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  1. Sep 2020
    1. SAYAS Webinar 2: What Science will look like after COVID-19? (2020, July 23). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LA8zwwVpKJ8&feature=emb_logo

    2. 2020-07-23

    3. Even prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, the science and knowledge enterprise has had its fair share of successes and challenges. These are wide ranging from low funding steams at best to a lack of funding at worst, a lack of basic resources and infrastructure, attracting and retaining qualified educators and others. With the onslaught of the COVID-19 pandemic and the response to utilising science and evidence-based approaches in their responses in some countries, there may be opportunities to better position the place of science in tackling developmental challenges. We seek to interrogate how and if the current pandemic can create opportunities for better integration of the knowledge enterprise and science-policy nexus.
    4. SAYAS Webinar 2: What Science will look like after COVID-19?
    1. EWB Hub x GRiPS Student Workshop—Introduction to Experience Sampling Methods. (2020, June 29). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RcEfuSkiR8I

    2. 2020-06-29

    3. Experience sampling methods (ESM; also known as ecological momentary assessment or EMA) involves sampling participants’ experiences in natural environments, in real-time (or close to it), and on many measurement occasions, often using smartphone technology. These methods allow us insight into participants’ momentary states and the contexts in which these states occur, thus letting researchers “capture life as it is lived” (Bolger, Davis, & Rafaeli, 2003). ESM introduces ecological validity, reduces recall bias, and allows researchers to capture dynamic within-person processes. In this workshop, Dr. Kalokerinos discusses when ESM is useful, when things can go wrong, and how to design and execute a good ESM study. Show less Show more
    4. EWB Hub x GRiPS Student Workshop - Introduction to Experience Sampling Methods
    1. Steven Goodman: Statistical methods as social technologies versus analytic tools: Implications for metascience and research reform (Video). (n.d.). Metascience.com. Retrieved 2 September 2020, from https://metascience.com/events/metascience-2019-symposium/steven-goodman-statistical-methods-versus-analytic-tools/

    2. NA

    3. Statistical methods can be viewed through different lenses; as technical tools to detect signals and quantify uncertainty, or as foundations for making epistemic claims. The use of similar technical tools in different sciences can obscure the profoundly different epistemic cultures across the sciences. Elements of these cultures include what constitutes sufficient grounds for making a claim, e.g. that an intervention “works”, and who is qualified to make that judgment. If these differences are not acknowledged, which they rarely are, debates about how to improve the use of statistics in science often miss the mark, never reaching closure. This will be shown with recent empirical work on whet- her specialized statistical review is needed for research papers, efforts of a major science funder (PCORI) to improve statistical practice in its funded research, and controversy about the use of statistical significance in published research. I will discuss what this means for metascience and for improving statistical practice.
    4. Statistical methods as social technologies versus analytic tools: Implications for metascience and research reform
  2. Aug 2020
    1. Racism and COVID-19: Inequities and Policing. (2020, June 18). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S3kDdingjmo&feature=youtu.be

    2. Calls for social justice and police reform have gained momentum as unrest continues across the country in the wake of the killings of George Floyd, Breonna Taylor, Ahmaud Arbery, and Rayshard Brooks. These calls are intersecting with the coronavirus pandemic, which has highlighted long existing health and economic disparities between Black Americans and other groups. Even now, as COVID-19 cases crest more than 2 million in the country, we see disproportionate impacts on black communities, with the overall mortality rate for Black Americans from COVID-19 more than twice as high as those for Whites, Asian and Latino Americans. In this Facebook Live Q&A, David Harris, Managing Director of the Charles Hamilton Houston Institute for Race & Justice at Harvard Law School, discussed the drivers of current unrest and issues of police injustice -- and steps to consider to create a more just society.
    3. 2020-06-18

    4. Racism and COVID-19: Inequities and Policing
    1. 2020-06-25

    2. The Alan Turing Institute: Causal Inference, Causal Decision Making Under Uncertainty | CogX 2020. (2020, June 25). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JAGRHbDLvUs

