148 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
    1. When poisoning the well confers benefits to the poisoners, the meta-waters get awfully toxic in short order.

      If we look at Twitter as a worldwide annotation tool which is generating metadata on a much tinier subset of primary documents (some of which are not truthful themselves), this seems to bear out in that setting as well.

      ref: Kalir & Garcia in Annotation

  2. Jun 2020
    1. Interestingly, I’ve found that Kindle is useful in this respect. I buy Kindle versions of books that I need for work, and highlight passages and bookmark pages as I go. And when I’ve finished the software obligingly has a collection of all the passages I’ve highlighted.

      John, you should spend a minute or two to learn about Hypothes.is (https://web.hypothes.is/) as an online tool for doing this. It's a free account or you can self-host the software yourself if you like. There are also functionalities to have public, private, or group annotations. I often pull my own annotations to my personal website similar to your own Memex and publish them there (example: https://boffosocko.com/kind/annotation/)

      Syndicated copy: https://boffosocko.com/2020/05/21/55771248/)

  3. May 2020
  4. Mar 2020
    1. If you’d like to differentiate between the various functions a paragraph in a text can have, look out for signal words. For example, the following literal devices may indicate that the function is to build a mental model: schema, allegory, analogy, hypothesis, metaphor, representation, simile, theory. Put a corresponding “model” mark next to these.
    1. To have, but maybe not to read. Like Stephen Hawking’s “A Brief History of Time,” “Capital in the Twenty-First Century” seems to have been an “event” book that many buyers didn’t stick with; an analysis of Kindle highlights suggested that the typical reader got through only around 26 of its 700 pages. Still, Piketty was undaunted.

      Interesting use of digital highlights--determining how "read" a particular book is.

  5. Jan 2020
    1. Create an IFTTT.com recipe to port your Hypothesis RSS feed into WordPress posts. Generally chose an “If RSS, then WordPress” setup and use the following data to build the recipe: Input feed: https://hypothes.is/stream.atom?user=username (change username to your user name) Optional title: {{EntryTitle}} Body: {{EntryContent}} from {{EntryUrl}} <br />{{EntryPublished}} Categories: Highlight (use whatever categories you prefer, but be aware they’ll apply to all your future posts from this feed) Tags: hypothes.is Post status (optional): I set mine to “Draft” so I have the option to keep it privately or to publish it publicly at a later date.

      Posting this solely to compare my Hypothes.is highlights and annotations on my website with Will's version.

      I'm still tinkering with mine and should have a Micropub based version using IFTTT and Webhooks done soon.

  6. Dec 2019
    1. There is a class of algorithms for something called “Inpainting”, which is about reconstructing pictures or videos in spite of missing pieces. This is widely used for film restoration, and commonly found in Adobe Photoshop as the “Content-Aware Fill” feature.

      This reminds me of a tool called asciinema that allows highlighting text within a video.

  7. Nov 2019
    1. According to Raskin, too many people working on hypertext have concentrated on mechanisms instead of on the user interface. It is necessary to look at the entire spectrum of interaction and to do continuous user testing.
  8. Sep 2019
    1. From quill and ink, to the printing press and book formatting, to digital applications and platforms, annotation is - and always has been - tightly coupled to the technologies of the day.

      This makes me wonder at annotations in scrolls (and how pointers may have worked) prior to the invention and proliferation of codices as a literary form.

    1. In April of 2019, at a digital learning conference, Manuel Espinoza spoke with educators, technologists, and annotation enthusiasts about R2L.d-undefined, .lh-undefined { background-color: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.2) !important; }.d-undefined, .lh-undefined { background-color: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.5) !important; }1Nate Angell and “the role that Hypothesis plays in human rights work.”

      Manuel Espinoza, “Keynote,” AnnotatED Summit, April 2, 2018, https://youtu.be/5LNmSjDHipM.

    2. The Task Annotation Project in Science (TAPS) provides K-12 educators with annotated assessment tasks, aligned to the Next Generation Science Standards, that help guide teachers in more equitably monitoring their students’ learning.37 Osmosis is a repository of open educational resources (OER) created to crowdsource the future of medical education.38 Undergraduate and graduate medical students have access to thousands of digital resources, and they have also used annotation - through comments, feedback forms, and ratings - to improve the quality of these learning materials.39 The National Science Digital Library (NSDL), created in 2000, is an archive of open access teaching and learning resources for learners of all ages across science, technology, engineering, and mathematics disciplines.40 Annotation has been used to tag the NSDL’s resources and improve information accessibility, support student interaction with multimedia content through a digital notebook, and educators have annotated NSDL resources to design online learning activities for their students.41 And research about the digital annotation tool Perusall.d-undefined, .lh-undefined { background-color: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.2) !important; }.d-undefined, .lh-undefined { background-color: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.5) !important; }3Troy Hicks, Nate Angell, Jeremy Dean, often used in conjunction with science textbooks, has shown that college students’ pre-reading and annotation practices can subsequently improve exam performance.
    3. Paul Allison, who administers the online annotation platform Now Comment.d-undefined, .lh-undefined { background-color: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.2) !important; }.d-undefined, .lh-undefined { background-color: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.5) !important; }1Chris Aldrich that is popular among some K-12 educators and their students.
    4. Annotation Studio
    5. Some researchers have referred to this type of learning arrangement as anchored discussion.23 When students “talk” with one another about a shared text through digital annotation, evidence suggests.d-undefined, .lh-undefined { background-color: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.2) !important; }.d-undefined, .lh-undefined { background-color: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.5) !important; }3Lauren Zucker, Jeffrey Pomerantz, Maha Bali annotation affords richer conversation as students pay closer attention to the text, establish more proximal connections between their discussion and the source material, and embrace opportunities to elaborate their ideas, clarify, and learn from the viewpoints of their peers.
    6. Given technological advances and a trend to promote digital annotation by students in school, empirical findings are mixed regarding the evidence-based benefits of handwritten annotation for learning.

