1,169 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
    1. curricle

      Unlike a carriage, which is four-wheeled; a curricle is two-wheeled. Both are drawn by horses and this picture showcases how lavish a curricle can be.

    2. livery

      This picture showcases that a livery is very fine and elegant. An emphasis is focused on the fancy standard that is within the uniform's conception.

    1. all meeting frequently at St. James’s

      The Palace of St. James was where the royals like King George III lived prior to Buckingham Palace. They would host balls in celebrations of "official nativities of the King and Queen" (Thompson) where people of Sir William's rank and higher attended. Sir William is referencing an earlier scene in chapter six asking Darcy if he ever danced at St. James's. (http://www.jasna.org/persuasions/on-line/vol33no1/thompson.html) (https://janeaustenslondon.files.wordpress.com/2013/04/st-jamess-palace-1-copy.jpg)

    1. All "mainline" beers based on historic railroad culture; Many mentions of local ingredients; many mentions of brewed in the "classic style of...."

    1. The question I would like to put forth to this conference, to the delegates of other countries here present is that why have you not rec-ognized us as sovereign people before? Why did we have to travel this dis-tance to come to you? Had you not thought that the U.S. government in its deliberate and systematic attempt to suppress us, had you not thought that was the reason that they did not want to recognize us as sovereign people?

      Here is the original question again, but elaborated.

    2. Why Have You Not Recognized Us as Sovereign People Before?”

      Is this question answered in the passage?

    3. terminate

      Possible rhetorical response to termination policy, which was opposed by Indian movements. Taking the term termination and cleverly re-applying it, transforming the concept.

    4. we are united by blood

      Reminds me of blood quantum racial thought, but applied to pan-Indian movement, and more broadly applied outside the United States! Inclusive, rather than exclusive.

    5. I have a message of Panama. “The Indian women of Panama greet our inseparable companions in the struggle, in the Indian movement that are present here today to question and to achieve positive acts for our nations.

      Using a current event as an example to prove their point. Linking current issues to American history to influence policy decisions.

    6. We are undergoing a modern form called sterilization, which has been going on for hundreds of years, to totally exterminate the Red man.

      Explicitly framing the issue of sterilization as being consistent with an underlying motivation of genocide, based on a persistent dynamic of Native American destruction that predates the use of the term genocide, but fits the definition.

    7. sterilization abuse to sovereignty, genocide, and global indigeneity.

      I wonder if framing the problem as human rights issues is related structurally in any way to post-Vietnam war era rhetoric about the Nigerian civil war...

    8. Consider how Sanchez, who became a tribal judge on the Northern Cheyenne Reservation

      Interesting position title, about self-determination through governance of tribes by members, for positions such as judges.

    9. Women of All Red Nations (WARN)

      This, as well as DRUMS, are examples of creative acronyms that are easily recognizable and gain media attention in this era. One negative example coined by opponents is CREEP, for re-electing Nixon.

  2. May 2019
    1. Ah, Jane, I take your place now, and you must go lower, because I am a married woman

      As the first married Bennet daughter, Lydia is claiming the seat at her father’s right which originally was Jane's place since she was the oldest. Traditionally your rank in life stated where you sat at the table. Married women were before older daughters and they were above younger sisters. (John Trusler, The Honours of the Table, 4)

    2. — shire

      Throughout her books you will see that Austen redacts some peoples and places names with --. It was common during the 18th and 19th century for authors to do so to either avoid inaccuracies or avoid being accused of writing about real people and places. By not giving the name of the militia that Wickham was a part of, Austen is able to continue the realism of her novels by avoiding creating a fictitious place while also separating her characters from any real people who would not want to be affiliated with the actions of Wickham.<br> https://english.stackexchange.com/questions/9479/why-in-old-books-are-dates-often-given-with-the-years-redacted

    3. breakfast-room

      A breakfast room was designed to be in close proximity to the kitchen. This room was designed to offer a relaxing and comfortable space to have the first meal of the day.

      www.hunker.com/13413432/dining-room-vs-breakfast-room.

    4. carriage was sent to meet them at — , and they were to return in it by dinner-time.

      Hackneys, or public carriages for hire, made their first significant appearance in the early 17th century. By 1694, this method of transportation was very popular so the Hackney Coach Commission was established in London.

      https://janeaustensworld.wordpress.com/tag/regency-transportation/

    5. thousand pounds

      The buying power of a thousand pounds, is equivalent to the buying power of $87,093 US dollars today.

      https://www.uwyo.edu/numimage/currency.htm

    6. She sat intently at work

      "Work done with a needle; spec. the art or practice of sewing or embroidery. Also: sewn or embroidered items collectively" (OED).

      A lady can continue her light needlework during morning calls, but all other activities must be stopped at the entrance of guests.<br> http://www.mrsbeeton.com/01-chapter1.html

    7. Here, Sarah, come to Miss Bennet this moment, and help her on with her gown. Never mind Miss Lizzy’s hair.”

      The social and economic status of a family could be determined by the number of servants in a household. The Bennets could only afford the essential staff needed to maintain the home: a butler, housekeeper, cook, and two housemaids. Here, a Lady's Maid would usually perform the duties of dressing and fixing the hair of the ladies of the house. Sarah might be a maid-of-all-work, undertaking all the duties of the home that would usually be assigned to various hired maids.

      https://www.kristenkoster.com/a-primer-on-regency-era-servants/

      http://www.jasna.org/persuasions/on-line/vol35no1/walshe.html

    8. dressing-room

      A room primarily used during one's morning routine for dressing and washing. A woman's dressing room was made to be private and comfortable, and the intimacy of these small places allowed women to entertain small parties of other female guests. The wealthier the woman, the more luxurious her dressing room.

      https://janeaustensworld.wordpress.com/tag/18th-century-dressing-rooms/

    9. He is gone to my father already

      The Hardwicke Act for the Prevention of Clandestine Marriages passed in 1754, enforcing couples marrying in England to follow certain rules in order to be legally married. One of these rules was obtaining the consent of the father. Any couple under twenty-one needed the consent of a parent or guardian if the child was legitimate. If a couple married without consent, then by law their marriage was void.

      https://byuprideandprejudice.wordpress.com/2014/01/28/courtship-and-marriage-in-the-regency-period/

      http://www.regencyresearcher.com/pages/marriage.html

    10. a letter to write

      Letter writing was an imperative part of Regency social life. It was taken seriously as a real pastime and hobby, as letters were the only way to communicate with long distance friends and family. It was standard for letters to be written privately and it was preferred to write during the morning hours. Women were especially encouraged to become adept at letter writing as it was seen as a necessary accomplishment.

      http://randombitsoffascination.com/2014/10/07/touch-quill-ink-regency-letter-writing/

    11. sash

      Sashes were accessories that women could wear with any dress, for any occasion. It was fashionable for women to wear dresses that accentuated their waists and bodies, so sashes were wrapped around the waist and under the breasts.

      https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1795%E2%80%931820_in_Western_fashion#Regency_(1815%E2%80%931820)_gallery

    1. Just over half of the state’s tribes operate casinos, but only 16 are full Vegas-style resorts. And 47 of the state’s 109 tribes have no casinos at all, with some reservations still struggling to provide running water and electricity. “Not all tribes are rich from gaming,” Vialpando said.

      Wow, this is some important context... the industry is unequally distributed and doesn't help the less fortunate tribes!

    2. Two centuries of slaughter, land theft and discrimination have left California’s Native Americans with lower median incomes and education levels coupled with higher rates of poverty and unemployment than the general population.