    3. The Alan Turing Institute: Causal Inference, Causal Decision Making Under Uncertainty | CogX 2020
    4. The Alan Turing Institute: Causal Inference, Causal decision making under uncertainty Peter Tennant - University Academic Fellow in Health Data Science - University of Leeds Virginia Aglietti - PhD Student - Warwick University Eleanor Murray - Assistant Professor of Epidemiology - Boston University Bringing the world’s most interesting research papers to life. Examining the wider implications, we feature top research published across domains and verticals with exciting interviews with the authors themselves, alongside a curated Q&A session. CogX is hosted by Charlie Muirhead Co-Founder and CEO, and Co-Founder Tabitha Goldstaub. Find out more at: https://cogx.co/ CogX is an award-winning Festival with its roots in artificial intelligence. The fourth edition, June 8th to 10th 2020, adds a Virtual first experience and Global Leadership Summit, and builds on the huge success of the 2019 event, which brought together over 20,000 visitors. 2020 saw over 30,000 participants including 600+ speakers across 18 topic stages and 100+ side events. Our theme this year, “How do we get the next 10 years right?” with aims to: Move the conversation forward with concrete actions Inspire current and future generations of leaders Help reframe the climate emergency as the biggest economic opportunity in the last 200 years Help increase understanding of the current Covid-19 pandemic and champion innovative solutions CogX – Global Leadership Summit and Festival of AI & Breakthrough Technology
    1. 2020-03-20

    2. Science Facebook Live: Understanding SARS-CoV-2 structure informs vaccine design, clinical trials. (2020, March 20). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nOzEx3OpKe8

    3. Just weeks after the genome sequence of the recently emerged coronavirus was published online, researchers reported the cryogenic electron microscopy structure of the spike protein the virus uses to gain entry to host cells in a 19 February Science paper (https://scim.ag/2WxQ8lY). The insights from their study are already helping to inform vaccines against SARS-CoV-2. On Friday, the coauthors of this study, Jason McLellan and Barney Graham, discussed via Facebook Live how they visualized the spike protein, as well as how their work to improve understanding of SARS-CoV2 viral structure will inform therapeutics against this virus going forward. Show less Show more
    4. Science Facebook Live: Understanding SARS-CoV-2 structure informs vaccine design, clinical trials
  3. www.youtube.com www.youtube.com
    1. Supporting Open Science Data Curation, Preservation, and Access by Libraries. (n.d.). Retrieved 24 August 2020, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SbmGWHpzAHs

    2. Openness in research can lead to greater reproducibility, an accelerated pace of discovery, and decreased redundancy of effort. In addition, open research ensures equitable access to knowledge and the ability for any community to assess, interrogate, and build upon prior work. It also requires open infrastructure and distributed access; but few institutions can provide all of these services alone. Providing a trustworthy network for perpetual availability of research data is critical to ensuring reproducibility, transparency, and ongoing inquiry. Increased attention on the importance of open research and data sharing has led to a proliferation of platforms to store data, materials, etc., with limited technical integration. This can hinder data sharing, but also complicate coordination with local library expertise and services, thus hampering curation and long-term stewardship. For example, the open source OSF enables researchers to directly create and manage research projects and integrates with other tools researchers use (Google Drive, Dropbox, Box, etc.), but lacks the ability to archive that material locally at a researcher’s institution. Long-term stewardship and preservation requires multiple copies of data archived in different locations, and creating archives seamlessly would be ideal. COS and IA are working together to address these preservation and stewardship challenges by providing open, cooperative infrastructure to ensure long-term access and connection to research data, and by supporting and promoting adoption of open science practices to enhance research reproducibility as well as data sharing and reuse. In this webinar, attendees will learn about both the technical and practical aspects of this collaborative project connecting the researcher tool OSF and the preservation system of Internet Archive. We demonstrate how researchers can improve the openness and reproducibility of their research through preregistration, and how those preregistrations are preserved with Internet Archive. We answer questions and explore use cases for how this powerful workflow can support library curation and stewardship of open research.
    3. 2020-06-25

    4. Supporting Open Science Data Curation, Preservation, and Access by Libraries
    5. Online Harms & Disinformation Post-COVID. (n.d.). Retrieved 20 August 2020, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=N2BmRuXbNhk

