116 Matching Annotations
  1. Sep 2019
    1. Table 2.2:

      IPCC Special Report on Global Warming of 1.5 °C - Table 2.2: The assessed remaining carbon budget and its uncertainties

  2. Mar 2019
    1. Adult Learning in the Context of Comparative Higher Education

      Research Paper. Although education is determined by "engagement, empowerment, experience, and evidence" the way adults learned, and what they have learned across societies differs greatly and impacts the effectiveness of higher education and problem solving. Adults as significant instigators of global change need opportunities for literacy development, dialogue, acquisition of self-reliance skills, and the ability to adapt to change. Rating 5/10

    1. According to the analysis, urban areas were found to be relatively cooler than the surrounding non-urban areas during heat waves. At 44.5°C, the non-urban areas were warmer than urban areas (43.7°C). However, during the night, all urban areas were hotter than the surrounding non-urban areas.

      Urban heat island effect

    1. Most strikers want their governments to aggressively cut their greenhouse gas emissions. Some youngsters are even demanding a lower voting age, so they can have a bigger say in political process. They want a safe future, powered by the wind and the sun, not dirty and dangerous coal and gas. For instance in Australia, students are urging politicians to move beyond fossil fuel projects, with the hashtag #StopAdani trending. The fear is that the coal mine project will damage water and the reefs.

      More power to you!

  3. Feb 2019
    1. Nearly half of FBI rap sheets failed to include information on the outcome of a case after an arrest—for example, whether a charge was dismissed or otherwise disposed of without a conviction, or if a record was expunged

      This explains my personal experience here: https://hyp.is/EIfMfivUEem7SFcAiWxUpA/epic.org/privacy/global_entry/default.html (Why someone who had Global Entry was flagged for a police incident before he applied for Global Entry).

    2. Applicants also agree to have their fingerprints entered into DHS’ Automatic Biometric Identification System (IDENT) “for recurrent immigration, law enforcement, and intelligence checks, including checks against latent prints associated with unsolved crimes.

      Intelligence checks is very concerning here as it suggests pretty much what has already been leaked, that the US is running complex autonomous screening of all of this data all the time. This also opens up the possibility for discriminatory algorithms since most of these are probably rooted in machine learning techniques and the criminal justice system in the US today tends to be fairly biased towards certain groups of people to begin with.

    3. It cited research, including some authored by the FBI, indicating that “some of the biometrics at the core of NGI, like facial recognition, may misidentify African Americans, young people, and women at higher rates than whites, older people, and men, respectively.

      This re-affirms the previous annotation that the set of training data for the intelligence checks the US runs on global entry data is biased towards certain groups of people.

    4. for as long as your fingerprints and associated information are retained in NGI, your information may be disclosed pursuant to your consent or without your consent.

      Meaning they can give your information to with or without your consent.

    5. people enrolled in, or applying to, the program consent to have their personal data added to the FBI’s Next Generation Identification (NGI) database, shared with “federal, state, local, tribal, territorial, or foreign government agencies”, and DHS third-party “grantees, experts, [and] consultants” forever.

      So it's not just shared with the US government but any government official from any country. Also third-party experts pretty much opens it up for personal information to be shared with anyone.

    1. as part of the application process, TSA collects a cache of personal information about you, including your prints. They’re held in a database for 75 years, and the database is queried by the FBI and state and local law enforcement as needed to solve crimes at which fingerprints are lifted from crime scenes, according to Nojeim. The prints may also be used for background checks.

      While Global Entry itself only lasts for 4 years, the data you give them and allow them to store lasts for almost your entire life.

    1. by providing their passport information and a copy of their fingerprints. According to CBP, registrants must also pass a background check and an interview with a CBP officer before they may be enrolled in the program

      I was at my Global Entry interview (not at all sure I made the right decision to apply) and a person who already had Global Entry came into the room because he had gotten flagged. The lady at the desk asked him if he had ever been arrested, he said no. She said their new system (they continuously update it with new algorithms to find this info) had flagged a police incident that had happened prior to him applying for Global Entry. He hadn’t been arrested, wasn’t guilty of any crime but his name had apparently made it into some police report and that gave them cause to question him when he re-entered his country.

