1,671 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
  2. Jan 2022
    1. Ryan Imgrund. (2022, January 2). If schools are not a source of transmission for COVID-19, why were school board per capita rates of infection 1.77x HIGHER than their surrounding community? SOURCE: Ministry of Education data; Compiled on December 17th, 2021; Calculations are mine. Https://t.co/94trbDvw2C [Tweet]. @imgrund. https://twitter.com/imgrund/status/1477683538971529217

    1. Barry McAree 💙. (2022, January 6). Teachers on these islands will get FFP2(rightly so).Healthcare workers on other parts of these islands..nah!..Surgical masks/spit guards/not PPE,for working with COVID-positive patients risking other patient’s, our own & our family’s health.”Protect the NHS”🤔⁦@CMO_England⁩ https://t.co/OngrD5BBPU [Tweet]. @BarryMcAree. https://twitter.com/BarryMcAree/status/1478883258305814536

  3. Dec 2021
    1. How do I allow students to voice contentious, ugly, or even ignorant views, so that they can learn without fear of recrimination?

      Too broad of a spectrum here. And why should students not fear recrimination? This is coddling, pure and simple.

    2. first-day surveys, name tents, and very brief in-class writing about students’ values or daily lives help students experience a sense of belonging.

      Now imagine it from the students' POV, students who are taken 4 or more courses, and having to do the same engagement exercises over and over again in all their classes.

      I think it would drive them in the opposite direction from that intended by the instructor.

    1. As informed and engagedstakeholders, students understand how and why theirinstitutions use academic and personal data.

      Interesting that there is a focus here on advocacy from an active student body. Is it the expectation that change from some of the more stubborn areas of the campus would be driven by informed student push-back? This section on "Students, Faculty, and Staff" doesn't have the same advocacy role from the other portions of the campus community.

    1. Indian Medical Council Act, 1956 was amended and Section 10D was inserted to empower the MCI to conduct NEET. Moreover the review petition against this judgment was allowed in 2016 and the Supreme Court ordered the conduct of NEET from 2016 itself.

      NEET implementation

    2. In any case, the field is occupied by the central law namely Section 14 of the National Medical Commission Act, 2019 that provides for NEET.
    1. student advocates are pushing back in the court of public opinion. Inclusiveaccess.org is a new website that counters the publishers' disinformation campaign and advocates for a fair deal on textbooks. https://www.inclusiveaccess.org/
    1. “Liberal” just means free and disinterested. It means that inquiry is pursued without fear or favor, regardless of the outcome and whatever the field of study.

      Definition of a "liberal education"

    2. It’s not an accident or a misfortune that great-books pedagogy is an antibody in the “knowledge factory” of the research university, in other words. It was intended as an antibody. The disciplinary structure of the modern university came first; the great-books courses came after.

      It seems at odds to use Charles W. Eliot as an example here as his writings described by Cathy Davidson in The New Education indicates that Eliot was specifically attempting to create standards in education that are counter to Menand's argument here.

    3. It will probably not improve their spirits to point out that professors have been making the same complaints ever since the American research university came into being, in the late nineteenth century. “Rescuing Socrates” and “The Lives of Literature” can be placed on a long shelf that contains books such as Hiram Corson’s “The Aims of Literary Study” (1894), Irving Babbitt’s “Literature and the American College” (1908), Robert Maynard Hutchins’s “The Higher Learning in America” (1936), Allan Bloom’s “The Closing of the American Mind” (1987), William Deresiewicz’s “Excellent Sheep” (2014), and dozens of other impassioned and sometimes eloquent works explaining that higher education has lost its soul. It’s a song that never ends.

      A list of books about how higher education has lost its soul.

      Are these just complaining or do any of them work on a solution for making things better?

    1. the advantage of forgetting was recognized by scholars with increasing enthusiasm between the second half of the sixteenth and the first half of the seventeenth centuries.
    2. Instead of imagination, Drexel recommended training the art of excerpting. Thus, he reversed the ancient rule, according to which knowledge should be entrusted to personal memory rather than to the library, and stored in the mind rather than in a closet upside down.