    6. Does the digital economy need new regulation to improve citizens’ safety online? When does illegal become harmful? What oversight does regulation involve and what role should social media companies have? How can privacy enhancing technologies help with regards to online harms? Join leading researchers and industry advocates for a discussion on the outlook for online harms and how AI is countering disinformation.
    7. 2020-06-25

    8. Online Harms & Disinformation Post-COVID
    9. Communicating statistics, risks and uncertainty in the age of COVID19 | David Spiegelhalter | 5x15. (n.d.). Retrieved 19 August 2020, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m_D9egJHfCw

    10. 2020-07-09

    11. David Spiegelhalter is Chair of the Winton Centre for Risk and Evidence Communication in the University of Cambridge, which aims to improve the way that statistical evidence is used by health professionals, patients, lawyers, media and policy-makers. Apart from academic publications, he has written The Norm Chronicles (with Michael Blastland), Sex by Numbers, and the recently-published The Art of Statistics. He presented the BBC4 documentaries Tails you Win: the Science of Chance and the award-winning Climate Change by Numbers. He was elected Fellow of the Royal Society in 2005, knighted in 2014 for services to medical statistics, and was President of the Royal Statistical Society for 2017-2018. His greatest achievement came in 2011, when he was 7th in an episode of Winter Wipeout.
    12. Communicating statistics, risks and uncertainty in the age of COVID19
    13. 2020-06-23

    14. Finding facts during a crisis / Stand with the Facts / KUOW / CIP. (n.d.). Retrieved 19 August 2020, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mErLBpIz1f8

    15. Since the start of the global pandemic and nationwide protests against racial injustices, there has been a flood of information online. As new information hits our newsfeeds daily, there’s still a lot of uncertainty around the virus and response to the protests. How does the unpredictable nature of the current situations make us susceptible to consuming and potentially sharing misinformation?
    16. Finding facts during a crisis / Stand with the Facts / KUOW / CIP
    17. Cities After Covid—YouTube. (2020, June 19). https://youtu.be/cjwWjCxTBVs

    18. LucyinLockdown: Viruses, Pandemics and Lessons Learnt with Dr Jane Greatorex—YouTube. (2020, June 18). https://youtu.be/5U1go5hyen8

    19. Webinar: Virtual Networking for Nerds: How to network and find collaborations from afar. (n.d.). Retrieved 10 August 2020, from https://youtu.be/pdZyxs4resc

    20. Optimizing Research Collaboration. (n.d.). Retrieved 10 August 2020, from https://youtu.be/TFNqf7sKwKw

    21. 2020-06-22

    22. In this webinar, we demonstrate the OSF tools available for contributors, labs, centers, and institutions that support stronger collaborations. The demo includes useful practices like: contributor management, the OSF wiki as an electronic lab notebook, using OSF to manage online courses and syllabi, and more. Finally, we look at how OSF Institutions can provide discovery and intelligence gathering infrastructure so that you can focus on conducting and supporting exceptional research. The Center for Open Science’s ongoing mission is to provide community and technical resources to support your commitments to rigorous, transparent research practices. Visit cos.io/institutions to learn more.
    23. Optimizing Research Collaboration
    24. 2020-06-25

    25. Networking is the most honorable and valuable endeavor in which you can engage, because it is built on a spirit of generosity. At its core, networking is all about crafting win-win alliances where both parties provide value. You may think that “networking” can only take place in person, but this is a myth! In fact, most networking takes place from afar, and in some cases, the individuals may never even meet in person. In this webinar, our host Alaina G. Levine discussed strategies and tactics for finding new collaborators and building mutually-beneficial partnerships with professionals across the globe (and perhaps on some exoplanets too!). Let’s network!
    26. Webinar: Virtual Networking for Nerds: How to network and find collaborations from afar
    27. 2020-06-17