    2. including data breaches and bankruptcy, experienced by “Clear,” a similar registered traveler program

      Clear was another travel program that had a breach of traveler's personal information so it is not unreasonable to be cautious of Global Entry which has the same information and same legal protections in place (or lack there of).

  4. Jan 2019
    1. . The power of glaciation and climate in shaping movement, lifestyle,and innovation cannot be underestimated

      really off topic but makes me think of global warming and how our present actions can have huge, tangible consequences

  5. Dec 2018
    1. The underrepresentation of girls and women in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) fields occurs globally.

      Global can mean many things. How global is this issue?

    2. The underrepresentation of girls and women in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) fields occurs globally.

      Where exactly globally?

  6. Oct 2018
  7. cloud.degrowth.net cloud.degrowth.net
    1. Local- using social media, technology, keeping it horizontal, keeping it simple and humble, celebration is important.
    2. We will have local, regional, national and then we see what happens. -Get infiramtion, weekly newsletters etc. Getting the stories together.
    3. a fantastic website- Vikalpsangam- in terms of what stories to share. In practical terms, just creating visibility for all these experiences and then linking themup. Website should be a useful start.
    4. There are all these different structures. Thirdly, we need to inter-pollinate, and share these experiences. We need the culture of dialogue. We need to learn how to communicate in different ways- to share patterns, dance, paint etc. Finally, I would like to call it a carnival, and not a confluence- including different worlds,
    5. One of the proposals would be togenerate more spaces for sharing knowledges. Eg providing virtual spaces, eg I have done this, what has and hasn ́t worked. I admire what you do in Unitierra, and the Zapatista, and my context is very different, so we need to change the way of looking atthings.

      There is a thing which we call Federated Wiki, that challenges how we produce knowledge : http://federated.wiki/federated-wiki-introduction.html

    6. If we are so sick of war, we have to stop thinking of fighting against something. We cant fight the big system, but rather making visible all the small beautiful stuff, so that all the bad things would lose power. So observing our own pattern of seeing. The need for celebrating and sharing is so important. We can pass years without even knowing each other. So learning how to embrace diversities, and other ways of communicating

      Great thought.

    7. the social technologies- knowing how to organize and have effective meeting- from sociocracy and dragon dreaming, agile tools.

      There is a lot to learn from, about Teixidora's meeting notes methodology, for example. http://peerproduction.net/editsuite/issues/issue-11-city/peer-reviewed-papers/the-case-of-teixidora-net-in-barcelona/

    8. so lets take advantages of the technology. And would gladly volunteer for something.

      Feel invited to join https://degrowth.net

    9. How is technology socially constructed, this is something I am interested about. What I would propose is that there are many experiences of people using things that aren~t meant to be used that way.

      And what about using things that are built to be used in a certain way? Can we also learn from that?

    10. Fractal structure. Global eco-village network.
    11. To document this confluence, and in which way we are building this knowledge—not only logical, but emotional and relational. Putting much more the tools of knowledge building.
    12. The power we have is in the networks. We try to have influence in the policies.
    13. Horizons of people, beyond national boundaries. No more flags and national antempt. We can learn from these experiences?
    14. How do we connect grassroots organizations? How do we create connections, beyond the conferences. E.g. encounters
    15. We need to foster the sharing of imagination. Cross-pollination.
    16. Concern with urgency of the ecological crisis. How to get enough power to change the world?
    17. What kind of confluence?-Already existing alternatives, not theories
  8. cloud.degrowth.net cloud.degrowth.net
    1. 9.The idea to also focus on social media platforms and innovative use of various open source means of communication in determining the shape of the social movements was also raised.

      We at ecobytes.net would suggest to participants of the GAC to reach out to their local librehoster and build up communication infrastructure together with their communities.

      Also see https://framagit.org/librehosters/awesome-librehosters for an inspiration of hosters.