      Jeremias Drexel became one of the earliest educators and reformers to recommend against the ars memoria and instead use the art of excerpting as a means external written memory.

    3. Drexel, for instance, held those teach-ers ridiculous who taught students to build up houses and rooms by means of imagination and stock them with images of memorable subjects (imagines agentes).16 According to the German Jesuit, the effort was not only huge but students wasted their time because images escape from these artificial places

      much as prisoners escape from jails without guards.17 16 Drexel, Aurifodina, 258 17 Drexel, Aurifodina, 3–4.

      Jeremias Drexel (1581 – 1638) recommended against the method of loci during the explosion of information in the late 16th and early 17th centuries.


      Add Drexel to the list of reformers against the ars memoria in the early 1600s.)


      While dealing with the information overload, educators may have inadvertently thrown out the baby with the bath water. While information still tends to increase and have increased complexity, some areas also show compression and concatenation and new theories subsume old information into their models. This means that one might know and understand Einstein which means that memorizing Newton's work is no longer needed at some point. Where should one draw the line of memorization for subsuming the knowledge of their culture? Aren't both old and new methods for memory usable? Keep the ars memoria while also using written methods.

    1. In this study, we drew on sociocultural notions of agency – where individual actions are entwined with community goals. A community is comprised of people with shared and individual goals, in their environments, in the midst of a historical context (Wenger 1998Wenger, E. 1998. Communities of Practice: Learning, Meaning, and Identity. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. [Crossref], [Google Scholar]). Due to this web of relationships with people, environment, and history, people do not act autonomously, but according to possibilities within the community. Such possibilities for agency are negotiated over time; actions that strengthen ties to the community constitute investments in the self that in turn, have outcomes for the community as well (Peirce 1995Peirce, B. N. 1995. “Social Identity, Investment, and Language Learning.” TESOL Quarterly 29: 9–31. doi:10.2307/3587803. [Crossref], [Web of Science ®], [Google Scholar]). The financial metaphor in using the word investment is critical – it connotes spent effort that yields dividends. These dividends emerge immediately and over time.

      This helps me consider communities of practice, and unpacking the relational aspects - agency within a context, not autonomous, informed by the context and others. Is there a tension with "groupthink", how to value the diversity in a group, and build stronger not weaker, not defaulting or regressing to a mean?. How do we build a group to be more than the sum of the parts. how does the community work to enhance practice.

  4. Nov 2021
    1. it must be acknowledged that conservatism is never more respectable than in education, for nowhere are the risks of change greater.

      —Charles W. Eliot

      And here I thought I was original in thinking this... :)

    2. But it should be observed that it is experience in mass, the experience of institutions, the experience of a generation, and not individual experience, which is of value.

      Sounds somewhat akin to Hidalgo's thesis of the personbyte in ever growing groups.

    3. The organization of the American colleges and their connections is extensive and inflexible.

      The same could still be said 150 years later.

    4. Without a wide-spreading organization, no system of education can have large success.

      Is this true? Or Is it his wish such that he can plant the seeds of change he's about to suggest?

    5. There have been found many American parents willing to try new experiments even in the irrevocable matter of their children’s education, so impressed were they with the insufficiency of the established system. It requires courage to quit the beaten paths in which the great majority of well-educated men have walked and still walk.

      Is it a general truism that parents don't think the educational system will or can do a sufficient job for their children?

    6. Sixty years ago, in France, the first Napoleon made great changes, mostly useful ones, in methods of education. For more than a generation the government schools of arts and trades, arts and manufactures, bridges and highways, mines, agriculture, and commerce, have introduced hundreds of well-trained young men every year into the workshops, factories, mines, forges, public works, and counting-rooms of the empire. These young men begin as subalterns, but soon become the commissioned officers of the army of industry.

      Notice the focus of turning education here toward servicing the industrial revolution.

