida - Course Guidebook. The Great Courses 4790. Chantilly, VA: The Teaching Company, 2010. https://www.thegreatcourses.com/courses/modern-intellectual-tradition-from-descartes-to-derrida.

      Cahoone, Lawrence. The Modern Intellectual Tradition: From Descartes to Derrida. Audible Audio Edition. The Great Courses 4790. Chantilly, VA: The Teaching Company, 2013. https://www.amazon.com/Modern-Intellectual-Tradition-Descartes-Derrida/dp/B00DTO5BTO.

      Annotation URL: urn:x-pdf:92bff7dc89e6440afc484388b7b72d79

      alternate version: https://jonudell.info/h/facet/?user=chrisaldrich&max=100&exactTagSearch=true&expanded=true&url=urn%3Ax-pdf%3A92bff7dc89e6440afc484388b7b72d79



    1. Read [[Martha S. Jones]] in Sleuthing the Card Catalog

    2. I fingered my way through where I thought I’d find entries: African American, Afro-American, Black. Nothing there. I had to then brainstorm like it was 1999, or was it 1989, 1979, or even earlier, to discover the right term. As far back as 1984, the Library of Congress, whose subject headings most research libraries in the United States utilize, admitted that it was “frustrating” to search for Black people in its catalog because two terms were simultaneously in use: “Afro-Americans” and “Blacks.”1 Neither term made it into the old Peabody Library catalog, so perhaps it and the terminology it reflected dated from an even earlier time.

      Research on keywords and their shifting meanings over time can make things difficult for the novice researcher. This example from Martha S. Jones certainly highlights this perspective even in under a century of semantic shift.

  5. Feb 2024
    1. Leisure was one precondition: enough people had to be free of the demands of subsistence to have time on their hands that required filling.

      for - boredom - Deep Humanity - boredom - psychology - boredom - adjacency - boredom - insight - history - modernity

      adjacency - between - boredom - insight - history - modernity - Adjacency statement - This is an insightful observation that - the affordances of a technologically sophisticated modernity - promotes boredom by providing a means to escape it, - rather than deal with it. - The notable decline of religiosity in the West also cuts off a traditional means of getting in touch with the wonder of existence - This could explain the tiffin popularity of meditation in the West as a non religious vehicle for centering in the here and now, - as boredom is a condition of avoiding the here and now

      • Leisure was one precondition:
        • enough people had to be free of the demands of subsistence
        • to have time on their hands that required filling.
      • Modern capitalism multiplied amusements and consumables,
      • while undermining spiritual sources of meaning
      • that had once been conferred more or less automatically.
    1. Duncan, Dennis. Index, A History of the: A Bookish Adventure from Medieval Manuscripts to the Digital Age. 1st ed. London: Allen Lane, 2021. https://wwnorton.com/books/9781324002543.

      annotation link: urn:x-pdf:a4bd1877f0712efcc681d33d58777e55


    2. scholastic learning

      How much different things may have been if the state, and not the Church, had been the progenitor and supporter of the early university?

      How might education have been different if it came out of itself (or something like curiosity or even society in general) without the influences on either church or state?

    3. scholastic learning would favour externaldemonstration over inner revelation, intellectual agility over endlessmeditation.
    4. the reading-out of commentaries (a format with a now-familiar name: the lecture)

      Link between the commentaries of the early middle ages and modern lectures

    5. centralizing reforms of Pope Gregory VII calledfor a more professionalized clergy. Church officials should now betrained administrators, versed not only in the scriptures but also inthe principles of accounting and law. A papal decree of 1079 orderedthat cathedrals should establish schools for the training of priests,
    1. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hWVrz5oCt2w<br /> The meaning of Hand Gestures in Art History<br /> Amuze Art Lectures

      Middle and ring fingers together to represent modesty. (He doesn't say it, but it also could stand for "M" as in Medici??)

      Finger pointing at viewer may indicate a self portrait.

      Woman's hand on abdomen may represent pregnancy, a fertile marriage, or the desire to bear children.

    1. he very degree of wornness ofcertain cards that you once ipped to daily but now perhaps do not—since that author is drunk and forgotten or that magazine editorhas been red and now makes high-end apple chutneys inBinghamton—constitutes signicant information about what partsof the Rolodex were of importance to you over the years.

      The wear of cards can be an important part of your history with the information you handle.

      Luhmann’s slips show some of this sort of wear as well, though his show it to extreme as he used thinner paper than the standard index card so some of his slips have incredibly worn/ripped/torn tops more than any grime. Many of my own books show that grime layer on the fore-edge in sections which I’ve read and re-read.