    2. 8.The process at the early stage could focus on facilitating the documentation and sharing of these initiatives across the world. This could mean formulating the narratives around the alternatives through stories. It could be an online platform at thestart.

      This resembles very much to what we do over at transformaps / Intermapping. Also see

      https://discourse.transformap.co/t/charter-for-building-a-data-commons-for-a-free-fair-and-sustainable-future/1368

  9. Jun 2018
  10. Apr 2018
  11. Mar 2018
    1. As global temperatures rise, warmer oceans are expected to fuel stronger hurricanes, with disastrous consequences.

      Here is a sample annotation.

    1. Clavier has been part of that unexpected sequence of events and the network which has stretched around the world has seen me working with colleagues in Egypt, Poland, Sweden, Australia, the USA, Spain, Finland, Canada and the UK! 

      global network connected

  12. Jan 2018
    1. Este libro busca ser un aporte a la cultura crítica del diseño en momentos en que los diseñadores están redescubriendo las capacidades de la gente para dar forma a sus mundos a través de herramientas y soluciones colaborativas. Es, sin embargo, una contribución desde América Latina a la conversación transnacional sobre diseño, es decir, una contribución que se deriva de las experiencias y luchas epistémicas y políticas contemporáneas en América Latina.
  13. Dec 2017
    1. Testing and Confinement - source that utilizes globals is somewhat more difficult to test because one cannot readily set up a 'clean' environment between runs. More generally, source that utilizes global services of any sort (e.g. reading and writing files or databases) that aren't explicitly provided to that source is difficult to test for the same reason. For communicating systems, the ability to test system invariants may require running more than one 'copy' of a system simultaneously, which is greatly hindered by any use of shared services - including global memory - that are not provided for sharing as part of the test.

      Important limitation to understand.

  14. Nov 2017
    1. Globalization is often seen as global Westernization. On this point, there is substantial agreement among many proponents and opponents.
  15. courses.openulmus.org courses.openulmus.org
    1. Currently, Canvas and Sakai are the only LMSs reviewed which has somesupport for xAPI (emphasis on some). Blackboard, D2L, Sakai and Canvas all have support for IMS Caliper, a more edu specific format.
    1. The IMS Global Competencies and Academic Standards Exchange™ specification (CASE)™ is used to exchange information about learning and education competencies. CASE also transmits information about rubrics, criteria for performance tasks, which may or may not be aligned to competencies.

      Interesting that they explicitly talk about tasks which may not be aligned to competencies. Leaves room for co-curricular activities and microcredentials.

    2. Thanks to @jeffgrann for the heads-up! Clearly, people have been waiting for this. We’ll have to wait for the concrete results (not all IMS Global activities make as big of a splash as the others). But it’s very interesting. And needed. For instance, Quebec uses a competencies model all the way to higher education (its Cégeps are post-secondary institutions for vocational training and pre-university education). Thing is, they lack consistent frameworks. CASE won’t make these magically appear, but at least it gives them room for impact.

  16. Oct 2017
    1. to try to understand what is human by nature and what is human by social convention. It is always risky to think one under­stands the true intentions of great t

      If humans were just Human by nature, in America we would probably be a dictatorship. Minorities would be killed left and right and the impoverished would die of malnutrition.

    2. Rousseau was brilliantly correct in certain of his observations, such as his view that human inequality had its origins in the development of met­allurgy, agriculture, and, above all, private property.

      Rousseau’s evaluation was a success and his observations were correct about the evolution of human behavior.

    3. He talks about man's perfectibility, and speculates on how human thoughts, passions, and behavior have evolved over time.

      Rousseau’s intention and purpose was to evaluate and see how humans behavior has evolved,

    4. they are also timid, fearful, and more likely to flee one another than to fight.

      According to Rousseau humans are shy, scared, and will run from each other than fight each other.

    5. Unregulated liberty in the state of nature leads to the state of war, necessitating, as for Hobbes, a social contract for the preservation of natural liberty and property.

      When laws or regulations are not set into place then that leads to war and Hobbes doesn’t follow any rules.