      The 'plight' rhetoric.

    3. might give Native Americans an unfair advantage in the market.

      Same rationalization as in some of the readings!

    4. “It’s a long pattern in this state,” Vialpando said. “There’s a history of marginalizing tribes. There’s a history of not wanting to engage with tribes.”

      In this context, the Tribes being unfairly barred from this new market is not so surprising, but how is this implemented, and by whom?

    5. The Iipay Nation of Santa Ysabel opened the Mountain Source cannabis store about two weeks ago, in the front part of a failed casino that tribal leaders abandoned in 2014.

      Casino failed, locals had to adapt.

    6. a building that once let visitors try their hand at slot machines and poker tables is now a shop that sells cannabis flower and marijuana-infused truffles.

      Gambling -> Marijuana

    7. are being shut out In a state where weed is legal, groups hope for equal footing.

      This is interesting, and highly unexpected! Tribes not allowed to grow, but the rest of the state IS!

    8. new gambling fo

      Example of gambling linked to marijuana as a concept of tribal different legal restrictions to federal law.

    1. barouche-box

      Similar in style to the modern day convertible, the barouche-box was a four-wheeled carriage with a falling top. It had two sets of double seats, positioned to face each other, and a seat for the driver, called the box, outside of the carriage. Due to its light, somewhat flimsy design, it was regarded as a summer carriage.

    2. Netherfield ball

      Ball that Mr. Bingley invites the Bennet family to. This ball was a way for Mr. Bingley to spend more time courting Jane. This was the proper way for men to court women in this time. It was also an opportunity for Elizabeth to spend time with Wickham but when he doesn't show up, Elizabeth spends time with Mr. Darcy, pushing their complicated love story further. Mr. Darcy also uses the ball as a proper way to court Elizabeth in his own way.

    3. Daughters are never of so much consequence to a father.

      In Austen's time, the importance of passing down a legacy to a male heir is heavily stressed. Oftentimes things like property and money are passed down to the nearest male heir, even if that means skipping any direct children for inheritance. It is very rare for a woman to inherit.

    4. Miss De Bourgh exerted herself so far as to curtsey and hold out her hand to both

      Curtsying is a sign of respect typically used by those of lower status to address those of higher status. In this case, Anne De Bourgh is showing deference to Elizabeth and Lady Catherine curtsying first, which is somewhat strange, considering she is of higher status. By holding her hands out, she is also expecting a similar show of respect back.

    1. I may suffer from the want of money. Younger sons cannot marry where they like.”

      In 18th century finances, typically, the oldest son is the one who usually inherits most of the family money and estates, leaving the younger sons to look for wealth through marriages to women of wealthy families. "Younger sons with no expectations of succeeding to any paternal property, might come to inherit the estates of much wealthier families to whose heiresses they could never have hoped to aspire."

      Clay, Christopher. “Marriage, Inheritance, and the Rise of Large Estates in England, 1660-1815.” The Economic History Review, vol. 21, no. 3, 1968, pp. 503–518. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/2592747.

    2. but fifteen

      The Marriage Act of 1753, or Lord Hardwicke's Act, prohibited marriages for those under 21 without a parent or guardian's consent (Marriage Act 1753, PERFAR https://www.perfar.eu/policies/marriage-act-1753)

    3. The envelope itself was likewise full.

      The cost of a letter was dependent on length and number of pages. Likewise, envelopes didn't come into common use until 1840 (Leslie Adkins, Jane Austen's England, 235-236).

    4. inferiority of your connexions? — to congratulate myself on the hope of relations, whose condition in life is so decidedly beneath my own?”

      Connexions - "Relationship by family ties, as marriage or distant consanguinity. Often with a and plural" (OED).

      Technically, Mr. Darcy and the Bennet family are from the same class, the gentry, but he has better connections. Mr. Darcy is related to Lady Catherine De Bourgh who holds the highest title a woman can have within the Gentry class. Comparatively, the Bennet's are related to the Gardiners, who are in a class below the gentry, the professional class.

    5. executors of my father’s will

      "Before 1858, the executor or executrix would register the will in the relevant ecclesiastical court to obtain a grant of probate, thereby allowing the bequests to be fulfilled" (BBC, https://www.bbc.co.uk/history/trail/familyhistory/journey_life/research_tools_04.shtml).

    1. In short, the Indians ask for assis-tance, technical and financial, for the time needed, however long that may be, to regain in the America of the space age some measure of the adjust-ment they enjoyed as the original possessors of their native land.

      The wording here is not entirely clear to me... what is "Some measure of the adjustment they enjoyed?"

    2. We insist again that this is not special pleading. We ask only that the United States be true to its own traditions and set an example to the world in fair dealing.

      Here is the problem! "We ask" Instead of "We demand"

    3. Consider whether the following excerpts from the Declaration of Indian Purpose should be read as blatantly milquetoast or latently radical and how the authors attempted to transform Indian politics into a Cold War imperative.

      This document is a criticism of the Declaration of Indian Purpose, and seeks to re-analyse and re-examine how Indian Interests and rhetorical/political strategies have evolved in the past 20 years.

    4. Challenges came from conservatives who feared its critical edge would be seen as un-American and ardent nationalists who believed that it did not go far enough in demanding sovereignty.

      Calling out the opposition and it's motivation. Explaining where the challenges for Native Americans are coming from, and posturing politically.

    5. Declaration of Indian Purpose’

      Framing this 1961 document in relation to the previous 1944, canonizing these with a shared Native American History within an explicitly recognized narrative. This is the framework that the author chooses to present this message.

      https://americanindianmovementehs.weebly.com/ "The Declaration of Indian Purpose is a book concerning the founding of the National Congress of American Indians in 1944. - 64 Indian tribes met in Chicago to emphasize "the right to choose their own way of life" and "the responsibility of preserving their precious heritage."

    1. The drums of our eternal people will sound once more forever across our lands.

      They mention brain-washing-Uncle-Tomakawkification ostensibly a reference to Uncle Tom's Cabin by Harriet Beecher Stowe, or more specifically the characterization of portrayal of Blacks in media as a caricature of white stereotypes typical of blackface minstrelsy, at the expense of Black interests, in order to appeal to white audiences. Appropriating this to the stereotypical portrayal of Native Americans as savage, or primitive, but then they mention recognizable 'stereotypes' such as ancient wisdom, drums, sacred hoops, mother earth, tree of peace... At first glance this segment may appear to be a contradiction, but it is a self conscious reclamation of these: they take these universally recognized symbols of colonialism and elimination, and re-brand them to represent an enduring authentic Nativism, rejecting the negative stolen usage,

      http://utc.iath.virginia.edu/interpret/exhibits/tomming/tomminghp.html

      " In the novel Tom is not an "Uncle Tom," which the dictionary defines as a black person who abjectly sells out the interests of his race to curry favor with the white power structure. Malcolm X's speeches and his Autobiography are probably most directly responsible for giving the term the rhetorical force it has today."

    2. or die, or

      How accurate is this assessment? What basis or evidence is there that the Indian organizations failed? Were these not the organizations that EMPOWERED movements such as the United Indians of All Tribes in the first place? From a historical perspective, this seems to be the trend, but at the time, perhaps this was not what was perceived...

    3. While President Lyndon Johnson pledged his support for self-determination in March 1968,

      Vietnam War era president, Kent State Massacre, Kennedy Assassination; great social anxiety and fear of civil unrest, tumultuous time in American society and media-coverage of fears in America at the time.