      One of my favorite examples of this sort of wear through use occurs in early manuscripts (usually only religious ones) where readers literally kissed off portions of illuminations when venerating the images in their books. Later illuminators included osculation targets to help prevent these problems. (Cross reference: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/370119878_Touching_Parchment_How_Medieval_Users_Rubbed_Handled_and_Kissed_Their_Manuscripts_Volume_1_Officials_and_Their_Books)

      (syndication link: https://boffosocko.com/2024/02/04/55821315/#comment-430267)

    1. Byington shared her uncle’s interest in and support for indigenousculture and language, serving as President of the Stockbridge branch of theIndian Rights Association, and on the Education Committee for the Women’sNational Indian Associatio

      Support for

    2. There was a high number of librarians among the Americans, such asCharles Ammi Cutter of Harvard and the Boston Athenæum (who producedAmerica’s first public library card catalogue).
    3. Francis March was a Professor of English Language and ComparativePhilology at Lafayette College in Easton, Pennsylvania. The study of Englishin higher education was a development of the nineteenth century, and it tooka long time for English studies to gain recognition. March’s appointment as aProfessor of English in 1857 had been the first in the world that had theprestige of a full professorship – Rutgers appointed its first English professorin 1860, Harvard in 1876, and Oxford in 1885.
    4. in 1864, Webster’s Unabridged was published and it marked animportant moment in modern lexicography: no longer the idiosyncratic workof one man, this dictionary was the product of a collaborative team withNoah Porter as Chief Editor and the German scholar Carl A. F. Mahn asetymologist
    5. Maitland co-wrote History of English Law with Frederick Pollock.
    6. The Cambridge jurist and legal historian (and advocatefor women’s education) Frederic Maitland
    7. Katharine Bradley and Edith Cooper, two Readers who wereaunt and niece and also lesbian lovers.
    8. Very early one chilly morning in October 1895, Fielding Blandfordstepped into a horse-drawn carriage with Edith Lanchester’s father and twobrothers. The four men arrived at Edith’s rented lodgings in Battersea. Theywoke the whole house with heavy banging on the front door, and FieldingBlandford forced his way in to ‘examine’ Edith. He ordered that she be takento an asylum because she was committing ‘social suicide’ by insisting on livingwith her working-class lover without marrying him. He justified this byarguing that under the Lunacy Act 1890 he would have certified her had sheattempted (normal) suicide.

      Fascinating story of a kidnapping and committal of a woman in October 1895 for shacking up with a man she wasn't married to.

      Ultimately gained international attention.

    9. There were two approaches to the treatment of patients in psychiatrichospitals at the time: a humane consideration for their well-being and possiblerecovery, or the opposite – an inhumane disregard for their personhood andpossible recovery. These different approaches were championed by twoDictionary volunteers who sat on either side of the debate: Thomas NadauldBrushfield and George Fielding Blandford.
    10. The man who solved the problem was an American chemist, who alsocontributed to the Dictionary, Thomas Sterry Hunt. In 1857, he had beenteaching at Laval University in Quebec and responded to an appeal by thePresident of the Montreal City Bank who was battling counterfeit notes. Huntcreated a special green ink, using chromium sesquioxide, that was pretty wellindestructible. Numerous experiments showed that you couldn’t remove itfrom the banknote without destroying the paper itself – until one chemistsucceeded in doing so, and the Canadians dropped Hunt’s invention. But theAmericans took it up, especially on the back of their banknotes, hence thecolloquial term ‘greenbacks’ for US dollar bills, which was given its own entryin the OED in 1900 and defined as ‘the popular name for one of the legal-tender notes of the U.S., first issued in 1862 and so called from the devicesprinted in green ink on the back’, alongside something rather topical at thetime but now archaic, Greenback Party, defined as ‘a party in U.S. politics,which advocated that “greenbacks” should be made the sole currency of thecountry’, and its various derivatives Greenbacker and Greenbackism.
    11. It was left to a handful of keen British scholars, by no means part of themainstream, to encourage others to take up Continental philology. Murrayand his colleagues at the London Philological Society, especially its foundersEdwin Guest, Henry Malden, and Thomas Hewitt Key, were main players inenlivening the British linguistic scene and adopting the methods ofContinental philology. Now known as ‘the oldest learned society in GreatBritain dedicated to the study of language’, the Philological Society wasfounded in 1842 as a forum for discussion, debate, and work on developmentsin philology. But all this innovation came comparatively late, and theGrimms, who were made honorary members of the London PhilologicalSociety in 1843, were at the heart of the European innovations. Theyinfluenced Continental philology; they practised the application of historicalprinciples; they pioneered the descriptive method of defining and tracing aword’s meaning across time; and they forged the crowdsourcing techniquesand lexicographic policies and practices adopted by the OED editors.
    12. The study ofwords and language, otherwise known as ‘philology’, was all the rage inEurope at the turn of the nineteenth century. European scholars haddeveloped their own methodologies to compare languages and to trace thesource of a word, which became known as ‘Continental philology’. It was halfa century until Britain took up these methods, which are still practised todayand form the basis of comparative linguistics
    13. We think of the OED as a radical dictionary because of its size, itsscholarship, and its methods, and it was radical for English. But if youcompare it with other languages, there was nothing about its creation in themid-nineteenth century that had not been done before in Europe. English wasrelatively late to the table. The English editors were able to pick and choosethe best methods from different European dictionaries. The OEDimplemented European lexicographic practices, and advanced upon them, tocreate something truly revolutionary, something that would in fact end upbeing the envy of Europe.
    1. οι Αραβες αποικιοκράτες, από τον 7ο μ.Χ. αιώνα, όταν κατέλαβαν την Ιερουσαλήμ. Τότε ζούσαν 300 με 400 χιλιάδες Εβραίοι στην περιοχή. Οι Αραβες ισοπέδωσαν και αραβοποίησαν κάθε ίχνος του εβραϊκού πολιτισμο