    6. solitary, poore, nasty, brutish, and short

      I agree that humans would probably be like this. Even now it is clearly apparent that with laws human can be monsters, so without any laws I think our state of nature would be to survive at all cost and to do that humans would have a violent state of Nature as Hobbes has said.

    7. state of nature

      State of Nature is the basic instincts of humans. It asks the question what would be do it we weren’t governed(what did we do before we were governed) and why do we let ourselves be governed. Finding Mans State of Nature helps to understand justice and political order because it allows us to see the basic reason for needing a government and how it caters to Mans State of Nature.

    8. Plato and Aristotle argued that a just city had to exist in conformity with man's permanent nature and not what was ephemeral and changing.

      Shows some of the earliest belief on what it takes to create a thriving politically correct society

    9. Everything that modern biology and anthropology tell us about the state of nature suggests the opposite: there was never a period in human evolution when human beings existed as isolated individuals

      Show that while some believe humans were only driven by primitive things, there is proof that humans were always socially adept.

    10. Mutual human dependence comes about almost accidentally, as a result of technological innovations like agriculture that require greater cooperation.

      Explains how and why societies and mutual dependence is created.

    11. Savage man's ''desires never extend beyond his physical wants; he knows no goods but food, a female, and rest"; he fears pain and hunger but not the abstraction of death

      This shows the basic human drives which changed forming mutual human dependence

    12. Aristotle differed from Hobbes, Locke, and Rousseau in one critical respect.

      All human being are political by nature, while modern philosophers human are not born socially inclined

    13. Locke's fundamental law of nature, in contrast to that of Hobbes, gives human beings the right not just to life, but to "life, health, liberty, or possessions:''

      Locke’s fundamental law of nature is more effective than Hobbes because it caters more to everyone’s needs

    1. communication

      We talk a lot and some of us are excellent speakers.

    2. but I think the stereotype is wrong—dead wrong.

      This stereotype is wrong because we are some of the best workers.

    3. Give a millennial employee a research assignment on your competitors and you’ll get the project back in 24 hours. Twenty years ago the same project might have taken a month to complete

      Millennials are more efficient in todays times

    4. They’ve been encouraged to follow their dreams and passions

      well paying jobs now a days are scarce so it's only right to strive for the best and follow your dreams.

    5. 1950s

      People who are quick to judge teens and young adults are often stuck in the past. Stuck in their ways.

    6. The millennial are driving force towards significant , scalable and social change. Many people believe social media is the problem but social media is helping build the millennial and cremate many of the upcoming multi billion business.

    7. So where some see entitlement, I see greater authenticity and audacity. Millennials will shoot for the stars—and if they fall down, they’ll get right back up and try it a different way.

      While there is a sense of entitlement with the milleniall generation, there also comes a resilience different from former generations that allows this generation to bounce back from any failure and try again until their goal is reached.

    8. which is a huge plus for companies that are spread out globally and interact primarily in a virtual environment.

      The way generation X communicates through social media helps companies market that are international

    1. Fukuyama is being modest, if not disingenuous.

      He is being modest about the origins of "The Origins"

    2. By chance, these three elements were united for the first time in Britain, although other northwestern European countries that were influenced by the Reformation, like the Netherlands, Denmark and Sweden
    3. epistemological

      Justifications that were wrong

    4. But before their combination in Britain and its neighbors at the time of the industrial and democratic revolutions

      Having the three elements of a modern political order can bring countries out of their chaotic state.

    5. Some readers, however, may think that Fukuyama goes too far in de-emphasizing the natural rights tradition that inspired the Renaissance and Enlightenment liberalism. Here Fukuyama’s historicism and his insistence that ideas themselves shape political order are arguably at odds

      fukuyama takes way from the importance of the renaissance and enlightenment period

    6. Human

      Fukuyama explores the interactions of human beings in the past and dispells myths about interactions only consisting of violence and ignorance.

    7. How come, out of all the countries in the world, those places have been the most successful and lucrative in aspects of government, academics, and economics?