    28. Jane Greatorex is Senior Tutor, Undergraduate and Graduate Tutor and Director of Studies in Pre-Clinical Medical and Veterinary Sciences at Lucy Cavendish College. She has had a long career in academic and clinical science, specializing in the blood borne viruses and, until September 2017, was responsible for streamlining and improving HIV diagnostic services at Addenbrookes Hospital, Cambridge. As a scientist used to working in high containment laboratories, she was a team leader in Sierra Leone during the Ebola outbreak in 2015 and remains on the list of scientists that may be called upon to respond in the event of a similar occurrence. She remains involved in a number of research projects, specifically exploring the use of next generation sequencing for the identification of resistance mutations in HIV and human herpes viruses. Jane also maintains an active research interest in the Influenza virus, most recently working on the shedding and survival of H1N1v (“swine ‘flu”).
    29. #LucyinLockdown: Viruses, Pandemics and Lessons Learnt with Dr Jane Greatorex
    30. 2020-06-16

    31. How will COVID-19 shape the future of our cities? What are the most important priorities for our cities as a result of this pandemic? Join experts Richard Florida, Nathalie Des Rosiers, Anita McGahan and Shauna Brail as they discuss cities after COVID with Marcia Young, host of CBC’s World Report.
    32. Cities After Covid
    1. Causal Inference Isn't What You Think It Is

    2. CSM_seminar Causal Inference Isn't What You Think It Is. (2020). Retrieved 24 August 2020, from https://panopto.lshtm.ac.uk/Panopto/Pages/Viewer.aspx?id=ac88b49f-7e63-458d-823e-abe50152fb66

    3. 2020-06-25

    4. You may think that statistical causal inference is about inferring causation. You may think that it can not be tackled with standard statistical tools, but requires additional structure, such as counterfactual reasoning, potential responses or graphical representations. I shall try to disabuse you of such woolly misconceptions by locating statistical causality firmly within the scope of traditional statistical decision theory. From this viewpoint, the enterprise of "statistical causality" could fruitfully be rebranded as "assisted decision making".

    1. COVIDConversations: Protecting Children/Adolescents’ Mental Health with Professors Stein & Blakemore. (2020, June 24). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=laYyNumPQEA&feature=emb_logo

    2. 2020-06-24

    3. Alan Stein from Oxford's Department of Psychiatry will discuss his team’s work on the psychological implications of COVID-19. In the midst of the devastating death toll and hospitalisations, the effect of this unfolding pandemic on children’s mental health has been unconscionably overlooked. The overwhelming media coverage and barrage of public health messages, especially when families are in lockdown, sustains a high level of threat which is intensely observed by children. Thus, when adults talk to children, the information needs to consider the child's age to ensure they have a coherent narrative and emotional support for their experiences. The team have created a platform of resources to help make impossible conversations possible for healthcare professionals, families, care home staff and teachers.
    4. COVIDConversations: Protecting Children/Adolescents’ Mental Health with Professors Stein & Blakemore
    1. CNN, A. V., Holly Yan and Christina Maxouris. (n.d.). FDA won’t ‘cut corners’ to approve a Covid-19 vaccine, commissioner says. CNN. Retrieved 12 August 2020, from https://www.cnn.com/2020/08/10/health/us-coronavirus-monday/index.html

    2. 2020-08-11

    3. Safety will not be compromised for a Covid-19 vaccine, the US Food and Drug Administration commissioner said Monday.Dr. Stephen Hahn made the declaration in a video briefing with the American Medical Association. More than 5 million Americans have been infected with coronavirus, and more than 163,000 have died, according to Johns Hopkins data.
    4. FDA won't 'cut corners' to approve a Covid-19 vaccine, commissioner says
    1. 2020-08-10

    2. Kc, A., Gurung, R., Kinney, M. V., Sunny, A. K., Moinuddin, M., Basnet, O., Paudel, P., Bhattarai, P., Subedi, K., Shrestha, M. P., Lawn, J. E., & Målqvist, M. (2020). Effect of the COVID-19 pandemic response on intrapartum care, stillbirth, and neonatal mortality outcomes in Nepal: A prospective observational study. The Lancet Global Health, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(20)30345-4