    4. The occupation of Alcatraz has seen the beginnings of a concept of unity long dreamed of by all our people.

      Pan Tribal/Pan Indian Rhetoric. By taking the initiative, they seek to garner support from the momentum of the already growing Pan-Indian movement. Much of this momentum was hard won by political maneuvering and legal battles, and peaceful protesting such as civil disobedience through fishing. But this decisive, militant action is an expression of that prevously gained power, and a great risk!

      "Pan-Indigenousism, formerly Pan-Indianism, is a philosophy and movement promoting unity among different Indigenous American groups in the Americas regardless of tribal or local affiliations."

    1. “On the ground in Syria,” he continued, “Assad is doing everything he can to make sure the physical evidence [of potential human-rights violations] is destroyed, and the digital evidence, too. The combination of all this—the filters, the machine-learning algorithms, and new laws—will make it harder for us to document what’s happening in closed societies.” That, he fears, is what dictators want.
    2. Google and Facebook break out the numbers in their quarterly transparency reports. YouTube pulled 33 million videos off its network in 2018—roughly 90,000 a day. Of the videos removed after automated systems flagged them, 73 percent were removed so fast that no community members ever saw them. Meanwhile, Facebook removed 15 million pieces of content it deemed “terrorist propaganda” from October 2017 to September 2018. In the third quarter of 2018, machines performed 99.5 percent of Facebook’s “terrorist content” takedowns. Just 0.5 percent of the purged material was reported by users first.Those statistics are deeply troubling to open-source investigators, who complain that the machine-learning tools are black boxes.
    3. “We were collecting, archiving, and geolocating evidence, doing all sorts of verification for the case,” Khatib recalled. “Then one day we noticed that all the videos that we had been going through, all of a sudden, all of them were gone.”It wasn’t a sophisticated hack attack by pro-Assad forces that wiped out their work. It was the ruthlessly efficient work of machine-learning algorithms deployed by social networks, particularly YouTube and Facebook.
    1. properly sanctioned

      “Allowed by Authority” Marriages must be recognized by both law and God to be proper (OED).

    2. three or four hundred a year

      In 2019, 300 pounds would be equivalent to $30,372.96 while 400 pounds would be equivalent to $40,497.28. 1802 is the closest year to input the information because in the following paragraph, there is an indirect reference to the Treaty of Amiens which took place between 1802-1803. https://www.uwyo.edu/numimage/currency.htm

    1. entail

      "Law. The action of entailing; the state of being entailed. The settlement of the succession of a landed estate, so that it cannot be bequeathed at pleasure by anyone possessor; the rule of descent settled for any estate; the fixed or prescribed line of devolution" (OED).

    2. fifty pounds

      Equivalent to about $3,627.75 as of 2019.

      https://www.uwyo.edu/numimage/currency.htm

    1. Her teeth are tolerable

      During the 1770's dentistry was becoming a popular subject and profession. The higher the class the more access to sweets that could cause cavities and decay in teeth. However, these classes also had access to tooth powders and picks (Jane Austen's England: Daily Life in Georgian and Regency Periods).

    2. — — shire

      "This is standard eighteenth- and nineteenth-century practice to create a sense of realism: the author leaves out the name of the country or person, thus pretending it is a real one and that he or she does not wish to intrude upon the privacy of real people" (The Victorian Web).

  3. Apr 2019
  4. gutenberg.net.au gutenberg.net.au
    1. Scott's

      It is interesting that Austen repeatedly references Sir Walter Scott here. Scott was a fan of Austen's work and repeatedly praised her in his journal.

      Scott wrote of Austen: "Also read again, and for the third time at least, Miss Austen’s very finely written novel of Pride and Prejudice. That young lady had a talent for describing the involvements and feelings and characters of ordinary life, which is to me the most wonderful I ever met with. The Big Bow-wow strain I can do myself like any now going; but the exquisite touch, which renders ordinary commonplace things and characters interesting, from the truth of the description and the sentiment, is denied to me. What a pity such a gifted creature died so early!"

      Read more here

    2. cocoa

      The following link includes an image of a cup from 1800s England which was used for hot cocoa. The trend of drinking hot cocoa in the nineteenth century in part drove a market for porcelain/ceramic tea sets and chocolate pots.

      https://janeaustensworld.wordpress.com/2008/08/09/hot-chocolate-18th-19th-century-style/

    3. quack

      Very few controls existed on medical practice in Regency England. In fact, the UK equivalent of the FDA, the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency, wasn't even established until 2003. Consequently, "quack medicine" and unusual, ineffective treatments for illnesses were often prescribed to patients by poorly trained and unqualified physicians.

      Read more about Georgian quack medicine here

    4. West Indian

      This is most likely a reference to someone originating from the British West Indies- the territories in the Caribbean which were colonized by Great Britain, until decolonization in the 1960s and 1970s.

      https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/British_West_Indies

    5. phaeton

      A phaeton) was a form of sporty open carriage popular in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth century. Drawn by one or two horses, a phaeton typically featured a minimal very lightly sprung body atop four extravagantly large wheels

      Look at an image here

    6. hire of a harp

      The harp was considered a particularly graceful and feminine instrument, permitting elible young women to show off their charms and attract potential suitors. Many upper-class women, especially those in boarding schools, learned how to play instruments like the harp to make themselves more appealing in the marriage market.

      Read more about the harp as status symbol here

    7. the tea things

      Earlier in the chapter, it is stated that the time is evening. One might be under the impression that tea time was limited to the afternoon. However, times for tea were changing in the early 1800s, with references to "afternoon tea" as well as "high tea" which occurred later in the evening.

      https://www.britainexpress.com/History/tea-in-britain.htm

    8. It acts on me like poison

      Here, Arthur's reference to green tea as "poison" is strange even to Charlotte. Yet green tea is confirmed to be popular in England in the 1800s. In support of Arthur's point, a text called Ms. Beeton's Book of Household Management published in 1807, which includes many recipes for various beverages, noted that "strong green tea is highly pernicious [harmful], and should never be partaken of too freely."

      https://qmhistoryoftea.wordpress.com/2015/02/25/englands-green-and-pleasant-tea/

    9. sea air

      Sea air was actually shown to be a remedy to various illnesses in the 18th century. But, this was not commonly believed along the entire medical community.

      https://books.google.com/books?id=NSHa5u76G08C&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false

    10. Lady Denham's name at the head of the list

      At this time, charities would publish "subscription lists" with the names of all the wealthy elites that donated to their cause. These annual reports listed the names of each annual subscriber and the amount that they gave that year, so the wealthy could show their generosity, and charities could increase donations by making it appear fashionable to donate (this is why Mr. Parker wants Lady Denham to subscribe). http://eprints.lse.ac.uk/61080/1/Flew_Unveiling_the_Anonymous_Philanthropist.pdf

    11. ten guineas as five

      The value of a guinea was equal to 21 shillings at this time (the value was fixed at 21 shillings between 1717 and 1816), but the coin was being phased out by 1813 and was taken out of circulation in 1816. Consequently, "guinea" was became a colloquial term for a unit of currency. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guinea_(coin)#Eighteenth_century

    12. nervous

      Nervousness was considered a "popular disease" in the late 18th century. Most commonly discussed and found in the middle and elite class. Many people of higher class were said to have bad "nerves" or "nervousness" because there was no clear definition of a nervous disorder at the time.

      https://muse.jhu.edu/article/680400

    13. terrific grandeur of the ocean in a storm

      An example of the use of the ocean in the aesthetic expression of the romantic century. Images of the sea became a significant ingredient of romantic expression, and continued to emerge in the language, literature, art, and music of the nineteenth century.