    8. How did he qualify his argument

    1. ‘Truly it would seem as if “Man strews the earth with ruin.”4 But this conclusion is too flattering to human vanity. Man's most permanent memorial is a rubbish-heap, and even that is doomed to be obliterated’ (Sherlock, 1922, p. 343

      CO2 atmospheric concentration used as simple indicator for many years to track great acceleration / progression in Anthropocence, this now joined by long list of other indicators, escalating at an alarming rate, population, water use/ shortage, paper consumption, global warming, increase in number and ferocity of storms .......

    2. In 1873, the Italian geologist and priest Antonio Stoppani suggested that our technologies, infrastructures, and patterns of land use had created fundamental changes in Earth’s systems, propelling us into what he called an ‘anthropozoic era’

      Note : Read over Article again by Will Steffen, Paull J Crutzen & John R McNeill. [] (https://www.pik-potsdam.de/news/public-events/archiv/alter-net/former-ss/2007/05-09.2007/steffen/literature/ambi-36-08-06_614_621.pdf)

      Explore development of Anthropocence. How do we track progression of Anthropocene? CO2 Emissions??

  17. Jul 2017
  18. May 2017
    1. “I and other so-called ‘deniers’ are members of the 97 percent consensus, which refers to the following: Yes, the earth’s climate has been warming overall for more than a century. Yes, humans emit CO2, and CO2 has an overall warming effect on the climate,” Curry said. Where the consensus ends, Curry added, is “whether the dominant cause of the recent warming is humans versus natural causes, how the 21st century climate will evolve, and whether warming is dangerous.”
  19. Jan 2017
    1. I don’t want the culture of open source to be organized around a legal definition. I want to zoom out and look at the broader ecosystem (of which the legal definition is one, essential node). A friendlier, more accessible term would make it easier to discuss topics like sustainability, collaboration, and people involved. Those aspects don’t need to be included in the official definition, but they still matter.I still like the term “public software” because it allows more people (including those new to, or unfamiliar with, open source, even if they use or benefit from it) to quickly understand what open source software is and how it should be protected. It doesn’t change the legal definition at all; if anything, it enforces it better, because we would want to define and protect public software exactly as we would any other public resource.

      I remember the term "Public Software" used several years ago from the Lula's initiative to migrate Brasil public software infrastructure to Free Software.

      Now there is, again, and effort to discuss the term, this time from a Anglo-centric perspective. Native English speaking people, particularly in US have the trouble with free as in freedom and as in "gratis", meanings and being immersed in a "market first" mentality, usually they think first in price and markets instead of rights.

      Dmitry Kleiner has addressed the problem of software as a commons and its sustainability with an alternative license (p2p license), that is not as restrictive as the Fair Software one, but it repolitize the capitalist friendly Open Source gentrification of the original Free Software movement, involving also a core concern of sustainability.

      Would be nice to see a dialogue between Nadia's and Dmitry's perspectives and questions about software as a commons.

  20. Dec 2016
    1. There is little support for functions that directly help code, like documentation or test automation. There is even less support for functions that indirectly help code, like community or evangelism.

      Paradógicamente, eso último es lo que más hemos hecho en comunidades de software libre ubicadas lugares del Sur Global, como Colombia, con proyectos como El Directorio, (wiki de documentación), eventos como el FLISoL o SLUD (difusión y evangelismo) , pero no acaban de ser vistos con buenos ojos. Siempre termina siendo más importante el código. El "Talk is cheap, show me the code" fue tomado muy literalmente, cuando lo que implica es compromiso (de diversas maneras) y no sólo código.

      Un cambio se empieza a ver: el código ya no es tan lejano, sin volverse central (afortunadamente), algunos proyectos de difusión y documentación están siendo retomados e incluso valdría la pena pensar en qué sería necesario para revivir proyectos de documentación como El Directorio, y crear variaciones y nuevas reinterpretaciones del mismo en los tiempos actuales.

