1,005 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
    1. “Most Japanese people see cannabis as a subculture of Japan but they’re wrong. For thousands of years, cannabis has been at the very heart of Japanese culture,” Japan’s leading expert on cannabis, Takayasu Junichi, told the Asia Pacific Journal in an interview.

      This is quite something.

    1. 2Ridesharing is not new.It began during World War II.In 1942, the U.S.government required ridesharing arrangements inworkplaces when no other transportation options were availablein orderto save rubber during the war (Chan and Shaheen, 2012). In the 1970s, theoil crisisand spike in gasoline prices encouraged another period of ride sharing. However, today’s ridesharingrevolution was made possible by the development of GPS, smart phone technology, and electronic payments. In the early 1990s, Kowshik et al. (1993) envisioned a future of ridesharing similar to what exists today that would usebetter matching techniques to provide dynamic ridesharing.

      History of ride sharing which shows how it has evelutionized

  2. Mar 2019
  3. Feb 2019
    1. Madonella.

      Meaning "little Madonna" or "small Madonna." What is fascinating about this reference is the history behind the Madonnelle street shrines (little Madonnas) in Rome/other Italian cities. These little Madonnas were seen as the protectors of the communities in which they looked over (literally believed to be protecting them from evil). Also, lamps in front of the shrines were lit at night to guide passer-bys through the darkness, and, unlike other Madonna icons, these little Madonnas gazed directly at the viewer, establishing "a personal connection between the two." Maybe not such a ridicuous bluestocking figure to compare Mary Astell to afterall?

    1. being able to wear clothing that enabled better mobility. Walker chose to wear what was known as the "Bloomer costume" as a modified uniform all throughout the war. It was a dress-and-trouser combination that had gone out of favor long before the war began, but she didn't care -- she wore it anyway.

      From the time she was a girl she wore pants and she continued to do so even in the military.

    2. In 1863, her medical credentials were finally accepted, so she moved to Tennessee, where she was appointed as a War Department surgeon

      The phrasing of this appears to be somewhat biased. It sounds like her credentials weren't up to snuff or something but really, the military was low on surgeons at that time and simply didn't want a woman. https://hyp.is/vAWzXCtjEem5j1tLLCQ8dg/cfmedicine.nlm.nih.gov/physicians/biography_325.html

    3. Because of her credentials, she didn't want to be a nurse, either, so she chose to volunteer for the Union Army.

      This is some what conflicting information. According to https://hyp.is/vAWzXCtjEem5j1tLLCQ8dg/cfmedicine.nlm.nih.gov/physicians/biography_325.html she did work as a Nurse, she just wasn't paid.

    4. Walker went into private practice for a few years, but then the Civil War broke out in 1861. She wanted to join the Army as a surgeon but wasn't allowed because she was a woman.

      She was a surgeon in private practice but wanted to join the war effort.

    5. in 1855 graduated as a medical doctor from Syracuse Medical College

      She was the second women surgeon at that time.

    1. in 1863 she was briefly appointed surgeon in an Ohio Regiment.

      She finally was appointed a surgeon near the end of the war.

    2. Dr. Mary Walker was an outspoken advocate for women's rights, and the first woman ever awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor.

      She wore her medal everyday and also modified her uniform in the war to have pants. In 1917 they took all medals of honor away for anyone who hadn't been "in combat". She refused to give her medal up and wore it until the day she died. Jimmy Carter later reinstated her medal in 1977.

    3. At the outbreak of the Civil War, she volunteered in Washington to join the Union effort, and worked as a nurse in a temporary hospital set up in the capital.

      She worked as an unpaid nurse because she was not allowed to join as a surgeon in the US military.

    1. Because mountains and streams divide Japan's farm land into small, isolated areas, it proved difficult to unify Japan politically. For most of its history, Japan has bean divided into many autonomous domains, each governed by a regional strong-man. No one of these local rulers was able to claim national leadership until 1600, and not until the end of the nineteenth century did Japan have a central government strong enough to assert control over all of Japan.
    1. especially at a time when many (perhaps most) computer technologies appear untethered to any philosophy besides the pursuit of maximum profit

      This is why I am here. As we have become more and more specialized, we have become less capable of understanding the consequences, good or ill, of new technologies. Looking back at foundational documents like this with a critical eye is a first step. We can't divorce science and technology from history, ethics and critical analysis without suffering the consequences. Looking back and understanding how we got here will provide clues in how to fix things. I am Geoff Cain - I started out life as a writer and English teacher and eventually went into elearning. I am VERY interested in projects like this because we need to stop being passive consumers of information. I want to help end the Era of the Guilty By-Stander: shared thought can lead to shared action. I will be blogging my experiences with this project at http://geoffcain.com

  4. Jan 2019
    1. The hupomnemata contribute one of the means by which one detaches the soul from concern for the future and redirects it toward contemplation of the past.

      I'm reminded here of Walter Benjamin's note on the "Angelus Novus" illustration: "His eyes are staring, his mouth is open, his wings are spread. This is how one pictures the angel of history. His face is turned toward the past. Where we perceive a chain of events, he sees on single catastrophe which keeps piling wreckage upon wreckage and hurts it in front of his feet. The angel would like to stay, awaken the dead, and make whole what has been smashed. But a storm is blowing from Paradise; it has got caught in his wings with such violence that the angel can no longer close them. This storm irresistibly propels him into the future to which his back is turned, while the peril of debris before him grows skyward. This storm is what we call progress" (Theses on the Philosophy of History).


      Via Stanford Encyclopedia - History of Utilitarianism: "Though there are many varieties of the view discussed, utilitarianism is generally held to be the view that the morally right action is the action that produces the most good. There are many ways to spell out this general claim. One thing to note is that the theory is a form of consequentialism: the right action is understood entirely in terms of consequences produced. What distinguishes utilitarianism from egoism has to do with the scope of the relevant consequences. On the utilitarian view one ought to maximize the overall good — that is, consider the good of others as well as one's own good."

  5. Dec 2018
  6. gutenberg.net.au gutenberg.net.au
    1. buried two husbands

      This is the first remarried woman in Austen's writing. While it was discussed in Persuasion, it was in much more generic terms, and mostly regarding men. This is an interesting dynamic.

    2. irregularities

      This presumably is in reference to Robert Burns's well known love affairs. See section "The Life of a Lover and Writer": https://www.biography.com/people/robert-burns-9232194

    3. half mulatto

      The definition of "mulatto" according to an American census in 1850 is a person who "has from 3/8th to 5/8th black blood." There were no instructions on how to determine the percentage of African ancestry, besides the use of previous censuses and even skin colour. The British and later Americans with Caucasian ancestry were very particular in describing how much African ancestry a person had, which lead to specific rules and regulations on their behaviour.