      Ανιστοριτες εθνοθρησκειπικες αφηγησεις που προπαγαδοζονται στα ισραηλινα σχολεια. Οχι μονο απο DNA γνωριζουμε πως ποτε δεν εφυγαν οι Φιλισταιοι, ουτε και ειχαν τοση διαφορα με τους συντοπιτες τους Εβραιοι. Η Αραβικη επελαση ηταν πολιτισμικη επεκταση περισσοτερο παρα αλλαγης πληθυσμων & εθνοκαθαρσης.

    1. The history of Arabia just before the birth of Islam is a profound mystery, with few written sources describing the milieu in which Muhammad lived.

      Few primary sources before Islam

    1. The only realistic alternative I see is relinquishment: to limit de-velopment of the technologies that are too dangerous, by limiting ourpursuit of certain kinds of knowledge.
  6. Jan 2024
    1. in hishistory of such ideas, Darwin Among the Machines, George Dysonwarns: “In the game of life and evolution there are three players at thetable: human beings, nature, and machines. I am firmly on the side ofnature. But nature, I suspect, is on the side of the machines.”
    2. Danny is also a highly regarded futurist who thinkslong-term—four years ago he started the Long Now Foundation
    1. read [[Dan Allosso]] in Actual Books

      Sometimes a physical copy of a book gives one information not contained in digital scans. Allosso provides the example of Charles Knowlton's book The Fruits of Philosophy which touched on abortion and was published as a tiny hand-held book which would have made it easy to pass from person to person more discretely for its time period.

    1. for - history - King Philip II - El Escorial - polycrisis - religion - history - adjacency - polycrisis - war - religion - epoche - CHD

      Adjacency - between - polycrisis - war - religion - epoche - CHD - history - adjacency statement - King Philip II is an interesting historical figure who left behind this enormous physical artefact of El Escorial. - So much of history has revolved around the religious beliefs of leaders, and how those beliefs are entangled and enacted in wars, enslavement, politics and power. - Phillip's fervent Catholicism drove him to expand his empire, fight wars with the Ottoman empire and Protestants and build the sprawling El Escorial complex. - The building was designed to express his Catholic beliefs - from the monastery to the Basilica, secret relic room, to library and mausoleum. His beliefs were responsible for driving his behaviour, which influenced much of humanity during his rule. - religion's power have influenced many powerful people of history, resulting in mass influence on society, including perpetuating inequality, extractionism, colonialism and violence - all in the name of a concept of apprehending the great mystery of life. - The desire to understand the great mystery of life and death has been hijacked to perpetuate great harm instead. What is needed now is a wisdom commons for the entire species that can help elevate, deepen and interconnect all the legacy belief systems before it. For in spite of the great variety of belief systems, they are fundamentally united through a common humans denominator - they all require human beings. - It is a deficiency in any existing systems that can justify offering and violence against other belief systems and claim the throne of THE one and only, true belief system. Indeed, the claim of "the truth" is itself already a poison since it is never achievable. An epoche for the common person is necessary to penetrate the weak link of the argument itself, the linguistic social conditioning which enables storytelling itself. - the inability to collectively grasp the symbolosphere, the noosphere compells us towards beliefs, out of which self- righteousness, self- reification and othering blossom.

    1. Hortensia, historia real

      Spanish to English translation by Google with some grammar/readability adjustments by Keith Taylor.