  21. Sep 2016
    1. every person on earth can access and contribute to the sum of all human knowledge.

      Is it just me or the “contribute” part has largely been put aside, in the meantime?

  22. Aug 2016
    1. this diversity was reflected in the winning images and how much they varied between different countries and cultures:
    2. but regional nuances can be powerful
    1. Page XVII

      Borgman on scholars access to information in the developed world

      Scholars in the developed world have 24/7 access to the literature of their fields, a growing amount of research data, and sophisticated research tools and services.

  23. Jul 2016
    1. Crimes against women Can the licence to kill be revoked? “Honour killings”

      "In 2015, 1096 women in Pakistan died in 'honour killings'" – That is bad. What is bad, though, about pointing our finger at places where institutionalized misogyny may arguably be worse than in our community is that it helps discount the institutionalized misogyny in our own social order by comparison. And it's that self-satisfying comparison that helps make us be content with consuming outrage over conditions elsewhere instead of being outraged by conditions here that we can work to change straight away.

      On top of that, using special vocabulary like "honour killings" makes us understand the place and people we assign it to as irreconcilably different from us. This comes as rape and murder of women committed by men in our own community are motived by a similar sense of ownership of women -- a.k.a. honour. It is our resulting sense of self and other that makes our weekly drone bombings of people in Pakistan register less with us. In other words, we are less outraged by the regular killing of mothers, daughters, fathers, sons, sisters and brothers in Pakistan by our drones and are less prone to become active against that than we care about a slain lion. Because turning people in Pakistan into foreigners by assigning special vocabulary like "honour killing" makes us unable to mourn their death the same way we mourn the death of an animal or the death of people in places we understand as familiar.

    1. the voice of the rest of the world
    2. The majority of content comes from Western, developed countries
    3. Postcolonial

      In some ways, it’s quite remarkable that one of the key figures of post-development was also the one who called for “deschooling society”. As is obvious from observing humanitarian and philanthropic work is that “development” participates in neocolonialism, despite (or often because of) the best of intentions. MOOCs are closer to development than to postdevelopment. Even cMOOCs.

    4. “The future is already here, it’s just not evenly distributed.” 

      Been having issues with the ways this quote has been handled in various contexts, but it’s quite fitting here. One potential issue, though, is in the embedded assumption that the future is a solid. Goes so well with Modernization Theory that the focus on global inequalities can be skipped over.

  24. Jun 2016
    1. Understanding the wants and needs of users is important when you’re designing technologies for people much like yourself, but it’s utterly critical when designing for people with different backgrounds, experiences, wants and needs.
    1. The index was put together by industry leaders from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, Google for Education, IDEO, IBIS Capital, Kaizen Private Equity, Learn Capital, LinkedIN, Times Higher Education and TES Global, the parent company of TES.

      Suitably “global”, underlining the inequalities inherent in the system.

  25. Apr 2016
    1. structural inequalities present within these movements

      We sure need to discuss inequalities.

    2. I utilize some of the useful critiques OA has generated to inform the discussion of OER creation and practice.

      Though there are major differences between Open Access and Open Educational Resources, the two approaches to openness share a lot. Advocates for both are likely to have a lot of values in common, including a distaste for inequalities.

  26. Jan 2016
  27. Nov 2015
    1. Questions of colonialism and inequality are occasionally raised

      Maybe too rarely. Or they’re dismissed too quickly. Or they’re too difficult to fully discuss when much of the scene is taken by modernization theory. This is where post-development’s Ivan Illich meets deschooling’s Ivan Illich.

  28. Oct 2015
    1. This global scale makes it hard to grasp that what is happening is in principle similar to the transformations that Haussmann oversaw in Paris.

      We should take a microeconomic analytical approach to this situation to focus more on specifics of individual countries and their businesses that might be contributing to the situation

  29. Aug 2015
    1. The right-wing base has a coherent position on climate change: It's a hoax, so we shouldn't do anything about it. The left-wing base has a coherent position: It's happening, so we should do something about it. The "centrist" position, shared by conservative Democrats and the few remaining moderate Republicans, is that it's happening but we shouldn't do anything about it. That's not centrist in any meaningful ideological sense; instead, like most areas of overlap between the parties, it is corporatist.