      Miss Lambe is the first and only person mentioned in Austen's works identified as other than white, and it is interesting that she is rich and the "most important and precious".


    4. some immediate purchases

      Libraries also contained "expensive merchandise." Source.

    5. only without distinction

      In the 19th century, libraries were popular places for wealthy people to socialize. The fact that the library doesn't yet have better connections on its list seems disappointing for Mr. Parker.


    6. handsomer equipage

      Miss Denham is jealous of nicer vehicles, as a gig is a lightweight, two-wheeled cart:

      "The gig was more formal than a village cart but less formal than other carriages or coaches. It also had a somewhat cheap reputation having received its name from a contraction of “whirligig,” because similar to the whirligig, the gig whirled rapidly. (https://www.geriwalton.com/the-gig-or-chaise/)

    7. the high road

      A now uncommon way of saying main road, but also euphemistically used to describe the most moral way. This text grapples with ethics in business ventures, particularly given the evident gentrification happening in Sanditon as a result of hypochondria that Austen describes as a pass time of the privileged. http://www.oed.com/view/Entry/86929?redirectedFrom=high+road#eid

    8. Campbell

      Pleasures of Hope by Thomas Campbell: http://spenserians.cath.vt.edu/TextRecord.php?textsid=37917

    9. Wordsworth

      William Wordsworth, Romantic poet.


    10. Montgomery

      James Montogomery, Scottish-born poet and jounalist.


    11. lines

      Poet and musician Robert Burns wrote of Mary "Highland Mary" Campbell


    12. cottage ornèe

      Cottage ornée or decorated cottage, dates back to a movement of "rustic" stylised cottages of the late 18th and early 19th century during the Romantic movement, when some sought to discover a more "natural" way of living as opposed to the formality of the preceding baroque and neo-classical architectural styles. via https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cottage_orn%C3%A9

      For more on the origins of the cottage ornée (in the Regency era in particular): https://regencyredingote.wordpress.com/2012/03/16/cottage-orn-style/

    13. Michaelmas

      Michaelmas is a Christian festival taking place on September 29 which honors the archangel Michael for defeating Satan in the war in Heaven. This article contains specific British traditions and emblems from Michaelmas festivities:


    14. Links to common words/themes throughout the annotations

    15. Scott

      A reference to the poet Walter Scott.

    16. leeches

      "Bloodletting procedures, including leeching, became the most common medical procedure throughout the early modern period. By the early 19th century, many patients regularly submitted to various bloodletting practices as a means of preventing or treating infection and disease"


      Leeching more specifically in Jane Austen's world: "One can imagine that during her final illness, Jane Austen was no stranger to leeches."


    17. machine

      "Wagons, called Bathing Machines, were invented especially for the purpose, and would be drawn out into the water by sturdy women, who might then assist you down into the water where you could paddle about or swim in relative privacy, shielded from view of the shore."


    18. West Indians

      The West Indies were Caribbean islands where many of the British migrated to, mostly in the 16th and 17th centuries. These "West Indians" may be returning British citizens who had lived in the Caribbean.


    1. Minneapolis Central Library is hosting a Hullaballoo for History Day participants, Saturday, Dec. 1, 11 a.m. - 3 p.m.

      For all the people who love history day

  7. Nov 2018
    1. I had come of age in Turkey after the 1980 military coup. I had witnessed how effective censorship could be when all mass communication was cen-tralized and subject to government control: radio, television, and newspa-pers.

      I like the fact that she puts her personal background here upfront. It gives us a sense of the author's background while simultaneously setting the stage for what she'll be describing shortly.

    1. In 2012, SHM earned the 2011 John M. Eisenberg Patient Safety and Quality Award for Innovation in Patient Safety and Quality at the National Level, thanks to its mentored-implementation programs. SHM was the first professional society to earn the award, bestowed by the National Quality Forum (NQF) and The Joint Commission.
    2. By 2003, the term “hospitalist” had become ubiquitous enough that NAIP was renamed the Society of Hospital Medicine
    3. John Nelson, MD, MHM, and Winthrop Whitcomb, MD, MHM, founded the National Association of Inpatient Physicians (NAIP) a year after the NEJM paper, they promoted and held a special session at UCSF’s first “Management of the Hospitalized Patient” conference in April 1997
    4. Five years ago, it was accountable care organizations and value-based purchasing that SHM glommed on to as programs to be embraced as heralding the future. Now it’s the Bundled Payments for Care Improvement initiative (BCPI), introduced by the Center for Medicare & Medicaid Innovation (CMMI) at the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) back in 2011 and now compiling its first data sets for the next frontier of payments for episodic care. BCPI was mandated by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) of 2009, which included a provision that the government establish a five-year pilot program by 2013 that bundled payments for inpatient care, according to the American Hospital Association. BCPI now has more than 650 participating organizations, not including thousands of physicians who then partner with those groups, over four models. The initiative covers 48 defined episodes of care, both medical and surgical, that could begin three days prior to admission and stretch 30, 60, or 90 days post-discharge. <img class="file media-element file-medstat-image-flush-right" height="220" width="220" alt="Dr. Weiner" typeof="foaf:Image" src="https://www.the-hospitalist.org/sites/default/files/styles/medium/public/images/weinerweb.jpg" title="" />Dr. Weiner “The reason this is so special is that it is one of the few CMS programs that allows providers to be in the driver’s seat,” says Kerry Weiner, MD, chief medical officer of acute and post-acute services at TeamHealth-‎IPC. “They have the opportunity to be accountable and to actually be the designers of reengineering care. The other programs that you just mentioned, like value-based purchasing, largely originate from health systems or the federal government and dictate the principles and the metrics that as a provider you’re going to be evaluated upon. “The bundled model [BCPI] gives us the flexibility, scale, and brackets of risk that we want to accept and thereby gives us a lot more control over what physicians and physician groups can manage successfully.”
    5. “This has all been an economic move,” she says. “People sort of forget that, I think. It was discovered by some of the HMOs on the West Coast, and it was really not the HMOs, it was the medical groups that were taking risks—economic risks for their group of patients—that figured out if they sent … primary-care people to the hospital and they assigned them on a rotation of a week at a time, that they can bring down the LOS in the hospital. “That meant more money in their own pockets because the medical group was taking the risk.” Once hospitalists set up practice in a hospital, C-suite administrators quickly saw them gaining patient share and began realizing that they could be partners. “They woke up one day, and just like that, they pay attention to how many cases the orthopedist does,” she says. “[They said], ‘Oh, Dr. Smith did 10 cases last week, he did 10 cases this week, then he did no cases or he did two cases. … They started to come to the hospitalists and say, ‘Look, you’re controlling X% of my patients a day. We’re having a length of stay problem; we’re having an early-discharge problem.’ Whatever it was, they were looking for partners to try to solve these issues.” And when hospitalists grew in number again as the model continued to take hold and blossom as an effective care-delivery method, hospitalists again were turned to as partners. “Once you get to that point, that you’re seeing enough patients and you’re enough of a movement,” Dr. Gorman says, “you get asked to be on the pharmacy committee and this committee, and chairman of the medical staff, and all those sort of things, and those evolve over time.”
    6. Two years later, IOM followed up its safety push with “Crossing the Quality Chasm: A New Health System for the 21st Century.” The sequel study laid out focus areas and guidelines to start reducing the spate of medical mistakes that “To Err Is Human” lay bare.
    7. The federal Agency for Health Care Policy and Research was renamed the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (ARHQ) to indicate the change in focus.
    1. This idea was brought into CP/M by Gary Kiddal in 1974. You could do neat things with it like copy data off the serial port into a text file, or print a textfile right from the command line! This is done in unix by having special files existing in special folders, like /dev/tty for the console or /dev/lp0 for the first printer. You can get infinite zeros from /dev/zero, random bytes from /dev/random, etc! but here's the problem: CP/M is designed for 8-bit computers with very little memory, and no hard drives. At best you've got an 8" floppy drive. So directories? you don't need 'em. Instead of directories, you just use different disks. but without directories you can't put all your special files over in a /dev/ directory. So they're just "everywhere", effectively. So if you have FOO.TXT and need to print it, you can do "PIP LST:=FOO.TXT" which copies foo.txt to the "file" LST, which is the printer. and it works where ever you are, because there are no directories! it's simple. but what about extensions? Here's the problem: programs like to name their files with the right extension. so if you're running a program and it goes "ENTER FILENAME TO SAVE LISTING TO" you could tell it LST to print it or PTP to punch it out to tape (cause it's 1974, remember?) but the program might try to put .TXT on the end of your filename! LST.TXT isn't the printer, right? Nah. It is. These special devices exist at all extensions, so that this works. so if "CON" is reserved to refer to the keyboard, so is CON.TXT and CON.WAT and CON.BUG