    3. 10.1016/S2214-109X(20)30345-4
    4. The COVID-19 pandemic response is affecting maternal and neonatal health services all over the world. We aimed to assess the number of institutional births, their outcomes (institutional stillbirth and neonatal mortality rate), and quality of intrapartum care before and during the national COVID-19 lockdown in Nepal.
    5. Effect of the COVID-19 pandemic response on intrapartum care, stillbirth, and neonatal mortality outcomes in Nepal: a prospective observational study
    1. 2020-08-07

    2. Fischer, E. P., Fischer, M. C., Grass, D., Henrion, I., Warren, W. S., & Westman, E. (2020). Low-cost measurement of facemask efficacy for filtering expelled droplets during speech. Science Advances, eabd3083. https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.abd3083

    3. 10.1126/sciadv.abd3083
    4. Mandates for mask use in public during the recent COVID-19 pandemic, worsened by global shortage of commercial supplies, have led to widespread use of homemade masks and mask alternatives. It is assumed that wearing such masks reduces the likelihood for an infected person to spread the disease, but many of these mask designs have not been tested in practice. We have demonstrated a simple optical measurement method to evaluate the efficacy of masks to reduce the transmission of respiratory droplets during regular speech. In proof-of-principle studies, we compared a variety of commonly available mask types and observed that some mask types approach the performance of standard surgical masks, while some mask alternatives, such as neck fleece or bandanas, offer very little protection. Our measurement setup is inexpensive and can be built and operated by non-experts, allowing for rapid evaluation of mask performance during speech, sneezing, or coughing.
    5. Low-cost measurement of facemask efficacy for filtering expelled droplets during speech
    1. 2020-08-11

    2. CNN, C. M. (n.d.). Previous vaccines and masks may hold down Covid-19, some researchers say. CNN. Retrieved 12 August 2020, from https://www.cnn.com/2020/08/11/health/us-coronavirus-tuesday/index.html

    3. As US leaders work to control the spread of coronavirus, researchers across the globe are working to answer the mysteries that remain around infections. One of those mysteries: why the experience can be so different from person to person. One expert says the answer may involve looking at previous vaccines individuals have had.
    4. Previous vaccines and masks may hold down Covid-19, some researchers say
    1. 2020-05

    2. Céspedes, L. F., Chang, R., & Velasco, A. (2020). The Macroeconomics of a Pandemic: A Minimalist Model (Working Paper No. 27228; Working Paper Series). National Bureau of Economic Research. https://doi.org/10.3386/w27228

    3. 10.3386/w27228
    4. We build a minimalist model of the macroeconomics of a pandemic, with two essential components. The first is productivity-related: if the virus forces firms to shed labor beyond a certain threshold, productivity suffers. The second component is a credit market imperfection: because lenders cannot be sure a borrower will repay, they only lend against collateral. Expected productivity determines collateral value; in turn, collateral value can limit borrowing and productivity. As a result, adverse shocks have large magnification effects, in an unemployment and asset price deflation doom loop. There may be multiple equilibria, so that pessimistic expectations can push the economy to a bad equilibrium with limited borrowing and low employment and productivity. The model helps identify policies to fight the effects of the pandemic. Traditional expansionary fiscal policy has no beneficial effects, while cutting interest rates has a limited effect if the initial real interest rate is low. By contrast, several unconventional policies, including wage subsidies, helicopter drops of liquid assets, equity injections, and loan guarantees, can keep the economy in a full-employment, high-productivity equilibrium. Such policies can be fiscally expensive, so their implementation is feasible only with ample fiscal space or emergency financing from abroad.
    5. The Macroeconomics of a Pandemic: A Minimalist Model
    1. 2020-07

    2. Correa, R., Du, W., & Liao, G. Y. (2020). U.S. Banks and Global Liquidity (Working Paper No. 27491; Working Paper Series). National Bureau of Economic Research. https://doi.org/10.3386/w27491

