40 Matching Annotations
  1. Oct 2021
    1. When gold was discovered in the Yukon, 100,000 people desperately tried to make it to a small patch of land in one of the most remote environments on the continent. Few made it all the way. The Klondike Gold Rush was many things: a media conspiracy, a ponzi scheme, a land grab. But above all, it was a humanitarian disaster that stretched over much of the Pacific Northwest.

      “The truth is that all of the gold that was mined out of the Klondike was under Indigenous land. There was no treaty with any of the Indigenous peoples in the Yukon.”

      “That land was stolen by the Canadian state and that gold was whisked away by private interests. The Federal Government only signed land claims with Indigenous peoples in the Yukon in the 1990s, but by that point, almost all the gold had been mined out of the ground.”

      “The Klondike gold rush was a rolling disaster that captured tens of thousands of people. When the first European explorers came to the Americas, they came here looking for gold. In the 1890s, that lust for precious metals eventually led men to the farthest reaches of this continent.”

      “Today, instead of 100,000 people descending on a small patch of land, you have large corporations digging treasures out of the ground. But the legacies these mining operations leave behind are just like what happened in the Klondike: workers with broken bodies, environmental destruction, the dispossession of Indigenous land, sexual violence. The gold rushes never stopped. They just morphed into something different.”

      Canada is Fake

      “Canada is not an accident or a work in progress or a thought experiment. I mean that Canada is a scam — a pyramid scheme, a ruse, a heist. Canada is a front. And it’s a front for a massive network of resource extraction companies, oil barons, and mining magnates.”

    1. This pattern lies at the heart of the shell corporation we call “Canada,” and forms the logic of both domestic and international policy. The mining industry is the most egregious example. Over 75 percent of the world’s mining companies are based in Canada.

      Canada is Fake

      Canada is not an accident or a work in progress or a thought experiment. I mean that Canada is a scam — a pyramid scheme, a ruse, a heist. Canada is a front. And it’s a front for a massive network of resource extraction companies, oil barons, and mining magnates.

      Extraction Empire

    1. “Canada is not an accident or a work in progress or a thought experiment. I mean that Canada is a scam — a pyramid scheme, a ruse, a heist. Canada is a front. And it’s a front for a massive network of resource extraction companies, oil barons, and mining magnates.”

      Canada is fake

      “Canada is not an accident or a work in progress or a thought experiment. I mean that Canada is a scam — a pyramid scheme, a ruse, a heist. Canada is a front. And it’s a front for a massive network of resource extraction companies, oil barons, and mining magnates.”

      https://twitter.com/bauhouse/status/1449737672407150595

      “Eventually they spread their land grab all the way to the Pacific Ocean and the northern coastlines in pursuit of gold, silver, iron, copper, nickel, and diamond reserves.… ‘Canada’ came about in the late 1800s for nakedly economic reasons…”

    1. A retrospective of 50 years as a human being on planet Earth.

      The Art of Noticing

      This is a compilation of articles that I had written as a way to process the changes I was observing in the world and, consequently, in myself as a reaction to the events. I have come to think of this process as the art of noticing. This process is in contrast to the expectation that I should be a productive member of society, a target market, and a passive audience for charismatic leaders: celebrities, billionaires, and politicians.

      • Social: fame
      • Economic: wealth
      • Political: power

      An Agent of Change

      To become an agent of change is to recognize that we are not separate, we are not individuals, we are not cogs in a machine. We are complex and diverse. We are designers. We are a creative, collective, self-organizing, learning community.

      We are in a process of becoming—a being journey:

      • Personal resilience
      • Social influence
      • Economic capacity
      • Political agency
      • Ecological harmony

      This is how we shift from an attention economy to an intention economy. Rather than being oriented toward the failures of the past, the uncertainty of the present, or the worries of the future, in a constant state of anxiety, stress, and fear, we are shifting our consciousness to manifest our intention through perception (senses), cognition (mind), emotion (heart), and action (body). We are exploring how we imagine, design, and build the future together.

      We are the builders collective.

      We are one.

    1. When the Western world accepted Christianity, Caesar conquered; and the received text of Western theology was edited by his lawyers.… The brief Galilean vision of humility flickered throughout the ages, uncertainly.

      On the Homebrewed Christianity podcast, Tripp Fuller quotes Process and Reality by Alfred North Whitehead in a conversation with Brian McLaren (22:20).

      When the Western world accepted Christianity, Caesar conquered; and the received text of Western theology was edited by his lawyers. The code of Justinian and the theology of Justinian are two volumes expressing one movement of the human spirit. The brief Galilean vision of humility flickered throughout the ages, uncertainly. In the official formulation of the religion it has assumed the trivial form of the mere attribution to the Jews that they cherished a misconception about their Messiah. But the deeper idolatry, of the fashioning of God in the image of the Egyptian, Persian, and Roman imperial rulers, was retained. The Church gave unto God the attributes which belonged exclusively to Caesar.

      Whitehead, Alfred North. Process and Reality (Gifford Lectures Delivered in the University of Edinburgh During the Session 1927-28) (p. 342). Free Press. Kindle Edition.