      Hortensia, True Story

      In the city of Cumaná, Sucre state, Venezuela. Faithful witness to the story of Hortensia, a woman who was held captive for 40 years in a house by her husband, Fernando Inserny.

      Hortensia Maestrucci, a young woman who lived in the state of Bolívar, where she was born and grew up for a time, arrived in the city of Manzanares with her boyfriend Fernandito Inserny. Once she arrived in the city, her stay was comfortable and good for the first few months. It is said that she was a very pretty young woman who attracted the attention of many men, due to her beauty and innocence. Her boyfriend, Fernando, was the owner, at that time, of many businesses. Owner of luxurious cars at that time, an icon in the city of Cumaná. He was a descendant of a militant family of Christian democracy, a man with many things around him, among those women. Some time later, she began to feel jealous and put things in Hortensia's head, saying that if she went out on the street, the communists would take her. Things that were a lie but since she was an innocent young woman she believed her and agreed to her confinement. That's how the young woman spent her days, months, and even years. To be more exact 40 years.

      This event occurred, especially near Plaza Ribero, on Úrica Street in Cumaná. During that time, she was fed through the slots in the door of the room where she was. There she was tied the entire time without making any noise so that the communists would not hear her and take her away. After 40 years locked up, she was discovered. There are two versions: - It is said that there were some children playing on the street, and they heard Hortensia crying. - And another that the neighbors warned that thieves had broken into that house.

      It was at that moment when the community looks out and realizes it. They immediately call the competent authorities to investigate the case. At the time of her departure, Hortensia looked very bad. She was extremely skinny, with super long nails, and hair that reached almost her size. Very old, she had a bad smell. She was taken out of the house around 5 in the afternoon, covered and in the arms of a police commissioner. The people and everything caused her some discomfort and hurt Hortensia's eyesight, since she had been without sunlight for 40 years.

      After 2 years from her release, Hortensia dies. The story of this woman who moved the city of Cumaná transcended through the years and will remain in the memory of those who lived that time. How someone manages to harm another person of that magnitude, all their years of life lost due to be locked-up.

      What name could we give to this story?

    2. 40 años encerrada en una casa

      40 Years Locked in a House

      • Who: Hortensia, Fernando Inserny
      • What: Hortensia was held captive in a house by her husband Fernando Inserny for 40 years.
      • Where: Cumaná, Sucre, Venezuela
      • Why: Fernando Inserny held Hortensia captive out of jealousy and fear of communist threats.
      • When: The captivity lasted for 40 years.
      • How: Hortensia was fed through the door of her room and was discovered after 40 years either by children playing nearby or by neighbors suspecting a break-in. Hortensia was in poor physical condition after being locked up for so long. She died two years after her release.
  7. johnhalbrooks.substack.com johnhalbrooks.substack.com
    1. This image resonates with the earliest description of an English poet, which we find in Bede’s Ecclesiastical History of the English People, completed in the year 731. Bede, a prolific monk and scholar from the monastery of Jarrow in Northumbria, provides an account of a certain Caedmon, an illiterate brother at the abbey at Whitby, who is visited by God and taught to sing beautiful poetry. Caedmon remains an oral poet, but his literate brothers write down his poetry for him.
    1. More, essentially all research in self-reference for decades has been in artificial intelligence, which is the device around which this plot turns. The language of AI is LISP, the name of the archvillain. In the heyday of LISP machines, the leading system was Flavors LISP Object Oriented Programming or: you guessed it -- Floop. I myself worked on a defense AI program that included the notion of a `third brain,' that is an observer living in a world different than (1) that of the world's creator, and (2) of the characters.
    1. in 1978 Gary Turk was working for the digital Equipment Corporation he was a sales rep and his job was to sell these the deck system 20. now this thing had built-in arpanet protocol support it was like you don't have to do anything special you could plug it into a network and it would just work and rightly or wrongly Gary thought well I reckon people who are on the upper net might be interested in knowing about this computer and digital didn't have a whole lot of sales going on on the US West Coast they had a big office on the East Coast but West Coast you know California Portland those kind of places they didn't really have much of a presence so he got his assistant to go through the arpanet directory and type in the email addresses of everybody on the American West Coast who had an email address 393 of them and put them now at this point they overflowed the header field so all the people who got this email got an email which started with about 250 other people's email addresses and then right down at the end of it it says hey we invite you to come and see the deck system 2020

      Gary Turk "invented" spam in 1978

    2. one person whose Innovation is still a significant part of the way we work with it was this guy it's Ray Tomlinson and he was working on an opponent Mail system in 1971 and Rey invented at Rey is the person who went well hang on if we know the user's name and we know the arpanet host where they host their email we could put an at in the middle because it's Alice at the machine

      Ray Tomlinson invented the use of @ in 1971

    1. These sectors emerged as new social problems emerged
      • for: history - major societal sectors

      • history: major societal sectors

        • government - early civilization
        • (organized) business - 16th century
        • NGO - 19th century
    1. This dilemma was reflected in the furor over a second round of Chinese simplification in 1977, an effort that was rescinded in 1986.

