492 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
    1. knowledgebegins with the simple, time-honored practice of taking notes

      Definite bias for literacy here.

    2. You may find this book in the “self-improvement” category, but in adeeper sense it is the opposite of self-improvement. It is aboutoptimizing a system outside yourself, a system not subject to you

      imitations and constraints, leaving you happily unoptimized and free to roam, to wonder, to wander toward whatever makes you feel alive here and now in each moment.

      Some may categorize handbooks on note taking within the productivity space as "self-help" or "self-improvement", but still view it as something that happens outside of ones' self. Doesn't improving one's environment as a means of improving things for oneself count as self-improvement?

      Marie Kondo's minimalism techniques are all external to the body, but are wholly geared towards creating internal happiness.

      Because your external circumstances are important to your internal mental state, external environment and decoration can be considered self-improvement.


      Could note taking be considered exbodied cognition? Vannevar Bush framed the Memex as a means of showing associative trails. (Let's be honest, As We May Think used the word trail far too much.)

      How does this relate to orality vs. literacy?

      Orality requires the immediate mental work for storage while literacy removes some of the work by making the effort external and potentially giving it additional longevity.

  2. May 2022
    1. I grew up on PHP, it was the first thing beyond BASIC I ever wrote

      Should we lean into that? Maybe some sort of "server BASIC" is what we need.

      NB: need not (read: "should not") actually be a BASIC; moreso a shared spirit (see also: Hypercard)

    1. Umgekehrt versucht man aktuelle Konzeptionen, die ihren sprachlichen Ursprungim angelsächsischen Raum haben, wie das der „Literacy“ mit Bildung zu über-setzen, was aber nach Koch (2004, S. 189) nicht adäquat ist: „Von einem Bil-dungskonzept wird beim literacy-Programm wohl kaum die Rede sein können,sondern lediglich von einem allgemeinen Qualifikationskonzept, es sei denn, dassman von Bildung bloß in nachlässiger Form redet und geläufige Sprachgewohn-heiten bedient.“ Die gegen das Literacy-Konzept geführten Argumente kritisierendieses als auf Ausbildung reduziertes Bildungskonzept, welches den Menschen alsHumankapital betrachtet und nicht im emphatischen Sinne als Person, vgl. dazuauch Lessing & Steenblock (2010, S. 9). So wird gemäß der OECD (2000, S. 5)„Reading Literacy“ als ein Konzept bestimmt, mit dem instrumentelle Kenntnisseund Fähigkeiten von Schülerinnen und Schülern beschrieben werden. Innerhalbder angestellten Diskussion (Unterabschnitt 3.3.1) des humboldtschen Bildungs-begriff ist aber gezeigt worden, dass instrumentelle Kenntnisse nicht hinreichendfür Bildung sind.

      digital literacy auch?

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    1. Updating the script

      This is less than ideal. Besides non-technical people needing to wade into the middle of (what very well might appear to them to be a blob of) JS to update their site, here are some things that Zonelets depends on JS for:

      1. The entire contents of the post archives page
      2. The footer
      3. The page title

      This has real consequences for e.g. the archivability for a Zonelets site.

      The JS-editing problem itself could be partially ameliorated by with something like the polyglot trick used on flems.io and/or the way triple scripts do runtime feature detection using shunting. When the script is sourced via script element from another page, it behaves as JS, but when visited directly as the browser destination it is treated like HTML and has its own DOM tree for the script itself to make the necessary modifications easier. Instead of requiring the user to edit it as freeform text, provide a structured editing interface, so e.g. adding a new post is as simple as clicking the synthesized "+" button in the list of posts, copying the URL of the post in question, and then pasting it in—to a form field. The Zonelets script itself should take care of munging it into the appropriate format upon form "submission". It can also, right there, take care of the escaping issue described in the FAQ—allow the user to preview the generated post title and fix it up if need be.

      Additionally, the archives page need not by dynamically generated by the client—or rather, it can be dynamically filled in exactly once per update—on the author's machine, and then be reified into static HTML, with the user being instructed to save it and overwrite the served version. This gets too unwieldy for next/prev links in the footer, but (a) those are non-essential, and don't even get displayed for no-JS users right now, anyway; and (b) can be seen to violate the entire "UNPROFESSIONAL" etthos.

      Alternatively, the entire editing experience can be complimented with bookmarklets.

    1. The skills they are learning provide a model for the spectrum of skills thatall mindful digital participants presently can deploy for their own benefitand the public good.

      hier werden die interest driven geek communities quasi als Vorreiter partizipativer literacies ausgewiesen - kann man das auch von hackern sagen? und vereint die Vorreiter v.a. ein Verständnis von Digitalität, das - wenngleich intuitiv - die Netzwerkdynamiken mehr als weniger eigenständig und selbstbestimmt und -bestimmend einschließt? und kommt hier simondon rein? Wer die Technik kennt, kann sie mitgestalten - kann sich mit ihr gestalten - Ideen für das Simondon Seminar - Technik Transparenz, Prozessverständnis (rudimentär, bzw. spezifisch für den jeweiligen Bereich) - das Gegenteil sind eigentlich proprietäre Angebote, die Verdunkeln - teils bewusst, siehe Böhmi Facebook Folge - was sie können und was sie lassen. Simondon - Hacker Ethik - Technischer Mensch - Digitaler Mensch - schon mal ein paar rohe Ideen von mir - außerdem muss ich in die Didaktischen Texte von ihm schauen

    2. Digital participation literacy employs a toolbox of skills (persuasion,curation, discussion, and self-presentation foremost among them), andspans a range of involvement, from tagging a photo or bookmarking a site,to editing a Wikipedia page or publishing a blog.

      participation literacy

  3. Apr 2022
    1. The historian in me always wants to look back at how this sort of media control has played out historically, so thinking about examples like William Randolph Hearst, Henry Luce, David Sarnoff, Axel Springer, Kerry Packer, or Rupert Murdoch across newspapers, radio, television, etc. might be interesting. See also: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Media_proprietor

      Tim Wu's The Master Switch is pretty accessible in this area.