  2. Jul 2021
    1. The historian Peter Turchin coined the phrase elite overproduction to describe this phenomenon. He found that a constant source of instability and violence in previous eras of history, such as the late Roman empire and the French Wars of Religion, was the frustration of social elites for whom there were not enough jobs. Turchin expects this country to undergo a similar breakdown in the coming decade.
  3. May 2021
    1. Indeed the Portuguese built up their eastern empire with an astonishing speed. They used their naval power to gain control over the Indian Ocean by occupying a number of strategic points and to divert the stream of merchandise - particularly spices - from Asia to Portugal via the Cape of Good Hope by blockading the entrance to the Red Sea and the Gulf,

      Because the Ottoman Empire had a grasp over the Mediterranean Portugal had to occupy the Cape of Africa. For the Portuguese it was another way to trade with India and china without the burden of Ottomans Tariffs.

  4. Apr 2021
    1. This black Lord is called Musse Melly and is the sovereign of the land of the negroes of Gineva [Ghana]. This king is the richest and noblest of all these lands due to the abundance of gold that is extracted from his lands.

      This description shows and explains that Musse Melly was the one who became the richest Malian king in ancient history. From the narrative that I read about Musse Melly, I believe this refers to King Mansa Musa. I also think that Musse Melly was just another name he had, and his people probably have called him by that.

    1. Asia Minor also called Turkey, where there are many cities and castles.

      Turkey at this time were heavily influenced by Persian tradition and embraced the Islamic faith. They were once a nomadic horde that expanded into Persia then Byzantine Empire. Becoming the dominate force in Anatolia.

  5. Jan 2021
    1. Secular Kemalist rhetoric relieved some of the international concerns about the future of Armenians who had survived the 1915 Armenian genocide, and support for Kurdish self determination similarly declined.

      Mustafa Kamal Ataturk wisdom in the defence of Turkey

    1. On 19 February 1915, British and French ships began a naval assault on the Dardanelles. The fighting culminated in a heavy setback for the Allies on 18 March due to large losses from Turkish mines. ... The Dardanelles campaign remains one of the First World War's most controversial episodes.

      Demolition of Ottoman Empire

  6. Dec 2019
    1. amusement. He was also pursuing an object he had long had in view. His design was to visit India, in the belief that he had in his knowledge of its various languages, and in the views he had taken of its society, the means of materially assisting the progress of European colonisation and trade. In Britain only could he further the execution of his plan.

      There is no reference to India in the 1818 edition. But in this 1831addition, Victor refers to Clerval's ambitions to travel to India in "progress of European colonisation and trade." Though the British had pursued various ventures in the subcontinent since the seventeenth century, the East India Company Act of 1813 expanded British Rule in India, culminating in the enactment of the Government of India Act 1833, which disbanded the monopoly of the East India Company. Clerval's ambitions suggest the weakening of the monopoly and the emergence of new commercial opportunities for those wishing to make their fortunes in India.

    2. he was wearing away his time fruitlessly where he was; that letters from the friends he had formed in London desired his return to complete the negotiation they had entered into for his Indian enterprise. He could not any longer delay his departure; but as his journey to London might be followed, even sooner than he now conjectured, by his longer voyage, he entreated me to bestow as much of my society on him as I could spare. He besought me, therefore, to leave my solitary isle, and to meet him at Perth, that we might proceed southwards together.

      In this revision to 1831 edition, Shelley elaborates on Clerval's "Indian enterprise," mentioned earlier in the previous chapter. Clerval wishes Victor to return to Perth to spend time together before the former's voyage to India. In the 1818 edition, Clerval notes they had been traveling in Britain for a year, and should take the next year of their voyage to return to Switzerland, via France.

    1. Volney’s Ruins of Empires

      Of the books the Creature learns in the forest, Volney's The Ruins of Empires was most closely associated with Europe's radical Enlightenment. While the Creature learns a powerful critique of power, imperialism, and exploitation from hearing Volney read aloud, he also absorbs some of the Enlightenment's prejudices and ethnic stereotypes ("slothful Asiatics"). However, the effect on the Creature is to give him a sense of the structural and not merely a personal framework for understanding virtue and suffering. See Ian Balfour, "Allegories of Origins: Frankenstein after the Enlightenment," SEL: Studies in English Literature 1500-1900 56.4 (2016): 777-98.

    2. Of what a strange nature is knowledge

      The Creature's story emphasizes the complex question of knowledge--how "strange" and contradictory it is to have, how "sorrow only increased with knowledge"--in ways that suggest it is drastically reductive to see in this novel only a warning against science.

  7. Jul 2019
    1. There is much to be proud of here, especially those clear-sighted Britons who refused mythmaking and insisted on solidarity with those at the receiving end of exploitation and dispossession, whatever their skin colour.

      Look at imperialism and empire from this perspective.

    2. the history of migration cannot be separated from that of empire

      Students should explore this relationship.

  8. Sep 2017
    1. ‘Celestial Empire’.

      Wikipedia contributors, "Celestial Empire," Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Celestial_Empire&oldid=775632771 (accessed September 7, 2017).