      special files in cp/m

    1. Starts with a small amount of history and its use; this article actually discusses an experimental seminar done to test the usefulness of Slack in education. (4/5)

      NOTE: MOOC is a Massive Online Open Course)

  8. Oct 2018
    1. Engelbart embedded a set of organizing principles in his lab, which he termed "bootstrapping strategy".
    2. Engelbart's career was inspired in December 1950 when he was engaged to be married and realized he had no career goals other than "a steady job, getting married and living happily ever after".[14] Over several months he reasoned that: he would focus his career on making the world a better place[15] any serious effort to make the world better would require some kind of organized effort that harnessed the collective human intellect of all people to contribute to effective solutions. if you could dramatically improve how we do that, you'd be boosting every effort on the planet to solve important problems – the sooner the better computers could be the vehicle for dramatically improving this capability.[14]

      Engelbart's guiding philosophy

    1. Side note: After recently seeing Yale Art Gallery’s show “Seriously Funny: Caricature Through the Centuries,” I think there’s a good article to be written about the historical parallels between today’s visual memes and political cartoons from the past.

      This also makes me think back to other entertainments of the historical poor including the use/purpose of stained glass windows in church supposedly as a means of entertaining the illiterate Latin vulgate masses.

    1. The page was set up to show any post that contained a link to it - in other words, if you linked to that page, then your post appeared on that page.

      An early implementation of Webmention?!

  9. Sep 2018
    1. it taught me a great deal about my reading habits

      Yeah, this is what I hope our readings of Melville do: make the act of reading, in all its materiality, move to the foreground.

    2. I decided to read Little Dorrit four ways: paperback, audiobook, Kindle, and iPhone.

      Okay, so the piece shows its age a bit here, but the broad point about the "liquid text" that can be poured into different formats/containers is still quite relevant. I note, though, that the author slips between medium and material support here. An audiobook is a medium that can be materialized various ways (as we discussed last week, wax cylinder, LP, cassette, smartphone), whereas the Kindle is a piece of plastic, a "material support" in the book history lingo.

    1. Scyld Scefing

      We move from hearing of "Gardena" in general to their exemplar and greatest hero, Scyld Scefing. Roy Liuzza notes that the name means "Shield, Son of Sheaf," in his translation, 2nd ed. (Peterborough, ONT: Broadview Press, 2013), note 2 on page 49. The name connects the Danes' hero with both war ("Shield") and agricultural production ("Sheaf"): he makes his people victorious and well-fed. For more on the name, see Francis Leneghan, “Reshaping Tradition: The Originality of the Scyld Scefing Episode in Beowulf,” in Transmission and Generation in Medieval and Renaissance Literature: Essays in Honour of John Scattergood, edited by Karen Hodder and‎ Brendan O'Connell (Dublin: Four Courts Press, 2012), 21–36.

    1. Political and technological dislocation have fed off each other since the nation’s founding. Now they are dangerously out of whack.

      The underlying premise is that there used to be a balance between tech innovation and political response in the USA, but since Reagan, there has not.

  10. Aug 2018
    1. History is somersaults all the way to the end. That’s why it’s so hard to write, and so hard to predict. Unless you’re lucky. ♦

      This is definitely more of a Big History approach...

    1. Women were afforded much the same rights as men in Egyptian society.

    2. At least 15 egyptian pharaohs were known to be women. This article from 2014 suggests there were at least 7. It's crazy how in just 3 years they discovered that there were more than twice as many. This really speaks to the cover up by the scientific community to exclude women from history.

  11. www.dropbox.com www.dropbox.com
    1. As Glacken points out, Plato missed the chance to change the whole history of speculation concerning man-land relations by identifying the individual as destructive agent.

      “As Glacken points out, Plato missed the chance to change the whole history of speculation concerning man-land relations by identifying the individual as destructive agent.” (P. 24)

    2. geographer is a person who asks questions about the significance of place, location, distance, direction, spread, and spatial succession. The geographer deals with problems of accessibility, innovation diffusion, density, and other derivatives of relative location

      Qué hace un geógrafo?

      “Geography has always had a holistic tradition, so that it comes as no intellectual shock to study systems or interconnected parts of diverse origin. Geography is closed involved with cartography in the development and use of maps, which are ideally suited that are ideally suited to the study of complex location factors. A geographer is a person who ask questions about the significance of place, distance, direction, spread and spatial succession. The geographer deals with problems of accesibility, innovation diffusion, density, and other derivatives of relative location.” 8

    3. The first amazing period of intellectual ferment that is part of the written tradi­tion of the Western world took place in ancient Greece, culminating in the fourth and third centuries b.c

      El primer momento de fermento inteleectual en el mundo occidental entre la grecia antigua y el 4 y 5 siglo antes de cristo

    4. The new geography began in Germany in 1874, when departments of geography headed by scholars with the rank of professor were established in the German universities.

