105 Matching Annotations
  1. Nov 2019
    1. Writing on Gustave Moreau, Proust detects a universe of analogies, paintings that document an “intoxication of mind” in which reality is a “mysterious country” of unlike objects “resembl[ing] one another.” Describing Rembrandt, he finds an exacting individualism visible in a manipulation of light “that bathes [Rembrandt’s] portraits and his pictures [in] the very light of his thought […] a personal light in which we view things when we are thinking for ourselves.” Jean-Baptiste-Siméon Chardin was probably Proust’s favorite painter. He sees in Chardin a vision “combining things and people in those rooms which are more than a thing and perhaps more than a person, rooms which are the scene of their joint lives, the law of affinities and contrarieties […] the shrine of their past.”
    1. Further, as stated, by merely glancing at the pictorially indicated recipe of the present invention the cook can ascertain at a glance the required ingredients, can ascertain whether such ingredients are on hand, and, if not, the needed articles will be more easily remembered in purchasing the days supply of groceries, etc.

      an example in the wild of visual memory being stronger than other forms.

    2. Fourteenth-century recipe collections that have survived to today, such as Viandier pour appareiller toutes manières de viandes, Libre de sent sovi, Daz bûch von gûter spîse, and Forme of Cury, were written by professional cooks to use as an aide-mémoire for themselves or other professional cooks.
    1. It is challenging to study how pneumococci control virulence factor expression, because cues of natural environments and the presence of an immune system are difficult to simulate in vitro
    1. Finally, I decided to build it around all my favorite stories that touched on calculus, stories that get passed around in the faculty lounge, or the things that the professor mentions off-hand during a lecture. I realized that all those little bits of folklore tapped into something that really excited me about calculus. They have a time-tested quality to them where they've been told and retold, like an old folk song that has been sharpened over time.

      And this is roughly how memory and teaching has always worked. Stories and repetition.

    1. Christman said that he first came up with the idea to look at the effects of eye movements on memory after learning that leftward eye movements activate the right brain hemisphere and that rightward movements activate the left hemisphere. He thought that horizontal eye movements might, therefore, improve memory by helping the hemispheres interact.

      This may be related to people looking up when trying to remember dates (for example) but looking down when trying to remember locations? (Need to look this up, but I know I've heard a comedian referencing this sort of behavior in a joke.)

    1. René Descartes designed a deck of playing cards that also functioned as flash cards to learn geometry and mechanics. (King of Clubs from The use of the geometrical playing-cards, as also A discourse of the mechanick powers. By Monsi. Des-Cartes. Translated from his own manuscript copy. Printed and sold by J. Moxon at the Atlas in Warwick Lane, London. Via the Beinecke Library, from which you can download the entire deck.)

      My immediate thought is that this deck of cards was meant as a memory palace. I'm curious what training in rhetoric/memory methods Descartes must have had?

    2. It is worth asking why ebooks and e-readers like the Kindle treaded water after swimming a couple of laps. I’m not sure I can fully diagnose what happened (I would love to hear your thoughts), but I think there are many elements, all of which interact as part of the book production and consumption ecosystem.

      For me, and potentially for a majority of others, our memories have evolved to be highly location specific. It's far easier for me to remember what I've read when I read a physical book. I can often picture what I was reading at the top, middle, or bottom of the left or right page. This fact in addition to how far I am in the book gives me a better idea of where I am with respect to a text.

      These ideas are very subtle and so heavily ingrained in us that they're not very apparent to many, if at all.

      See also Knowledge and Power in Prehistoric Societies: Orality, Memory and the Transmission of Culture by Lynne Kelly (Cambridge University Press, 2015)

  2. Oct 2019
    1. Of other significance, this passage is recognized as the first example of cosmological mapping in the history of Greece.[4]

      I should read this reference below) with respect to Lynne Kelly's indigenous people's thesis of memory palaces. Perhaps it ties together the original story with broader history and the Greek's place within it and provides additional support for her thesis.

      Germaine Aujac. (1987). The Foundations of Theoretical Cartography in Archaic and Classical Greece. The History of Cartography, volume 1 (pp. 130-147) University of Chicago Press.