      There are also now digital tools like Anki, Mnemosyne, and even Amazon's notebook tools that allow highlights and annotations in books to be transferred into digital flashcards to be used for spaced reviews of knowledge and information. I suspect that even students that heavily highlight their textbooks are rarely reviewing over those highlights after-the-fact, and have generally found this to be the case when asking those I see actively doing so.

  9. Aug 2019
    1. Now you have the extension up and running.

      If you see this annotation, you have annotations up and running :)

  10. bookbook.pubpub.org bookbook.pubpub.org
    1. As such, we can read Yelp and similar review sites as curated collections of texts that provide annotators.d-undefined, .lh-undefined { background-color: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.2) !important; }.d-undefined, .lh-undefined { background-color: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.5) !important; }2Troy Hicks, Maha Bali with a public and networked opportunity to express their truth and author counternarratives.

      Here I'm reminded of Tom Standage's book Writing on the Wall: Social Media: The First 2,000 Years as potentially having some interesting examples that include the ideas of social media as an annotation layer on life.

    2. notes are tediously authored for the profit of multinational corporations.

      social media: live annotations on life itself

    3. Debate about online annotation technologies and practices will continue.

      I've added a few examples of abuse and conversation here in the past: https://indieweb.org/annotation#Annotation_Sites_Enable_Abuse

    4. Divergent responses to annotation demonstrate what Foucault means by power running through the whole social body.

      How would this have worked in pre-literate societies? Examples?

      "the whole social body" also reminds me of the idea of the "Great Chain of Being" to consider how differences in annotation may change and evolve in societies over long periods of time. I can't help but consider Richard Dawkins' original conceptualization of the "meme" and how they move through societies with or without literacy skills.

    5. When Bell notes that counternarratives can galvanize “little tiny changes,” she may be suggesting a receptiveness on the part of readers to perceive and appreciate annotation.

      These sorts of annotations can also help to force people who might not otherwise understand the subtlety of a piece to "read between the lines". I have to wonder about annotations as a means of apophasis as well...

      Not having anywhere else to attach it yet, I also wonder about verbal annotations or asides in actual speech? Perhaps president George H.W. Bush's famous quote "Read my lips: no new taxes" could be considered an example of this sort of verbal annotation or highlighting?

    6. Both artists, through annotation, have produced new forms of public dialogue in response to other people (like Harvey Weinstein), texts (The New York Times), and ideas (sexual assault and racial bias) that are of broad social and political consequence.

      What about examples of future sorts of annotations/redactions like these with emerging technologies? Stories about deepfakes (like Obama calling Trump a "dipshit" or the Youtube Channel Bad Lip Reading redubbing the words of Senator Ted Cruz) are becoming more prevalent and these are versions of this sort of redaction taken to greater lengths. At present, these examples are obviously fake and facetious, but in short order they will be indistinguishable and more commonplace.

    7. Art by O’Hare and Bell highlight - both visually and conceptually - the dialogic quality of annotation expressing power.

      While I'm reading this, I can't help but wishing that Hypothes.is would add a redaction functionality to their product. They could potentially effect it by using the highlighter functionality, but changing the CSS to have the color shown be the same as that of the (body) text instead of being yellow.

    8. of power, let’s consider another type of annotation, written by a single author, and in response to a very different though equally important social and political circumstance.PoetryMaha Bali2 weeks agoAt this point, a thought crossed my mind related to Audrey Watters feeling like she did not want annotation to happen on her own website (but is happy to have it done outside her website if people wanted). I wonder if there is any value in unpacking that one here? Perhaps. perhaps not.

      Ultimately Audrey Watters rescinded the Creative Commons license on her website, though I don’t think she ever mentioned specifically why she made that change (nor does she need to publicly state a reason) though it may have had something to do with annotations and/or harassment she experienced at the time.

      I do remember thinking at the time she was looking at those decisions that in some sense by allowing annotations on her site, she was providing a platform and distribution for others to potentially harass her.

      Some pieces of that extended conversation:



    9. And would a hip hop fan question, much less downvote, a “verified” Genius annotation authored by Kendrick Lamar that explains the meaning behind his music?

      But if we're going to consider music as art, isn't a lot of the value and power of art in the "eye of the beholder"? To some extent art's value is in the fact that it can have multiple interpretations. From this perspective, once it's been released, Lamar's music isn't "his" anymore, it becomes part of a broader public that will hear and interpret it as they want to. So while Lamar may go back and annotate what he may have meant at the time as an "expert", doesn't some of his art thereby lose some power in that he is tacitly stating that he apparently didn't communicate his original intent well?

      By comparison and for contrast one could take the recent story of Donald Trump's speech (very obviously written by someone else) about the recent mass shootings and compare them with the polar opposite message he spews on an almost daily basis from his Twitter account. See: https://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/teleprompter-trump-meets-twitter-trump-as-the-president-responds-to-mass-slayings/2019/08/05/cdd8ea78-b799-11e9-b3b4-2bb69e8c4e39_story.html

    10. “Every Cambodian... including the King has the right to express freely their view.”

      While I like the sentiment here, a lot of the power of the message comes from not only the medium, but the distribution which it receives. Many daily examples of "typical" annotation done by common people are done in a way that incredibly few will ultimately see the message. The fact that the annotations of the emperor were republished and distributed was what, in great part, gave them so much weight and value. Similarly here with the example of the King's blog or Alexandra Bell's work which was displayed in public. I hope there is more discussion about the idea of distribution in what follows.