      On the intercultural front, the language (very careful public relations and "corporate speak") used in this leaked audio file of the most recent Twitter All Hands phone call might be fascinating and an interesting primary source for some of the questions you might be looking at on such an assignment. https://peertube.dk/w/2q8cdKR1mTCW7RyMQhcBEx

      Who are the multiple audiences (acknowledged and unacknowledged) being addressed? (esp. as they address leaks of information in the call.)

    1. Given the difficulty of regulating every online post, especially in a country that protects most forms of speech, it seems far more prudent to focus most of our efforts on building an educated and resilient public that can spot and then ignore disinformation campaigns

      On the need for disinformation educations

      ...but what is the difference "between what’s a purposeful attempt to mislead the public and what’s being called disinformation because of a genuine difference of opinion"

    1. the brain stores social information differently thanit stores information that is non-social. Social memories are encoded in a distinctregion of the brain. What’s more, we remember social information moreaccurately, a phenomenon that psychologists call the “social encodingadvantage.” If findings like this feel unexpected, that’s because our culturelargely excludes social interaction from the realm of the intellect. Socialexchanges with others might be enjoyable or entertaining, this attitude holds, butthey’re no more than a diversion, what we do around the edges of school orwork. Serious thinking, real thinking, is done on one’s own, sequestered fromothers.

      "Social encoding advantage" is what psychologists refer to as the phenomenon of people remembering social information more accurately than other types.

      Reference to read: “social encoding advantage”: Matthew D. Lieberman, Social: Why Our Brains Are Wired to Connect (New York: Crown, 2013), 284.

      It's likely that the social acts of learning and information exchange in oral societies had an additional stickiness over and beyond the additional mnemonic methods they would have used as a base.

      The Western cultural tradition doesn't value the social coding advantage because it "excludes social interaction from the realm of the intellect" (Paul, 2021). Instead it provides advantage and status to the individual thinking on their own. We greatly prefer the idea of the "lone genius" toiling on their own, when this is hardly ever the case. Our availability bias often leads us to believe it is the case because we can pull out so many famous examples, though in almost all cases these geniuses were riding on the shoulders of giants.

      Reference to read: remember social information more accurately: Jason P. Mitchell, C. Neil Macrae, and Mahzarin R. Banaji, “Encoding-Specific Effects of Social Cognition on the Neural Correlates of Subsequent Memory,” Journal of Neuroscience 24 (May 2004): 4912–17

      Reference to read: the brain stores social information: Jason P. Mitchell et al., “Thinking About Others: The Neural Substrates of Social Cognition,” in Social Neuroscience: People Thinking About Thinking People, ed. Karen T. Litfin (Cambridge: MIT Press, 2006), 63–82.

    1. Literacy is expanding

      Why the choice of this metaphor? Is literacy an accordion file? Is it that the definition of literacy is expanding? Who has the right to say what literacy means or how it expands? Or is this position statement a backward looking report on the change that has already taken place? I have been using cheap and adaptable media tools for years but I am still writing "essays" and "poems" and research presentations with them just like I did in the analog 20th century days.

    1. In the information age, filtering systems, driven by algorithms and artificial intelligence (AI), have become increasingly prominent, to such an extent that most of the information you encounter on the internet is now rearranged, ranked and filtered in some way. The trend towards a more customised information landscape is a result of multiple factors. But advances in technology and the fact that the body of information available online grows exponentially are important contributors.

      And, in fact, the filtering systems are driven by signals of the searcher, not signals of the content. Past behavior (and user profiling), current location (IP address recognition), device type (signal of user intent and/or social-economic status), and other user-specific attributes are being used to attempt to offer users the information that the provider thinks the user is looking for.

    1. »Mal-mir-was«-Debatte

      Auf der methodisch-praktischen Ebene spricht sich Tiedemann für eine abwechslungsreiche Gestaltung des Philosophie- und Ethikunterrichts aus. Allerdings steht er einer Gleichberechtigung präsentativer und diskursiver Formen kritisch gegenüber und besteht darauf, die Essenz philosophischer Bildung als kategoriengeleitete, argumentative Rechtfertigung zu verstehen. (Wikipedia ) präsentative oder diskursive Medien im Philounterricht? Auch eine Frage bezüglich der Weite des literacy Begriffs

    1. Printing made books affordable to greater numbers than before, as various humanist observers noted, whether they felt this was for the better (Andrea de Bussi, Ludovico Carbone) or for the worse (e.g., Hieronymo Squarcia- fico).17

      Example that every new technology will have its proponents and its detractors.

      link to Plato/Socrates on the use of writing as a replacement for speaking and memory.

    1. I believe we serve our students better by helping them find a note-taking system that works best for them.

      Are there other methods of encouraging context shifts that don't include note taking (or literacy-based) solutions? What would an orality focused method look like? How might we include those methods in our practices?

    1. “Man Who Killed Amanda Knox’s Roommate Freed on Community Service.” My name is the only name that shouldn’t be in that headline.

      I find it interesting that Amanda's name is the only name mentioned in the New York Post's headline. Not the killer's, nor the victim's, Meredith Kercher. Even though this same New York Post, published an article on March 27, 2015 of Amanda's acquittal. The headline should read, "Rudy Guede, the man who murdered Meredith Kercher, Freed on Community Service." In my opinion the New York Post continues to use her name because it's probably more recognizable, than the others, and they need to sell papers. It's marketing! Doesn't make it right though. But geesh! Give Meredith some respect!

  4. Mar 2022
    1. ‘connected educator’

      An interesting term ... what makes a digitally literate educator a connected one?

    2. PLNs (professional learning networks) and their role in supporting the development of  ‘connected educators’.

      Professional learning networks support professional development of educators (who are digitally literate). Is this a more modern connected version or an extension of communities of practice?