    1. With this approach, neurons that show E-SARE–driven expression in response to stimuli are permanently labeled by the fluorescent protein during the time window specified by the drug
    2. Expression of a drug-inducible Cre recombinase downstream of E-SARE enabled imaging of neuronal populations that respond to monocular visual stimulation and tracking of their long-distance thalamocortical projections in living mice
    1. The feedback loop permits sustained induction of recombinant proteins without massive quantities of inducer.
    1. “The margins are full of images of disembodied body parts, plants, animals, even portraits of cross-eyed kings, which relate to the main body of text and act as a mnemonic for the reader,” Greene says. “Even though you open the manuscript knowing it is a medical text designed for practical use, nothing quite prepares you for seeing a disembodied leg, posterior, or penis pointing at salient parts of the text!”

      memory illuminated manuscripts

    1. in the absence of tamoxifen, it exhibits some activity
    2. A technique common in rodents is the use of Cre recombinase lines that are inducible at specific developmental time points (Figure 3b). The most common form of inducible Cre is CreERT2, which contains a modified estrogen receptor binding domain that prevents Cre from entering the nucleus in the absence of a ligand
    3. strong promoters capable of driving expression of microbial opsins or fluorescent proteins in specific populations can exhibit leaky expression elsewhere. This low-level leak may be virtually undetectable as light responsiveness or fluorescence but can be a serious issue when expressing Cre recombinase.
    1. creating improved technologies for large-scale recordings of neural activity in the live brain is a crucial goal in neuroscience
    1. new toolkits for chronic labeling of active ensembles will provide a much awaited experimental basis to interrogate various aspects of neuronal circuits underlying long-term plastic changes of the brain, such as during nervous system development, during establishment of long-lasting remote memory over months, or in association with age-related neuronal changes over several years.
    2. new direction of functional labeling involves conversion of transient expression from activity-dependent promoters into a permanent labeling based on tamoxifen-dependent recombinases
    1. This gene fusion approach will allow us to assay the induction of gene expression in as few as one cell

      Recombinase memory as a reporter for expression in 1 cell

  3. Sep 2019
    1. son of Memory

      One must wonder in what sense he meant this given the ars memorativa of the age. Compare this to the ancient interpretation of a "biography" in the first century with that of a 19th century biography as indicated in Bart Ehrman's opening chapters of A Historical Introduction to the Early Christian Writings.

    1. Given technological advances and a trend to promote digital annotation by students in school, empirical findings are mixed regarding the evidence-based benefits of handwritten annotation for learning.

      There are also now digital tools like Anki, Mnemosyne, and even Amazon's notebook tools that allow highlights and annotations in books to be transferred into digital flashcards to be used for spaced reviews of knowledge and information. I suspect that even students that heavily highlight their textbooks are rarely reviewing over those highlights after-the-fact, and have generally found this to be the case when asking those I see actively doing so.

  4. Aug 2019
    1. Now we can ask, ‘Have I seen iron at some threshold?’ ‘Have I seen some nitrate?’ And have every microbe write it down. As one thinks about long-term incubation, this is a really powerful tool, because even six months later we can pull out the DNA and see what happened.”
    1. Growth history influences starvation-induced expression of uspA, grpE, and rpoS and subsequent cryotolerance in Escherichia coli O157:H7
    2. in E. coli a form of ‘memory’ of past phosphate limitation leads to a faster response to successive periods of phosphate limitation, and that this faster response may be survival enhancing

      phosphate starvation memory

    1. these technologies all require destruction of samples and prevent us from analyzing dynamic changes in molecular profiles, phenotypes, and behaviors of individual cells in a complex system

      current omics and single cell technologies => High resolution x destructive single time-point measurements

    2. Live cell imaging is capable of analyzing spatiotemporal dynamics of molecules and cells with fluorescent proteins or probes, but only for a limited number of objects, which can be observed by microscopy
    1. The psychological Interpretation according to which the “I” has something ‘in the memory’ [“im Gedächtnis”] is at bottom a way of alluding to the existentially constitutive state of Being-in-the-world.