    7. Realschule
    1. We said we were going to take ex-convicts and ex-addicts and teach them to be teachers, general contractors, and truck drivers. They said it couldn’t be done. We said we were going to take 250 people who had never worked and had no skills and teach them to build a 400,000 square foot complex as our new home on the waterfront. They said it couldn’t be done. We said we were going to partner with colleges and get people who started out functionally illiterate to achieve bachelor of arts degrees. They said it couldn’t be done. We said we were going to run successful restaurants, moving companies, furniture making, and cafés and bookstores without any professional help. They said it couldn’t be done. We said we were going to do all this with no staff, no government funding, and no professionals. They laughed and said it couldn’t be done.
    1. Earlier this year, the Christian polling firm Barna Group found that 29 percent of pastors said they had given “real, serious consideration to quitting being in full-time ministry within the last year.” David Kinnaman, president of Barna, described the past year as a “crucible” for pastors as churches fragmented.

      What part does The Great Resignation have in part of this? Any? Is there overlap for any of the reasons that others are resigning?

      What about the overlap of causes/reasons for teachers leaving the profession since the pandemic? What effect does the hostile work environment of politics play versus a loss of identity and work schedule during a time period in which closures would have affected schedules?

      What commonalities and differences do all these cases have?

    1. Both of the companies are providing podcasters with options to put their audio content behind a paywall and in effect giving them the ability to build up a recurring revenue stream.

      As much as I like the idea of putting your content out for free, I get that people need to make money if this is the business model. Schools and universities are probably under less pressure to do make a profit but still need to cover basic costs.

    1. One reason colleges are holding onto proctoring tools, Urdan adds, is that many colleges plan to expand their online course offerings even after campus activities return to normal. And the pandemic also saw rapid growth of another tech trend: students using websites to cheat on exams.

      online education growth

    1. Online education at home is not developed for the corona crisis, it has been around for many years ona voluntary basis

      Online education at home is not developed for the corona crisis, it has been around for many years on a voluntary basis

    1. Помимо развития его природных способностей, образование человека ставило бы своей целью развитие в нем чувства ответственности за других людей, вместо существующего в нашем обществе прославления власти и успеха.

      The education of the individual, in addition to promoting his own innate abilities, would attempt to develop in him a sense of responsibility to his fellow men in place of the glorification of power and success in our present society.

      (Albert Einstein in the article "Why Socialism?" 1949).

    1. nline education had a negative effect on the quality of teaching.

      online education had a negative effect on the quality of teaching.

    2. ocus on the methods and activities that work in the virtual as inthe traditional classroom.

      focus on the methods and activities that work in the virtual as in the traditional classroom.

    3. of quality teacher educa-tion.

      of quality teacher educa- tion.

    4. continue to follow a long-term education policy

      continue to follow a long- term education policy

    5. and evaluation methods

      methods for online ed differs from F2F

      1. this article reaffirms....
    6. eams, but also other digital tools, such simulations, DVDs, Classroom,Kahoot, Google Sheets, and, e.g., WhatsApp

      5.a.

    1. You might also appreciate Nobel laureate Carl Weiman's work on trying to transform STEM teaching in large research universities. Cautionary tale for how hard it is to change existing institutions IMO. Some notes I took on it here: https://yusufa.notion.site/Improving-how-universities-teach-science-a3b3df69e10b48829e96e9ec70b3fdca

      <small><cite class='h-cite via'> <span class='p-author h-card'>ysf</span> in 📚-reading (<time class='dt-published'>11/01/2021 20:55:11</time>)</cite></small>

    1. What Christine Ortiz is doing is legit tho (its the example she mentions next to Crow). I'm on the Admissions Committee for the uni she's building (currently only offers a summer fellowship program): https://www.station1.org/ -- might be worth looking into if you're exploring equitable innovations in higher ed

      <small><cite class='h-cite via'> <span class='p-author h-card'>ysf</span> in 📚-reading (<time class='dt-published'>11/01/2021 20:55:11</time>)</cite></small>

    1. Once it was not just okay but admirable that Chua and Rubenfeld had law-school students over to their house for gatherings. That moment has passed. So, too, has the time when a student could discuss her personal problems with her professor, or when an employee could gossip with his employer. Conversations between people who have different statuses—employer-employee, professor-student—can now focus only on professional matters, or strictly neutral topics. Anything sexual, even in an academic context—for example, a conversation about the laws of rape—is now risky.