    1. Topic A topic was once a spot not a subjecttopic. to ̆p’ı ̆k. n. 1. The subject of a speech, essay, thesis, or discourse. 2. A subject of discussion or con-versation. 3. A subdivision of a theme, thesis, or outline.*With no teleprompter, index cards, or even sheets of paper at their disposal, ancient Greek and Roman orators often had to rely on their memories for holding a great deal of information. Given the limi-tations of memory, the points they chose to make had to be clustered in some meaningful way. A popular and quite reliable method for remembering information was known as loci (see Chapter 9), where loci was Latin for “place.” It involved picking a house you knew well, imagining it in your mind’s eye, and then associating the facts you wanted to recall with specifi c places inside of that house. Using this method, a skillful orator could mentally fi ll up numerous houses with the ideas he needed to recall and then simply “visit” them whenever he spoke about a particular subject. The clusters of informa-tion that speakers used routinely came to be known as commonplaces, loci communes in Latin and koinos topos in Greek. The great Greek philosopher Aristotle referred to them simply as topos, meaning “places.” And that’s how we came to use topic to refer to subject or grouping of information.**

      Even in the western tradition, the earliest methods of mnemonics tied ideas to locations, from whence we get the ideas of loci communes (in Latin) and thence commonplaces and commonplace books. The idea of loci communes was koinos topos in Greek from whence we have derived the word 'topic'.

      Was this a carryover from other local oral traditions or a new innovation? Given the prevalence of very similar Indigenous methods around the world, it was assuredly not an innovation. Perhaps it was a rediscovery after the loss of some of these traditions locally in societies that were less reliant on orality and moving towards more reliance on literacy for their memories.

  5. citeseerx.ist.psu.edu citeseerx.ist.psu.edu
    1. The complete overlapping of readers’ and authors’ roles are important evolution steps towards a fully writable web, as is the ability of deriving personal versions of other authors’ pages.
    2. Writing for the web is still a complex and technically sophisticated activity. Too many tools, languages, protocols, expectations and requirements have to be considered together for the creation of web pages and sites.
    1. Taking search as a learning instrument to the next level of engagement, dashboards can be used educationally as well as journalistically. I know a sixth-grade teacher who had her students create dashboards instead of writing papers.

      Dashboards bauen in der Schule

    2. Levy asked them to keep a log of their email behavior for a week

      Protokoll des Emailverhaltens - analog könnte man sagen des social media Verhaltens, des online Verhaltens (hier sollte aber eine Konkretisierung dazukommen) smartphone Verhaltens (mithilfe von Screentimeanalyseapps) - bei dem Protokoll/Tagebuch ist es wichtige auch emotionales Befinden UND Atmung zu notieren, um festzuhalten wie diese durch den Mediengebrauch beeinflusst werden

    3. nstead of “Am I dreaming?” try “Have I drifted?”

      Treibe ich weg? Parallele zu Klarträumen - Träume ich?

    4. Having helped train her dyslexic son to read, plus having studied dys-lexia scientifically, Wolf appears to be a strong believer in the power of teaching and learning. She contends that the demonstrable power of teach-ing alphabetic literacy can be applied to the challenge of information and media literacies:We must teach our children to be “bitextual” or “multitextual,” able to read and ana-lyze texts flexibly in different ways, with more deliberate instruction at every stage of development on the inferential, demanding aspects of any text. . . . My major conclusion from an examination of the developing reader is a cautionary one. I fear that many of our children are in danger of becoming just what Socrates warned us against—a society of decoders of information, whose false sense of knowing distracts them from a deeper development of their intellectual potential. It does not need to be so, if we teach them well, a charge that is equally applicable to our children with dyslexia.71Developing a pedagogy of attention is, I believe, the basis for Wolf’s kind of education.

      Entwicklung einer Pädagogik der Aufmerksamkeit als Basis für eine Erziehung, die analog zur Erziehung von dyslexischen Kindern zum Lesen, alle Kinder die Orientierung in der von den Kindern dekodierten Informationsflut lehrt.

    5. The analytical, inferential, perspective-taking reading brain with all its capacity for human consciousness, and the nimble, multifunctional, multimodal, information-integrative capacities of a digital mind-set do not need to inhabit exclusive realms

      Annahme: digitales mind-set und Lektürekompetenz schließen einander nicht aus

    1. skill means I know how to read 00:10:56 and write but social means I'm also able to participate in the community of literate and and this goes for all sorts of literacies not just alphabetic literacy

      Hier kommt mir das Gespann von Ich-Selbst, Ich-Welt und Ich-Du Beziehung in Humboldts Bildungsbegriff in den Sinn - ich glaube, dass mindestens ein eingeschränkter Anschluss an dieser Stelle besteht - wiederum nicht, um die Bildung auf digital literacies zu begrenzen oder umgekehrt 'alles, was heute wichtig ist, auf bereits Gedachtes reduktiv zurückzuführen', sondern, um vorhandene, ältere Ressourcen mit neueren transformativ zusammenzudenken - was bleibt, was kommt hinzu? Lässt sich eine inhärente Logik der Bildung skizzieren, die auch in digital literacies zu finden ist? Und kann ggf. der Bildungsbegriff Rheingolds literacy Ansatz (sinnvoll) erweitern helfen? Digitale philosophische Bildung = philosophische Bildung, insofern letztere die erste miteinschließt - weil beide begriffliche Erfassung der Realität darstellen - und da das Internet nicht bloße Simulation ist, ist dies einzuschließen

    2. think we need to go beyond skills to literacies and by that I mean my definition is skills plus community and 00:01:46 we're talking about social media here so I want to touch upon not not all of the literacies that are facing us but I think five of the the most important

      Rheingold: Literacy is skill + community - Welche Rolle spielt nun die Gemeinschaft/community für den Bildungsbegriff? Hier muss wieder eine Klärung geschehen

    3. but I believe that the skill this literacy if you will

      Was denn jetzt? Unterschied Skill and Literacy muss ich noch dringend klären

    1. Peter Eseli of Mabuiag Island (known locally as Mabuyag)in the western Torres Strait began writing down traditional knowledgein the Kala Lagau Ya language in the early twentieth century. By1939, Eseli had amassed a 77-page manuscript, complete withdrawings, songs and genealogies as well as a wealth of starknowledge, some of which is included in this book. He continuedadding to it until his death in 1958. His manuscript was latertranslated into English.
    2. In 1898, Māori man Te Kōkau and his son, Rāwairi Te Kōkau,began recording traditional star knowledge in the Māori language.After 35 years, they had amassed a 400-page manuscript that

      contained over a thousand star names. Rāwairi passed the manuscript to his grandson, Timi Rāwairi. In 1995, Timi’s own grandson asked him about Matariki, a celebration that kicks off the Māori new year, heralded by the dawn rising of the Pleiades star cluster. Timi went to a cupboard, pulled out the manuscript and handed it to his grandson, Rangi Mātāmua.