      Heidegger: inwardness of memory ["Gedächtnis"] as an allusion to "Being-in-the-world" ||

    1. The genetic/epigenetic relation is a dimension of différance qua the history of life. The question then is that of a specification of différance differing and deferred, of the possibility of such specification, if it is true that Leroi-Gourhan’s major point consists in putting into question a clear break between the animal and the human. His way of broaching this problem brings him back, in the final analysis, to the heart of a simple opposition, albeit one shifted to the also quite traditional level of faber/sapiens. He is brought back in the same stroke (the coup of the second origin) to the metaphysics of an opposition between the inside and the outside, the before and the after, of the animal human and the spiritual human, and so on. We are trying to preserve and to broach the aporetic impossibility of simply opposing the interior to the exterior in speaking of an instrumental maieutics that alone permits an understanding of how tools do not derive from a creation or from a consciousness present to itself, master of matter, but pursue a process engaged long before the rupture yet nevertheless constitute a rupture— a new organization of différance, a différance of différance. Now, if the central concept is in fact that of epiphylogenetic memory, allowing for both the contestation of oppositions and the description and preservation of differentiations, it does not seem to us to have any equivalent in grammatological deconstructions. We shall develop this question further on the level of linear writing. Without such a concept, it seems to us impossible to specify the différance, differing and deferring, with respect to différance in general qua the history of life in general, or to say what the human is or is not. We are left: with the ambiguity of the invention of the human, that is, of the subject of the verb “to invent,” that which holds together the who and the what, as being that which binds them while separating them; this is, then, différance— this double movement, this intersection of reflection, this reflecting whereby the who and the what are constituted as the twin faces of the same phenomenon.

      Stiegler: (partial) critique of "différance" || interested to know whether Derrida ever responds to this point directly

    1. a high-fidelity memory device might allow researchers to identify cell populations responsive to specific events and track their progression through the cellular response
    2. suggested that low basal expression coupled with switch-like activation is required to maintain memory; growth rate was also found to significantly impact memory loop protein sustainability following cell division.

      Requirements for toggle switch memory

    1. Transcripts with more polyadenylation are more likely to be translated compared to those without

      mRNA translation level memory

  5. May 2019
    1. using recombinases can be challenging because their reactions are slow (requiring 2–6 h) and often generate mixed populations when targeting a multicopy plasmid
  6. Mar 2019
  7. Feb 2019
    1. This supplemented the individual's memory and ability to visualize. (We are not concerned here with the value derived from human cooperation made possible by speech and writing, both forms of external symbol manipulation. We speak of the manual means of making graphical representations of symbols—

      The expression "manual means of making graphical representation" makes me think of photography as a memory aid or augmenting tool. Although, of course, it would not necessarily refer to a symbolic portrayal.

      Interestingly, neuroscience today affirms our memory is far from a simple pointing to the past function, but it actually alters or edits the memory itself each time we go back to it and probably the subject who remembers changes in the process. Could that be an example of how technological aids can augment our brain processing of memories?

      I have recently explored this idea on my blog in a post called As We May Remember (a wink to the Vannebar Bush essay) http://eltnotes.blogspot.com/2019/02/as-we-may-remember.html

    2. symbolic portrayal

      Language as a symbol. Relationship to memory.

  8. Jan 2019
    1. they are not meant to be substituted for a recollection that may fail. They constitute, rather, a material and a framework for exercises to be carried out frequently: reading, rereading, meditating, conversing with oneself and with others.

      Looking at one's academic notes in this sense, what if students were taught from a young age to view their notes and note taking as a continuous process which required frequent study and conversation? Even in college, students often only refer to notes as a means of remembering a specific fact, statement or concept.

    2. notebooks serving as memory aids. Their use as books of life, as guides for conduct

      Hm. So in the analogy above, does that mean "others" in a community serve as reminders of how not to live (in the case of non-ascetics) or how to live (other ascetics)?

      Plato wouldn't like that (Phaedrus, writing as destructive to memory).

    1. Our extensions also have implications for theories ontrust.

      Bookmarked section for later consideration of proposal studies on how time interacts with trust in time- and safety-critical social coordination.

    2. Therefore, training should focus on learning how toquickly recognize volunteers’ volition in participating inan emergent group, the tasks they might engage in, andthe support they might need to carry out those tasks.Such training could also help people to recognize thebenefits and dangers of generalized trust. It could alsohelp people to quickly evolve a coordination mecha-nism that does not rely on what people know, but oncompiling and communicating a narrative of the actionsthat volunteers take, so that others are able to assess forthemselves what actions they could take to help.