      Is it simply the stratification of power and roles that is causing these problems? Is it that some of this has changed and that communication between people of different power levels is the difficulty in these cases?

      I have noticed a movement in pedagogy spaces that puts the teacher as a participant rather than as a leader thus erasing the power structures that previously existed. This exists within Cathy Davidson's The New Education where teachers indicate that they're learning as much as their students.

    2. Secretive procedures that take place outside the law and leave the accused feeling helpless and isolated have been an element of control in authoritarian regimes across the centuries,

      Anne Applebaum indicates that the secretive procedures being practiced at American colleges and universities to prosecute their community members is very similar to authoritarian governments like the Argentine junta, Franco's Spain, and Stalin's troikas.

    1. I will use Drexel’s treatise asrepresentative of the basic principles of note taking that were widely sharedin sixteenth- and seventeenth-century Europe across national and religiousdivides.

      Religious and national divides were likely very important here as authority from above would have been even more important than in modern time. Related to this is the change in mnemonic traditions due to religious and political mores around the time of Peter Ramus.

  5. Oct 2021
    1. <small><cite class='h-cite via'> <span class='p-author h-card'>Peter Hagen</span> in Peter Hagen (@peterhagen_) / Twitter (<time class='dt-published'>10/25/2021 09:47:19</time>)</cite></small>

    1. Weirdly, in the master of fine arts classes I’ve taught so far, there’s never been a single class on how to store and access your research.

      The fact that there generally aren't courses in high school or college about how to better store and access one's research is a travesty. I feel like there are study skills classes, but they seem to be geared toward strategies and not implemented solutions.

    1. There’s a telling episode about a quarter of the way into Now You See It, Cathy N. Davidson’s impassioned manifesto on the way digital tools should transform how we learn and work.

      These were written at a time when the tech industry generally had a rose colored view of their effects on the world. By 2021, we've now got a much more sober and nuanced view. Even Cathy Davidson says as much in her recent book The New Education.

      For more on this topic with respect to education, see specifically Audrey Watters.

  6. bafybeiery76ov25qa7hpadaiziuwhebaefhpxzzx6t6rchn7b37krzgroi.ipfs.dweb.link bafybeiery76ov25qa7hpadaiziuwhebaefhpxzzx6t6rchn7b37krzgroi.ipfs.dweb.link
    1. Fundamental features of human psychology can constrain the perceived personal relevance andimportance of climate change, limiting both action and internalization of the problem. Cognitiveshortcuts developed over millennia make us ill-suited in many ways to perceiving and respondingto climate change (152),including a tendency to place less emphasis on time-delayed and physicallyremote risks and to selectively downplay information that is at odds with our identity or worldview(153). Risk perception relies on intuition and direct perceptual signals (e.g., an immediate, tangiblethreat), whereas for most high-emitting households in the Global North, climate change does notpresent itself in these terms, except in the case of local experiences of extreme weather events.

      This psychological constraint is worth demonstrating to individuals to illustrate how we construct our values and responses. These constraints can be demonstrated in a vivid way wiithin the context of Deep Humanity BEing journeys.

    1. This article fails to recognize the societal benefits of free education. Since the US is all about the individual, this isn't surprising. However, the facts - as evidenced by countries where education is essentially free - is that it increases the societal level of education, which improves so many things, not the least of which is more informed and rational voting.

    1. Academia: All the Lies: What Went Wrong in the University Model and What Will Come in its Place

      “Students are graduating into a brutal job market.”