    11. mmentary. It also includes many annotated newspaper and magazine articles.An articMaha Bali2 weeks agowould be nice to include a screenshot. Also, I feel like I need to read up on Cambodian history to understand the significance of this particular royal - you don’t explicitly talk about how he is using power here. Was he trying to influence public opinion, was he just annotating for his own knowledge and learning, what kind of power is at play here?(I also wonder if the whole leaders having “right to express freely their view” does not work to anyone’s favor in the case of Donald Trump, so I would contest this strongly. That freedom of expression for political leaders maybe should be weighted differently than for the general population, no? As it has broader consequences for the entire country or even the world…

      I nearly added it above in the opening, but Maha’s comment reminds me of it again. In a countercultural way, a web developer created a browser plugin that will re-format all of Donald Trump’s tweets to appear as if they were written in crayon by an eight year old: http://maketrumptweetseightagain.com/

      While not technically annotation in a “traditional” form discussed in the text so far—though close from the perspective of the redaction technique mentioned above—, by reformatting the font of Trumps tweets, it completely changes their context, meaning, and political weight.

    12. According to medievalist scholar Stephen Nichols, the practice of annotatio “originated in the very centers of power… had judicial consequences, was philosophically pragmatic, and intervened in all aspects of social and political life. Annotation was a cultural construction that may be studied as a sociology of imperial legislative practices.”5Nichols, “On the Sociology of Medieval Manuscript Annotation,” 46. As a remark of imperial power permanently anchored in a text, annotatio were intended to influence decision-making and legislation. In many instances, this note of political power was conveyed to a court as a means of presenting the emperor’s presence, will, and “imperial dignity.”
    13. Rather, annotation can help to shape who communicates, with what texts and tools, how points of view are articulated, and what voices rise to the surface within any given context.
    14. Bell wields annotation as an intentional and political resource.d-undefined, .lh-undefined { background-color: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.2) !important; }.d-undefined, .lh-undefined { background-color: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.5) !important; }1Betina Hsieh. Through authoring counternarratives - atop and through the original words, images, and designs of The New York Times’ texts - Bell’s annotation highlights and magnifies representation, voice, and prejudice.
    1. However, when groups of readers come together and collectively read and write annotation in response to a shared text, then annotation can - under curated circumstances - spark and sustain conversation.

      I can't help but note that within the IndieWeb community, they're using a combination of online chat and wiki tools which to a great extent are a larger ongoing conversation. The conversation continues on a daily (almost hourly) basis and the substantive portions of that conversation are captured within the wiki for future reference. Interestingly, an internal chat bot, known as Loqi, allows one to actively make changes to the wiki from within the chat. In some sense, within this community there could be an analogy to which came first the chicken or the egg, but replacing those with conversation and annotation.

    2. tate it.Whenever an annotation was added to a Madison document, a few technical features helped to further facilitate conversation. First, the document’s sponsor was automatically notified of a new annotation. Second, the annotation also appeared in-line as marginalia that could be responded to, liked, or flagged by others. And third, the annotation was displayed as a “comment” along with others at the end of the document. This process was described as “the future of crowdsourced legislation,” and illustrated how social and collaborative annotation could contribute to and improve civic life.Among noTroy Hicks1 week agoIt seems that these technical features were ones that, I am assuming, where only known and used by a very few of the users. Again, speaking to power and access, what does that mean for the kinds of democratized annotation experiences that we aspire to? How is this (entirely) dissimilar from conversations on social media, perhaps even off-putting or inaccessible to average users?

      Or additionally consider the vast amounts of un-curated noise that annotations may make in instances like these when they hit larger scale. How can these systems better delineate the authority of the individual authors?

      As a foil, consider how often people may read the several thousands of comments on a particular New York Times article? How many readers delve into these conversations and interact with them—particularly when they aren’t moderated or are overpopulated by trolls? We need better UI to indicate those annotating with some authority (or provide their background and expertise) or who may even be the original author responding to questions.

    3. oduction. It’s quite likely that you may have read - and even annotated - the book while in high school. We do knTroy Hicks1 week agoPerhaps… if it wasn’t issued to you by a teacher or, as my literature teacher did, we were required to buy copies for ourselves so we could, indeed, destroy our own property and not the school’s. Of course, now we have https://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/84, and annotation is quite possible across a variety of forms.

      Or perhaps, even more fun, the Shelley-Goodwin Archive has a digital copy of the original text which preserves the original handwritten text as well as the editorial annotations!!

    4. Moreover, annotation is the agreed upon means of starting and sustaining that conversation.

      With this text appearing on bookbook.pubpub.org being an excellent example of just this. #meta

      I'm sort of hoping for some discussion of Kathleen Fitzpatrick's process behind her book Planned Obsolescence which was released in draft form for open peer review in fall 2009, much like Annotations. It's the first example I can think of a scholar doing something like this digitally in public, though there may have been other earlier examples.

    5. Whether sparked incidentally or intentionally, annotation can be written and read as conversation.

      I suspect this is true, but only in some cases and not in all. For example, one must ask which of an author's publics are meant to see and engage with an annotation? Some platforms like Twitter obviously have a much larger public than something like Hypothes.is which is a smaller set, and then annotations an individual reader places in their copy of Beloved which may have a public of one--the author the annotation.

    6. In Jackson’s assessment, “Writing marginalia is not so much akin to conversation or collaboration or correspondence as it is to talking back to the TV set.d-undefined, .lh-undefined { background-color: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.2) !important; }.d-undefined, .lh-undefined { background-color: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.5) !important; }2Heather Staines, Chris Aldrich - and readers like it that way.”

      I have seen some cultures in movie theaters actively talk back to the movie on the movie screen, and this becomes part of a bigger communal conversation and reaction to the film being played.

    7. While some annotation may be informative, and other annotation responsive or evaluative, can annotation be a conversation?
    8. However one might debate both the merit and the form of Prince’s note, we consider “slave” a provocative example of what can count as annotation and how annotation can spark - and shape - conversation.

      Perhaps another historical example, though with different meaning is the placard cum annotation INRI which stood for "Iesus Nazarenus Rex Iudaeorum" a Latin phrase translated as "Jesus of Nazareth, King of the Jews." It was the notice Pontius Pilate nailed over Jesus as he was crucified.

      Historians generally agree that this is one of the few facts that one can discern from the New Testament about the historical Jesus because it both runs at cross purposes to the ideas of early Christianity and it is multiply attested (Matthew 27:37, Mark 15:26, Luke 23:38, John 19:19).