      Majchrzak et al continue to suggest that emergent response training could reconceptualize a new role for emergency management professionals, aside from the default coordination/management. Further, they suggest that citizens could be trained to participate.

    3. ur examination suggests that by expandingthe context in which TMS theory is applied to includeemergent response groups, insights can be gained intotheir internal dynamics. The three indicators of the levelof development of a TMS provide a useful frameworkfor organizing these insights in the exhibit.

    4. The urgency of time may make it too onerous forthe extra effort of articulating actions as they are beingperformed, yet most emergency response requires somecommunication.

      Interaction of time (tempo/pace) and breakdowns in articulation work.

    5. Explicitly articulated narratives mayalso make clearer that multiple sequences of actions maybe occurring simultaneously, thus resolving role conflictsby allowing multiple ways to accomplish a task

      Evokes Schmidt and Bannon's articulation work in CSCW.

    6. Emergent response groups may also use a mechanismof creating a community narrative (Boland and Tenkasi1995), which is a running narrative of the actions takenand not taken, the decisions made, and the theories inuse. Narratives do not represent a single shared under-standing of a domain; rather they represent the mul-tiplicity of events and actions a community is taking,as members are taking them. Narratives may be articu-lated explicitly or understood implicitly.

      SBTF after-action report, as an example. But who is the audience for this narrative?

    7. Whenemergent response groups first come together, membersare likely not to ask one another about who knows what;instead, they are likely to ask about what is knownabout the situation and about the actions taken thus far(Dyer and Shafer 2003, Hale et al. 2005). The cogni-tive structure that they develop for the group centersnot around people, but on action-based scenarios thateither have been or might be carried out. These scenariosinclude decisions, actions, knowledge, events, and feed-back (Vera and Crossan 2005).

      Suggested extensions for TMS theory:

      "1. Tailor the Role of Expertise"

      "2. "Replacing Credibility in Expertise with Trust Through Action"

      "3. "Coordinating Knowledge Processes Without a Shared Metastructure"

    8. On the surface, the lack of sta-ble membership suggests that a shared mental modelmay not be viable or even desired in emergent responsegroups. Time may be too precious to seek consensus onevents and actions, and agreements may make the groupless flexible to accommodate to changing inputs.

      Evokes pluritemporal concerns about tempo, pace and synchronization.

    9. hus, we believe challenges occur in all three indica-tors of the level of development of a TMS—expertisespecialization, credibility, and expertise coordination—requiring a need to consider extending theorizing abouteach indicator for emergent response groups.

      Ways to extend TMS to emergent groups:

      "1. Reconceptualize the Role of Expertise Specialization as a Basis for Task Assignment"

      "2. Assessing Credibility in Emergent Response Groups"

      "3. Expertise Coordination in Emergent Response Groups"

      These extensions evoke boundary objects and invisibility

    10. Moreland and Argote(2003) suggest that the dynamic conditions under whichthese groups form and work together are likely to havenegative effects on the development of transactive mem-ory.

      Are there workflow or technology breakdowns that could help ameliorate the negative effects?

    11. Research on TMS has identified three indicators of thelevel of development of a TMS (Lewis 2003, Morelandand Argote 2003):1.Memory (or expertise) specialization:the tendencyfor groups to delegate responsibility and to specialize indifferent aspects of the task;2.Credibility:beliefs about the reliability of mem-bers’ expertise; and3.Task (or expertise) coordination:the ability of teammembers to coordinate their work efficiently based ontheir knowledge of who knows what in the group.The greater the presence of each indicator, the more de-veloped the TMS and the more valuable the TMS is forefficiently coordinating the actions of group members.

      Three indicators of the level of sophistication of the system:

      • Memory specialization (think trauma/hospital care CSCW studies)

      • Credibility

      • Task coordination

    12. A TMS can be thoughtof as a network of interconnected individual memorysystems and the transfer of knowledge among them(Wegner 1995). Individuals who are part of a TMSassume responsibility for different knowledge domains,and rely on one another to access each other’s expertiseacross domains. Expertise is defined in the TMS litera-ture to broadly include the know-what, know-how, andknow-why of a knowledge domain (Quinn et al. 1996),what Blackler (1995) refers to as embodied competen-cies. Expertise specialization, then, reduces the cognitiveload of each individual and the amount of redundantknowledge in the group, while collectively providingthe dyad or group access to a larger pool of knowl-edge. What makes transactive memory transactive arethe communications (called transactions) among individ-uals that make possible the codifying, storing, retrieving,and updating of information from individual memorysystems. For transactive memory to function effectively,individuals must have a shared conceptualization of whoknows what in the group.