      พอดิบพอดีกับช่วงสิ้นสุดของการปฏิวัติวัฒนธรรมและเข้าสู่ยุคสมัย 改革开放 ของ 邓小平

    1. With the introduction of ES6 Modules, the module pattern (IIFEs) is not needed anymore, though you might still encounter them in the wild.
    1. If you have studied the historical campaign, you may wonder if the same operational plan can be duplicated in the game—with the same results.  The answer is yes.  The unit capabilities and game mechanics allow for a repeat of history, but there is always the other player to consider.  As with history, the two sides have nearly the same number of infantry divisions, tanks, mobile units and artillery.  The German advantage is most evident in airpower—the Luftwaffe dramatically outclassed the Allied air forces in the campaign (and so it is with the game).  Only the German player who knows exactly how to employ their units with careful attention to the movement and combat sequences, event card use, the hidden unit dynamic, and especially the air rules—will be able to duplicate the historic success of the 1940 Wehrmacht.  And even then, the historic result was only possible because the Allied response played almost perfectly into Germany’s hand.  But there is more than one path to a decisive result, and the game allows for multiple campaign plans for both sides.  The rules are set up to mirror the operational, command, and doctrinal differences between the two opposing sides, but the contest is designed simply to re-create the same historic “canvas” upon which both players may then paint—the issue will be decided by a combination of player decisions and the fortunes and fog of war.
  8. Dec 2023
    1. For Cuis-Smalltalk, we built Morphic 3, the third design iteration of these ideas, after Self’s Morphic 1 and Squeak’s Morphic 2. If you already know Morphic in Self or Squeak, most concepts are similar, although with some improvements: Morphic 3 coordinates are not limited to being integer numbers, the apparent size (zoom level) of elements is not tied to pixel density, and all drawing is done with high quality (subpixel) anti aliasing. These enhancements are enabled by the huge advance in hardware resources since Self and Squeak were designed (in the late 80’s and late 90’s respectively). Additionally, careful design of the framework relieves Morph programmers from much the complexity that was required, especially with regards to geometry.

      Vector Graphics is actually what got the Cuis project started. In 2003, ten years before the Retina display, I (Juan Vuletich) decided that making Morphic zoomeable and independent of pixel resolution would require completely abandoning back compatibility with the existing Morphic in Squeak. I took Squeak 3.7 and started working on what would later be named Cuis Smalltalk.

      —Juan Vuletich, Vector Graphics and Morphic 3

    1. Adler & Hutchinson's Great Books of the Western World was an encyclopedia-based attempt to focus society on a shared history as their common ground. H. G. Wells in his World Encyclopedia thesis attempts to forge a new "moving" common ground based on newly evolving knowledge based on distilling truth out of science. Shared history is obviously much easier to dispense and spread about compared to constantly keeping a growing population up to date with the forefront of science.

      How could one carefully compose and juxtapose the two to have a stronger combined effect?

      How could one distribute the effects evenly?

      What does the statistical mechanics for knowledge management look like at the level of societies and nations?

      link to https://hypothes.is/a/abTT1KPDEe6nqxPx4fXggw

    2. Wells, H. G. “The Idea of a World Encyclopedia.” Harper’s Magazine, April 1937. https://harpers.org/archive/1937/04/the-idea-of-a-world-encyclopedia/.

    3. There is no dignityyet in human history. It would be purecomedy if it were not so often tragic, 'sofrequently dismal, generally dishonora-ble, and occasionally quite horrible.
    1. history is always the result of a lot of causes coming together you know 00:29:22 you have this metaphor of the chain of events and this is a terrible metaphor for there is no chain of events a chain of events imagines that every event is a link connected to one previous event and 00:29:36 to one subsequent event so there is a war there is one cause for the war and there will be one consequence it's never like that in history every event is more like a tree there is an entire system of 00:29:50 roots that came together to create it and it has a lot of fruits with lots of different influences
      • for: insight - history - complexity, bad metaphor - chain of events

      • insight: complexity and history

        • chain of events is a bad metaphor for things that occur in history
        • the complexity of history is that many causes come together too being about an event
        • likewise, when that event occurs, it is the cause of many different consequences
        • linear vs systems thinking
      • adjacency between