      Was it partially coincidence that this knowledge was written down and passed on within the family or because of the primacy of the knowledge within the culture that helped to save in spanning from orality into literacy?

      What other examples might exist along these lines to provide evidence for the passing of knowledge at the border of orality and literacy?

      Link this to ideas about the border of orality and literacy in Welsh and Irish.

    3. Indigenous scholars conducting scientific research combine formalacademic training and a personal lived experience that bridgesIndigenous and Western ways of knowing. In the United States andCanada, this concept is called Etuaptmumk, meaning ‘Two-EyedSeeing’. Etuaptmumk comes from the Mi’kmaw language of easternCanada and Maine, and was developed by Elders Dr Albert Marshalland Murdina Marshall.

      Developed by Elders Dr. Albert Marshall and Murdina Marshall, the Mi'kmaw word Etuaptmunk describes the concept of "Two-Eyed Seeing". It is based on the lived experience of Indigenous peoples who have the ability to see the world from both the Western and Indigenous perspectives with one eye on the strengths of each practice.


      The idea behind Etuaptmunk is designed and geared toward Western thinkers who place additional value on the eyes and literacy. Perhaps a second analogy of "Two-Eared Hearing" might better center the orality techniques for the smaller number of people with lived experiences coming from the other direction?

      These ideas seem somewhat similar to that of the third culture kid.

    4. ‘Yes, ofcourse we have science! We’ve been saying that for years, but noone will listen.’

      No one has listened to Indigenous peoples when they say that they have science. The major boundary in hearing in this case is that Indigenous peoples rely on orality where as Western people rely more heavily on literacy. This barrier has obviously been a major gap between these cultures.

    5. Science is something anyone can do, and everyone has done. Theprocess on paper is simple: closely observe the world, test what you learn,and transmit it to future generations. Just because Indigenous cultureshave done this without test tubes doesn’t make them unscientific—justdifferent.

      Perhaps there's a clever dig here that she uses the phrase "on paper" here because most indigenous cultures have done these things orally!

      quote from Dr. Annette S. Lee

    1. The Inca left behind a three-dimensional system, a 3D “script.”

      Silvia Ferrara analogizes the quipu to a three-dimensional "script".

  6. Feb 2022
    1. Also, we shouldn’t underestimate the advantages of writing. In oralpresentations, we easily get away with unfounded claims. We candistract from argumentative gaps with confident gestures or drop acasual “you know what I mean” irrespective of whether we knowwhat we meant. In writing, these manoeuvres are a little too obvious.It is easy to check a statement like: “But that is what I said!” Themost important advantage of writing is that it helps us to confrontourselves when we do not understand something as well as wewould like to believe.

      In modern literate contexts, it is easier to establish doubletalk in oral contexts than it is in written contexts as the written is more easily reviewed for clarity and concreteness. Verbal ticks like "you know what I mean", "it's easy to see/show", and other versions of similar hand-waving arguments that indicate gaps in thinking and arguments are far easier to identify in writing than they are in speech where social pressure may cause the audience to agree without actually following the thread of the argument. Writing certainly allows for timeshiting, but it explicitly also expands time frames for grasping and understanding a full argument in a way not commonly seen in oral settings.

      Note that this may not be the case in primarily oral cultures which may take specific steps to mitigate these patterns.

      Link this to the anthropology example from Scott M. Lacy of the (Malian?) tribe that made group decisions by repeating a statement from the lowest to the highest and back again to ensure understanding and agreement.


      This difference in communication between oral and literate is one which leaders can take advantage of in leading their followers astray. An example is Donald Trump who actively eschewed written communication or even reading in general in favor of oral and highly emotional speech. This generally freed him from the need to make coherent and useful arguments.

    1. For example, in the Phaedrus, one of Plato’s dialogues from the 4th century BCE, Socrates relates the myth of the king Thamus and the god Theuth. Theuth was the inventor of letters — the first technology of thinking!

      Another of the abounding examples of people thinking that writing and literacy are the first technology of thinking.

    1. Because of the constantly growing number of volumes, and to minimize coordination issues, Gottfried van Swieten emphasizes a set of instructions for registering all the books of the court library. Written instructions are by no means common prior to the end of the eighteenth century. Until then, cataloging takes place under the supervision of a librarian who instructs scriptors orally, pointing out problems and corrections as every-one goes along.

      Unlike prior (oral) efforts, Gottfried van Swieten created a writtten set of instructions for cataloging texts at the Austrian National Library. This helped to minimize coordination issues as well as time to teach and perfect the system.


      Written rules, laws, and algorithms help to create self-organization. This is done by saving time and energy that would have gone into the work of directed building of a system instead. The saved work can then be directed towards something else potentially more productive or regenerative.

    1. The problem almost certainly starts with the conception of what we're doing as "building websites".

      When we do so, we mindset of working on systems

      If your systems work compromises the artifacts then it's not good work

      This is part of a broader phenomenon, which is that when computers are involved with absolutely anything people seem to lose their minds good sensibilities just go out the window

      low expectations from everyone everyone is so used to excusing bad work

      sui generis medium

      violates the principle of least power

      what we should be doing when grappling with the online publishing problem—which is what this is; that's all it is—is, instead of thinking in terms of working on systems, thinking about this stuff in such a way that we never lose sight of the basics; the thing that we aspire to do when we want to put together a website is to deal in

      documents and their issuing authority

      That is, a piece of content and its name (the name is a qualified name that we recognize as valid only when the publisher has the relevant authority for that name, determined by its prefix; URLs)

      that's it that's all a Web site is

      anything else is auxiliary

      really not a lot different from what goes on when you publish a book take a manuscript through final revisions for publication and then get an ISBN issued for it

      so the problem comes from the industry

      people "building websites" like politicians doing bad work and then their constituents not holding them accountable because that's not how politics works you don't get held accountable for doing bad work

      so the thing to do is to recognize that if we're thinking about "websites" from any other position things that technical people try to steer us in the direction of like selecting a particular system and then propping it up and how to interact with a given system to convince it to do the thing we want it to do— then we're doing it wrong

      we're creating content and then giving it a name

  7. Jan 2022
  8. Dec 2021
    1. Pratt persuaded tribal elders and chiefs that the reason the "Washichu" (Lakota word for white man, loosely translates to Takes the Fat) had been able to take their land was that the Indians were uneducated. He said that the Natives were disadvantaged by being unable to speak and write English and, if they had that knowledge, they might have been able to protect themselves.