      It's an annotation which was remembered in oral tradition long enough to have been written down multiple times and which has sent both religious and cultural ripples throughout the ages.

      To further the discussion of annotation in relation to this, John’s version has the chief priests of the Jews ask Pilate to have the annotation state “This man said, ‘I am King of the Jews’”, but “Pilate answered, “What I have written, I have written.”

    1. However one might debate both the merit and the form of Prince’s note, we consider “slave” a provocative example of what can count as annotation and how annotation can spark - and shape - conversation.

      Perhaps another historical example, though with different meaning is the placard cum annotation INRI which stood for "Iesus Nazarenus Rex Iudaeorum" a Latin phrase translated as "Jesus of Nazareth, King of the Jews." It was the notice Pontius Pilate nailed over Jesus as he was crucified.

      Historians generally agree that this is one of the few facts that one can discern from the New Testament about the historical Jesus because it both runs at cross purposes to the ideas of early Christianity and it is multiply attested (Matthew 27:37, Mark 15:26, Luke 23:38, John 19:19).

      It's an annotation which was remembered in oral tradition long enough to have been written down multiple times and which has sent both religious and cultural ripples throughout the ages.

    1. And the work of Climate Feedback continues.

      This is a good example and shows some great power, but where is the open annotation occuring? It seems obvious that they must have a closed group, but how does that information leak out of their mini-silo? When I visit the original page of the example it currently only shows one annotation. As a broader member of the general public, how do I have better access to expert groups and the annotations they're making on the things I'm actively reading?

    2. Our everyday media - and our proclivity for relationship as mediated by retweets, likes, reactions, and snaps - is all the more social because of annotated commentary.

      Perhaps deeper than you want to go, but I'm curious about your thoughts on Medium's UI that allows in line commentary/comments/reactions (which are also given their own separate URL's which don't include all of their context) versus other platforms that would simply include those as comments at the bottom.

    3. Annotation in the Talmud literally and figuratively highlights commentary as a valued social practice.

      Though it could do more so if the text had additional blank marginal spaces for the reader to add their own commentary (or comments).

    4. Annotation and comment do share similar characteristics, but not all forms of annotation are synonymous with comment.
    5. The author and literary critic Sam Anderson has written: “Twitter is basically electronic marginalia on everything in the world: jokes, sports, revolutions.”

      I like their idea about Twitter being an annotation tool and to some extent it is, and a good one at that. However, we still need to address the distribution mechanism and the fact that Tweets like this are often bereft of context and cause context collapse.

      Quote tweets and dunking mechanisms would be interesting to study in this context, particularly in a world where people often delete tweets (dunked or not) which means the original context is gone or missing and we're only left with an orphaned annotation.

      Other cultural examples of missing context include commentary for live sporting or cultural events like the Super Bowl, World Series, World Cup Soccer, or the Academy Awards. Watchers will comment on something in real time (often even without an identifying or contextualizing hashtag, eg: #Oscars19), supposing an implied context from their audience, but later generations will be at odds to find or re-complete the original context.

    6. Annotation Shares Commentary

      Before I even begin this section, I want to note my general thought that annotations prior to the spread of the internet (and even up until just the last few years, let's say to the birth of Hypothes.is) were generally seen by very few people--like those that wrote them and at best perhaps two or three others unless they were later moved into longer papers, speeches, or other material in another aggregated form. Owen Gingerich's study of this in The Book that Nobody Read is like an extreme case of the spread of annotations from professors to students and I suspect would be an outlier.

      However even in the current climate with a more social media based networked set of annotations, they're still not widely used or distributed, though are becoming somewhat more so as the ease of use of the tools and the adoption by smaller groups takes hold. But even given this small growth, by analogy I might say that adoption of digital annotations are at the level of late first century Christianity--it's still small and is far from the spread and acceptance of, say, 17th century Christianity.

  11. Jul 2019
    1. Heather Staines1 month agoWould you consider metadata to be a form of annotation? Annotation for machines?Remi Kalir1 month agoYes, absolutely, metadata is a form of annotation. The MIT Press EKS volume “Metadata” is included in our Further Readings section. And the relationship between human-machine annotation, as well as automated annotation, is a topic we pick up in Chapter 7. Do you see additional opportunities for us to more explicitly discuss metadata as a form of annotation?

      It’s a great meta meta example, but the IndieWeb movement uses microformats to mark up portions of web pages with metadata that gives machines the idea of the semantics of a particular post. Thus, I could reply to this web page with a traditional social media “like” as a means of annotating it on my own website. The microformat “u-like-of” would be added to my page’s metadata that allows the web page I’m replying to to read that like intent and potentially display it—though traditionally they’re shown under the text in question.

    2. a label will inform the program “this is a cat,” and not a cheeseburger - despite some visual similarity and the former perhaps having the latter.

      This is the label you were hoping someone would put on this right?

      Image courtesy of icanhascheeseburger.

    3. Textual and graphical information - picture the always-crawling news ticker - appear via annotation in the lower third of many broadcasts.

      These are known as a chyron.

    4. gloss

      I can't help but glossthe word gloss, [a brief explanation (as in the margin or between the lines of a text) of a difficult or obscure word or expression].

      It also seems a bit like the following paragraph actually glosses over a more concrete definition of the word?

    5. While non-verbal markings, including evidence of readers’ attention and engagement via asterisks or characters, are not marginalia according to Jackson, we do consider this repertoire of signs and symbols an important form of annotation (particularly among digital texts and contexts).

      Now I'm wondering how to effectuate an asterisk more simply on digital platforms.

      • simply doesn't quite do it in an overlay system like hypothes.is though their highlight set up does quite well.

      Perhaps bookbook.pubpub's annotation indicator could act as an asterisk whether the note field is empty or not?

    6. Heidi Brayman Hackel’s study of that period’s book use among “less extraordinary readers” - and that would be everyday folks, like us - suggests people added various types of marks while reading their books.