      Read more about the ocean and its relationship to Romanticism here

    14. Isle of Wight

      The Isle of Wight is an island off the south coast of England. It’s known for its beaches and seafront promenades.

    15. surgeon

      In Jane Austen’s time, or the early part of the 19th century, there was a clear distinction between a doctor, surgeon, and apothecary.

      Doctors and physicians occupied the highest rung on the social ladder. Such citizens could still be considered "upper class" because 1) their training did not include apprenticeship and 2) the profession excluded, supposedly, manual labor

      Because surgeons actually treated the patient by performing physical labor – a trade, so to speak – they occupied a lower rung on the social ladder.

      Apothecaries, who learned their profession through apprenticeship and who were definitely considered to be in “trade," ranked even lower on the social scale.

      Read more here

    16. month at Tunbridge Wells

      Famous mineral spring used to cure ailments. https://www.visittunbridgewells.com/

    17. whooping cough

      Whooping cough is a highly contagious respiratory tract infection, characterized by uncontrollable coughing. In Jane Austen's time, there was no prevention method (ex. vaccine) or cure to prevent whooping cough, hence why Jane herself suffered from it. Rather than consulting a physician for treatment, she used home remedies concocted by her friend and sister-in-law, Martha Lloyd.

      Source

    18. long journey from Hampshire

      The counties of Hampshire and Surrey (the location of fictional Sanditon) are next to each other, meaning the journey was likely no more than 50 or 60 miles. Although this was no inconsiderable distance, Diana is likely exaggerating the fatigue of traveling between two adjacent counties.

    19. who would have been nothing at Brighton

      Brighton, located along the coast of Sussex, grew considerably as a popular resort town during the early nineteenth century. From 1769 to 1818, its population grew from 3,000 to 18,000 people. Brighton was a fashionable holiday destination, frequented by members of the British Royal Family.

      https://janeaustensworld.wordpress.com/2007/06/25/brighton-a-popular-seaside-resort/

    20. six new dresses each for a three-days visit

      During the Regency period, it was common (and expected) for women to change dresses multiple times per day, depending on the occasion. A morning dress (worn until dinner), walking/promenade dress (worn on walks and during shopping), and an evening gown were necessary wardrobe staples.

      http://www.susannedietze.com/dressing-the-regency-lady.html

    21. Charitable Repository

      A Charitable Repository was the precursor to the modern-day charity shop, where donated goods were sold for the benefit of the poor.

      Source

    22. Burton on Trent

      Burton on Trent (also called Burton upon Trent) is a major brewery town on the River Trent in East Staffordshire, England. It was known for producing foodstuffs, hosiery, knitting machines, and steel goods.

    23. hung

      Hanging was the principle method of judicial execution in England from the 1700s until capital punishment was abolished in 1964.

      Although we never learn what this man was hanged for, smuggling and theft were very popular activities at the time.

      Read more here

    24. haymakers

      Haymaking (making hay from grass grown from fodder) grew in popularity as a profession during the late 18th/early 19th century. Technological advancements from the Industrial Revolution made haymaking a much easier, faster process and a much more profitable industry.

      Source

    25. "We are always well stocked," said he, "with all the common remedies for sprains and bruises

      Since medical professionals were rare, expensive, and not terribly helpful, many women learned basic nursing skills to care for their own families, and had their own home remedies, too.

      Source

    26. Morning Post and the Kentish Gazette

      The Morning Post was a conservative daily newspaper published in London from 1772 to 1937.

      The Kentish Gazette is a weekly newspaper serving the city of Canterbury, Kent.

    27. whole-length portrait of a stately gentleman

      A whole-length portrait of Sir Denham would have been a luxury and a very large expense. The price of a portrait increased with the portion of the person to be depicted, thus a half-height, a three-quarter, and a full length portrait were each incrementally more expensive.

      Read more about portraiture in Regency England here

    28. equipage

      "A carriage and horses, with the attendant servants; in later use sometimes applied to a carriage alone" www.oed.com

    29. sentimental novels

      The sentimental novel was a popular genre, emerging in 18th century Europe. They aimed to emphasize the value of emotions and "raised the analysis of emotion to a fine art." https://www.britannica.com/art/sentimental-novel

    30. Timbuctoo

      As commonly used today, Timbuctoo is used to refer to "the most distant place imaginable." http://www.oed.com/view/Entry/202099?redirectedFrom=timbuctoo#eid

    31. Chichester

      a city of of West Sussex in South-East England, approximately six miles from the nearest coast

    32. original thirty thousand pounds

      Thirty thousand pounds is equivalent to over one million pounds in today's currency.

      Source

    33. woman of seventy

      For reference, the life expectancy of women in Regency England was approximately 40 years old (around the age that Jane Austen herself passed away).

      Source

    34. He had been an elderly man when she married him, her own age about thirty.

      This was an odd match for the time. In Regency England, the average age of marriage was between 23 and 27 for women and between 25 and 29 for men.

      Source

    35. subscription
    36. "No people spend more freely, I believe, than West Indians,"

      During the 18th century, many owners of West Indian sugar plantations made fortunes through the use of cutting edge technology in their business ventures -- these successful entrepreneurs came to be known as "Sugar Kings." Some of these men and their families then journeyed back to England to buy estates with their newly earned money, and the sugar lobby gained power in Parliament as the recently-returned Sugar Kings took up seats in the legislature.

      Read about the British West Indies here.

    37. asses' milk

      From as far back as ancient Egypt, the health benefits of donkey's milk has been recognized. This milk supposedly is "anti-inflammatory and hypoallergenic" and has vitamins and probiotics that make it a more nutritious drink than other animal milk.

      https://foodtravelist.com/donkey-milk-health-benefits/

      Many cultures believed that the nutrients from the milk aided in the prevention of and recovery from diseases.

      https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128097625000310

    38. physic

      Physic is a dated term that, in this context, refers broadly to "medicinal drugs."

      https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/physic

    39. consumptive

      Consumption is another name for tuberculosis (TB), which is a serious bacterial disease of the lungs. In the 19th century, there were no cures or effective treatments for consumption, making it one of the leading causes of death and a serious fear.

      https://www.lung.org/about-us/blog/2016/01/how-we-conquered-consumption.html

    40. library subscription book

      Circulating libraries were particularly popular -- especially among women -- during the 18th and early 19th centuries. Unlike today's libraries, patrons had to pay a fee to access their services and take out books. Libraries also sold other items like stationary products to turn a profit. Mr. Parker wants to see the library subscription book in order to check how many people have signed up to use the library -- and are thus staying in Sanditon -- for the season.

      See resources here and here for more information about circulating libraries.