      1874-> Inicio de la geografía moderna con el establecimiento de departamentos de geografía en Alemania. Luego Francia, Gran Bretaña y Rusia. Estados Unidos

    5. To create a professional field, three conditions had to be satisfied.

      Tres condiciones para un campo profesional:

      1. Un cuerpo de conceptos, imágenes y una forma particular de hacer preguntas.
      2. Existencia de asociaciones, publicaciones y departamentos que impartan la disciplina
      3. Que exista un campo de acción en el que a los egresados de las escuelas les les pague por lo que hacen
    6. Two major periods are defined. The first period extends for thousands of years from the shadowy beginnings of geographical thought to the year 1859. This is the classical period, during which relatively little attention was paid to the definition of separate fields of study

      Periodos de la historia de la geografía Clasico: Hasta 1859

    1. Elec­tronic Recording Machine Accounting (ERMA)

      It also introduced bank account numbers, see https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electronic_Recording_Machine,_Accounting

    2. Vene­tians

      The Venetian Republic which lasted a millennium is famous for its archival practice. It virtually documented everything.

    1. What David told me was his energy, enthusiasm in the class was at a much higher level with the OER approach. Sure we choose the polished “professional” textbook because of its assumed high standards, quality etc, but then its a more passive relationship a teacher has with it. I make the comparison to growing and/or making your own food versus having it prepared or taking it out of a package. Having produced our own food means we know everything about it from top to bottom, and the pride in doing that has to make the whole experience much more energized.

      As I read both this post and this comment from Alan, I can't help but think again about scholars in the 14th century who taught students. It was more typical of the time that students were "forced" to chose their own textbooks--typically there were fewer, and at the advent of the printing press they were significantly higher in price. As a result students had to spend more time and attention, as Robin indicates here, to come up with useful things.

      Even in this period students often annotated their books, which often got passed on to other students and even professors which helped future generations. So really, we're not reinventing the wheel here, we're just doing it anew with new technology that makes doing it all the easier.

      As a reference, I'll suggest folks interested in this area read Owen Gingerich's The Book Nobody Read.

    1. And to Vivian Rolfe’s point made at OpenEd 16, are we are paying enough attention to voices of the past?

      And of course, there's the flip side of thinking about the voices of the future as well. Looking at the past is a nice exercise, but consider what those in the past would have potentially done differently if they could have seen the future? We should spend a moment or two of reflection on what the future potentially holds with the prior of where we are right now.

    1. The current buzz about open pedagogy got kick-started in David Wiley’s 2013 blog post. Wiley defined open pedagogy as any approach or technique that would not be possible without the “5Rs” (at the time listed as the “4Rs plus free to access”: free to access, free to reuse, free to revise, free to remix, free to redistribute – the right to retain came later…) of OER.
    1. As I began to get a feel for the passions and frustrations of teens and to speak to broader audiences, I recognized that teens’ voices rarely shaped the public discourse surrounding their networked lives.

      Again, putting this into historical context, is this sentence different for any prior period if we remove the word "networked"?

      It's been a while, but the old saw "A child should be seen and not heard" comes quickly to mind for me.

    1. If you look long enough you can find my early terrible writing. You can find blog posts in which I am an idiot. I’ve had a lot of uninformed and passionate opinions on geopolitical issues from Ireland to Israel. You can find tweets I thought were witty, but think are stupid now. You can find opinions I still hold that you disagree with. I’m going to leave most of that stuff up. In doing so, I’m telling you that you have to look for context if you are seeking to understand me. You don’t have to try, I’m not particularly important, but I am complicated. When I die, I’m going to instruct my executors to burn nothing. Leave the crap there, because it’s part of my journey, and that journey has a value. People who came from where I did, and who were given the thoughts I was given, should know that the future can be different from the past.
    2. History doesn’t ask you if you want to be born in a time of upheaval, it just tells you when you are.
    1. If any of you has a dispute with another, do you dare to take it before the ungodly for judgment instead of before the Lord’s people? 2 Or do you not know that the Lord’s people will judge the world? And if you are to judge the world, are you not competent to judge trivial cases? 3 Do you not know that we will judge angels? How much more the things of this life! 4 Therefore, if you have disputes about such matters, do you ask for a ruling from those whose way of life is scorned in the church? 5 I say this to shame you. Is it possible that there is nobody among you wise enough to judge a dispute between believers? 6 But instead, one brother takes another to court—and this in front of unbelievers!

      Interesting that this is interpreted in modern times in the same way as it was in ancient. A lot of this writing had to have been specific to it's political context at a time when keeping things in house was both to the benefit of the individuals as well as the Church which was a minority within a broader Roman protectorate.

      Why can't Christians manage to see any historical context for a 2000 year old document that is far from a living one?

  12. Jul 2018
    1. "History is written by the victors" has been the wisdom of the ages, restated jocularly but truthfully by Winston Churchill about his story of the Second World War. Ken Burns and Lynn Novick's televised documentary The Vietnam War fulfilled this dictum once again, but with a twist. As Americans, the

      this is awesome

    1. This is so because all cultures, ancient and modern, have established collective ways of relat­ing to the past and future, of synchronizing their activities, of coming to terms with finitude. How we extend ourselves into the past and future, how we pursue immortality and how we temporally manage, organize and regulate our social affairs, however, has been culturally, historically and contex­tually distinct. Each htstorical epoch with its new forms of socioeconomic expression is simultaneously restructuring its social relations of time.

      Sociotemporal reactions/responses/concepts have deep historical roots and intercultural relationships.

      Current ways of thinking about time continue to be significantly influenced by post-industrial socio-economic constructs, like clock-time, labor efficiencies (speed), and value metaphors (money, attention, thrift).

  13. Jun 2018
    1. For the first half of the twentieth century, the notoriety of Oswald Spengler’s Der Untergang des Abendlandes and Arnold Toynbee’s A Study of History persuaded serious historians not to go there or do that.

      some interesting references to take a look at for these particular admonishments

    1. Big History

      Berlinski's definition seems more concrete and he even capitalizes it here.

      After checking some references it appears that in his Godzooks article Berlinski explicitly references several Big History texts.

    2. big histories

      I'm a bit curious what exactly he means by big histories here? Is it an implicit reference to the area of Big History as defined by D. Christian et al.?

    3. I enjoyed Harari’s application of meme theory to the agrarian revolution of circa 10,000 BCE: it may have seemed like a giant leap for mankind, but imagine if you are wheat. As a species, you have conquered the world. Come on and harvest me! I will just spread further.