      Here I can't help but wonder about people who wrote their notes or annotations into their own personal commonplace books rather than directly in the texts themselves. Perhaps somewhat tangential to the broader ideas here, but do the annotations necessarily need to be in the text themselves? What sorts of separate lives do unlinked annotations go on to have? What do annotations over the ages have from living within the text itself, separately in notebooks, notecards, commonplace books, or even in the modern age with digital annotating tools that can be seen, read, and distributed to much larger audiences?

    1. “Some of my most wonderful memories of Dick are moments where he talked about his deep love for [his wife] Catherine, and the way that she continues to live in his books,” Chaffee said. Catherine Macksey, a scholar of French, died 18 years ago. “He finds her again in the annotations she made, which I think speaks to his love of books but also his love of people, and how connected those things are for him.”
  12. Jun 2019
  13. bookbook.pubpub.org bookbook.pubpub.org
    1. Marking up this book makes your thinking visible
    2. Related to my note above about power in annotation, I feel I need to post a concern here that I’m on the watchout for deterministic effects attributed to annotation as a general technology/practice — rather than to specific social deployments of annotation practices. Each of these outcomes seems like a _possible_, but not _required_ outcome of annotation in specific contexts.

      I’d agree. Annotations are a tool and can be used for both positive and negative outcomes.

      Related somewhat to my bible example above, one could view the individual texts of the New Testament as annotations to the Hebrew bible, in which case they changed a movement from being a religion of Jesus to a religion about Jesus—one which not coincidentally makes him one of the best known people to have ever lived (see: http://pantheon.media.mit.edu/rankings/people/all/all/-4000/2010/H15).

      In the case of my earlier genealogical example, the books of the New Testament go back and parallel the lineages of the Old Testament to draw a direct line from King David to Jesus spanning roughly a 1000 years. This is seemingly suspect for a man who would have most likely been an illiterate and poor carpenter, but certainly served the purposes of Greek, Jewish, and Aramaic writers of the time, particularly against the ruling patriarchy of Judea and Rome at the time.

    3. This, too, is an act of everyday annotation, stretched over time and etched with love.

      Another good example is the built up genealogy of family bibles inscribed with the names of owners and their family tree which are passed from one generation to the next. To some extent this is highlighted by the passages of the bible in which W begat X begat Y begat Z begat... (Genesis chapters 5 & 11).

    4. Annotation happens every day in school and is an everyday activity for students, for “at every stage, students working with books have used the tool of annotation.”

      A well known popular culture version of this appears in the title of the book and film Harry Potter and the Half-blood Prince as well as a primary plot point in which Potter actively eschews a beaten up copy of a potions textbook, but to his pleasant surprise find a heavily annotated text that helps him significantly in his studies.


    5. this book will discuss five essential purposes of annotation that contribute to cultural, professional, civic, and educational activities.
    6. This is why annotation matters.

      Google has accelerated this by using search to better link pieces of knowledge in the modern world, but scholars have been linking thoughts manually for centuries.

    7. That which is fit to print - be it the news, or social commentary, or religious doctrine - has for centuries been fit for annotation, too.

      Other great examples include teaching and scientific progress. Owen Gingerich details annotations in all the extant copies of Copernicus in his text The Book Nobody Read: Chasing the Revolutions of Nicolaus Copernicus. There it seemed obvious that the moving state-of-the art of science and teaching was reflected in the annotations made by professors who handed those annotations down to students who also copied them into their textbooks.

    8. In 2017, the Times also featured the author Margaret Atwood annotating key episodes and scenes from the TV adaption of her celebrated novel The Handmaid’s Tale.

      In some sense this is a textual equivalent of the directors commentary tracks on DVDs from the 1990's in which one could watch films with overdubbed running commentary of the film's director (and often cast, producers, et al. as appropriate).

    9. Annotation by reporters frequently accompanies political speeches, debate and interview transcripts, the release of legal documents like the Mueller report, and analysis of news conferences.

      The first time I recall seeing such journalistic annotations was on the web in The Smoking Gun (http://www.thesmokinggun.com/) which generally annotated court documents that were the source of newsworthy tidbits—generally relating to celebrities or gossip pages.

    10. I’ve actively participated in a revisionist sort of annotation that is part redaction/part revision in that I have gone through digital copies of some children’s books and in cases where it didn’t matter if the main character was male, I would actively use book editing software to make all the lead characters female for the sake of reading to girls. Often I’ve done this while reading out loud, but around the 1st/2nd grade level when children begin to read for themselves, physical annotations/revisions are required.
    1. They both obviously point to the same specific page, and their beginnings are identical. The second one has a # followed by the words “I’m not looking” with some code for blank spaces and an apostrophe. Clicking on the fragmention URL will take you to the root page which then triggers a snippet of JavaScript on my site that causes the closest container with the text following the hash to be highlighted in a bright yellow color. The browser also automatically scrolls down to the location of the highlight.
  14. Apr 2019
    1. Hi I'm and Oberman and I'm from much Paladin State University of Denver and I'm using hypothesis currently in a course and so I teach social work.

      Ann starts speaking here about her experience teach with Hypothesis in the classroom. Close this sidebar and click on the text to advance the video to this point (53:29). Ann speaks for about 4 minutes. Worth watching till the end.

    1. But thirdly, and most valuably, the template gives you a big space at the bottom to write sentences that summarise the page.  That is, you start writing your critical response on the notes themselves.

      I do much this same thing, however, I'm typically doing it using Hypothes.is to annotate and highlight. These pieces go back to my own website where I can keep, categorize, and even later search them. If I like, I'll often do these sorts of summaries on related posts themselves (usually before I post them publicly if that's something I'm planning on doing for a particular piece.)

    1. I find it somewhat interesting to note that with 246 public annotations on this page using Hypothes.is, that from what I can tell as of 4/2/2019 only one of them is a simple highlight. All the rest are highlights with an annotation or response of some sort.