    3. 10.3386/w27491
    4. We characterize how U.S. global systemically important banks (GSIBs) supply short-term dollar liquidity in repo and foreign exchange swap markets in the post-Global Financial Crisis regulatory environment and serve as the "lenders-of-second-to-last-resort". Using daily supervisory bank balance sheet information, we find that U.S. GSIBs modestly increase their dollar liquidity provision in response to dollar funding shortages, particularly at period-ends, when the U.S. Treasury General Account balance increases, and during the balance sheet taper of the Federal Reserve. The increase in the dollar liquidity provision is mainly financed by reducing excess reserve balances at the Federal Reserve. Intra-firm transfers between depository institutions and broker-dealer subsidiaries within the same bank holding company are crucial to this type of "reserve-draining" intermediation. Finally, we discuss factors that contributed to the repo spike in September 2019 and the subsequent response of U.S. GSIBs to recent policy interventions by the Federal Reserve.
    5. U.S. Banks and Global Liquidity
    1. 2020-05

    2. Alstadsæter, A., Bratsberg, B., Eielsen, G., Kopczuk, W., Markussen, S., Raaum, O., & Røed, K. (2020). The First Weeks of the Coronavirus Crisis: Who Got Hit, When and Why? Evidence from Norway (Working Paper No. 27131; Working Paper Series). National Bureau of Economic Research. https://doi.org/10.3386/w27131

    3. 10.3386/w27131
    4. Using real-time register data we document the magnitude, dynamics and socio-economic characteristics of the crisis-induced temporary and permanent layoffs in Norway. We find evidence that the effects of social distancing measures quickly spread to industries that were not directly affected by policy. Close to 90% of layoffs are temporary, although this classification may change as the crisis progresses. Still, there is suggestive evidence of immediate stress on a subset of firms that manifests itself in permanent rather than temporary layoffs. We find that the shock had a strong socio-economic gradient, hit a financially vulnerable population, and parents with younger children, and was driven by layoffs in smaller, less productive, and financially weaker firms. Consequently though, the rise in unemployment likely overstates the loss of output associated with the layoffs by about a third.
    5. The First Weeks of the Coronavirus Crisis: Who Got Hit, When and Why? Evidence from Norway
    1. 2020-07

    2. Newhouse, J. P. (2020). An Ounce of Prevention (Working Paper No. 27553; Working Paper Series). National Bureau of Economic Research. https://doi.org/10.3386/w27553

    3. 10.3386/w27553
    4. I look at prevention through an economic lens and make three main points. First, those advocating preventive measures are often asked how much money a given measure saves. This question is misguided. Rather preventive measures can be thought of as insurance, with a certain cost in the present that may or may not pay off in the future. In fact, although most medical preventive measures improve expected health, they do not save money. Various lifestyle and early childhood interventions, however, may both save money and improve health. Second, preventive measures, including medical and lifestyle measures, are heterogeneous in their value, both across measures and, within measure, across individuals. As a result, generalizations in everyday discourse about the value of prevention can be overly broad. Third, health insurance coverage for medical preventive measures should generally be more extensive than coverage for the treatment of a medical condition, though full coverage of preventive services is not necessarily optimal.
    5. An Ounce of Prevention
    1. 2020-05

    2. Baqaee, D., Farhi, E., Mina, M. J., & Stock, J. H. (2020). Reopening Scenarios (Working Paper No. 27244; Working Paper Series). National Bureau of Economic Research. https://doi.org/10.3386/w27244

    3. 10.3386/w27244
    4. We use a five-age epidemiological model, combined with 66-sector economic accounting, to address a variety of questions concerning the economic reopening. We calibrate/estimate the model using contact survey data and data on weekly historical individual actions and non-pharmaceutical interventions in the weeks ending March 8 – May 16, 2020. Going forward, we model a decision-maker (governor) as following reopening guidelines like those proposed by the White House and the CDC. The sectoral accounting, combined with information on personal proximity and ability to work from home by sector, make it possible to construct a GDP-to-Risk index of which sectors provide the greatest increment in GDP per marginal increase in R0. Through simulations, we find that: a strong economic reopening is possible; a “smart” reopening, preferencing some sectors over others, makes only modest improvements over a broad reopening; and all this hinges on retaining strong restrictions on non-work social contacts. If non-work contacts – going to bars, shopping without social distancing and masks, large group gatherings, etc. – return only half-way to the pre-COVID-19 baseline, the current decline in deaths reverses leading to a second wave of business closures.
    5. Reopening Scenarios
    1. 2020-05