      I wonder if he credits this idea elsewhere. I've heard this exact type of argument about corn before in the past. (Perhaps Jared Diamond or David Christian? Possibly via Richard Dawkins, though less likely.)

    1. The success of Flickr and the influence of Delicious popularized the concept,[21] and other social software websites—such as YouTube, Technorati, and Last.fm—also implemented tagging
    1. Galois connections between posets were first considered by Évariste Galois—whodidn’t call them by that name—in the context of a connection he found between “fieldextensions” and “automorphism groups”. We will not discuss this further,
  14. May 2018
    1. Indeed, the first Western librarians were members of religious orders

      I disagree with this statement. It is important to acknowledge the long-standing tradition of libraries themselves and their place in society before Christianity. Libraries were also often housed in religious spaces (such as the Mouseion in Alexandria), and people filling social roles that would evolve into the modern librarians have existed since the Sumerians, and there were people filling these roles in Western societies in the Classical world.

    1. Enacted in 1948, the MWA is social welfare legislation undertakento further the Directive Principles of State Policy- in Part IV of theIndian Constitution.

      Factual history of the act

    2. According to the Supreme court in Unnichoyi v. State of Kerala 4 .the statutory wage is such a wage. That is, a wage that must not onlyprovide the bare subsistence of life but for the preservation of theefficiency of the worker and so it must also provide for some measureof education , medical requirements and amenities for himself andhis family. This has been followed by the Karnataka High Court inits judgement delivered in 2003 in the Mangalore Ganesh Beedi works case 5 , and so is the law applicable in Karnataka.

      Related judgments and precedents

    3. Starting from the “subsistence theory of wages,” which in its simplestform states that minimum wages should be enough only to providethe bare minimum required for physical subsistence, to the viewput forward by the International Labour Organization of providingindividuals with the means to live a dignified lif

      History of minimum wages act

    1. pools at quadrille

      Quadrille, according to David Parlett was a wildly popular card game of the period. "A notable characteristic of Quadrille is that it was always more popular with women than with men." The pool is the main stake of each round, like the collected bets in poker.

      Historic Card Games described by David Parlett

  15. annotatingausten.sfsuenglishdh.net annotatingausten.sfsuenglishdh.net
    1. ten thousand a year

      Darcy’s income was more than 300 times as much the average per capita income of his time. Translated into today’s currency, Mr. Darcy would have an annual income of over $300,000 (http://www.jasna.org/persuasions/printed/number12/heldman.htm).

    2. accomplished girl

      Women learned specific skills to make themselves more desirable to potential suitors. The accomplished woman read appropriate books and was knowledgeable in math, science, French, social science, music, art, dance, and needlework. Women were expected to socialize well and serve the family with skills that would not challenge her husband (http://randombitsoffascination.com/2014/11/04/accomplished-lady/).

    1. phaeton

      "A type of light four-wheeled open carriage, usually drawn by a pair of horses, and having one or two seats facing forward" (OED).

      Image of a light phaeton (Two Nerdy History Girls).

    2. gig

      "A light two-wheeled one-horse carriage" (OED).

      Image of a Standhope-style gig (Wikipedia).

    3. fish

      “A small flat piece of bone or ivory used instead of money or for keeping account in games of chance; sometimes made in the form of a fish” (OED).

      Fish made from ivory (Austenonly.com):

      Other shapes, made of mother-of-pearl (Austenonly.com):

    1. The first part of Mrs. Gardiner’s business on her arrival was to distribute her presents and describe the newest fashions. When this was done she had a less active part to play. It became her turn to listen

      This paragraph is written right after the paragraph where it mentions that Mrs. Gardiner is an "intelligent, elegant woman", which is interesting because it goes directly to the role she has to play as a woman. Mrs. Gardiner talking about the latest fashions suggests her social ranking as well since women of upper class were the ones who mostly experienced changing fashion and middle class women wore the same outfits (Life for Women in 18th Century). The change of topic in the paragraphs also ignores her intelligence and instead shows her focusing on topics she should care about as a woman because that was her role.

    2. Mr. Gardiner was a sensible, gentlemanlike man, greatly superior to his sister, as well by nature as education. The Netherfield ladies would have had difficulty in believing that a man who lived by trade, and within view of his own warehouses, could have been so well-bred and agreeable. Mrs. Gardiner, who was several years younger than Mrs. Bennet and Mrs. Philips, was an amiable, intelligent, elegant woman, and a great favourite with all her Longbourn nieces.

      It's well known that men had an advantage of getting a proper education which explains Mr. Gardiner's intelligence. This paragraph shows that Mrs. Gardiner was "amiable, intelligent" which shows that she had some form of an education. For women, getting an education was different than men because not all females got an education. According to the article, "Life for Women in 18th Century", if women got an education, it is usually because they were wealthy and were able to go to boarding school. Some women, not everyone, of lower class learned basic reading and writing skills. Although this doesn't mention her background and what exactly it means by "intelligent", it makes me wonder which social class she was raised in and if she really did get education.

    3. The discussion of Mr. Collins’s offer was now nearly at an end, and Elizabeth had only to suffer from the uncomfortable feelings necessarily attending it, and occasionally from some peevish allusion of her mother

      Mrs. Bennet is so upset with Elizabeth not accepting the proposal because in the late 18th century getting married was important for young ladies, for future economic concerns, especially for those women who wouldn't be left anything after their father's death (Maurer, Courtship and Marriage).

  16. Apr 2018
  17. annotatingausten.sfsuenglishdh.net annotatingausten.sfsuenglishdh.net
    1. Netherfield,

      The 1995 BBC Pride and Prejudice television adaption used the historical Edgcote House as Netherfield. "Edgcote House, located in southwest Northamptonshire, is the setting for Mr. Charles Bingley’s leased estate. The building was built in the 18th century, and was at one time owned by Anne of Cleves, who was Henry VIII’s fourth wife, and one who was actually allowed to keep her head!" (https://austenauthors.net/a-tour-of-estate-houses-used-in-pride-and-prejudice/)

    2. a ball

      BBC recreates what it would have been like at the Pride and Prejudice ball. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=63lLJFBiV_M

    3. the Boulanger

      The Boulanger was the closing dance at a ball, in which couples would align in a circle, turning dancers and their partners, and then repeated the dance in the opposite direction (https://www.yorkregencydancers.com/regency-dance.html). Below is a depiction of the dance. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nuSa5JLUAAY

    4. assemblies

      Assemblies refers to social events that were held in local Assembly Rooms for the public. They were often balls, as in this case. The Assembly Rooms were large public spaces built for such an occasion.

    5. chaise and four

      A chaise and four is a small carriage pulled by two to four horses with two to four wheels

    1. Atthecruxofthisbook,underlyingeachcontributionandinformingthecollectiveenterprise,liesasharedconcernwiththearticulationofhistoricalsignificanceanditsproduction.