      It makes me curious to know what the percentage distribution these two types have on the platform. Is it the case that in classroom settings, which many of these annotations appear to have been made, that much of the use of the platform dictates more annotations (versus simple highlights) due to the performative nature of the process?

      Is it possible that there are a significant number of highlights which are simply hidden because the platform automatically defaults these to private? Is the friction of making highlights so high that people don't bother?

      I know that Amazon will indicate heavily highlighted passages in e-books as a feature to draw attention to the interest relating to those passages. Perhaps it would be useful/nice if Hypothes.is would do something similar, but make the author of the highlights anonymous? (From a privacy perspective, this may not work well on articles with a small number of annotators as the presumption could be that the "private" highlights would most likely be directly attributed to those who also made public annotations.

      Perhaps the better solution is to default highlights to public and provide friction-free UI to make them private?

      A heavily highlighted section by a broad community can be a valuable thing, but surfacing it can be a difficult thing to do.

  15. Mar 2019
    1. there's a secret agenda here for me, which is that being able to annotate your company's transcripts of things would be very cool could hypothesis work on whatever copy of the transcript

      Annotating my mention of annotating transcripts. Meta!

  16. Feb 2019
    1. Occasionally he inserts a comment of his own, either linking it into the main trail or joining it by a side trail to a particular item

      At this point in reading, I remember a story written by Cortázar: Continuity of the Parks. We slowly learn that the reader of the story is actually the protagonist. I am annotating about someone foreshadowing my own annotation method. "A trail of many items" could well be the many tabs open in my browser, for instance. Kind of seeing yourself in a mirror as you follow the description.

      Continuity of the Parks. A one-page story downloadable here.

    1. What am I missing about annotations for the web?

      They're not as wide spread certainly, but several people within the IndieWeb have been experimenting with annotations, and Webmention in conjunction with text fragments called fragmentions. In particular, Kartik Prabhu probably has one of the best examples and his site is able to take webmentions to fragments and show them in the margins in his site (much like Medium does).

    2. There’s also a robust ecosystem of tools to follow users, monitor site annotations etc.

      Wait? What!? I've been wanting to be able to follow users annotations and I'd love the ability to monitor site annotations!! (I've even suggested that they added Webmention before to do direct notifications for site annotations.)

      Where have you seen these things hiding Tom?

  17. Jan 2019
    1. Most progress will instead occur as annotations on the article text. Articles already contain live links to referenced articles, and future annotations could, for example, indicate the level of support for a particular point, or flag citations to retracted articles.

      Wonderful to see thinking in this direction. I'm thinking many layers of annotations for different purposes--both human and machine readable.

    1. I wanted to tell the stories behind the research — the things that don’t get into the published versions. I also set about methodically tweeting about these research papers, as they went live, going through my back catalogue in reverse chronological order.

      Stories can also be told on top of the papers themselves in the form of annotations.

  18. Oct 2018
  19. Sep 2018
    1. RESTful Open Annotation (REST-OA) provides a simple API for sharing annotations online together with reference implementations and tools and resources implementing the API.
    1. code for transforming Annotator JSON into Web Annotation's JSON-LD with the most minimal, unsmart means (read: doesn't understand graphs) sort of way possible.
    1. Example 2 HTTP/1.1 200 OK Content-Type: application/ld+json; profile="http://www.w3.org/ns/anno.jsonld" Link: <http://www.w3.org/ns/ldp#Resource>; rel="type" ETag: "_87e52ce126126" Allow: PUT,GET,OPTIONS,HEAD,DELETE,PATCH Vary: Accept Content-Length: 287 { "@context": "http://www.w3.org/ns/anno.jsonld", "id": "http://example.org/annotations/anno1", "type": "Annotation", "created": "2015-01-31T12:03:45Z", "body": { "type": "TextualBody", "value": "I like this page!" }, "target": "http://www.example.com/index.html" }
    1. A stunning thing that we forget, but the link here is not part of the author’s intent, but of the reader’s analysis. The majority of links in the memex are made by readers, not writers. On the world wide web of course, only an author gets to determine links.
    2. these abilities – to link, annotate, change, summarize, copy, and share — these are the verbs of gardening.
  20. Feb 2018
    1. Abhráin

      The formatting of e-books on Internet Archive does not allow hypothesis.is users to annotate the books’ text. In annotating Hyde’s Love Songs of Connacht for the EN6009 Annotate-A-Thon, I have attached annotations to the text beneath the scanned images. Extracts and corresponding page numbers are placed at the beginning of each annotation, in order to properly contextualize my responses.

  21. Jan 2018
    1. merely stops you from writing in the margins here on this website.

      Does the script Audrey Watters is using really stop people from annotating her site directly?

      Based on my quick test, one can still (carefully) use Hypothes.is to highlight and annotate her site, but the script at least prevents Hypothes.is from showing that annotation. When visiting her site with Hypothes.is' Chrome browser extension on, it does show that there is one annotation on the page. It then requires some hunting to find this comment.

  22. Nov 2017
    1. Back in 1993, when Eric Bina and I were first building Mosaic, it seemed obvious to us that users would want to annotate all text on the web – our idea was that each web page would be a launchpad for insight and debate about its own contents. So we built a feature called "group annotations" right into the browser – and it worked great – all users could comment on any page and discussions quickly ensued. Unfortunately, our implementation at that time required a server to host all the annotations, and we didn't have the time to properly build that server, which would obviously have had to scale to enormous size. And so we dropped the entire feature.
    1. Should the students bedisciplined for their disrespectfor authority and their flouting ofschool rules? Should the studentsbe praised for their ingenuity andtheir ability to figure out howsophisticated security systems reallywork?

      To answer this question, it may depend on what the outcome was. Did the students use this for personal gain? Did the students report the security flaw? How many times did this occur? This moral dilemma is not only taking place in school, but in the real world.

  23. May 2017
    1. We want to end gender inequality, and to do this, we need everyone involved

      This is also ethos because she uses the word 'we' again to show us that there is more than one person working on this problem.