    41. evil lay in her gum

      It is possible Susan was suffering from a headache caused by clenching her teeth or from having sensitive jaw or neck muscles. It is not, and has never been, a legitimate cure to extract teeth as a result. This extreme measure highlights that the Parkers are hypochondriacs.

      https://migrainepal.com/treatments-clenching-grinding-headache-and-migraine/

    42. friction by the hand alone

      Cross friction massage therapy is an actual medical technique for sprained ankles where one applies pressure to the injured ankle using one's hand. This breaks down scar tissue, which would prolong the healing process. Usually, this technique is done a few days after the injury, not immediately as Diana suggests.

      https://collegeofmassage.com/toronto/2013/08/sprained-ankles-and-massage-therapy/

    43. spasmodic bile

      Bile is a bodily fluid that is produced by the liver to help the small intestine digest food. It is possible that Diana is suffering from a condition called Sphincter of Oddi Dysfunction (SOD) where bile gets intermittently backed up between the liver and small intestine resulting in severe and seemingly random abdominal pains.

      https://www.urmc.rochester.edu/encyclopedia/content.aspx?ContentTypeID=134&ContentID=181

      Austen is most likely drawing upon her own grievances, as she often complained of "bilious attacks."

      https://mh.bmj.com/content/31/1/3

    44. French boarding school

      This seems apparently to refer to simply a boarding school that teaches French, but references are unclear. French was, however, a subject of great importance in the Regency era, as this article explains.

      References to "French Boarding Schools" in England can be found here and in an advertisement here.

    45. bathing machines

      Bathing machines were small shed-like boxes of wood or canvas mounted on wheels and propelled into the water (sometimes pulled by horses). The occupant would change inside the bathing machine and step down from it into the water, thereby guarding the occupant's (usually a woman) modesty. See Heath's Mermaids at Brighton at the top of this text.

      [History of bathing machines] (http://www.victoriana.com/Etiquette/bathingmachine.htm)

      Images of bathing machines

    46. lottery

      Austen here uses the term to refer to an "enterprise regarded as governed by chance." www.oed.com

    47. nursery grounds

      an area of land used for raising young plants www.oed.com

    48. Weald

      the name of the tract of country, formerly wooded, included portions of Sussex, Kent, and Surrey www.oed.com

    49. hamlet

      a small village in the country www.oed.com

    50. baronet

      A baronet was ranked as the lowest of those with hereditary titles but above all forms of knighthood. http://www.oed.com/view/Entry/15666?rskey=Z33XhD&result=1&isAdvanced=false#eid

    51. seminary

      Austen is referring to a boarding school attended by young women from wealthy families who, for some reason, were not educated at home by a governess. https://judeknightauthor.com/tag/girls-education-in-regency-england/

    52. dinner

      Dinner was the primary meal of the day in Regency England and typically took place around mid-day.

    53. judged with severity

      It could be considered scandalous for two young, single people of the opposite sex to be having a completely private conversation. Many couples were alone together for the first time during a marriage proposal. https://byuprideandprejudice.wordpress.com/2014/01/28/courtship-and-marriage-in-the-regency-period/

    54. West Indian

      During Austen's life, the British Empire had significant holdings in the Caribbean (the West Indies). These colonies would not begin becoming independent until after World War II.

      History of the West Indies

    55. point of death

      Hypochondria was recognized as a real condition during Austen's time. It was classified as a "nervous disorder," and tended to be reserved only to the elite of society. This seems to be the only illness of Susan, Diana, and Arthur.

      http://jasna.org/publications/persuasions-online/volume-38-no-2/darcy/

    56. sea bathing

      By the mid-18th century, swimming in the cold ocean was a standard therapy for illness or anxiety. The adrenaline from the shock of cold was thought to have soothing effects on the body, calming anxiety and restoring the body-soul balance.

    57. nankin boots

      Generally spelled "Nankeen," a type of short walking boot made with a pale brown cotton cloth originally produced in Nanjing, China.

      Information about Nankeen boots

    58. enclosures

      During the 18th and 19th Century, Parliament passed the Inclosure Acts, which expanded landowners' ability to enclose previously publicly-held lands for their own use. This practice was protested against by commoners who had relied on the lands for communal use.

      History of enclosures

      More history of enclosures

      The Inclosure Acts

    59. straw hats and pendant lace

      Straw hats would have been a common seaside accessory for Regency-era women. Lace was also becoming more readily available -- and affordable -- in the early 19th century with the perfection of lace-making machines in 1813. Up until the 19th century, lace was generally handmade and thus expensive, but by the time of Sanditon's writing was much cheaper.

      A history of lace

      On straw hats vs. lace

    60. gentlemanlike

      Resembling a gentleman. Gentleman c1700 would have meant "A man of gentle birth, or having the same heraldic status as those of gentle birth; properly, one who is entitled to bear arms, though not ranking among the nobility, but also applied to a person of distinction without precise definition of rank"

      and "A man of superior position in society, or having the habits of life indicative of this; often, one whose means enable him to live in easy circumstances without engaging in trade, a man of money and leisure"(http://www.oed.com/view/Entry/77673?redirectedFrom=gentleman#eid)

    61. A little of our own bracing sea air will soon set me on my feet again

      18th century England obsessed over the health benefits of the seaside, especially as a cure for tuberculosis. This fascination led to the creation of resort towns, which later spread from England to the new world.

      https://www.theatlantic.com/health/archive/2013/08/the-historic-healing-power-of-the-beach/279175/

    62. We have neither surgeon nor partner in the parish

      The partner of a surgeon is, in this context, the apothecary. Apothecaries were able to legally dispense medicine while surgeons could legally perform operations.

      https://books.google.com/books?id=Gm-N_969uekC&dq=surgeon+and+partner+jane+austen&source=gbs_navlinks_s

    63. tonic pills

      At the end of the 18th century, tonic pills were believed to be an effective form of dieting. After the extravagance of the Georgian period (especially George IV), it became fashionable and responsible to lose weight during the Regency period.

      https://www.historyextra.com/period/georgian/revealed-how-the-georgians-taught-us-to-diet-300-years-ago/

    64. anti-spasmodic, anti-pulmonary, anti-septic, anti-billious and anti-rheumatic
      1. spasmodic: characterized by spasms or convulsive twitches
      2. pulmonary: relating to lungs
      3. septic: putrefactive, putrefying
      4. billious: Affected by too great a secretion of bile, or from bilious derangement
      5. rheumatic: containing mucous or watery secretions

      www.oed.com

    65. real property, landed or funded

      Approximately 25,000 families made up the landed gentry in late 18th century England. https://www.historytoday.com/archive/marriage-and-property-jane-austen%E2%80%99s-novels

    66. sea air

      In 1753, Dr. Richard Russell popularized the idea that sea air was beneficial to one's health and nervous system in his writing A Dissertation Concerning the Use of Sea-Water in Diseases of the Glands. By the 19th century, it was generally accepted that the air, in addition to the actual water, had health benefits, but this belief was not backed by science.

      http://jasna.org/publications/persuasions-online/volume-38-no-2/darcy/

    67. Three teeth drawn at once—frightful!

      There were no licensed dentists during this period. General physicians extracted teeth and often without anesthetic, making it a very painful (and traumatizing?) process. This explains why Charlotte is so sympathetic towards Miss Parker.

      https://georgianera.wordpress.com/2015/02/05/18th-century-dentistry/

    68. watch

      Austen would be referring to a pocket watch. Wristwatches were not worn, especially by men, until around the turn of the 20th century. https://www.nytimes.com/2013/10/23/fashion/wrist-watches-from-battlefield-to-fashion-accessory.html

    69. any complaint which asses' milk could possibly relieve

      Donkey milk was considered a viable medical treatment from antiquity (Cleopatra bathed in it) until the turn of the 19th century, when it largely went out of fashion. It was considered a generic cure for a variety of conditions, including gout, scurvy, coughs, colds and asthma. For many, donkey milk caused stomach problems and "lactose intolerance."

      https://georgianera.wordpress.com/tag/asses-milk/

    70. of considerable property in the country

      Here is a link that explains what the dollar in Jane Austen's world equates to today. It also includes information about the economy of that time. http://www.jasna.org/publications/persuasions-online/vol36no1/toran/

    71. I have a great idea of the efficacy of air

      Treatments for illness often relied on "fresh air" to clear impurities from the body.

      http://www.vam.ac.uk/content/articles/h/health-and-medicine-in-the-19th-century/

    72. drawing room

      a room reserved for the reception of company, and to which the ladies withdraw from the dining-room after dinner; a private room that is attached to public areas of the house http://www.oed.com/view/Entry/57558

    73. rheumatism

      Any disease marked by inflammation and pain in the joints, muscles, or fibrous tissue, especially rheumatoid arthritis.