        • history
        • emptiness
        • Indra's net
      • adjacency statement
        • history reflects emptiness
        • Indra's net extended into historical events
      • for: science and religion, flat earth misconception, DH, Deep Humanity - science and religion - historical relationship

      • summary

        • Dutch historian Jochem Boodt explains how fake news isn't something new, but as old as the history books!
        • Science and religion were not antagonist in early Western history, as is believed today. This was fake news fabricated in a fascinating way.
        • He uses the example of the common misconception that before Columbus, people thought the earth was flat.
      • annotate
      • for: evolutionary biology, big history, DH, Deep Humanity, theories of consciousness, ESP project, Earth Species Project, Michael Levin, animal communication, symbiocene

      • title: The Deep History of Ourselves: The Four-Billion-Year Story of How We Got Conscious Brains

      • author: Joseph LeDoux
      • date: Jan. 2023
      • doi: 0.1080/09515089.2022.2160311

      • ABSTRACT

        • The essence of who we are depends on our brains.
        • They enable us to think, to
          • feel joy and sorrow,
          • communicate through speech,
          • reflect on the moments of our lives, and to
            • anticipate,
            • plan for, and
            • worry about our imagined futures.
        • Although some of our abilities are comparatively new, key features of our behavior have deep roots that can be traced to the beginning of life.
        • By following the story of behavior, step-by-step, over its roughly four-billion-year trajectory,
          • we come to understand both
            • how similar we are to all organisms that have ever lived, and
            • how different we are from even our closest animal relatives.
        • We care about our differences because they are ours. But differences do not make us superior; they simply make us different.
      • comment

        • good article to contribute to a narrative of the symbiocene and a shift of humanity to belonging to nature as one species, instead of dominating nature as the apex species
      • question
        • @Gyuri, Could indranet search algorithm have made the connection between this article and the symbiocene artilces in my mindplex had I not explicitly made the associations manually through my tags? It needs to be able to do this
      • Also interesting to see how this materialistic outlook of consciousness
        • which is similiar to the Earth Species Project work and Michael Levin's work on synthesizing new laboratory life forms to answer evolutionary questions about intelligence
      • relates to nonmaterial ideas about consciousness
    1. Today it is almost heresy to suggest that scientific knowledge is notthe sum of all knowledge.

      Note the use of the word "heresy" here, which is most often used in the framing of religion at a time when the establishment is moving from religion-based mechanisms into scientific based ones.



    1. "In the general confusion of our time," Febvre wrote, "old ideas refuse to die and still find acceptance with the mass of the population."

      sourcing on this?

    1. Febvre, Lucien, and Henri-Jean Martin. The Coming of the Book: The Impact of Printing 1450-1800. Edited by Geoffrey Nowell-Smith and David Wootton. Translated by David Gerard. 1st ed. Foundations of History Library. 1958. Reprint, London: N.L.B., 1976.

    1. Die erste Neuerung besteht darin, dass Harrison’s Karteikasten so aufgebaut ist, dass er als ein ech-tes Zweitgedächtnis fungiert.

      Cevolini seems to be saying that it was an innovation of Harrison's Ark of Studies that it served as a second memory.

      Surely my translation is "off" as the use of a variety of notes and writing long prior to this were used in this way.

    2. Cevolini, Alberto. “Die Erfindung des Zettelkastens als Vergessensmaschine: Eine historische und wissenssoziologische Einführung.” Polarisierte Welten. Verhandlungen des 41. Kongresses der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Soziologie in Bielefeld 2022 41 (September 29, 2023). https://publikationen.soziologie.de/index.php/kongressband_2022/article/view/1564.

    1. Indeed, fortunately, digital technology has also changed material consumption and production. 2008, the global financial crisis which created mass youth unemployment in many different countries and urban areas, saw the emergence and then exponential growth, of what is called the ‘urban commons’.
      • for: urban commons - history
  9. Nov 2023
    1. Chapter 39 of Zoonomia, “On Generation,” presents Erasmus’ ideas on competition, extinction, and how “different fibrils or molecules are detached from…the parent…to form” the child. The Temple of Nature goes even farther, declaring “all vegetables and animals now existing were originally derived from the smallest microscopic ones, formed by spontaneous vitality” in ancient oceans.

      Interesting to contemplate the evolution of the idea of evolution through the Darwin family.

      Charles would obviously have read his grandfather's book, but it also bears noting that he also had access to his grandfather's commonplace book (and likely his other papers).

