29 Matching Annotations
  1. Dec 2019
    1. amusement. He was also pursuing an object he had long had in view. His design was to visit India, in the belief that he had in his knowledge of its various languages, and in the views he had taken of its society, the means of materially assisting the progress of European colonisation and trade. In Britain only could he further the execution of his plan.

      There is no reference to India in the 1818 edition. But in this 1831addition, Victor refers to Clerval's ambitions to travel to India in "progress of European colonisation and trade." Though the British had pursued various ventures in the subcontinent since the seventeenth century, the East India Company Act of 1813 expanded British Rule in India, culminating in the enactment of the Government of India Act 1833, which disbanded the monopoly of the East India Company. Clerval's ambitions suggest the weakening of the monopoly and the emergence of new commercial opportunities for those wishing to make their fortunes in India.

    2. he was wearing away his time fruitlessly where he was; that letters from the friends he had formed in London desired his return to complete the negotiation they had entered into for his Indian enterprise. He could not any longer delay his departure; but as his journey to London might be followed, even sooner than he now conjectured, by his longer voyage, he entreated me to bestow as much of my society on him as I could spare. He besought me, therefore, to leave my solitary isle, and to meet him at Perth, that we might proceed southwards together.

      In this revision to 1831 edition, Shelley elaborates on Clerval's "Indian enterprise," mentioned earlier in the previous chapter. Clerval wishes Victor to return to Perth to spend time together before the former's voyage to India. In the 1818 edition, Clerval notes they had been traveling in Britain for a year, and should take the next year of their voyage to return to Switzerland, via France.

    1. Volney’s Ruins of Empires

      Of the books the Creature learns in the forest, Volney's The Ruins of Empires was most closely associated with Europe's radical Enlightenment. While the Creature learns a powerful critique of power, imperialism, and exploitation from hearing Volney read aloud, he also absorbs some of the Enlightenment's prejudices and ethnic stereotypes ("slothful Asiatics"). However, the effect on the Creature is to give him a sense of the structural and not merely a personal framework for understanding virtue and suffering. See Ian Balfour, "Allegories of Origins: Frankenstein after the Enlightenment," SEL: Studies in English Literature 1500-1900 56.4 (2016): 777-98.

    2. Of what a strange nature is knowledge

      The Creature's story emphasizes the complex question of knowledge--how "strange" and contradictory it is to have, how "sorrow only increased with knowledge"--in ways that suggest it is drastically reductive to see in this novel only a warning against science.

  2. Jul 2019
    1. There is much to be proud of here, especially those clear-sighted Britons who refused mythmaking and insisted on solidarity with those at the receiving end of exploitation and dispossession, whatever their skin colour.

      Look at imperialism and empire from this perspective.

    2. the history of migration cannot be separated from that of empire

      Students should explore this relationship.

  3. Sep 2017
    1. ‘Celestial Empire’.

      Wikipedia contributors, "Celestial Empire," Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Celestial_Empire&oldid=775632771 (accessed September 7, 2017).

  4. Mar 2017
  5. Jan 2016
    1. Barbara Mundy, chapter 1 from Mapping New Spain: Indigenous Cartography and the Maps of the Relaciones Geográficas

      Mundy, B. "Spain and the Imperial Ideology of Mapping" in The Mapping of New Spain. Indigenous Cartography and the Maps of the Relaciones Geográficas. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. 1996

      While Mundy’s approach to the production of maps in the Spanish empire centers on the figure of the king and his connection to territories near and far from him, she does so in order to exemplify the way man in 16th-century Europe positioned himself within the world. Through this view, for example, the maps serve as a way for Phillip II to legitimate his rule over the empire, especially in the New World territories.

      Mundy's research questions explore why different/varied methods of representation were important in the 16th-century European context (i.e. choreographic vs. geographic maps), and how these translated into understanding space in New World from an Old World perspective.

      In order to answer her main questions, she examines two mapping commissions ordered by Phillip II and carried out by Anton van den Wyngaerde and Pedro de Esquivel. She identifies the distinct methods of representation used by the artists taking into account the broader historical and geographical context that would eventually influence the way the territories in the New Spain would be represented, as happened with the creation of the Relaciones Geograficas in New Spain.