      Majchrzak et al describe how TMS is oeprationalized as a network.

    13. TMS theory, a theoryof group-level cognition, explains how people in collec-tives learn, store, use, and coordinate their knowledge toaccomplish individual, group, and organizational goals.It is a theory about how people in relationships, groups,and organizations learn who knows what, and use thatknowledge to decide who will do what, resulting in moreefficient and effective individual and collective perfor-mance.

      Definition of transactive memory systems theory -- used in org studies to understand how knowledge is coordinated among groups.

  9. Dec 2018
    1. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is not normally diagnosed until later in life, although evidence suggests that the disease starts at a much earlier age. Risk factors for AD, such as diabetes, hypertension and obesity, are known to have their affects during mid-life, though events very early in life, including maternal over-nutrition, can predispose offspring to develop these conditions. This study tested whether over-nutrition during pregnancy and lactation affected the development of AD in offspring, using a transgenic AD mouse model. Female triple-transgenic AD dam mice (3xTgAD) were exposed to a high-fat (60% energy from fat) or control diet during pregnancy and lactation. After weaning (at 3 weeks of age), female offspring were placed on a control diet and monitored up until 12 months of age during which time behavioural tests were performed. A transient increase in body weight was observed in 4-week-old offspring 3xTgAD mice from dams fed a high-fat diet. However, by 5 weeks of age the body weight of 3xTgAD mice from the maternal high-fat fed group was no different when compared to control-fed mice. A maternal high-fat diet led to a significant impairment in memory in 2- and 12-month-old 3xTgAD offspring mice when compared to offspring from control fed dams. These effects of a maternal high-fat diet on memory were accompanied by a significant increase (50%) in the number of tau positive neurones in the hippocampus. These data demonstrate that a high-fat diet during pregnancy and lactation increases memory impairments in female 3xTgAD mice and suggest that early life events during development might influence the onset and progression of AD later in life.
  10. Nov 2018
    1. Why, though, do we not romanticize our preservation? The same matter of chance, of the fleeting nature of fate exists on the other side of the coin. What would have happened if we were better rested, if our energy was better preserved, if we managed our time and said what we really mean? Rarely do we approach whether we get eight hours of sleep with the same guilt as we do whether or not we attended a party, even when, according to sleep expert Matthew Walker, sleep deprivation prevents the brain from remembering information, creating new memories, and sustaining emotional well-being.

      A great observation!

  11. Oct 2018
  12. Jul 2018
    1. The fact that stimuli that have high association values are easily learned and remembered means that it is easier to learn new meanings for stimuli that already have multiple meanings;

      this fact is unbelievably true !

    2. it is much easier to remember places, objects, or rooms in a building by name than by number, because names have higher association values than numbers.

      a clear proof of the importance of association in learning process.

  13. Mar 2018
  14. Feb 2018
  15. Jan 2018
    1. all his memories of the days when Odette had been in love with him, which he had succeeded, up till that evening, in keeping invisible in the depths of his being, deceived by this sudden reflection of a season of love, whose sun, they supposed, had dawned again, had awakened from their slumber, had taken wing and risen to sing maddeningly in his ears, without pity for his present desolation, the forgotten strains of happiness.

      Here music brings back memories similar to how, in the Overture, the madeleine calls up memories for the narrator. Psychology explains this phenomenon, of a sensory experience bringing back a vivid memory. We used to think memories were stored in one area of the brain but it seems that memories are more a neural pattern connecting different sensory systems. So a certain smell can set of the firing of all the other sensory experiences associated with it. Apparently smell is the sense that is best at bringing up memories but sounds and tastes can definitely do so too.