      The entreprecariat is designed for learned helplessness (social: individualism), trained incapacities (economic: specialization), and bureaucratic intransigence (political: authoritarianism).


      The Design Problem

      Three diagrams will explain the lack of social engagement in design. If (in Figure 1) we equate the triangle with a design problem, we readily see that industry and its designers are concerned only with the tiny top portion, without addressing themselves to real needs.

      Figure 1: The Design Problem

      (Design for the Real World, 2019. Page 57.)

      The other two figures merely change the caption for the figure.

      • Figure 1: The Design Problem
      • Figure 2: A Country
      • Figure 3: The World
    1. Where philosophy meets tech.

      Design Philosophy

      This seems to be the space that I occupy on the edges of design education and practice.

      Maria Selting of Unbox Your World podcast has just shared the raw audio of our conversation to get feedback before she publishes the episode, Redesigning Design: Applying UX Principles to Design a Better Future.

    1. Design for the Real World

      by Victor Papanek

      Papanek on the Bauhaus

      Many of the “sane design” or “design reform” movements of the time, such as those engendered by the writings and teachings of William Morris in England and Elbert Hubbard in the United States, were rooted in a sort of Luddite antimachine philosophy. By contrast Frank Llloyd Wright said as early as 1894 that “the machine is here to stay” and that the designer should “use this normal tool of civilization to best advantage instead of prostituting it as he has hitherto done in reproducing with murderous ubiquity forms born of other times and other conditions which it can only serve to destroy.” Yet designers of the last century were either perpetrators of voluptuous Victorian-Baroque or members of an artsy-craftsy clique who were dismayed by machine technology. The work of the Kunstgewerbeschule in Austria and the German Werkbund anticipated things to come, but it was not until Walter Gropius founded the German Bauhaus in 1919 that an uneasy marriage between art and machine was achieved.

      No design school in history had greater influence in shaping taste and design than the Bauhaus. It was the first school to consider design a vital part of the production process rather than “applied art” or “industrial arts.” It became the first international forum on design because it drew its faculty and students from all over the world, and its influence traveled as these people later founded design offices and schools in many countries. Almost every major design school in the United States today still uses the basic foundation course developed by the Bauhaus. It made good sense in 1919 to let a German 19-year-old experiment with drill press and circular saw, welding torch and lathe, so that he might “experience the interaction between tool and material.” Today the same method is an anachronism, for an American teenager has spent much of his life in a machine-dominated society (and cumulatively probably a great deal of time lying under various automobiles, souping them up). For a student whose American design school slavishly imitates teaching patterns developed by the Bauhaus, computer sciences and electronics and plastics technology and cybernetics and bionics simply do not exist. The courses the Bauhaus developed were excellent for their time and place (telesis), but American schools following this pattern in the eighties are perpetuating design infantilism.

      The Bauhaus was in a sense a nonadaptive mutation in design, for the genes contributing to its convergence characteristics were badly chosen. In boldface type, it announced its manifesto: “Architects, sculptors, painters, we must all turn to the crafts.… Let us create a new guild of craftsmen!” The heavy emphasis on interaction between crafts, art, and design turned out to be a blind alley. The inherent nihilism of the pictorial arts of the post-World War I period had little to contribute that would be useful to the average, or even to the discriminating, consumer. The paintings of Kandinsky, Klee, Feininger, et al., on the other hand, had no connection whatsoever with the anemic elegance some designers imposed on products.

      (Pages 30-31)

    1. Victor Papanek’s book includes an introduction written by R. Buckminster Fuller, Carbondale, Illinois. (Sadly, the Thames & Hudson 2019 Third Edition does not include this introduction. Monoskop has preserved this text as a PDF file of images. I have transcribed a portion here.)

    1. les changements les plusmarquants devraient découler de la mise enplace de fonds de dotation par les grandesorganisations à but non lucratif (dans lesdomaines de la culture ou de l’éducation)
    1. "The story of the American college is largely the story of the rise of the slave economy in the Atlantic world," says Craig Steven Wilder, a historian at MIT and author of "Ebony and Ivy: Race, Slavery, and the Troubled History of America's Universities."