      Example where literacy provides perceived power over orality.

    1. political self-consciousness sort of 00:55:29 receding as one goes further back in time there was a book published in 1946 by the Dutch archaeologist Henry Frank Ford's called befall philosophy which 00:55:42 was about the the ancient Middle East Mesopotamia and Egypt and all that sort of thing but he wasn't actually arguing that these people didn't have the capacity for philosophy he was simply 00:55:55 pointing out that they didn't have an explicit written tradition of speculative thought like that of the ancient Greeks so that when they did speculate they did it in other ways 00:56:07 through images through discourse on the nonhuman world etc etc to find the idea that there have actually ever been individuals who didn't possess any capacity for philosophical reflection

      Henri Frankfort in The Intellectual Adventure of Ancient Man (1946) (later retitled Before Philosophy) argued that non-literate people had philosophy and speculative thought, they just didn't have a written method of expressing it.

      Open questions: How might they have expressed it other than orally? How might one tease these ideas out of the archaeological record? Does Frankfort provide evidence?

    1. The “agricultural revolution,” so the mainstream argument goes, was a double-edged sword – it triggered the big leap in human civilisation which brought us writing, culture, history all things that make humans “special;” but it also led to hierarchy, organised power, bureaucracy, and inequality. Graeber and Wengrow had been suspicious about this narrative for a long time – they did not believe in this evolutionary, progressive, and deterministic parable.

      Focusing on literacy as one of the features that makes humanity special is a major flaw. In fact, it is likely our earlier orality and the attendant portions that come with that which made us unique within the animal kingdom. While transmission of knowledge and information may be quicker with literacy and even with computer technology, our ability to cope with it stems first from our orality.

    1. In oral societies, personal memories fade and even-tually disappear, and yet knowledge somehow remains, as does language. Con-sequently, social memory arises outside, but not independently of, individual psychic systems; it may be regarded as the recursive outcome of communica-tions that are operatively reproduced inside social systems.14

      This idea of transmission of knowledge within oral societies is worth exploring. What is the media of transmission? How does it work in comparison with literate societies? What is the overlap in the two Venn Diagrams?

  9. Nov 2021
    1. While the advent of printing is commonly thought to have resulted in the demise of the manuscript, Bouza upholds that the progress of textual culture in all its forms did not undermine the importance of other mediums of knowledge.

      What sorts of forms does this take?

      It's obviously true from a cultural perspective, but it's much more difficult to do this from a historical perspective for things which happened 2000 years ago, for example.

    2. Seeking to address the reductive opposition both between written and oral texts and between script and print in the Early Modern period, Fernando Bouza, one of Spain's most influential cultural historians, makes an elegant case for the equality and complementary natures of the various modes of communication.

      This may prove an interesting perspective given my own desire to explore some of the same sorts of dynamics in Celtic texts at the border of orality and literacy in the early centuries of the common era.

  10. Oct 2021
  11. Sep 2021
    1. Near the end (@1:50:32):

      My website is glench.com, and that's kind of my repository of everything I've ever made

    2. Around 1:48:00

      What if every library that you use had, like, some interactive documentation or interactive representation? [...] The author could maybe add annotations.

    1. playing house

      This is how I feel about most people's personal websites. Few people have homepages these days, but even for people who do, even fewer of those homes have anyone really living there. All their interesting stuff is going on on Twitter, GitHub, comments on message boards...

      Really weird when this manifests as a bunch of people having really strong opinions about static site tech stacks and justifications for frontend tech that in practice they never use, because the content from any one of their profiles on the mainstream social networks outstrips their "home" page 100x to 1.

    1. what counts as authoritative varies by audience and is layered with historical understanding of truth and trust

      Authority is constructed and contextual.

  12. Aug 2021
    1. I looked at workflows that were similar to GitHub Pages. I realized that what I was craving was very simple: Write text. Put on internet. Repeat.
    1. The reason we keep using email is that for that set of tasks requiring more than plaintext but less than an app we have nothing. MS Word maybe.
    2. chances are it’s a worthless piece of junk to you compared to the email method
    3. When Nicole shops, she writes it out on a sheet of paper
    1. What’s up with African American literacy rates? David L. Horne, PH.D. | 10/3/2013, midnight

      In the world of Facebook, Twitter, Instagram and other quick strike information processes, why is there a definite lack of evidence of a steady upward progression of reading and writing skills among African American contributors?