  16. Aug 2017
    1. Some people think that these system calls are a good way to improve the performance of a high-performance process on a system. A common use case I’ve seen in the real world is to try to call mlockall() on a program that’s supposed to running with very high performance. The reasoning is that if the program is paged out to disk, that will reduce performance; therefore mlockall() will improve things.If you try to actually use mlockall() in this way you might run into some difficulties because most systems have a very low default ulimit on the number of pages a process can lock. With some twiddling of the default ulimits you can get this working, but perhaps it’s worth considering why the default ulimits are so low in the first place.
  17. Jun 2017
    1. Quoting Media Theorist & philosopher Wolfgang Ernst on his concept of processual memory: “The web provides immediate feedback, turning all present data into archival entries and archival entries into data – a dynamic agency, with no delay between memory and the present. Archive and memory become meta-phorical; a function of transfer pro-cesses.”, which Ernst describes as an economy of circulation – permanent transformations and updating. There are no places of memory, Ernst states, there are simply urls. In other words; digital memory is built from its archi-tecture, it is embedded in the network and constituted from how it links from one to another.

      there are no places of memory, there are simply urls.

  18. May 2017
  19. Mar 2017
    1. The result of this externalization, Blair notes, is that we come to think of long-term memory as something that is stored elsewhere, in “media outside the mind.” At the same time, she writes, “notes must be rememorated or absorbed in the short-term memory at least enough to be intelligently integrated into an argument; judgment can only be applied to experiences that are present to the mind.”

      Indeed memory is being atrophied as a result of easy to access externalization, the temptation to just offload it onto the computer makes the forgetting curve even sharper. The concepts don't present to the mind when needed because since we didn't commit to our memory we can hardly perceive correlations to what we previously read. Simply we miss our chances to recall & connect new concepts and knowledge because we don't commit them to our memory.

  20. Feb 2017
    1. the longer must the mind be exerted in carrying forward the qualifying mem-ber ready for use.

      We've had some earlier discussion on dividing "Memory" out of the Rhetorical Canon, and Spencer seems pretty opposed to requiring the use of an audience's memory in oratory. We've also discussed in class Socrates' warning that literacy would be the pharmakon that destroys memory, and I think this is an extension of that idea.

    1. Usually, learning immediately after training is so unstable that it can be disrupted by subsequent new learning until after passive stabilization occurs hours later

      Very interesting point about passive stabilization in memory formation.

  21. Jan 2017
    1. memory under the domain of rhetoric either.

      I still don't fully understand the role of memory in rhetoric at this point in history, either. I know that it was eventually rejected as an outdated practice of the Greeks, but when exactly did that push-back begin? Was it already underway here, or was memorization-and-oration-as-rhetoric still in vogue? I'm struggling a bit to follow the chronology.

    1. memory is a link not just with earthly places but with those heavenly places where ideal fonns and true knowledge reside.

      How exactly was memory so powerful for Plato? This seems to be one of the biggest shifts from ancient rhetoric to modern rhetoric. In academia and rhetoric, it seems that memory isn't considered access to higher knowledge but more of a roadblock, just parroting other ideas rather than becoming truly innovative and a critical thinker.

  22. Oct 2016
    1. London Bridge is falling down falling down falling down

      The children's song, an early memory and a wistful reference to lost youth.

      https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0uubCd-iqCo

    2. maternal lamentation

      https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bbUCW6LO-WE

      To imagine maternal anything is to conjure up the memory of one's own mother.

  23. Sep 2016
    1. If "social memory" can be defined as "how and what social groups remember," then digital culture, as Richard Rinehart and Jon Ippolito point out, changes both the how and the what of social memory.
  24. Jun 2016
    1. The term “testing” evokes a certain response from most of us: the person being tested is being evaluated on his or her knowledge or understanding of a particular area, and will be judged right or wrong, adequate or inadequate based on the performance given. This implicit definition does not reflect the settings in which the benefits of “test-enhanced learning” have been established.

      Testing as a demonstration of learning progress.

    2. Setting aside the last few minutes of a class to ask students to recall, articulate, and organize their memory of the content of the day’s class may provide significant benefits to their later memory of these topics.

      Formalizing the exit slip procedure in the BILL would be a good way to do this.

    3. This theory posits that memory has two components: storage strength and retrieval strength. Retrieval events improve storage strength, enhancing overall memory, and the effects are most pronounced at the point of forgetting—that is, retrieval at the point of forgetting has a greater impact on memory than repeated retrieval when retrieval strength is high.

      This meshes well with cognitive load theories about learning.