    74. South Foreland and Land's End

      South Foreland and Land's End are points on opposite ends of England's southern coast.

    75. Camberwell

      A district of London.

    1. Oral history is a sound recording of historical information, obtained through an interview that preserves a person’s life history or eyewitness account of a past experience—but read on. In the pages that follow, this manual invites you to explore the full implications of the terms recording, interviewing, and preserving as you learn to create oral history

      Testing the functionality of this web tool.

    Tags

    Annotators

    1. Federal Indian policy during the period from 1870 to 1900 marked a departure from earlier policies that were dominated by removal, treaties, reservations, and even war.

      What caused this departure? Was it just that this was the next phase? Previous violence had effectively advanced the agenda to this point to allow 'mopping up' and consolidating the gains that had been won?

    2. On February 8, 1887, Congress passed the Dawes Act, named for its author, Senator Henry Dawes of Massachusetts.

      It might be a good idea to follow the link and read the Dawes act, just to get some perspective on what was the contents of this document. [http://www.ourdocuments.gov/doc.php?doc=50&page=transcript)]

    1. The dismemberment of tribal land bases has created an enormous range of obstacles to economic development in tribal communities, including those within the Cherokee ation, and has squandered human potential and caused suffering on an immeasurable level.

      This poetic description of 'dismemberment' is quite graphic and evokes images of slaughter and mass graves such as at wounded-knee. The act of land-redistribution was one of violence and it resulted in destroyed lives and culture as well as somewhat 'indirectly,' the literal death of inhabitants from economic factors as well as increase in crime, violence, alcoholism... I need to take a break and go to work, my objectivity is slipping, and emotion is powerful, but not the best historical lens, especially in an academic setting.

    2. Allotment resulted in impoverishment and marginalization, and if desperation was reason to assimilate, then it sometimes caused that, too, although to a much smaller extent than its champions had predicted.

      It is the isolation from traditional social networks and economic systems such as Buffalo that accomplishes this. I just thought of how I will go to food-service work in an hour and administer 'Buffalo Sauce' and the thought and association made me sick. That people's livelihoods were destroyed so they would be replaced by making practically extinct a magnificent species. And now I use that word every work-day in the context of a pungent smelling, spicy, cowboy/country-western themed hot-sauce condiment.

    3. the federal govern-ment sought to compel American Indian people to accept Christianity, the English language, market-oriented agriculture conducted through nuclear family units, Anglo-American social organization, and, even-tually, American citizenship.

      Here the wall of separation between church and state is explicitly broken. The reason is apparent: the federal government seeks allies among a variety of institutions to aid in the ultimate elimination of native peoples, and total control of land and residents.

    4. t was this extended network of relationships and the obligations and hospitality associated with it that brought Lewis Sourjohn to the Chewey area, that account for John and Dora Wolfe's decisions, and that enabled annie to survive the loss of her husband and her farm without ever being destitute or homeless.

      Here is an effective form of collective resistance that allowed individuals such as Nannie to survive. Without this network, she very well may have perished in this harsh environment, no matter how independent she was. No person survives as an island, which is why Allotment policies seek to isolate and control Native peoples made dependent.

    1. To many Cherokees, the old Cherokee Female Seminary building that now stands on the campus of Northeastern State University in Tahlequah remains a symbol of adaptation and progress in a changing, and often inhospitable, world. To others, it remains a symbol of that inhospitable world.

      Both perspectives are authentic, and neither are mutually exclusive. This is a complex and problematic topic, perhaps it is best that it remains uncomfortable, unsettled, and unsettling, especially in an academic context.

    2. In light of the reverence that progressive tribal members felt for the Cherokee Female Seminary and considering the reason for its establishment, it is little wonder that the 211 girls who graduated from the seminary and, to a lesser extent, those who did not gradu-ate but used their seminary education to obtain degrees from other institutions were considered the creme de la creme of the Cherokee Nation.

      Elevation in social hierarchy becomes equated not with resistance or talent within a traditional Cherokee context, but in the context of white cooperation and submission, with real economic incentives for following the program. Within Cherokee society this restructures the social hierarchy, and alters fundamentally the character and beliefs of the new generation of leaders. This creates division and social upheaval within the community.

    3. Two Scenes in Indian Land," Na-Li de-scribes a "wild and desolate" estate of a Cherokee family, composed of "whooping, swarthy-looking boys" and plaited-haired women, all of whom "bear a striking resemblance to their rude and uncivilized hut."

      Here wildness and skin color are consistently connected, but also notice evidence of equating the state of the hut to the inhabitant, compared to the whitewashed houses mentioned in the lecture, with pine floors...

    4. Unsure whether the Cherokees could obtain a high level of civilization by themselves, he asserted that "intermarriage will accomplish the purpose quickly.

      The Cherokee identity is one that is meant to be eventually erased, so hypodescent is treated differently than that of African slaves. Blackness was considered a badge of slavery, so it was carefully portrayed as a contagious quality that one drop would grant an identity, so that it would persist despite intermixing and create a perpetual stock of potential slaves. This attitude persisted in the South even after slavery was abolished. The Cherokees were meant to eventually disappear, so in this case, whiteness was portrayed contagious in at least the sense it would 'erase' the Cherokee identity, if not enough to make them 'equal.'

    5. A Wreath of Chero-kee Rose Buds, girls complained in an editorial about the Townsend, Massachusetts, female seminary's paper, the Lesbian Wreath, which referred to the Cherokee girls as their /1 dusky sisters. "23 A popular practice of the Cherokee seminary's paper was to tell anecdotes and stories in which appearance, particularly blue eyes, featured promi-nently. For example, one story tells of the consequences that young "Kate M.11 faced after plagiarizing a poem for literature class. "Fun and abundance," student Lusette writes, "peeped from her blue eyes ... and the crimson blush stole upon her cheeks." In the same issue, author Inez writes about what her schoolmates might be doing in four years. One student is described as a /1 fair, gay, blue-eyed girl, 11 and another is a "fairylike creature with auburn hair.11

      Here the physical features between Anglo Americans and Cherokees are juxtaposed, and are tied to an essentialist view where the physical characteristics are ranked on a hierarchy that encompasses linked traits such as intelligence, morality, civilization, and spiritual purity. Having Cherokee students write material such as this promotes an internalization of racism, and a normalization of accepting their place within this hierarchy. Ostensibly there would be resistance to this, but resistance would be punished, and acceptance would be rewarded, leading 'clever' Cherokees to follow the least path of resistance and receive praise and be rewarded for submission, while the 'stubborn/backwards' Cherokees would 'fail to learn the truth' and be punished. This suggests an Orwellian dynamic of indoctrination and psychological manipulation.