    2. Kominers, S. D., Pathak, P. A., Sönmez, T., & Ünver, M. U. (2020). Paying It Backward and Forward: Expanding Access to Convalescent Plasma Therapy Through Market Design (Working Paper No. 27143; Working Paper Series). National Bureau of Economic Research. https://doi.org/10.3386/w27143

    3. 10.3386/w27143
    4. COVID-19 convalescent plasma (CCP) therapy is currently a leading treatment for COVID-19. At present, there is a shortage of CCP relative to demand. We develop and analyze a model of centralized CCP allocation that incorporates both donation and distribution. In order to increase CCP supply, we introduce a mechanism that utilizes two incentive schemes, respectively based on principles of “paying it backward” and “paying it forward.” Under the first scheme, CCP donors obtain treatment vouchers that can be transferred to patients of their choosing. Under the latter scheme, patients obtain priority for CCP therapy in exchange for a future pledge to donate CCP if possible. We show that in steady-state, both principles generally increase overall treatment rates for all patients—not just those who are voucher-prioritized or pledged to donate. Our results also hold under certain conditions if a fraction of CCP is reserved for patients who participate in clinical trials. Finally, we examine the implications of pooling blood types on the efficiency and equity of CCP distribution.
    5. Paying It Backward and Forward: Expanding Access to Convalescent Plasma Therapy Through Market Design
    1. 2020-05

    2. Bianchi, F., Faccini, R., & Melosi, L. (2020). Monetary and Fiscal Policies in Times of Large Debt: Unity is Strength (Working Paper No. 27112; Working Paper Series). National Bureau of Economic Research. https://doi.org/10.3386/w27112

    3. 10.3386/w27112
    4. The COVID pandemic found policymakers facing constraints on their ability to react to an exceptionally large negative shock. The current low interest rate environment limits the tools the central bank can use to stabilize the economy, while the large public debt curtails the efficacy of fiscal interventions by inducing expectations of costly fiscal adjustments. Against this background, we study the implications of a coordinated fiscal and monetary strategy aiming at creating a controlled rise of inflation to wear away a targeted fraction of debt. Under this coordinated strategy, the fiscal authority introduces an emergency budget with no provisions on how it will be balanced, while the monetary authority tolerates a temporary increase in inflation to accommodate the emergency budget. In our model the coordinated strategy enhances the efficacy of the fiscal stimulus planned in response to the COVID pandemic and allows the Federal Reserve to correct a prolonged period of below-target inflation. The strategy results in only moderate levels of inflation by separating long-run fiscal sustainability from a short-run policy intervention.
    5. Monetary and Fiscal Policies in Times of Large Debt: Unity is Strength
    1. 2020-06

    2. Acemoglu, D., Chernozhukov, V., Werning, I., & Whinston, M. D. (2020). Optimal Targeted Lockdowns in a Multi-Group SIR Model (Working Paper No. 27102; Working Paper Series). National Bureau of Economic Research. https://doi.org/10.3386/w27102

    3. 10.3386/w27102
    4. We study targeted lockdowns in a multi-group SIR model where infection, hospitalization and fatality rates vary between groups—in particular between the “young”, “the middle-aged” and the “old”. Our model enables a tractable quantitative analysis of optimal policy. For baseline parameter values for the COVID-19 pandemic applied to the US, we find that optimal policies differentially targeting risk/age groups significantly outperform optimal uniform policies and most of the gains can be realized by having stricter lockdown policies on the oldest group. Intuitively, a strict and long lockdown for the most vulnerable group both reduces infections and enables less strict lockdowns for the lower-risk groups. We also study the impacts of group distancing, testing and contract tracing, the matching technology and the expected arrival time of a vaccine on optimal policies. Overall, targeted policies that are combined with measures that reduce interactions between groups and increase testing and isolation of the infected can minimize both economic losses and deaths in our model.
    5. Optimal Targeted Lockdowns in a Multi-Group SIR Model
    1. 2020-05