  25. Apr 2016
    1. It is easy to allow technology to replace memorization and other skills. We should be mindful of what we allow it to replace. Martin Luther King had a large store of writings memorized -- and it served him well when he wrote the Letter from a Birmingham Jail.

      We need more tools that will aid skill development instead of replacing useful skills. Spaced repetition software to assist memorization is one example. Phrase-by-phrase music training programs are another. The same ideas can be applied to memorization of text.

    1. L’analogico richiede una cultura del registrare e dunque uno sforzo per incidere qualcosa su pietra, argilla, papiro, pergamena o carta. Il digitale richiede una strategia del dimenticare; oggi tutto viene registrato automaticamente e ogni tanto bisogna fare uno sforzo per togliere, eliminare.
  26. Jul 2015
    1. I agree with the conclusion that hierarchies and letting users put things in places is good, but I want to posit a more nuanced explanation than "we are set in our ways".

      I think sometimes we don't remember what exactly it is we're looking for. We may not have a word, or a name, or date. But if we put it some place in particular we can find it spatially rather than linguistically.

      This is why I think labels are superior to hierarchies. When we transcend the limitations of physical space would should not throw out space, but we should throw away the constraints of 3D space with its contiguous, volumetric forms. Labels let you put things in as many places as you like. Labels can, too, be hierarchical.

      The problem with the current crop of systems that eschew hierarchy is that they replace it with a text box.

      One could make the argument that smart indexing is just automatic labeling, but I think there's a memory function in having created the labels oneself.

      I'd like to see systems that experiment with more ways to fold space. Shortcuts are like wormholes. Maybe we should have common actions for creating bi-directional ones. On mobile devices I think we should take more advantage of zooming and z-planes.

  27. Jun 2015
    1. digital memory systems radically augment the scope and dura- tion of personal ritemory far beyond the lifespan of the person in question

      Yeah, if the memory is maintained. I can't even keep my iTunes library from disintegrating. If your hard drive crashes, you lose it all, unless it's backed up, in which case you're creating copies that too will differ and degrade.

  28. May 2015
    1. Lethe (Leith)

      The River Lethe was one of the rivers of Hades in Greek mythology. Exposure to its waters was held to lead to loss of memory, or, more intriguingly, a state of "unmindfulness" and oblivion. From this origin, it has re-appeared throughout western culture, from Dante to Tony Banks's first solo album (River Lethe in popular culture, Wikipedia).

      By providing the alternative spelling of Leith, Alasdair Roberts 'doubles' this meaning with the Water of Leith, a river that runs through Edinburgh, and co-locates ancient Greek and contemporary Scots mythology.

      The idea of eternal return is bound up with memory, with cultures being compelled to repeat and confront the missteps of the past. So the oblivion of forgetfulness provided by the endless Lethe provides a form of antidote or escape.

  29. Apr 2015
    1. FTT, as it applies to reasoning, is adapted from dual process models of human cognition. It differs from the traditional dual process model in that it makes a distinction between impulsivity and intuition—which are combined in System 1 according to traditional dual process theories—and then makes the claim that expertise and advanced cognition relies on intuition.[57] The distinction between intuition and analysis depends on what kind of representation is used to process information. The mental representations described by FTT are categorized as either gist or verbatim representations: Gist representations are bottom-line understandings of the meaning of information or experience, and are used in intuitive gist processing. Verbatim representations are the precise and detailed representations of the exact information or experience, and are used in analytic verbatim processing.
    2. When people try to remember past events (e.g., a birthday party or the last dinner), they often commit two types of errors: errors of omission and errors of commission.
  30. Jan 2014
    1. Having made these points many times in the last few years, I've realized that the fundamental problem is in the mistaken belief that the type system has anything whatsoever to do with the storage allocation strategy. It is simply false that the choice of whether to use the stack or the heap has anything fundamentally to do with the type of the thing being stored. The truth is: the choice of allocation mechanism has to do only with the known required lifetime of the storage.

      The type system has nothing to do with the storage allocation strategy; the choice of allocation mechanism has to do only with the known required lifetime of the storage.