    6. 68 Colonialism and Native Women was probably because girls of one family attended school together, which helped to alleviate homesickness. Some were even adopted into the "big happy seminary family, 11 a phrase used by a mixed-blood (one-thirty-second Cherokee blood) to refer to the upper echelons of the student hierarchy.16 Because of interruptions such as the Civil War, the destruction of the school by fire, smallpox epidemics, and alternate educational opportunities, not one student, not even a grad-uate (many of whom enrolled for more than ten semesters), remained in the seminary from first grade through graduation.17 Full-bloods who enrolled in the common schools usually learned to speak

      It is important to put into context that the real destruction of Native Peoples was far reaching, and that the Boarding School institution did not exist in a vacuum. The real tragedy was a multifaceted, expansive process of genocide, elimination, and replacement... not just allotments and re-education. Context matters to view the Boarding School institution as an agent of cultural violence.

    7. 4 With the National Council advocating white education, the traditionalists were continually pressured to adopt a different culture if they wanted to attend the seminary.

      Here is a good explicit example of how race and culture are tied together in 19th and early 20th century racial paradigms.

    8. a mixed-blood senior responded to the administration's concerned query "Full-blood girls to do Shakespeare? Impossible!" by saying, "You don't know [teachers] Miss Allen and Miss Minta Foreman!" implying that these instructors were indeed miracle workers.

      The internalization of white racism by mixed-blood students represents one of the major consequences of the divisive nature of the boarding school dynamic. In-group/out-group division as different categories are arranged in proximity to whiteness, creating conflict to promote white interests and gain allies in Native destruction and subjugation in the late-game/end-game strategy.

    9. I haven't got but 2 letters frame home and one frame you and I have writen 6 letters since I have been here and this is the 7 I aint rooming with no body yet here is the picture of the jail house.

      A sense of entrapment, definite negative feelings, and involuntary attendance. This is someone who HAS to be here, they don't want to be.

    10. The establishment of the Cherokee seminaries created a tremen-dous amount of pride among many Cherokees, but not all tribespeo-ple liked the idea of the expensive schools.

      This is an interesting way to phrase it. Did it create pride among many Cherokees, or just a select few? The narrative the federal government and the institution, and Indian Affairs would want to portray certainly suggests this, but is it wise to use this type of language today off hand, and is it historically accurate?

    11. Women such as Belle Cobb, Rachel Caroline Eaton, and Nannie Katherine Daniels went on to graduate from universities (Cobb earned her medical degree in 1892,

      These names may be useful to remember for researching primary history documents.

    12. -Qua-Tay, seminarian, 1855

      The seminarian perspective is one that can be viewed as problematic or controversial, because it is wrong to deny their experiences and their unique perspective of individuals benefiting from boarding schools, but it is even worse to deny the tragedy and the cultural destruction inflicted by this institution.

  5. Mar 2019
    1. The HMO Act of 1973 changed that premise. It authorized for-profit IPA-HMOs in which HMOs may contract with independent practice associations (IPAs) that, in turn, contract with individual physicians for services and compensation. By the late 1990s, 80 percent of MCOs were for-profit organizations, and only 68 percent or less of insurance premiums went toward medical care.

      The HMO Act of 1973 resulted in for profit health care.

    1. Nixon signed into law, the Health Maintenance Organization Act of 1973, in which medical insurance agencies, hospitals, clinics and even doctors, could begin functioning as for-profit business entities instead of the service organizations they were intended to be. 

      In the 1970s health care was allowed to change from a non-profit to a for profit.

    1. a group of teachers created a program through Baylor University Hospital where they would agree to pre-pay for future medical services (up to 21 days in advance). The resulting organization was not-for-profit and only covered hospital services. It was essentially the precursor to Blue Cross.

      Baylor University's teacher's created one of the first "employee insurance companies" which turned into Blue Cross.

    2. Since U.S. businesses were prohibited from offering higher salaries, they began looking for other ways to recruit new employees as well as incentivizing existing ones to stay. Their solution was the foundation of employer-sponsored health insurance as we know it today.

      The result of the Stabilization Act of 1942 was for employers to provide health care benefits to employees.

    1. Because health benefits could be considered part of compensation but did not count as income, workers did not have to pay income tax or payroll taxes on those benefits. Thus, by 1943, employers had an increased incentive to make health insurance arrangements for their workers, and the modern era of employer-sponsored health insurance began

      After WWII companies started providing health insurance to employees. Somewhere along the way this translated into employers co-oping with private insurance companies to provide health insurance as opposed to paying the employees medical bills or providing their own doctors and clinics.

    1. “Most Japanese people see cannabis as a subculture of Japan but they’re wrong. For thousands of years, cannabis has been at the very heart of Japanese culture,” Japan’s leading expert on cannabis, Takayasu Junichi, told the Asia Pacific Journal in an interview.

      This is quite something.

    1. 2Ridesharing is not new.It began during World War II.In 1942, the U.S.government required ridesharing arrangements inworkplaces when no other transportation options were availablein orderto save rubber during the war (Chan and Shaheen, 2012). In the 1970s, theoil crisisand spike in gasoline prices encouraged another period of ride sharing. However, today’s ridesharingrevolution was made possible by the development of GPS, smart phone technology, and electronic payments. In the early 1990s, Kowshik et al. (1993) envisioned a future of ridesharing similar to what exists today that would usebetter matching techniques to provide dynamic ridesharing.

      History of ride sharing which shows how it has evelutionized

  6. Feb 2019
    1. Madonella.

      Meaning "little Madonna" or "small Madonna." What is fascinating about this reference is the history behind the Madonnelle street shrines (little Madonnas) in Rome/other Italian cities. These little Madonnas were seen as the protectors of the communities in which they looked over (literally believed to be protecting them from evil). Also, lamps in front of the shrines were lit at night to guide passer-bys through the darkness, and, unlike other Madonna icons, these little Madonnas gazed directly at the viewer, establishing "a personal connection between the two." Maybe not such a ridicuous bluestocking figure to compare Mary Astell to afterall?

    1. being able to wear clothing that enabled better mobility. Walker chose to wear what was known as the "Bloomer costume" as a modified uniform all throughout the war. It was a dress-and-trouser combination that had gone out of favor long before the war began, but she didn't care -- she wore it anyway.

      From the time she was a girl she wore pants and she continued to do so even in the military.

    2. In 1863, her medical credentials were finally accepted, so she moved to Tennessee, where she was appointed as a War Department surgeon

      The phrasing of this appears to be somewhat biased. It sounds like her credentials weren't up to snuff or something but really, the military was low on surgeons at that time and simply didn't want a woman. https://hyp.is/vAWzXCtjEem5j1tLLCQ8dg/cfmedicine.nlm.nih.gov/physicians/biography_325.html

    3. Because of her credentials, she didn't want to be a nurse, either, so she chose to volunteer for the Union Army.

      This is some what conflicting information. According to https://hyp.is/vAWzXCtjEem5j1tLLCQ8dg/cfmedicine.nlm.nih.gov/physicians/biography_325.html she did work as a Nurse, she just wasn't paid.

    4. Walker went into private practice for a few years, but then the Civil War broke out in 1861. She wanted to join the Army as a surgeon but wasn't allowed because she was a woman.

      She was a surgeon in private practice but wanted to join the war effort.

    5. in 1855 graduated as a medical doctor from Syracuse Medical College

      She was the second women surgeon at that time.

    1. in 1863 she was briefly appointed surgeon in an Ohio Regiment.

      She finally was appointed a surgeon near the end of the war.

    2. Dr. Mary Walker was an outspoken advocate for women's rights, and the first woman ever awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor.