      The worst possible outcome.

  30. Feb 2014
    1. Advice from Doug Mcilroy

      I love finding these kinds of documents that capture the thoughts of moments in history where simple, profound ideas are made manifest and have the kind of longevity to still be the core of the foundation that the modern world is built on.

    1. Alternatively, Daphne Koller and Andrew Ng who are the founders of Coursera, a Stanford MOOC startup, have decided to use peer evaluation to assess writing. Koller and Ng (2012) specifically used the term “calibrated peer review” to refer to a method of peer review distinct from an application developed by UCLA with National Science Foundation funding called Calibrated Peer Review™ (CPR). For Koller and Ng, “calibrated peer review” is a specific form of peer review in which students are trained on a particular scoring rubric for an assignment using practice essays before they begin the peer review process.
    1. Ho w to R ead a Judicia l Opin ion: A G uid e for N ew L aw Stu den ts Professor Orin S. Kerr George Washington University Law School Washington, DC Version 2.0 (August 2005) This essay is desig ned to help entering law students understand ho w to read cas es for class. It explains what judicial opinions are, how they are structured, and what you should look for when you read them. Part I explains the various ingredients found in a typical judicial opinion, and is the most essential section of the essay . Par t II discusses what you should look for when you re ad an opinion for class. Part II I con clu des with a brief discussion of why law schools use the case method.

      I need a way to add tags to a document that will apply to all annotations in a particular document (except where explicitly canceled).

      The problem is that I often want to query all annotations related to a specific document, collection of documents, or type of activity.

      Type of activity requires further explanation: Given a document or collection of documents I may annotate the document for different reasons at different times.

      For example, while annotating the reading materials, video transcripts, and related documents for the CopyrightX course there are certain types of annotations that may be "bundled together" so that when I search for those things later I can easily narrow my searches to just that subset of annotations; but at the same time I need a way to globally group things together.

      While reading judicial opinions the first activity/mode of interaction with a particular document may be to identify the structure of the judicial opinion (the document attached to this annotation describes the parts of the judicial opinion I might want to identify: *caption, case citation, author, facts of the case, law of the case, disposition, concurring and/or dissenting opinions, etc).

      The above-described mode I may use for multiple documents in one session related to the course syllabus for the week.

      To connect each of these documents together I might add the tags: copyx (my shorthand for the name of the course, CopyrightX), week 1 (how far into the course syllabus), foundations (the subject matter in the syllabus which may span week 1, week 2, etc), judicial opinions (the specific topic I am focused on learning at the moment (may or may not be related to the syllabus).

      Later on another day I might update my existing annotations or add new ones when I am preparing to study for an exam. I might add tags like to study, on midterm, on final to mark areas I need to review.

      After the exam I might add more tags based on my test score, especially focusing on areas that received a poor score so I can study that section more or, if I missed some sections so didn't study and it resulted in a poor score in that area, add tags to study for later if necessary.

      I have many more examples and modes of interaction in mind that I can explain more later, but it all hinges on a rich and flexible tagging system that:

      • allows tagging a document once in a way that applies to all annotations in a document
      • allows tagging a session once in a way that applies to all annotations in all documents connected to a particular session
      • allows tagging a session and/or a document that bundles together new tags added to an annotation (e.g. tags for grammar/spelling, tags for rhetological fallacy classification, etc)
      • fast keyboard-based selection of content
      • batch selection of annotation areas with incremental filling-- I may want to simply select all the parts of a document to annotate first and then increment through each of those placeholders to fill in tags and commentary
      • Mark multiple sections of the document at once to combine into a single annotation
      • Excerpting only parts of a text selection, but still carry the surrounding textual context with the excerpt to easily expose the surrounding context when necessary
      • A summary view of a document that is the result of remixing parts of the original document with both clarifications or self-containing summary re-writes and/or commentary from the reader
      • structural tagging vs content tagging