      Post secondary education statistics continue to demonstrate that far too many African American students who finish high school do so as functional illiterates—that is, they cannot read and write at a basic level requisite for functional participation in modern life. In California, both the California State University system and the University of California system still annually allow (and mainly require) a significant proportion of incoming freshmen to register for developmental English courses—sometimes called “dumbbell” English— in order to assist the students in preparing to take regular-level freshmen college basic education courses. These developmental courses generally do not count toward a student’s graduation but must still be paid for through regular tuition. Both university systems realize this is not a very efficient use of taxpayer dollars, however, the literacy levels of the students coming to them out of high school require this kind of intervention. As of 2009, the Department of Education reported that literacy rates for more than 50 percent of African American children in the fourth grade nationwide was below the basic skills level and far below average; and by the ninth grade nationwide, the situation had gotten worse, with the rate dropping below 44 percent. Yes, there is still an unemployment crisis in the nation’s Black communities, but what is feeding and ensuring the longevity of that crisis is the ballooning illiteracy rate among Black youth and adults. What happened to that post-antebellum slavery zeal that put educational attainment, including reading and writing skills, as the sustained priority for advancement in American society? How did we drop that ball? These are bedeviling questions especially with Sept. 24 labeled National Punctuation Day, and it was accompanied by a broad national reflection on the lack of proper writing skills among modern American youth. Officially, NPD, “is a celebration of the lowly comma, correctly used quotation marks, and other proper uses of periods, semicolons, and the ever-mysterious ellipsis.” Giving even a casual glance at regular comments typed into Twitter, Instagram and on Facebook pages, American youth are in deep need, accompanied by deepening denial, of literacy help. And, citing the old chestnut, “when White folks sneeze, Black folks catch the flu,” where there is this dire a problem among America’s youth in general, African American youth are staring at death’s door regarding functional literacy in America. What can be done about it, if anything? Where there is still parenting going on, we need to encourage the love of reading (not just urge our youth to read so-called great books), and we need to encourage African American youth to actually write sentences in letters, notes, homework assignments, etc. We might even spend a little time checking—proof-reading—their material ourselves. African Americans simply cannot afford this self-imposed hump onto already overloaded backs. It’s one thing to still have to fight everyday acts of random racism in our lives. That’s the nature of the beast we deal with. It is another thing altogether though, to handicap ourselves. Suicide has never been our favorite or most popular response to oppression, but we have to call this literacy problem what it is—cultural and political suicide. C’mon ya’ll. Let’s get with it. Forward not backwards. Professor David L. Horne is founder and executive director of PAPPEI, the Pan African Public Policy and Ethical Institute, which is a new 501(c)(3) pending community-based organization or non-governmental organization (NGO). It is the stepparent organization for the California Black Think Tank which still operates and which meets every fourth Friday.

      DISCLAIMER: The beliefs and viewpoints expressed in opinion pieces, letters to the editor, by columnists and/or contributing writers are not necessarily those of OurWeekly.

      Source: http://ourweekly.com/news/2013/oct/03/whats-african-american-literacy-rates/

      This article discusses an issue that has dogged that African American community for centuries.

    1. Funnily enough, I've been on an intellectual bent in the other direction: that we've poisoned our thinking in terms of systems, for the worse. This shows up when trying to communicate about the Web, for example.

      It's surprisingly difficult to get anyone to conceive of the Web as a medium suited for anything except the "live" behavior exhibited by the systems typically encountered today. (Essentially, thin clients in the form of single-page apps that are useless without a host on the other end for servicing data and computation requests.) The belief/expectation that content providers should be given a pass for producing brittle collections of content that should be considered merely transitory in nature just leads to even more abuse of the medium.

      Even actual programs get put into a ruddy state by this sort of thinking. Often, I don't even care about the program itself, so much as I care about the process it's applying, but maintainers make this effectively inextricable from the implementation details of the program itself (what OS version by which vendor does it target, etc.)

  13. Jul 2021
    1. One of the reasons for this situation is that the very media we have mentioned are so designed as to make thinking seem unnecessary (though this is only an appearance). The packag­ing of intellectual positions and views is one of the most active enterprises of some of the best minds of our day. The viewer of television, the listener to radio, the reader of magazines, is presented with a whole complex of elements-all the way from ingenious rhetoric to carefully selected data and statistics-to make it easy for him to "make up his own mind" with the mini­mum of difficulty and effort. But the packaging is often done so effectively that the viewer, listener, or reader does not make up his own mind at all. Instead, he inserts a packaged opinion into his mind, somewhat like inserting a cassette into a cassette player. He then pushes a button and "plays back" the opinion whenever it seems appropriate to do so. He has performed ac­ceptably without having had to think.

      This is an incredibly important fact. It's gone even further with additional advances in advertising and social media not to mention the slow drip mental programming provided by algorithmic feeds which tend to polarize their readers.

      People simply aren't actively reading their content, comparing, contrasting, or even fact checking it.

      I suspect that this book could use an additional overhaul to cover many of these aspects.

    2. whether the advent of modem communications media has much enhanced our understanding of the world in which we live.

      But it may be seriously questioned whether the advent of modem communications media has much enhanced our understanding of the world in which we live.

      Now that I'm thinking about it, I sort of want the ability to more easily capture audio, annotate and save it while I'm listening to radio or even television. Pausing the media and having the ability to reply it (TIVO and some DVRs provide this capability) and do other things with it would be truly fantastic, especially for saving tidbits for later use and consumption.

    3. To all intents and purposes he remains a sixth-grade reader till well along in college.

      This was apparently true in the 1940s and 1970s. Have things improved measurably since?

    1. The world could benefit from a curated set of bookmarklets in the style of Smalltalk ("doIt", "printIt", etc buttons) that you can place in your bookmarks bar (or copy into a bookmarks document and open in it in your browser), where the purpose would be to allow you to:

      1. access a new scratch area (about:blank) for experimentation
      2. make it editable, or make any given element on a page editable
      3. let you evaluate any code written into the scratch space

      scratch.js aims for something something similar, and though laudable it falls short of what I actually crave (and what I imagine would be be most beneficial/appreciated by the public).

    1. Taking my own advice, this document was written in the world’s greatestweb authoring tool: LibreOffice Writer.

      Great. This is something that I advocate for technical people to put forth as a "serious" solution more often than I see today (which is essentially never). But next time, save it as HTML. (And ditch the stylistic "rubbish"; don't abuse "the sanctity of the written word by coercing it to serve the vanity of a graphic artist incapable of discharging his duty as a mere lieutenant".)

    2. There used to be an internet middle class, of non-commercial users whowere not overtly technical, but were still able to self-publish.

      This is probably the least flawed claim in the entire piece.

    1. "The earlier systems of writing were extremely difficult to learn," says Schwartz, the Whiting Professor of Archaeology in the Department of Near Eastern Studies. "There were thousands of symbols used in very complicated ways, which meant that only a very small group of people could ever learn how to write or read. With the invention of the alphabet, it meant that a much larger number of people could, in theory, learn how to read and write. And so it ultimately led to the democratization of writing. And of course it is the system that all Western European writing systems used because Greeks, who borrowed the Semitic alphabetic system, then used it to write their own language."