      The history of an object is very important when considering the culture of it. Knowing the history and production will connect to many ideas and thoughts of the creator.

    1. Open education does not constitute a discipline, in the manner of a hard science for example, so there is no agreed canon of research that all researchers will be familiar with. It is also an area that practitioners tend to move into from other fields, often because of an interest in applying aspects of openness to their foundational discipline. This can be seen as an advantage, in that different perspectives are brought into the domain, and it evolves rapidly. However, it also results in an absence of shared knowledge, with the consequence that existing knowledge is often ‘rediscovered’ or not built upon.

      In order for open education to be more than a movement, it feels like we should be consciously moving in this direction - to define a canonical set of resources that are foundational to the field in order to help orient others and further define ourselves as a field/discipline. Because, as we have seen with MOOC's, if we do not do it, then others will do it for us.

    1. Mr. Collins was only a clergyman

      Being a clergymen as a living meant a guaranteed income and home for the lifetime of the clergyman lucky enough to be appointed to one. Since the incumbent did not receive a wage or sully his hands with works per se, it was considered a gentlemanly profession and many younger sons of gentlemen pursued the church as their career."

      (Grace, Maria. Vicars, Curates, and Church Livings. Random Bits of Fascination. Web.)

    2. coming out

      "Emerge; become known." (OED).

    3. though he had been invited only to a family dinner, she would take care to have two full courses.

      In the 18th century, dinner was the main meal of the day and it was especially eventful if there were guests invited. The number of courses often changed but essentially each course would offer something different, one might be a soup and the next a meat. Based off of the Bennet's status they probably would have eaten cheaper meat like mutton (Porter, 18th- Century Food).

    4. Why should he have it more than anybody else?”

      Until the the Married Women's Property Act of 1882, women could not have this privilege—and even then, you had to be married and have your husband's name! Mrs. Bennet has every right to fear the possibility that Charlotte and Mr. Collins could threaten the Bennet family and kick them out of their home.

    5. Day after day passed away without bringing any other tidings of him than the report which shortly prevailed in Meryton of his coming no more to Netherfield the whole winter

      According to and article titled Courting the Victorian Women, "Courtship was considered more a career move than a romantic interlude for young men, as all of a woman's property reverted to him upon marriage". Mr. Bingley traveling is discussed as everyone's business, and "reports" are updated of his whereabouts. It's not that the town where the Bennet's live is gossipy, but rather so many young women are hoping to marry Mr. Bingley and wait for the opportunity to run into him conveniently, or can know how many times he has gone to see Jane Bennet etc.

    1. she could no longer be blind to Miss Bingley’s inattention

      “A call should be returned with a call, a card with a card, within one week, or at the most, ten days.” (Hoppe "Calling Cards and the Etiquette of Paying Calls")

    2. ten thousand pounds

      Ten thousand pounds is somewhere around 1,090,000 GBP adjusted for inflation from 1800. However, inflation rates vary; so this number is approximate ("Historical UK Inflation Rates Calculator").

      For context: Miss Bingley, and Mrs. Hurst have twenty thousand pounds (ch. 4). Miss Darcy is worth thirty thousand (ch. 35). The Bennet sisters are splitting their mother's fortune of five thousand pounds (ch. 50).

    3. entailed

      “To settle (land, an estate, etc.) on a number of persons in succession, so that it cannot be bequeathed at pleasure by any one possessor” (OED).

    4. cassino

      Also spelled casino; "a card game for two to four people" (Pool, What Jane Austen Ate…, 281).

    5. quadrille

      "A card game played by four people with forty cards that was the fashionable predecessor of whist" (Pool, What Jane Austen Ate…, 360).

    6. out

      From “to come out”—when a young woman formally enters adult society, usually at 17 or 18, and is eligible for marriage (Pool, What Jane Austen Ate…, 288).

    1. The two first dances, however, brought a return of distress; they were dances of mortification. Mr. Collins, awkward and solemn, apologising instead of attending, and often moving wrong without being aware of it, gave her all the shame and misery which a disagreeable partner for a couple of dances can give. The moment of her release from him was exstacy.

      Elizabeth, although loathe to dance with Mr. Collins, could not reject him. Unless she had already accepted a dance offer, it was considered rude for a lady to reject a man when he asked to dance, and in doing so, etiquette would force her to reject all other offers made to her for that dance. (John Mullan, The Balls in the Novels of Jane Austen) The Balls in the Novels of Jane Austen

    1. the dining-parlour

      "A room used for dining or eating supper. Now rare." (OED)

    2. polished societies.

      The description of societies as being polished is referring to them as being "refined, cultured, or elegant"(OED).

    3. Scotch and Irish airs

      “A tune, a melody; a piece of music in which a single melodic line predominates, and which has little or no distinctive accompaniment”(OED).

    4. petticoat

      "A woman's undercoat or under-tunic, analogous to the male petticoat, often padded and worn showing beneath an open gown." (OED)

    5. Cheapside

      Cheapside- more like a marketplace than a street: up to 62 feet wide but with very narrow exits at each end. It is the main shopping centre of the City of London for the past 200 years.

  18. Mar 2018
    1. Notwithstanding anything contained in any other law for the time being in force,no street vendor who carries on the street vending activities in accordance with the termsand conditions of his certificate of vending shall be prevented from exercising such rights byany person or police or any other authority exercising powers under any other law for thetime being in force

      Used in the booklet on Pg 17 as: "Asking for hafta is illegal. Even the Supreme Court lamented this injustice. This is what the court said: 'Street Vendors are harassed a lot and are constantly victimized by the officials of local authorities, the police etc. who regularly target them for extra income and treat them with extreme contempt. Perhaps these minions in the administration have not understood the meaning of the term 'dignity' enshrined in the preamble of the constitution."

    2. It shall come into force on such date as the Central Government may, by notificationin the Official Gazette, appoint; and different dates may be appointed for different States andany reference in any provision to the commencement of this Act shall be construed inrelation to any State as a reference to the coming into force of that provision in that State.

      Used in the booklet on Pg 13 along with some background into how the act came about as: "There was no law specifically for street vendors," said Neela. "Several unions protested for a long time. First, a national level policy was launched in 2009. The in 2013, an important case was fought in the supreme court by Maharashtra Ekta Hawkers Union. It was a union of people like you and me. And in the 2014, the Street Vendors Act of 2014 became a new law. The law says street vending is your right."

