17 Matching Annotations
  1. Jul 2021
    1. Von der Bücherordnung zur Buchführung

      From book keeping to bookkeeping

      Interesting to note that the German has two different physical words for these concepts which are more similar in English: keeping books (librarianship) to bookkeeping (accounting)

  2. May 2021
    1. We still do not understand how information practices from the worlds of learning, finance, industry, and administration cross-pollinated. From the fourteenth century onward, accountants developed complex instructions for note-taking to describe holdings and transactions, as well for the recording of numbers and calculations. By the seventeenth century, merchants, and indeed ship captains, engineers, and state administrators, were known to travel with trunks of memoranda, massive inventories, scrap books, and various ledgers and log books that mixed descriptive notes and numbers. By the eighteenth century, tables and printed forms cut down on the need for notes and required less description and more systematic numerical notes. Notaries also were master information handlers, creating archives for their legal and financial documents and cross-referencing catalogue systems.

      I'm noticing no mention here of double entry book keeping or the accountant's idea of waste books.

      There's also no mention of orality or memory methods either.

    1. Merchants have their waste book, Sudelbuch or Klitterbuch in German I believe, in which they list all that they have sold or bought every single day, everything as it comes and in no particular order. The waste book’s content is then transferred to the Journal in a more systematic fashion, and at last it ends up in the “Leidger [sic] at double entrance,” following the Italian way of bookkeeping. […] This is a process worthy of imitation by the learned.”(See Ulrich Joost’s analysis in this volume, 24-35.)

      I've seen this quote earlier today, but interesting seeing another source quote it.

    1. Lichtenberg, on the other hand, used the term "aphorism" in his notes, but never referred to it in his own writing. [7] The name Sudelbuch goes back to him, as his brother Ludwig Christian Lichtenberg noted in the "preliminary report" for the first edition of a selection of Lichtenberg's notes the year after his death . [8] And there was already reference to Lichtenberg's own explanation of the use of the term: [9] “The merchants have their waste book (Sudelbuch, Klitterbuch, I believe in German), in which they enter everything they sell and buy from day to day, everything in a mess, from this it is carried into the journal, where everything is more systematically stands, and finally it comes to the Leidger at double entrance according to the Italian way of bookkeeping. In this, each man is accounted for separately, first as a debtor and then as a creditor. This deserves to be imitated by scholars. First a book in which I write everything, as I see it or as my thoughts give me, then this can be carried back into another, where the matter is more separated and ordered, - Georg Christoph Lichtenberg : Sudelbuch E, entry 46 [10]

      Here's translated quote from the 1700's in which Georg Christoph Lichtenberg directly links the idea of double-entry bookkeeping to the idea of a commonplace book (or waste book or in his tongue Sudelbücher).

      Not to dissimilar to my recent observation:

      Backlinks in digital gardens, commonplace books, or wikis are just an abstract extension of the accounting concept of double-entry bookkeeping.

  3. Mar 2021
    1. Accounting or Accountancy is the measurement, processing, and communication of financial and non financial information about economic entities[1][2] such as businesses and corporations. Accounting, which has been called the "language of business",[3] measures the results of an organization's economic activities and conveys this information to a variety of users, including investors, creditors, management, and regulators.
    2. The terms "accounting" and "financial reporting" are often used as synonyms.
  4. Aug 2020
  5. Jul 2020
  6. Apr 2020
    1. Chart of accounts numbering involves setting up the structure of the accounts to be used, as well as assigning specific codes to the different general ledger accounts. The numbering system used is critical to the ways in which financial information is stored and manipulated. The first type of numbering to determine for a chart of accounts involves their structure. This is the layout of an account number, and involves the following components:Division code - This is typically a two-digit code that identifies a specific company division within a multi-division company. It is not used by a single-entity company. The code can be expanded to three digits if there are more than 99 subsidiaries.Department code - This is usually a two-digit code that identifies a specific department within a company, such as the accounting, engineering, or production departments.Account code - This is usually a three digit code that describes the account itself, such as fixed assets, revenue, or supplies expense.For example, a multi-division company with several departments in each company would probably use chart of accounts numbering in this manner: xx-xx-xxxAs another example, a single-division company with multiple departments could dispense with the first two digits, and instead uses the following numbering scheme: xx-xxxAs a final example, a smaller business with no departments at all could just use the three digit code assigned to its accounts, which is: xxxOnce the coding structure is set, the numbering of accounts can take place. This is the three-digit coding referred to previously. A company can use any numbering system that it wants; there is no mandated approach. However, a common coding scheme is as follows:Assets - Account codes 100-199Liabilities - 200-299Equity accounts - 300-399Revenues - 400-499Expenses - 500-599 As a complete example of the preceding outline of numbering, a parent company assigns the "03" designator to one of its subsidiaries, the "07" designator to the engineering department, and "550" to the travel and entertainment expense. This results in the following chart of accounts number:03-07-550
  7. Jan 2020
    1. “how did my time off balance get this way?”
    2. Your answer to, “how did my time off balance get this way?” Chronologically track and understand adjustments to employee time off. Plus, your team can easily view their own PTO changes right from their Gusto accounts
  8. Feb 2017
  9. Nov 2016