      Early writing systems used thousands of symbols and were thus incredibly complex and required heavy memorization. This may have been easier with earlier mnemonic systems in oral (pre-literate societies), but would have still required work.

      The innovation of a smaller alphabetic set would have dramatically decreased the cognitive load of massive memorization and made it easier for people to become literate at scale.

    1. You can use LibreOffice's Draw

      Nevermind LibreOffice Draw, you can use LibreOffice Writer to author the actual content. That this is never seriously pushed as an option (even, to my knowledge, by the LibreOffice folks themselves) is an indictment of the computing industry.

      Having said that, I guess there is some need to curate a set of templates for small and medium size businesses who want their stuff to "pop".

    1. emerging technologies such as deep fakes, facial recognition, and other applications of artificial intelligence

      this sort of language will help make the document become outdated.

  14. Jun 2021
    1. Some of the best customers of such a service will be academics.

      Indeed. Web literacy among the masses is pitifully low. Browsermakers are certainly to blame for being poor stewards. Hot Valley startups are responsible as well. (See https://quoteinvestigator.com/2017/11/30/salary/.)

    1. Slides from

      Panel: Digital Literacies

      How do the collaborative and multimodal qualities of social annotation encourage digital literacies? Join an expert panel of educators and researchers as they share their projects and perspectives, as well as discuss how social annotation exemplifies creative and interactive digital literacies. The panel will be moderated by Mary Klann (History, UC San Diego/San Diego Miramar College) and features speakers Jenae Cohn (Academic Technology, CSU Sacramento), Cherise McBride (Education, UC Berkeley), and Paul Schacht (English/Digital Learning, SUNY Geneseo).

    1. faculty assume that students know how to, for example, take notes

      are note-taking skills taught at all?

    2. reading at the college level can be a real challenge for students from any discipline

      teaching how to read is an ongoing project. Digital reading techniques need to be introduced, reinforced and practiced across courses.

    1. In Plato’s Phaedrus, Socrates bemoaned the development of writing. He feared that, as people came to rely on the written word as a substitute for the knowledge they used to carry inside their heads, they would, in the words of one of the dialogue’s characters, “cease to exercise their memory and become forgetful.” And because they would be able to “receive a quantity of information without proper instruction,” they would “be thought very knowledgeable when they are for the most part quite ignorant.” They would be “filled with the conceit of wisdom instead of real wisdom.” Socrates wasn’t wrong—the new technology did often have the effects he feared—but he was shortsighted. He couldn’t foresee the many ways that writing and reading would serve to spread information, spur fresh ideas, and expand human knowledge (if not wisdom).

      I feel like Western culture has lost so much of our memory traditions that this trite story, which I've seen often repeated, doesn't have the weight it should.

      Why can't we simultaneously have the old system AND the new? Lynne Kelly and Margo Neale touch on this in their coinage of the third archive in Songlines.

    1. I tried all the different static site generators, and I was annoyed with how everything was really complicated. I also came to the realization that I was never going to need a content management system with the amount of blogging I was doing, so I should stop overanalyzing the problem and just do the minimum thing that leads to more writing.

      Great way to put it. One thing that I keep trying to hammer is that the "minimum thing" here looks more like "open up a word processor, use the default settings, focus on capturing the content—i.e. writing things out just as you would if you were dumping these thoughts into a plain text file or keeping it to, say, the subset of Markdown that allows for paragraph breaks, headings, and maybe ordered and unordered lists—and then use your word processor's export-to-HTML support to recast it into the format that lets use their browser to read it, and then FTP/scp/rsync that to a server somewhere".

      This sounds like I'm being hyperbolic, and I kind of am, but I'm also kind of not. The process described is still more reasonable than the craziness that people (HN- and GitHub-type people) end up leaping into when they think of blogging on a personal website. Think about that. Literally uploading Microsoft Word-generated posts to a server* is better than the purpose-built workflows that people are otherwise coming up with (and pushing way too hard).

      (*Although, just please, if you are going to do this, then do at least export to HTML and don't dump them online as PDFs, a la berkshirehathaway.com.)

  15. May 2021
    1. If this is so, we literati must surrender certain cherished assumptions: that litera ture is inextricably associated with reading and writing, that lack of literacy means lack of culture.

      Lack of literacy definitely does not mean lack of culture.

      Reminder to self: I've got a strong suspicion that the Hebrew bible was transmitted orally for generations prior to being written down in a similar manner. I need to collect some additional evidence to build this case. The arc of the covenant is a first potential piece of evidence.

  16. Apr 2021
    1. Though its format can be copied and manipulated, HTML doesn’t make that easy.

      In fact, HTML makes it very easy (true for the reasons that lead Mark to write that it can be copied and manipulated). It's contemporary authoring systems and the typical author-as-publisher and the choices they make that are what makes this difficult.

      The future of rich media lies in striving to be more like dead media (or at least mining it for insights by better understanding it through thoughtful study), rather than the misguided attempts we've been living inside.

      (This is something that I've done a 180 on in the last year or so.)

    2. It’s designed so that whoever produced the video controls how it appears, and how it’s used.

      It is exactly that "timid" ("tepid"?) attempt at dynamism that has led to these circumstances.

  17. Mar 2021
  18. Feb 2021
    1. The first web browser was also an editor. The idea being that not only could everyone read content on the web, but they could also help create it. It was to be a collaborative space for everyone.

      This is really interesting. I think we have got used to the fact that the internet is mostly a passive space - where we search for things. Perhaps we sometime ask questions. And there are only some spaces, where we are actually creative ourselves.

      Hypothes.is is the powerful idea that you can annotate the web.

      Solid is a more radical solution. It is the idea that you can also control what data you share with other.

  19. Dec 2020
    1. If you give any question to a student that has a clear, definitive answer, you are tempting them to cheat.

      We should be assessing how people use information to solve problems they care about, rather than whether or not they can recall information.