    2. We want to try and make sure that it’s tangible.

      Emma wants you to trust her with this issue, so she is using words such as 'we' and 'make sure' to gain her audience's trust that she'll help this issue.

  24. Apr 2017
  25. Mar 2017
    1. Web annotation seems to promote more critical thinking and collaboration but it’s doubtful that it would ever fully replace commenting systems.

      But why not mix them together the way the IndieWeb has done?! A few people are using the new W3C recommendation spec for Webmention along with fragmentions to send a version of comments/marginalia/annotations to sites that accept them and have the ability to display them!

      A good example of this is Kartik Prabhu's website which does this somewhat like Medium does. One can write their response to a sub-section of his post on their own website, and using Webmention (yes, there's a WordPress plugin for that: https://wordpress.org/plugins/webmention/ ) send him the response. It then shows up on his site as a quote bubble next to the appropriate section which can then be opened and viewed by future readers. Example: https://kartikprabhu.com/articles/marginalia For those interested, he's opensourced the code to help accomplish this: https://github.com/kartikprabhu/marginalia

      While annotation systems have the ability to overlay one's site, there's certainly room for serious abuse as a result. (See an example at https://indieweb.org/annotation#Criticism) It would be nice if annotation systems were required to use something like webmentions (or older trackback/pingbacks) to indicate that a site had been mentioned elsewhere, this way, even if the publisher wasn't responsible for the resulting comments, they would be aware of possible attacks on their work/site/page.

  26. Feb 2017
  27. Jan 2017
    1. Finally, the sophisticated contextual approach circles back around to unite the two previous categories, in a way. From this approach knowledge is seen as created by individuals to serve a purpose. What is true depends on evidence and a given context. There are authorities, but they are not absolute. Knowledge is always changing and you come to know by creating knowledge, collecting the most up-to-date and appropriate evidence.

      contextual personal epistemology defined

    2. In the subjective approach, the individual recognizes that not all knowledge is absolute but takes it to a position that there is no authority, knowledge depends entirely on what works for each individual. In the subjective approach the stance is often “If I believe something, it is true for me. You can believe something different, and that’s true for you.” Knowing comes from personal experience.

      subjective personal epistemology defined

    3. The simplistic and absolute approach is an outlook where knowledge is simple: there is a right and wrong. There is a Truth. Knowledge comes from some official authority, and you come to know when that authority transmits the information to you.

      absolute personal epistemology defined

    4. In talking back to something through annotation are we not inherently questioning some authority, immediately pushing ourselves out of an absolute stance?
    5. conversing with an author

      annotation as "conversing with an author" even when the author is not actively responding to annotations, but when one's annotations are a conversation with the author through their work

    6. you come to know by creating knowledge

      maybe more than anything, annotation is an invitation to actively create knowledge for oneself

  28. Nov 2016
    1. The New York Times

      I'm wondering if the NY Times used the summit to figure out how to prevent annotating at all? Somehow I'm not able to reasonably use either Hypothes.is or Genius with it in multiple browsers.

      In particular I just can't highlight anything on the page, and attempts usually end up moving me to a new article. Blech!

    1. This is a picture of the first HTTP web server in the world. It was Tim Berners-Lee's NeXT computer at CERN. Pasted on the machine is an ominous sticker: "This machine is a server, do not power it down!!". The reason it couldn't be powered down is that web sites on other servers were starting to link to it. Once they linked to it, they then depended on that machine continuing to exist. If the machine was powered down, the links stopped working. If the machine failed or was no longer accessible at the same location, a far worse thing happened: the chain between sites becomes permanently broken, and the ability to access that content is lost forever. That sticker perfectly highlights the biggest problem with HTTP: it erodes.

      This is interesting, since the opening video for https://hypothes.is/ mentions the early web also - in this case, for its annotation features that were removed.

      It seems to me that hypothes.is is even more powerful used on IPFS content identified by hash since that underlying content cannot change.

      Thanks to both services I'm doing exactly this right now!

  29. Aug 2016
    1. I try to follow the tenets of the Indie Web movement in owning all of my own data and in publishing on my own site and syndicating elsewhere (POSSE
    1. EVIDENCE NOTEBOOK Encourage students to use a graphic organizer, such as supporting main idea notes, to set up their notebook for this lesson. Find more strategies in the online ELA handbook.


  30. Jul 2016
  31. Jun 2016
    1. I would like to make an observation of the purpose of the second poster which says "Enlist". This image is propaganda most likely coming from the American side urging men to enlist for the world war 1. This image depicts a mother clutching her baby, both are submerged under water. This drowning was likely caused by the sinking of the leusitania, which was "a British passenger ship sailing off the coast of Ireland"(Keene 597). This ship was destroyed by a German U-boat who claimed that the ship was carrying explosives. This image, by Fred Spear, has a feeling of vengeance attached to it. The men that it intended to inspire will feel like they need to fight for the lost lives of the Americans that were on the Luisitania.

  32. May 2016
    1. "bookmarks code" in English

      Regarding the next version of hypothes.is could use some annotation to show -sober-beard- https://www.debian.org/distrib/packages#view used in relation to topic and file locations project starts etc. and stats maybe little icons, or highlighting with roll over gui change and stats view or links to code parts and interaction. https://packages.debian.org/stable/electronics/

  33. Apr 2016
    1. But this idea of a humans and machines working together

      Love the work machines can do, but I think I will always value the connections that people, and individuals, establish among each other.

    1. 39 Comments

      It's good to have so many comments (and please keep them coming), but they are not necessariy efficient to handle that way.

      Many comments address multiple passages or elements of the draft, but where a mapping between comments and text passages is possible, I propose that we use annotations like https://hyp.is/AVQW11OTH9ZO4OKSlvBo/wiki.surfnet.nl/display/OSCFA/Amsterdam+Call+for+Action+on+Open+Science to do that mapping.