      See also: https://hypothes.is/a/FmVxQuqJEey33Uu0UTcMlg

    1. Taking notes for historical writing .t3_185xmuh._2FCtq-QzlfuN-SwVMUZMM3 { --postTitle-VisitedLinkColor: #9b9b9b; --postTitleLink-VisitedLinkColor: #9b9b9b; --postBodyLink-VisitedLinkColor: #989898; } questionI'm trying to understand how to adopt parts of the Zettelkasten method for thinking about historical information. I wrote a PhD in history. My note-taking methodology was a complete mess the whole time. I used note-taking to digest a book, but it would take me two or three times longer than just reading. I would go back over each section and write down the pieces that seemed crucial. Sometimes, when I didn't know a subject well, that could take time. In the end, I would sometimes have many pages of notes in sequential order sectioned the way the book was sectioned, essentially an overlay of the book's structure. It was time-consuming, very hard, not useless at all, but inefficient.Now consider the Zettelkasten idea. I haven't read much of Luhmann. I recall he was a sociologist, a theorist in the grand style. So, in other words, they operate at a very abstract level. When I read about the Zettelkasten method, that's the way it reads to me. A system for combining thoughts and ideas. Now, you'll say that's an artificial distinction, perhaps...a fact is still rendered in thought, has atomicity to it etc. And I agree. However, the thing about facts is there are just A LOT of them. Before you write your narrative, you are drowning in facts. The writing of history is the thing that allows you to bring some order and selectivity to them, but you must drown first; otherwise, you have not considered all the possibilities and potentialities in the past that the facts reveal. To bring it back to Zettelkasten, the idea of Zettel is so appealing, but how does it work when dealing with an overwhelming number of facts? It's much easier to imagine creating a Zettelkasten from more rarefied thoughts provoked by reading.So, what can I learn from the Zettelkasten method? How can I apply some or all of its methodologies, practically speaking? What would change about my initial note-taking of a book if I were to apply Zettelkasten ideas and practice? Here is a discussion about using the method for "facts". The most concrete suggestions here suggest building Zettels around facts in some ways -- either a single fact, or groups of facts, etc. But in my experience, engaging with a historical text is a lot messier than that. There are facts, but also the author's rendering of the facts, and there are quotes (all the historical "gossip"), and it's all in there together as the author builds their narrative. You are trying to identify the key facts, the author's particular angle and interpretation, preserve your thoughts and reactions, and save these quotes, the richest part of history, the real evidence. In short, it is hard to imagine being able to isolate clear Zettel topics amid this reading experience.In Soenke Ahrens' book "How to Take Smart Notes," he describes three types of notes: fleeting notes (these are fleeting ideas), literature notes, and permanent notes. In that classification, I'm talking about "literature notes." Ahrens says these should be "extremely selective". But with the material I'm talking about it becomes a question. How can you be selective when you still don't know which facts you care about or want to maintain enough detail in your notes so you don't foreclose the possibilities in the historical narrative too early?Perhaps this is just an unsolvable problem. Perhaps there is no choice but to maintain a discipline of taking "selective" literature notes. But there's something about the Zettelkasten method that gives me the feeling that my literature notes could be more detailed and chaotic and open to refinement later.Does my dilemma explained here resonate with anyone who has tried this method for intense historical writing? If so, I'd like to hear you thoughts, or better yet, see some concrete examples of how you've worked.

      reply to u/ethanzanemiller at https://www.reddit.com/r/Zettelkasten/comments/185xmuh/taking_notes_for_historical_writing/

      Rather than spending time theorizing on the subject, particularly since you sound like you're neck-deep already, I would heartily recommend spending some time practicing it heavily within the area you're looking at. Through a bit of time and experience, more of your questions will become imminently clear, especially if you're a practicing historian.

      A frequently missing piece to some of this puzzle for practicing academics is upping the level of how you read and having the ability to consult short pieces of books and articles rather than reading them "cover-to-cover" which is often unnecessary for one's work. Of particular help here, try Adler and Van Doren, and specifically their sections on analytical and syntopical reading.

      • Adler, Mortimer J., and Charles Van Doren. How to Read a Book: The Classical Guide to Intelligent Reading. Revised and Updated ed. edition. 1940. Reprint, Touchstone, 2011.

      In addition to the list of practicing historians I'd provided elsewhere on the topic, you might also appreciate sociologist Beatrice Webb's short appendix C in My Apprenticeship or her longer related text. She spends some time talking about handling dates and the database nature of querying collected facts and ideas to do research and to tell a story.

      Also helpful might be Mill's article which became a chapter in one of his later books:

      Perhaps u/danallosso may have something illuminating to add, or you can skim through his responses on the subject on Reddit or via his previous related writing: https://danallosso.substack.com/.