    1. Now compare this to the stack. The stack is like the heap in that it is a big block of memory with a “high water mark”. But what makes it a “stack” is that the memory on the bottom of the stack always lives longer than the memory on the top of the stack; the stack is strictly ordered. The objects that are going to die first are on the top, the objects that are going to die last are on the bottom. And with that guarantee, we know that the stack will never have holes, and therefore will not need compacting. We know that the stack memory will always be “freed” from the top, and therefore do not need a free list. We know that anything low-down on the stack is guaranteed alive, and so we do not need to mark or sweep.
    2. When a garbage collection is performed there are three phases: mark, sweep and compact. In the “mark” phase, we assume that everything in the heap is “dead”. The CLR knows what objects were “guaranteed alive” when the collection started, so those guys are marked as alive. Everything they refer to is marked as alive, and so on, until the transitive closure of live objects are all marked. In the “sweep” phase, all the dead objects are turned into holes. In the “compact” phase, the block is reorganized so that it is one contiguous block of live memory, free of holes.
    3. If we’re in that situation when new memory is allocated then the “high water mark” is bumped up, eating up some of the previously “free” portion of the block. The newly-reserved memory is then usable for the reference type instance that has just been allocated. That is extremely cheap; just a single pointer move, plus zeroing out the newly reserved memory if necessary.
    4. The idea is that there is a large block of memory reserved for instances of reference types. This block of memory can have “holes” – some of the memory is associated with “live” objects, and some of the memory is free for use by newly created objects. Ideally though we want to have all the allocated memory bunched together and a large section of “free” memory at the top.
    1. I blogged a while back about how “references” are often described as “addresses” when describing the semantics of the C# memory model. Though that’s arguably correct, it’s also arguably an implementation detail rather than an important eternal truth. Another memory-model implementation detail I often see presented as a fact is “value types are allocated on the stack”. I often see it because of course, that’s what our documentation says.
  31. Nov 2013
    1. It is only by means of forgetfulness that man can ever reach the point of fancying himself to possess a "truth" of the grade just indicated.

      Memory, selection, and choices.

    1. Quintilian decrees that there are five parts to the art of rhetoric - I shall talk about these afterwards - invention, arrangement, style, memory, and delivery.

      Quintilian's five parts of rhetoric.

  32. Oct 2013
    1. Better than either of these, however, is the man who, when he wishes, can repeat the words, and at the same time correctly apprehends their meaning.

      This line is comparable to Quintilian's high regard for improvisation. Augustine seems to go along the same lines arguing that better than just memory is memory with understanding. And best of all is being able to employ all of that whenever one wishes (improvisation).

    1. Memory (as I shall show in its proper place) is most necessary to an orator and is eminently strengthened and nourished by exercise; and, at the age of which we are now speaking, and which cannot, as yet, produce anything of itself, it is almost the only faculty that can be improved by the aid of teachers.

      Memory is actually very bad. Don't put your chips into this idea. Elizabeth Loftus is a good place to start if you disagree.

    2. The remembrance of such admonitions will attend him to old age and will be of use even for the formation of his character. It is possible for him, also, to learn the sayings of eminent men, and select passages, chiefly from the poets (for the reading of poets is more pleasing to the young), in his play-time. Memory (as I shall show in its proper place) is most necessary to an orator and is eminently strengthened and nourished by exercise; and, at the age of which we are now speaking, and which cannot, as yet, produce anything of itself, it is almost the only faculty that can be improved by the aid of teachers.
    3. Memory (as I shall show in its proper place) is most necessary to an orator and is eminently strengthened and nourished by exercise; and, at the age of which we are now speaking, and which cannot, as yet, produce anything of itself, it is almost the only faculty that can be improved by the aid of teachers.
    1. The chief symptom of ability in children is memory, the excellence of which is twofold: to receive with ease and retain with fidelity

      Memory key link to success

    1. and therefore people think that, if his name is mentioned many times, many things have been said about him. So that Homer, by means of this illusion, has made a great deal of though he has mentioned him only in this one passage, and has preserved his memory, though he nowhere says a word about him afterwards.
  33. Sep 2013
    1. hence it is not now easy to remember the past or consider the present or foretell the future; so that most people on most subjects furnish themselves with opinion as advisor to the soul.

      Opinion vs. memory, as if memory were absolute, infallible, objective.

    2. For if all people possessed memory concerning all things past, and awareness of all things present, and foreknowledge of all things to come

      Another instance where memory is valorized as something having great worth if not power. It will be interesting to keep an eye on this as our readings unfold.