      In this way, the past seeps into the present. This is a literal example of the legacy of structural inequality.

  7. www.programmableweb.com www.programmableweb.com
    1. Hypothesis REST API

      The Hypothesis API integrates annotations into web services. Available to send HTTP requests and JSON responses, it aims to be useful for researchers, scientists, and educators.

  8. Sep 2021
    1. 71,660,160

      The topic of education is something that I have been exploring, going so far as to suggest that we can address the challenge of education through technology. This is something that Bobbi Kyle was exploring in her studies at Emily Carr University of Art + Design (ECUAD) and at the University of British Columbia (UBC).

      Stop Reset Go team member, Ferial Puren, mentioned that we have some ideas worth spreading, suggesting that we should develop a presentation for a TED talk.

    1. I've got serious reservations about this Gerst fellow. His answers are too vague and contain too many bald assertions. The form of his answers fits what I've noticed to be a "style" of regressives seeking to promote obsolete traditions and social norms.

      Granted, it's difficult to present precise information in "interview format" articles like this one, but education is too important to get get wrong - again.

    1. The richest 10 percent accounted for over half (52 percent) of the emissions added to the atmosphere between 1990 and 2015. The richest one percent were responsible for 15 percent of emissions during this time – more than all the citizens of the EU and more than twice that of the poorest half of humanity (7 percent).

      This is a key leverage point strategy for Stop Reset Go for Rapid Whole System Change (RWSC) strategy. As argued by Kevin Anderson https://youtu.be/mBtehlDpLlU, the wealthy are a crucial subculture to target and success can lead to big decarbonization payoffs.

      The key is to leverage what contemplative practitioners and happiness studies both reveal - after reaching a specific level of material needs being met, which is achievable for staying within planetary boundaries, we don’t need any more material consumption to be happy. We need an anti-money song: https://youtu.be/_awAH-JJx1kamd and enliven Martin Luther King Junior’s quote aspirational: the only time to look down at another person is to give them a hand up. Educate the elites on the critical role they now play to solve the double problem of i equality and runaway carbon emissions.

    1. Global air traffic is expected to double to 8.2 billion passengers in 2037, according to IATA, which predicts that aviation's 2019 emissions peak of around 900 million metric tons of CO2 will be exceeded within the next two to three years.At the same time, the window to cut the world's reliance on fossil fuels and avoid catastrophic changes to the climate is closing rapidly. The International Energy Agency forecasts that aviation's share of global carbon emissions will increase to 3.5% by 2030 from just over 2.5% in 2019 in the absence of efforts to further decarbonize.

      SRG education campaign for air travellers ( mostly middle class and rich) to do their part and minimize air travel until the breakthrough technologies are here. Temporary abstinence or voluntary lotto system.

    1. ty".88 William Temple, when advocating, in 1770, that poor children be sent at the age of four to work-houses where they should be employed in manufactures and given two hours' schooling a day, was explicit about the socializing influence of the process: There is considerable use in their being, somehow or other, constantly employed at least twelve hours a day, whether they earn their living or not; for by these means, we hope that the rising generation will be so habituated to constant employment that it would at length prove agreeable and entertain- ing to them .... .9

      Of course now the pendulum, for at least some, has swung the other direction and we now talk about over-scheduling our children.

    1. Campbell’s lived experience as a native Black Bostonian showed her firsthand how uneven and oppressive the school-to-prison pipeline can be. Her late twin brother, Andre, was a victim of the systems she works to rebuild.

      Campbell should have won! She is earnest and has a clear vision for what Boston can be to address these systemic issues.

    1. Hors des heures de cours, les étudiants peuvent intervenir sur des forums écrits ou vidéos. Ils peuvent également utiliser un outil d'annotation collaborative comme Hypothesis pour partager leurs notes de lecture.