  19. Feb 2018
  20. Jan 2018
    1. (Of course, there were plenty of other things happening between the sixteenth and twenty-first centuries that changed the shape of the world we live in. I've skipped changes in agricultural productivity due to energy economics, which finally broke the Malthusian trap our predecessors lived in. This in turn broke the long term cap on economic growth of around 0.1% per year in the absence of famine, plagues, and wars depopulating territories and making way for colonial invaders. I've skipped the germ theory of diseases, and the development of trade empires in the age of sail and gunpowder that were made possible by advances in accurate time-measurement. I've skipped the rise and—hopefully—decline of the pernicious theory of scientific racism that underpinned western colonialism and the slave trade. I've skipped the rise of feminism, the ideological position that women are human beings rather than property, and the decline of patriarchy. I've skipped the whole of the Enlightenment and the age of revolutions! But this is a technocentric congress, so I want to frame this talk in terms of AI, which we all like to think we understand.)
    2. the development of Artificial Intelligence, which happened no earlier than 1553 and no later than 1844. I'm talking about the very old, very slow AIs we call corporations,
  21. Dec 2017
    1. 6. It should be possible to further qualify a reference to a "sublocation" within an object (which would have meaning only to the server that houses it). This is needed, for example, for hypertext-type links. Such a sublocation might be the 25th paragraph of a text, for a hypertext-type pointer.
  22. Nov 2017
    1. 2010s: Bespoke/Craft

      2010s: Bespoke/Craft

      Key themes: Handmade, refurbished, industrial, raw

      With the rise of Etsy and the interest in craftsmanship, the trends of today are centered on the handmade and the authentic. Revitalizing, renewing, and reusing vintage pieces is the new norm. An eclectic décor, as long as everything is well-made and authentic, is in fashion

    2. 2000s: Green/Sustainable

      2000s: Green/Sustainable

      Key themes: Reduced carbon emissions, recycled wood, paper, steel/natural colors, up-cycling

      At the turn of the Millennium, consumers became more environmentally conscious and sought out designers that minimized the negative environmental impact. Sustainable architecture and automotive design became part of the norm, using a conscious approach to energy and conservation.

    3. 1990s: Minimalism

      1990s: Minimalism

      Key themes: Beige, overstuffed furniture, tech-centric/durable

      The overload, ornamentation, and audaciousness of the ’80s forced the ’90s consumer to retreat into a more minimalistic and basic style: interiors and objects were toned down, minimal, and soothing.

    4. 1980s: Memphis/Postmodernism

      1980s: Memphis/Postmodernism

      Key themes: Graphic primary triad patterns, grids, triangles, squiggles/metal, gold, enamel

      Postmodernism began as an international style in the 1950s but didn’t become a full-blown movement until the late-1970s. The style was a reaction to the saturation of Modernism in design—it was said to be heralded by the return of “wit, ornament, and reference” to architecture. The identifying concepts of the trend are where styles collide, colors and materials follow no set guidelines, and form is created for its own sake, not for function. The era’s opulence, over-indulgence, and overpriced designs are apparent in architecture, automotive design, and product design.

      Memphis was a very particular sect of Postmodernism. The crux of the trend was to melt styles, shapes, colors, and materials in a way that was unencumbered by design rules.

    5. 1970s: Back-to-Nature/Hippie

      1970s: Back-to-Nature/Hippie

      Key themes: Craft revival, terracotta, wood/orange, gold, avocado green

      The ’70s were a time of rejection and rebirth for the socially conscious. The over-materialism and consumerism of decades prior positioned the era as a time to get back to nature and to embrace the environment. The social ideals of the day manifested themselves in terms of design through a crafts revival and a heightened use of natural colors and materials.

    6. 1960s: Atomic Age/Space Age

      1960s: Atomic Age/Space Age

      Key themes: Shag rugs, Lucite, tie-dye, paisley

      Sixties style was a mix of organic and futuristic design, more commonly known as Atomic Age or Space Age design. The themes of atomic science and the space races of the ’60s influenced all areas of design, from architecture to graphic design. Futuristic influences suggested an optimistic trajectory for society and the everyday consumer. New-age materials and production techniques were used to create furniture and solidified America as a powerhouse innovator of the time.

    7. 1950s: Functionalism/Modernism

      1950s: Functionalism/Modernism

      Key themes: Ceramics, pastel pink, teal, yellow, blue, Scandinavian Design, new appliances

      Functionalism was born from the principle that objects should be designed based on their purposes. In the 1950s, with the rise of mass-produced objects, consumers were purchasing more than ever. With the influence of megastar designers like Norman Bel Geddes and Raymond Lowey, these mass-produced items were designed in the Functional style: streamlined and clean, promoting their efficiency.

    8. 1940s: Organic

      1940s: Organic

      Key themes: Chrome, Formica, vinyl

      Organic design is inspired by organic, flowing natural forms, undulating lines, and dynamic curves. The style was made popular by Modernist designers in the 1940s, including the Eames' molded plywood chair. With the increased popularity of mass-produced items, various industries were designing items with planned obsolescence in mind.

    9. 1900s: Arts & Crafts

      1900s: Arts & Crafts

      Key themes: Staying connected to nature, anti-mass-production, craftsmanship

      The Arts & Crafts movement touched multiple areas of design, including architecture, product design, and decorative and fine arts. The main concept behind the movement was the notion of authenticity and to work without any division of labor rather than work without any sort of machinery. The style utilized simple forms melded with medieval, romantic, or folk styles of decoration. In a cultural light, the movement advocated economic and social reform through its anti-industrial over-tones.

    10. 1910s: Art Nouveau

      1910s: Art Nouveau

      Key themes: Fluid shapes, organic subject matter, ornate flourishes, rich colors

      Although not as long-lasting as the Arts & Crafts moment, Art Nouveau was heavily influenced by the craftsmanship style, as well as Romanticism and Symbolism. The origin of the name Art Nouveau comes from an interior design gallery in Paris—Maison de l’Art Nouveau—that was an outlet for decorative creations by American Louis Comfort Tiffany, creator of the iconic Tiffany lamps. American architect Louis Henry Sullivan was also a proprietor of Art Nouveau; he frequently used plantlike Art Nouveau ironwork to decorate his buildings.

    11. 1920s: Art Deco

      1920s: Art Deco

      Key themes: Tubular steel, geometric patterns, mirrored surfaces

      Art Deco first appeared in France after World War I. The movement made its way to the United States during the 1920s and influenced everything from fashion to architecture. In the U.S., the style made its way coast-to-coast from Miami Beach to Los Angeles. Some of today’s most iconic buildings were created in the Art Deco style, including Rockefeller Center in New York City.

    12. 1930s: International Style

      1930s: International Style

      Key themes: Geometry, light, anti-ornamentation, openness, glass and steel

      International Style honors simple, honest, and clear design. In the United States, many architects, like Louis Sullivan, Frank Lloyd Wright, and Irving Gill, practiced this design. Their buildings embodied many of the requirements of the movement: rectilinear forms, light, taut plane surfaces, anti-ornamentation, open interior spaces, cantilever construction. Usually, the International Style buildings and designs would include glass, steel, and reinforced concrete. The trend can also be seen in the anti-ornamentation and aerodynamic styling of the cars during the era.