  20. Oct 2020
    1. Der Guardian über das estnische Bildungssystem und den Covid-19-Lockdown. Rechtzeitige Digitalisierung hat dafür gesorgt, dass die Schulen so leistungsfähig geblieben sind wie davor.

    1. Umfrage unter amerikanischen Wählern im Jahr 2020, die zeigt, dass die Klimakrise immer noch eine geringe Priorität hat und dass die meisten die Folgen von Temperaturerhöhungen nicht einschätzen können. Via Genvieve Günther auf Twitter https://twitter.com/doctorvive/status/1308760710470676480?s=21

    1. While individuals use these tools in the hope that their training will improve their performance, this relationship is not a given. This paper proposes that an individual's level of digital literacy affects her performance through its impact on her performance and effort expectations. To explain the influence of digital li

      This is the very reason I selected this paper. Digital literacy is also a factor in determining one's technological acumen.

    1. How is digital fluency different from digital literacy? In learning a foreign language, a literate person can read, speak, and listen for understanding in the new language. A fluent person can create something in the language: a story, a poem, a play, or a conversation. Similarly, digital literacy is an understanding of how to use the tools; digital fluency is the ability to create something new with those tools. Digital fluency can be viewed as an evolving collection of fluencies including, but not limited to, curiosity fluency, communication fluency, creation fluency, data fluency, and innovation fluency.

      This comparison takes a narrow view of digital literacy. Often the term includes the ability to critically evaluate digital content and to create digital media (see e.g. Perspectives of digital literacies. However, the concept of digital fluency is also useful and this definition includes useful elements.

    1. Digital literacy should be positioned as an entitlement for students that supports their full participation in a society in which social, cultural, political, and financial life are increasingly mediated by digital literacies

      Positioning digital literacy as an entitlement is useful language to persuade individual educators and institutions that digital literacy is core to 21st century education, not just an optional add-on.

    1. Description: Silver-Pacuilla discusses the use of assistive technology in small tutoring groups. Students belonging to these groups are adults and have a learning disability related towards literacy. The conclusion was assistive technology can help bridge the literacy gap if used in small group settings

      Rating: 6/10

      Reason for the rating: Great discussion about students with learning disabilities. It tackles both the pros and the cons of technology, but this setting is for tutoring groups rather than classes.

    1. Description: The authors discuss the use of podcasts to engage undergraduate students and aid in their test scores. The goal of the study was to have a teacher create podcasts of their lectures for students to listen to outside of class. Though the study found no correlation between exam scores and podcasts, the majority of the students did utilize them for studying and found them useful.

      Rating: 8/10

      Reasoning for the rating: The scope of my proposal will be using audiobooks or podcasts in a general English literature class. Though this discusses the use of podcasts for a large lecture based class, it is focused at biology rather than literature. Yet, the study is comprehensive about the influence on the podcasts on student's test scores.

    1. Description: Researchers broke students into three different groups and presented the same information to students using different materials. One group was given only an e-book, another the audio-book, and the final group had access to both. They found no great correlation between comprehension and the modality which the information is given in.

      Rating: 9/10

      Reason for the rating: This test was given to college students about a non-fiction text which they were unfamiliar with. Students were randomly placed in their groups and the data analysis looks reputable. The information given in this text shows that audiobooks can be as effective as text in regards to comprehension. This will be valuable for the my proposal to incorporate audiobooks into English Literature classes.

    1. being able to follow links to “follow a conversation” that is threaded on Twitter.

      This is one of my favorite parts about my website and others supporting Webmention: the conversation is aggregated onto or more closely adjacent to the source. This helps prevent context collapse.

      Has anyone made a browser tool for encouraging lateral reading? I'd love a bookmarklet that I could click to provide some highly relevant lateral reading resources for any particular page I'm on.

    2. What’s lateral reading?

      lateral reading, noun

      When you open up the Hypothes.is sidebar on a website and read the highlights and annotations that provide additional context to the main context.

    1. Sioned Davies is Chair of Welsh at Cardiff University. Her special interest is the interplay between orality and literacy, together with the performance aspects of medieval Welsh narrative.

      Oh! This is fascinating. Perhaps some interesting tidbits for my growing theory about the borders of orality and literacy could be hiding in some of her research?

  21. Sep 2020
    1. But I end up coming back to this simple stuff because I can’t shake the feeling that digital literacy needs to start with the mirror and head-checks before it gets to automotive repair or controlled skids. Because it is these simple behaviors, applied as habits and enforced as norms, that have the power to change the web as we know it, to break our cycle of reaction and recognition, and ultimately to get even our deeper investigations off to a better start.

      I find this quite interesting because of the analogies that are given. Many people find it hard or make it seem hard to investigate what is presented on the internet when in all honesty, the process will get easier to the point that it is considered a mirror check, something we humans do constantly.

  22. Aug 2020
    1. What is Critical Literacy?

      critical

      • expressing or involving an analysis of the merits and faults of a work of literature, music, or art.

      literacy

      • the ability to read and write
      • competence or knowledge in a specified area

      The education of individuals and groups in a way that lets them gain competence and knowledge in a specified field or area, while simultaneously being able to express or analyze the merits and faults of the current and previous works.

  23. Jul 2020
    1. Online Reading Comprehension

      Sharing what they've found with one another Students getting really excited when they've found something, want to show teacher Once students get one part, challenge them to find something new Evaluate the information; what features make it good? What is definition of best? Synthesize what you are finding; bring in all the information from different sources Multimodal ways of reading

    1. Framing Internet use as a literacy issue will also make it more likely to be embraced by schools, an institution resistant to adopting new technologies

      If this is included with literacy, schools and districts may think more about the new ways that our students are constructing learning

    1. How do you ensure that students could still properly comprehend information under the SAMR model, particular in relation to literacy.

    1. xperiences invite participation and provide many different ways for individuals and groups to contribute.

      Participatory: web literacy

    1. It is important to use critical and creative thinking, even if you can pass classes without it.

    1. web-biggest misinformation engine as well as the greatest fact-checking resource

    2. reading laterally rather than deep reading a website

    3. Never ending array of content. No previous knowledge of sources.

    4. Participatory Propaganda-doing our part to get our own message out there