      Rough translation: Outside of class time, students can contribute to written forums or videos. They can also use a collaborative annotation tool such as Hypothesis to share their reading notes.

    1. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rhgwIhB58PA

      Learning styles have been debunked.

      Learning styles: V.A.R.K. model originated by Neil Flemiing stands for:

      • visual
      • auditory
      • reading/writing
      • kinesthetic

      References:

      Pashler, H., McDaniel, M., Rohrer, D., & Bjork, R. (2008). Learning styles: Concepts and evidence. Psychological science in the public interest, 9(3), 105-119. — https://ve42.co/Pashler2008

      Willingham, D. T., Hughes, E. M., & Dobolyi, D. G. (2015). The scientific status of learning styles theories. Teaching of Psychology, 42(3), 266-271. — https://ve42.co/Willingham

      Massa, L. J., & Mayer, R. E. (2006). Testing the ATI hypothesis: Should multimedia instruction accommodate verbalizer-visualizer cognitive style?. Learning and Individual Differences, 16(4), 321-335. — https://ve42.co/Massa2006

      Riener, C., & Willingham, D. (2010). The myth of learning styles. Change: The magazine of higher learning, 42(5), 32-35.— https://ve42.co/Riener2010

      Husmann, P. R., & O'Loughlin, V. D. (2019). Another nail in the coffin for learning styles? Disparities among undergraduate anatomy students’ study strategies, class performance, and reported VARK learning styles. Anatomical sciences education, 12(1), 6-19. — https://ve42.co/Husmann2019

      Snider, V. E., & Roehl, R. (2007). Teachers’ beliefs about pedagogy and related issues. Psychology in the Schools, 44, 873–886. doi:10.1002/pits.20272 — https://ve42.co/Snider2007

      Fleming, N., & Baume, D. (2006). Learning Styles Again: VARKing up the right tree!. Educational developments, 7(4), 4. — https://ve42.co/Fleming2006

      Rogowsky, B. A., Calhoun, B. M., & Tallal, P. (2015). Matching learning style to instructional method: Effects on comprehension. Journal of educational psychology, 107(1), 64. — https://ve42.co/Rogowskyetal

      Coffield, Frank; Moseley, David; Hall, Elaine; Ecclestone, Kathryn (2004). — https://ve42.co/Coffield2004

      Furey, W. (2020). THE STUBBORN MYTH OF LEARNING STYLES. Education Next, 20(3), 8-13. — https://ve42.co/Furey2020

      Dunn, R., Beaudry, J. S., & Klavas, A. (2002). Survey of research on learning styles. California Journal of Science Education II (2). — https://ve42.co/Dunn2002

    1. Critical pedagogy, among other things, borrows its ‘critical lens’ from the critical theory. It views society as divided and hierarchical (i.e. based on power relations); and education as a tool used by dominant groups to legitimise the iniquitous arrangement. By enabling the oppressed to look at the oppressor’s ideologies critically, it believes, education can assist them in ridding themselves of their ‘false consciousness’ – an important step, as we will see later, in their struggle for liberation. As is apparent, contrary to traditional claims of the ‘neutrality’ of education, “critical pedagogy views all education theory as intimately linked to ideologies shaped by power, politics, history and culture.” (Darder 1991, p. 77) And the primary function of the critical pedagogue is thus “to empower the powerless and transform those conditions which perpetuate human injustice and inequity.” (McLaren, 1988) – a concern that it shares with critical theory.8

      Critical Pedagogy (CP):

      • Sees society as divided into a hierarchy based on power relations.
      • Education is used as a tool by the dominant to uphold the hierarchy.
      • Education can also be used by the oppressed to rid themselves of false consciousness.
      • CP does not think any education is neutral. All education is shaped by power, politics, history, and culture.
      • CP can empower the powerless to change the power structures.
    1. Soon enough the Great Books were synonymous with boosterism, Babbittry, and H. L. Mencken’s benighted boobocracy. They were everything that was wrong, unchic and middlebrow about middle America.”

      what a lovely sentence