      Enough historians and various other humanists have been practicing these broad methods for centuries to bear out their usefulness in researching and organizing their work. Read a bit, but truly: practice, practice, and more practice is going to be your best friend here.

    1. Can you provide any more information about how this method works in detail?

      reply to u/ethanzanemiller at https://www.reddit.com/r/Zettelkasten/comments/1843k2w/comment/kb4d882/?utm_source=reddit&utm_medium=web2x&context=3

      Presuming you came into this from a search on "history" or a related topic rather than long time experience in this sub?

      A card index, fichier boîte (French), or zettelkasten (German) is broadly the use of index cards (or digital versions) for research and writing. (I generally frame it as an extension of keeping a commonplace book.)

      But some of it is best described within the area of "historical method" by practicing historians themselves, so also try these texts written by historians on the subject:

      Allosso, Dan, and S. F. Allosso. How to Make Notes and Write. Minnesota State Pressbooks, 2022. https://minnstate.pressbooks.pub/write/.

      Barzun, Jacques. The Modern Researcher. Boston : Houghton Mifflin Co., 1992. http://archive.org/details/modernresearcher00barz_1.

      Dow, Earle Wilbur. Principles of a Note-System for Historical Studies. New York: Century Company, 1924.

      Eco, Umberto. How to Write a Thesis. Translated by Caterina Mongiat Farina and Geoff Farina. 1977. Reprint, Cambridge, MA, USA: MIT Press, 2015. https://mitpress.mit.edu/books/how-write-thesis.

      Gottschalk, Louis Reichenthal. Understanding History: A Primer of Historical Method. 1st ed. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1950. https://www.amazon.com/Understanding-History-Louis-Gottschalk/dp/B001OY27L6.

      Goutor, Jacques. The Card-File System of Note-Taking. Approaching Ontario’s Past 3. Toronto: Ontario Historical Society, 1980. http://archive.org/details/cardfilesystemof0000gout.

      Langlois, Charles Victor, and Charles Seignobos. Introduction to the Study of History. Translated by George Godfrey Berry. First. New York: Henry Holt and company, 1898. http://archive.org/details/cu31924027810286.

      Margolin, Victor. The Process of Writing World History of Design, 2015. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Kxyy0THLfuI.

      Thomas, Keith. “Diary: Working Methods.” London Review of Books, June 10, 2010. https://www.lrb.co.uk/the-paper/v32/n11/keith-thomas/diary.

      Maybe start with Keith Thomas and Margolin which are short and then jump to either Goutor or Allosso (first half of that text) which are slightly longer but still quick reads. Umberto Eco may be the dean of studies here, though Barzun has been fairly influential. If you prefer, you can practice Luhmann's method, which is very similar though with a twist, and laid out at https://zettelkasten.de/posts/overview/.

    1. Macaulay claimed that his memory was good enough to enable him to write out the whole of Paradise Lost. But when preparing his History of England, he made extensive notes in a multitude of pocketbooks of every shape and colour.

      Thomas Babington Macaulay, 1st Baron Macaulay, PC, FRS, FRSE 25 October 1800 – 28 December 1859) was a British historian and Whig politician, who served as the Secretary at War between 1839 and 1841, and as the Paymaster General between 1846 and 1848. Macaulay's The History of England, which expressed his contention of the superiority of the Western European culture and of the inevitability of its sociopolitical progress, is a seminal example of Whig history that remains commended for its prose style.

    1. This myth is mostly the blame of the novelist Washington Irving
      • for: Washington Irving, book - the History of New York, book - A History of the Life and Voyages of Christopher Columbus

      • comment

        • Irving was a American writer who wrote fiction for the intent of stoking nationalism. He bent the truth in many ways.
        • Among his most famous and impactful historical lies that Irving fabricated in his book on Columbus was that prior to Columbus, the majority of educated people thought the earth was flat. In fact, most educated people believed the earth to be round during the time of Columbus.
      • interesting fact: knickerbocker

        • The term knickerbocker originated in the pseudonym Diedrich Knickerbocker that Irving chose for his book "A History of New York"
    1. that's exactly the hypocrisy of the Israeli Zionist lift which in many ways is worse than the 00:36:03 right Wingers in many ways not in all ways yeah but at least the right Wingers are not hypocritical they say what they want the Israel Zionist left labor party and others 00:36:15 are the biggest Hypocrites because they establish the occupation it's not the right wing as we establish it they establish the settlements it's not the right Wingers to establish it they started everything they had 00:36:28 actively done the nakba it was not the right Wingers it was the Socialists left of Israel

      It was the Socialist Zionists that perpetrated the Nakba ([[BenGTurion]]).