      Mundy effectively help us understand the significance of mapping (along with the different methodologies of doing so) from a conceptual as well as a methodological point of view. Her analysis, as well as contextualization of the van den Wyngaerde and Esquivel maps offers a glimpse onto the conceptual frame that informed Europe’s initial understanding of the New World as part of the greater whole that was the Spanish empire. However, as she stresses the importance of the tangible nature of the lands (at least through maps), her visual examples become limited as she only provides an example of Esquivel’s work. It would have been very useful to compare it to the work of van den Wyngaerde (the distinction between choreographic and geographic maps remained unclear without a visual aid).

      Mundy's contribution lies in prompting us to think about different ways of engaging with space, and what that engagement signifies within a given context (i.e. for Phillip II, engaging his New World possessions through visual representations of the maps legitimized his status as king given that he could not physically rule overseas, thus he still has control over this space).

      “In both kinds of maps [van den Wyngaerde’s and Esquivel’s], man defines his relation to the world through his ability to measure it” (Mundy, 4)

  6. Oct 2015
  7. Sep 2015
    1. Bacon’s Rebellion: The Declaration (1676)

      How does Bacon's Declaration reflect both his distrust of Berkeley's rule and his desire to wage war against Native Americans? Why does Bacon want to wage this war?

    1. Conquest

      1) The goals of the Spanish were to build empires both secular and religious. The religious goals were to win people for Catholic church and the secular goals were to gain more power over the southern and northern america to have access to the wealth and gold.

      2) The greatest killer was the smallpox diseases that almost erased human life which was spread through direct human contact. Other diseases that killed Native Americans were influenza, malaria, whooping cough, diphtheria, and measles. European also brought in large domestic animals such as sheep, cattle, pig, and horse and plants e.g corn, avocado, squash, pineapple, peanuts, potatoes, etc which was more nutritious than the wheat, rice, barley and oats that the Native Americans were used to consuming.

      3) The Europeans claimed their right on claiming the land in America by the authority of the pope. Europeans also claimed to have conquered the native Americans and discovered the land. They claimed possession by occupying the land.

    2. Mercenaries joined the conquest and raced to capture the human and material wealth of the New World.

      The above statement elicits that the Native Americans were thought of as mere worthless creatures who could be used as pleased by the Spaniards.

  8. Aug 2015
    1. Crown.

      Study Questions:

      How did Powhatan initially receive the colonists? Why?

      How does tobacco change the colony?

      How does the notion of race begin to change in the colony?

    2. Crown.

      Study Questions:

      How did Powhatan initially receive the colonists? Why?

      How does tobacco change the colony?

      How does the notion of race begin to change in the colony?

    3. New World.

      Study Question:

      What were the reasons that England entered in the competition for empire in the Americas?

    4. IV. English Colonization

      Before reading this text watch and annotate the following video lecture for this week. Make sure you can answer the study questions that will appear within the video:

      The Growth of British North America video lecture:

    5. slavery.

      Study Question:

      What role did slavery play in Dutch attempts to establish empire?

    6. New World

      Study Question:

      What was the "Black Legend" and how did other European powers use it to justify their attempts to compete with Spain for empire in the Americas?

    7. Treaty of Tordesillas in 1494
    8. bonds.3

      Study question

      In what ways did the French presence in North America differ from the Spanish?

    1. power.

      Study Question:

      How do the colonies attempt to remain independent from the religious and political turmoil in England during the 1600s?

    2. power.

      Study Question:

      How do the colonies attempt to remain independent from the religious and political turmoil in England during the 1600s?

    1. 3. Spanish Exploration and Conquest
    2. continent.

      Study questions:

      How does internal tension in the Native American empires of the Americas aid Spanish attempts to create their empire?

      What racial system is established by the Spanish in the New World? Why is it established and how does it operate?

    3. coming.

      Study questions for this section:

      What roles do sugar and slavery play in the expansion of European empires?

      What diseases devastate Native American peoples?