      She wore her medal everyday and also modified her uniform in the war to have pants. In 1917 they took all medals of honor away for anyone who hadn't been "in combat". She refused to give her medal up and wore it until the day she died. Jimmy Carter later reinstated her medal in 1977.

    3. At the outbreak of the Civil War, she volunteered in Washington to join the Union effort, and worked as a nurse in a temporary hospital set up in the capital.

      She worked as an unpaid nurse because she was not allowed to join as a surgeon in the US military.

    1. Because mountains and streams divide Japan's farm land into small, isolated areas, it proved difficult to unify Japan politically. For most of its history, Japan has bean divided into many autonomous domains, each governed by a regional strong-man. No one of these local rulers was able to claim national leadership until 1600, and not until the end of the nineteenth century did Japan have a central government strong enough to assert control over all of Japan.
    1. especially at a time when many (perhaps most) computer technologies appear untethered to any philosophy besides the pursuit of maximum profit

      This is why I am here. As we have become more and more specialized, we have become less capable of understanding the consequences, good or ill, of new technologies. Looking back at foundational documents like this with a critical eye is a first step. We can't divorce science and technology from history, ethics and critical analysis without suffering the consequences. Looking back and understanding how we got here will provide clues in how to fix things. I am Geoff Cain - I started out life as a writer and English teacher and eventually went into elearning. I am VERY interested in projects like this because we need to stop being passive consumers of information. I want to help end the Era of the Guilty By-Stander: shared thought can lead to shared action. I will be blogging my experiences with this project at http://geoffcain.com

  7. Jan 2019
    1. The hupomnemata contribute one of the means by which one detaches the soul from concern for the future and redirects it toward contemplation of the past.

      I'm reminded here of Walter Benjamin's note on the "Angelus Novus" illustration: "His eyes are staring, his mouth is open, his wings are spread. This is how one pictures the angel of history. His face is turned toward the past. Where we perceive a chain of events, he sees on single catastrophe which keeps piling wreckage upon wreckage and hurts it in front of his feet. The angel would like to stay, awaken the dead, and make whole what has been smashed. But a storm is blowing from Paradise; it has got caught in his wings with such violence that the angel can no longer close them. This storm irresistibly propels him into the future to which his back is turned, while the peril of debris before him grows skyward. This storm is what we call progress" (Theses on the Philosophy of History).

    1. UTILITARIANISM

      Via Stanford Encyclopedia - History of Utilitarianism: "Though there are many varieties of the view discussed, utilitarianism is generally held to be the view that the morally right action is the action that produces the most good. There are many ways to spell out this general claim. One thing to note is that the theory is a form of consequentialism: the right action is understood entirely in terms of consequences produced. What distinguishes utilitarianism from egoism has to do with the scope of the relevant consequences. On the utilitarian view one ought to maximize the overall good — that is, consider the good of others as well as one's own good."

  8. Dec 2018
  9. gutenberg.net.au gutenberg.net.au
    1. buried two husbands

      This is the first remarried woman in Austen's writing. While it was discussed in Persuasion, it was in much more generic terms, and mostly regarding men. This is an interesting dynamic.

    2. irregularities

      This presumably is in reference to Robert Burns's well known love affairs. See section "The Life of a Lover and Writer": https://www.biography.com/people/robert-burns-9232194

    3. half mulatto

      The definition of "mulatto" according to an American census in 1850 is a person who "has from 3/8th to 5/8th black blood." There were no instructions on how to determine the percentage of African ancestry, besides the use of previous censuses and even skin colour. The British and later Americans with Caucasian ancestry were very particular in describing how much African ancestry a person had, which lead to specific rules and regulations on their behaviour.

      Miss Lambe is the first and only person mentioned in Austen's works identified as other than white, and it is interesting that she is rich and the "most important and precious".

      https://scholar.harvard.edu/jlhochschild/publications/racial-reorganization-and-united-states-census-1850-1930-mulattoes-half-br

    4. some immediate purchases

      Libraries also contained "expensive merchandise." Source.

    5. only without distinction

      In the 19th century, libraries were popular places for wealthy people to socialize. The fact that the library doesn't yet have better connections on its list seems disappointing for Mr. Parker.

      Source.

    6. handsomer equipage

      Miss Denham is jealous of nicer vehicles, as a gig is a lightweight, two-wheeled cart:

      "The gig was more formal than a village cart but less formal than other carriages or coaches. It also had a somewhat cheap reputation having received its name from a contraction of “whirligig,” because similar to the whirligig, the gig whirled rapidly. (https://www.geriwalton.com/the-gig-or-chaise/)

    7. the high road

      A now uncommon way of saying main road, but also euphemistically used to describe the most moral way. This text grapples with ethics in business ventures, particularly given the evident gentrification happening in Sanditon as a result of hypochondria that Austen describes as a pass time of the privileged. http://www.oed.com/view/Entry/86929?redirectedFrom=high+road#eid

    8. Campbell

      Pleasures of Hope by Thomas Campbell: http://spenserians.cath.vt.edu/TextRecord.php?textsid=37917

    9. Wordsworth

      William Wordsworth, Romantic poet.

      https://www.poets.org/poetsorg/poet/william-wordsworth

    10. Montgomery

      James Montogomery, Scottish-born poet and jounalist.

      https://www.britannica.com/biography/James-Montgomery

    11. lines

      Poet and musician Robert Burns wrote of Mary "Highland Mary" Campbell

      http://www.robertburns.org/encyclopedia/CampbellHighlandMary176315186.180.shtml

    12. cottage ornèe

      Cottage ornée or decorated cottage, dates back to a movement of "rustic" stylised cottages of the late 18th and early 19th century during the Romantic movement, when some sought to discover a more "natural" way of living as opposed to the formality of the preceding baroque and neo-classical architectural styles. via https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cottage_orn%C3%A9

      For more on the origins of the cottage ornée (in the Regency era in particular): https://regencyredingote.wordpress.com/2012/03/16/cottage-orn-style/

    13. Michaelmas

      Michaelmas is a Christian festival taking place on September 29 which honors the archangel Michael for defeating Satan in the war in Heaven. This article contains specific British traditions and emblems from Michaelmas festivities:

      https://www.historic-uk.com/CultureUK/Michaelmas/

    14. Links to common words/themes throughout the annotations

    15. Scott

      A reference to the poet Walter Scott.

    16. leeches

      "Bloodletting procedures, including leeching, became the most common medical procedure throughout the early modern period. By the early 19th century, many patients regularly submitted to various bloodletting practices as a means of preventing or treating infection and disease"

      https://www.britannica.com/science/leeching

      Leeching more specifically in Jane Austen's world: "One can imagine that during her final illness, Jane Austen was no stranger to leeches."

      https://janeaustensworld.wordpress.com/tag/leeches/

    17. machine

      "Wagons, called Bathing Machines, were invented especially for the purpose, and would be drawn out into the water by sturdy women, who might then assist you down into the water where you could paddle about or swim in relative privacy, shielded from view of the shore."

      https://www.janeausten.co.uk/tag/bathing-machines/

    18. West Indians

      The West Indies were Caribbean islands where many of the British migrated to, mostly in the 16th and 17th centuries. These "West Indians" may be returning British citizens who had lived in the Caribbean.

      https://genealogical.com/2018/06/11/british-migration-to-the-west-indies-before-1800/

    1. Minneapolis Central Library is hosting a Hullaballoo for History Day participants, Saturday, Dec. 1, 11 a.m. - 3 p.m.

      For all the people who love history day