    1. Back in 1993, when Eric Bina and I were first building Mosaic, it seemed obvious to us that users would want to annotate all text on the web – our idea was that each web page would be a launchpad for insight and debate about its own contents. So we built a feature called "group annotations" right into the browser – and it worked great – all users could comment on any page and discussions quickly ensued. Unfortunately, our implementation at that time required a server to host all the annotations, and we didn't have the time to properly build that server, which would obviously have had to scale to enormous size. And so we dropped the entire feature.
    1. collaborative effort between a university professor and a government researcher (much like the collaborations at the beginnings of the Internet)

      Brief History of the Internet has been in my required readings for Sociology of Cyberspace.

    1. History education may be riding a momentary crest of interest, butits roots do not run deep.

      History currently dominates the best seller list. Is this just a fad? Or does it show a real and popular interest in the subject?

    1. Alan Levine’s comment also needs to be kept for posterity:

      I so appreciate the framing of this history for the oMOOC (Original) as "courses of lectures" which seems not focused on the lectures but the discussions generated. And thanks for the mention of the ds106 assignment bank (a concept I seem to suggest in every project) but I must make a small historical credit. Grant Potter was definitely part of the foundation, but his great contribution was DS106 Radio. The person who credit for the Assignment Bank must go to is Martha Burtis who did this and more for co-creating DS106, but she's often invisible in the Shadow of Groom. I did the archeology on the Assignment Bank history: http://cogdogblog.com/2016/10/ds106-history-details/ I dream that someone would fund you to roll out the model described, maybe it's a dMOOC (Downsian) not that it would likely overtake the xMOOC Hype Train (which all its is shiny conductors have jumped off the train, i just keeps rolling through burgs like EdSurge).

    1. Indeed, part of what sets Coates apart from other journalists or public intellectuals is that he tells his audience that historians’ works need to be consulted if they want to understand American history. Like any good high-school math student, Coates shows his work, illustrating which history books lead him to his conclusions.

      This would seem like a no brainer to me. We should demand it of journalists and public intellectuals.

    1. Now, on to my third problem: I think Angus Maddison may be doing things wrong. I realize this is a rather presumptuous thing to say, but I think it's true. Specifically, the assumption that GDP before 1700 was proportional to agricultural productivity seems to me not to be a good one. The reason is that even in a non-industrial society, there is a potentially huge source of GDP increases: trade. Remember, in a world where output is mostly in the form of commodities (i.e. no increasing returns to scale), the old Ricardian theory of trade makes a lot of sense. Stable ancient empires that could act as free trade zones were probably capable of dramatically increasing their per capita GDP beyond the base provided by the productivity of their land. This is the finding of Ian Morris in Why the West Rules For Now. He constructs a "social development index" that includes things like urbanization and military capabilities, and probably correlates with an ancient region's per capita GDP (it is hard to build cities and make war without producing stuff). He finds dramatic changes in this social development index over the course of the Roman Empire; at its height, Rome seems to have been extremely rich, but a couple centuries earlier or later it was desperately poor. Morris corroborates this index with data on shipwrecks, lead poisoning, and other things that would tend to correlate with output. Basically, Rome saw huge fluctuations in per capita GDP. But it is unlikely that Rome's agricultural productivity changed much over this time. Instead, what probably happened was the rise and fall of cross-Mediterranean trade. If trade could make Rome dramatically richer, and its absence could make Rome dramatically poorer, then Maddison's data set is wrong. Just because most people in 100 AD were farmers does not mean that most people were subsistence farmers. And frankly, I'm not sure how people use Maddison's data set without noticing this fact.

      Trading is very important. The West advantage over China in the past.

  23. Oct 2017
    1. Reading HistoryWe draw several conclusions from this brief history, noting that it is, like all histories, somewhat arbitrary. First, each of the earlier historical moments is still operating in the present, either as legacy or as a set of practices that researchers continue to follow or argue against. The multiple and fractured histories of qualitative research now make it possible for any given researcher to attach a project to a canonical text from any of these historical moments. Multiple criteria of evaluation compete for attention in this field. Second, an embarrassment of choices now characterizes the field of qualitative research. There have never been so many paradigms, strategies of inquiry, or methods of analysis to draw on and use. Third, we are in a moment of discovery and rediscovery as new ways of looking, interpreting, arguing, and writing are debated and discussed. Fourth, the qualitative research act can no longer be viewed from within a neutral or objective positivist perspective. Class, race, gender, and ethnicity shape the process of inquiry, making research a multicultural process. Fifth, we are clearly not implying a progress narrative with our history. We are not saying that the cutting edge is located in the present. Rather, we are saying that the present is a politically charged space. Complex pressures inside and outside of the qualitative community are working to erase the positive developments of the past 30 years or so.

      a footnote about history. important.

    2. New models of truth, method, and representation were sought. The erosion of classic norms in anthropology (e.g., objectivism, complicity with colonialism, social life structured by fixed rituals and customs, ethnographies as monuments to a culture) was complete. Critical epistemology, feminist epistemology, and epistemologies of color now competed for attention in this arena. Issues such as validity, reliability, and objectivity, believed to be settled in earlier phases, were once again problematic. Pattern and interpretive theories, as opposed to causal linear theories, were now more common as writers continued to challenge older models of truth and meaning.

      such a dense para outlining the competing elements

    3. These works made research and writing more reflexive and called into question the issues of gender, class, and race. They articulated the consequences of Geertz's “blurred genres” interpretation of the field in the early 1980s.
    4. Geertz argued that the old functional, positivist, behavioral, and totalizing approaches to the human disciplines were giving way to a more pluralistic, interpretive, and open-ended perspective. This [Page 315]new perspective took cultural representations and their meanings as its point of departure. Calling for “thick descriptions” of particular events, rituals, and customs, Geertz suggested that all anthropological writings were interpretations of interpretations.
    5. Computers entered the situation, to be fully developed as aids in the analysis of qualitative data in the next decade, along with narrative, content, and semiotic methods of reading interviews and cultural texts.


    6. In this way, work in the modernist period clothed itself in the language and rhetoric of positivist and postpositivist discourse.
    7. Modernist ethnographers and sociological participant observers attempted rigorous qualitative studies of important social processes, including deviance and social control in the classroom and society. This was a moment of creative ferment.A new generation of graduate students across the human disciplines encountered new interpretive theories (e.g., ethnomethodology, phenomenology, critical [Page 314]theory, feminism). They were drawn to qualitative research practices that would let them give a voice to society's underclass.