    1. appreciate your help

      I think that a major part of improving the issue of abuse and providing consent is building in notifications so that website owners will at least be aware that their site is being marked up, highlighted, annotated, and commented on in other locations or by other platforms. Then the site owner at least has the knowledge of what's happening and can then be potentially provided with information and tools to allow/disallow such interactions, particularly if they can block individual bad actors, but still support positive additions, thought, and communication. Ideally this blocking wouldn't occur site wide, which many may be tempted to do now as a knee-jerk reaction to recent events, but would be fine grained enough to filter out the worst offenders.

      Toward the end of notifications to site owners, it would be great if any annotating activity would trigger trackbacks, pingbacks, or the relatively newer and better webmention protocol of the WW3C out of the http://IndieWebCamp.com movement. Then site owners would at least have notifications about what is happening on their site that might otherwise be invisible to them.

      Perhaps there's a way to further implement filters or tools (a la Akismet on platforms like WordPress) that allow site users to mark materials as spam, abusive, or other so that they are then potentially moved from "public" facing to "private" so that the original highlighter can still see their notes, but that the platform isn't allowing the person's own website to act as a platform to give reach to bad actors.

      Further some site owners might appreciate graded filters (G, PG, PG-13, R, X) so that users or even parents can filter what they're willing to see. Consider also annotations on narrative forms that might be posted as spoilers--how can these be guarded against? (Possibly with CSS and a spoiler tag?) Options can be built into the platform itself as well as allowing server-side options for truly hard cases.

      My coding skills are rustier than I wish they were, but I'm available to help/consult if needed.

    1. If anyone is aware of people or groups working on the potential integration of the IndieWeb movement (webmentions) and web annotation/highlighting, please include them in the comments below–I’d really appreciate it.

      The IndieWebCamp.com site lists a small handful of people with Hypothes.is affiliations who had websites, but none of the seem to be active any longer. Perhaps we can track some of them down via twitter?

    2. Boffo Socko Now Supports Hypothes.is Annotations


  34. Mar 2016
    1. ELA teachers can have their students analyze the rhetorical strategies in that same debate using an application like Hypothes.is. Looking at this speech through the lens of two different perspectives can deepen students’ knowledge.
    1. and

      And searching the web in general; searching and finding the connections among content rather than searching just for content.

    1. Are We Finally Ready To Annotate The Entire Internet?
    2. Annotation makes the reading process visible," Hanley says. "I encourage my students to annotate their texts to show them that the relationship between the reader and a text is a two-way conversation. It forces them to wrestle with the words on the page."
  35. Feb 2016
    1. playful annotation in the open.
    2. This format [Hypothesis] is much better for me as far as encouraging participation. With the old discussion format that listed all the readings then posed questions for group discussion, I felt a bit overwhelmed by the long responses people offered and had a hard time jumping into the conversation. With Hypothes.is, I can offer my thoughts as I go, which I find to be much more effective in my assimilation of the information.
  36. Jan 2016
  37. Dec 2015
  38. Oct 2015
    1. Hypothesis is working with various partners on image and video annotation

      Interesting initiatives for video annotations, especially in educational contexts.

  39. Sep 2015
  40. May 2015
    1. Fundamental questions for the library revolve around issues of: stewardship (what types of annotations are appropriate for library ownership, vs. say a course platform), persistence (how long should different types of annotations be persisted and preserved), costs (who will fund annotation storage over time) access (what privacy and distribution controls need to be placed on access to annotations.)
  41. Jan 2014
    1. The process of tying two items together is the important thing.

      Annotations are at the Web’s core.

    1. Great feature set for annotation organization and text mining, with videos

    1. Need a place to post websites w/ descriptions and tags

      Interesting crowdsourced thread on annotation-like services.

    1. The ReadSocial people are the same ones who brought us BookGlutton. They have branched out into new areas. Publishers should be looking at Readsocial carefully. It provides a relatively painless way to create a social network around their books, magazines, articles, etc. The network can flow across different reading systems and the virtual groups can connect down to the paragraph level. I think it would be extremely useful for such things as travel books and college guides.

      Might be of interest for API for social, annotations, or digipub in general.

    1. "Reframeit can help curb the power of misinformation to distort our national conversation about issues that matter. Anyone who cares about the quality of public dialogue in this country should welcome the transparency it makes possible," notes Harvard professor Henry Louis Gates, Jr., Director of the W.E.B. Du Bois Institute and co-founder of The Root.

      Endorsement by HL Gates. Good idea to seek endorsements by well-known or respected people.

    2. This has strong implications for both outbound marketing usage and internal contextual notes.

      more ad stuff

    3. A case could be made for a sponsored channel - so Nike could have runner's reframeit notes appended to their rivals sites and to user forums for example. If you subscribed to this channel you would see Nike's perspective on all pages on the web they chose to mark up.

      Advertising tool

    4. For a rapidly changing page, such as a heavily edited wiki, reframeit could prove somewhat redundant as content is removed or heavily edited, but for core content the power of this tool is evident.

      Need for editing tool integration or issue tracking workflow tags

    5. The matrix of 'channels' you share comments with can be deep: the same page could have several sets of your notes appended to it for specific groups of viewers with specific interests.

      Good use for "groups"

    6. Comments can be framed as a General Comment, Question, Counter or Supporting Argument, Suggestion, Explanation, Answer, Cause or Effect from a pull down menu above the field where you type your comments.

      Common categories for tags

    7. intriguing from a workflow perspective is the ability to add notes to internal web applications, so notes can be appended to specific products for example to provide everything from training to departmental feedback

      use case

    8. Providing context to specific content is key to so much of web communication and the holy grail of social media marketing practitioners.

      Use case

    9. From a commercial perspective an example could be marking up your competitor's web site and sharing it with your sales team, who can continue to update their contextual notes in the field.

      Use case

    10. video above demonstrates marking up the transcript of a political speech with associated facts and links using reframeit that will be associated with specific areas of that content for as long as you want them to be.

      Use Media Fragments on video