    2. Brown, C. S., Ravallion, M., & van de Walle, D. (2020). Can the World’s Poor Protect Themselves from the New Coronavirus? (Working Paper No. 27200; Working Paper Series). National Bureau of Economic Research. https://doi.org/10.3386/w27200

    3. 10.3386/w27200
    4. We propose an index of the adequacy of home environments for protection (HEP) from COVID-19, and we compare our index across developing countries using data for one million sampled households from the latest Demographic and Health Surveys. We find that prevailing WHO recommendations for protection posit unrealistic home environments. 90% of households have inadequate HEP by one or more dimensions considered. 40% do not have a formal health-care facility within 5km. A strong wealth effect is indicated within and between countries. Only 6% of the poorest 40% have an adequate HEP, and the proportion is virtually zero in sub-Saharan Africa.
    5. Can the World's Poor Protect Themselves from the New Coronavirus?
  4. Jul 2020
    1. 2020-06

    2. COVID-19 and the Labor Market. (n.d.). IZA – Institute of Labor Economics. Retrieved 31 July 2020, from https://covid-19.iza.org/publications/dp13388/

    3. Sparked by the killing of George Floyd in police custody, the 2020 Black Lives Matter protests have brought a new wave of attention to the issue of in­equal­ity within criminal justice. However, many public health officials have warned that mass protests could lead to a reduction in social dis­tanc­ing behavior, spurring a resur­gence of COVID-19. This study uses newly collected data on protests in 315 of the largest U.S. cities to estimate the impacts of mass protests on social dis­tanc­ing and COVID-19 case growth. Event-​study analyses provide strong evidence that net stay-​at-home behavior increased following protest onset, con­sis­tent with the hy­poth­e­sis that non-​protesters’ behavior was sub­stan­tially affected by urban protests. This effect was not fully explained by the im­po­si­tion of city curfews. Estimated effects were generally larger for per­sis­tent protests and those ac­com­pa­nied by media reports of violence. Fur­ther­more, we find no evidence that urban protests reignited COVID-19 case growth during the more than three weeks following protest onset. We conclude that pre­dic­tions of broad negative public health con­se­quences of Black Lives Matter protests were far too narrowly conceived.
    4. 13388
    5. Black Lives Matter Protests, Social Dis­tanc­ing, and COVID-19
    1. Dave, D. M., Friedson, A. I., Matsuzawa, K., McNichols, D., Redpath, C., & Sabia, J. J. (2020). Did President Trump’s Tulsa Rally Reignite COVID-19? Indoor Events and Offsetting Community Effects (Working Paper No. 27522; Working Paper Series). National Bureau of Economic Research. https://doi.org/10.3386/w27522

    2. 10.3386/w27522
    3. On June 20, 2020, President Donald J. Trump held his first mass campaign rally following the outbreak of COVID-19. Held in Tulsa, Oklahoma, the political gathering attracted 6,000 to 12,000 individuals to the indoor Bank of Oklahoma (BOK) arena. This study is the first to explore the impact of this event on the spread of COVID-19. First, using data from Safegraph Inc, we show that while non-resident visits to census block groups hosting the Trump event grew by approximately 25 percent, there was no decline in net stay-at-home behavior in Tulsa county, reflecting important offsetting behavioral effects. Then, using data on coronavirus cases from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and a synthetic control design, we find little evidence that COVID-19 case growth grew more rapidly in Tulsa County, its border counties, or in the state of Oklahoma than each’s estimated counterfactual in the three weeks following the campaign rally. Difference-in-differences estimates further provide no evidence that COVID-19 case rates grew faster in counties that drew relatively larger shares of residents to the event. We conclude that offsetting behavioral responses to the rally — including voluntary closures of restaurants and bars in downtown Tulsa, increases in stay-at-home behavior, displacement of usual activities of weekend inflows, and smaller-than-expected crowd attendance — may be important mechanisms.
    4. Did President Trump's Tulsa Rally Reignite COVID-19? Indoor Events and Offsetting Community Effects