  9. Mar 2017
  10. Jan 2016
    1. Barbara Mundy, chapter 1 from Mapping New Spain: Indigenous Cartography and the Maps of the Relaciones Geográficas

      Mundy, B. "Spain and the Imperial Ideology of Mapping" in The Mapping of New Spain. Indigenous Cartography and the Maps of the Relaciones Geográficas. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. 1996

      While Mundy’s approach to the production of maps in the Spanish empire centers on the figure of the king and his connection to territories near and far from him, she does so in order to exemplify the way man in 16th-century Europe positioned himself within the world. Through this view, for example, the maps serve as a way for Phillip II to legitimate his rule over the empire, especially in the New World territories.

      Mundy's research questions explore why different/varied methods of representation were important in the 16th-century European context (i.e. choreographic vs. geographic maps), and how these translated into understanding space in New World from an Old World perspective.

      In order to answer her main questions, she examines two mapping commissions ordered by Phillip II and carried out by Anton van den Wyngaerde and Pedro de Esquivel. She identifies the distinct methods of representation used by the artists taking into account the broader historical and geographical context that would eventually influence the way the territories in the New Spain would be represented, as happened with the creation of the Relaciones Geograficas in New Spain.

      Mundy effectively help us understand the significance of mapping (along with the different methodologies of doing so) from a conceptual as well as a methodological point of view. Her analysis, as well as contextualization of the van den Wyngaerde and Esquivel maps offers a glimpse onto the conceptual frame that informed Europe’s initial understanding of the New World as part of the greater whole that was the Spanish empire. However, as she stresses the importance of the tangible nature of the lands (at least through maps), her visual examples become limited as she only provides an example of Esquivel’s work. It would have been very useful to compare it to the work of van den Wyngaerde (the distinction between choreographic and geographic maps remained unclear without a visual aid).

      Mundy's contribution lies in prompting us to think about different ways of engaging with space, and what that engagement signifies within a given context (i.e. for Phillip II, engaging his New World possessions through visual representations of the maps legitimized his status as king given that he could not physically rule overseas, thus he still has control over this space).

      “In both kinds of maps [van den Wyngaerde’s and Esquivel’s], man defines his relation to the world through his ability to measure it” (Mundy, 4)

  11. Oct 2015
  12. Sep 2015
    1. Bacon’s Rebellion: The Declaration (1676)

      How does Bacon's Declaration reflect both his distrust of Berkeley's rule and his desire to wage war against Native Americans? Why does Bacon want to wage this war?

    1. Conquest

      1) The goals of the Spanish were to build empires both secular and religious. The religious goals were to win people for Catholic church and the secular goals were to gain more power over the southern and northern america to have access to the wealth and gold.

      2) The greatest killer was the smallpox diseases that almost erased human life which was spread through direct human contact. Other diseases that killed Native Americans were influenza, malaria, whooping cough, diphtheria, and measles. European also brought in large domestic animals such as sheep, cattle, pig, and horse and plants e.g corn, avocado, squash, pineapple, peanuts, potatoes, etc which was more nutritious than the wheat, rice, barley and oats that the Native Americans were used to consuming.

      3) The Europeans claimed their right on claiming the land in America by the authority of the pope. Europeans also claimed to have conquered the native Americans and discovered the land. They claimed possession by occupying the land.

    2. Mercenaries joined the conquest and raced to capture the human and material wealth of the New World.

      The above statement elicits that the Native Americans were thought of as mere worthless creatures who could be used as pleased by the Spaniards.

  13. Aug 2015
    1. Crown.

      Study Questions:

      How did Powhatan initially receive the colonists? Why?

      How does tobacco change the colony?

      How does the notion of race begin to change in the colony?

    2. Crown.

      Study Questions:

      How did Powhatan initially receive the colonists? Why?

      How does tobacco change the colony?

      How does the notion of race begin to change in the colony?

    3. New World.

      Study Question:

      What were the reasons that England entered in the competition for empire in the Americas?

    4. IV. English Colonization

      Before reading this text watch and annotate the following video lecture for this week. Make sure you can answer the study questions that will appear within the video:

      The Growth of British North America video lecture:

    5. slavery.

      Study Question:

      What role did slavery play in Dutch attempts to establish empire?

    6. New World

      Study Question:

      What was the "Black Legend" and how did other European powers use it to justify their attempts to compete with Spain for empire in the Americas?

    7. Treaty of Tordesillas in 1494
    8. bonds.3

      Study question

      In what ways did the French presence in North America differ from the Spanish?

    1. power.

      Study Question:

      How do the colonies attempt to remain independent from the religious and political turmoil in England during the 1600s?

    2. power.

      Study Question:

      How do the colonies attempt to remain independent from the religious and political turmoil in England during the 1600s?

    1. 3. Spanish Exploration and Conquest
    2. continent.

      Study questions:

      How does internal tension in the Native American empires of the Americas aid Spanish attempts to create their empire?

      What racial system is established by the Spanish in the New World? Why is it established and how does it operate?

    3. coming.

      Study questions for this section:

      What roles do sugar and slavery play in the expansion of European empires?

      What diseases devastate Native American peoples?