13 Matching Annotations
  1. Jun 2020
    1. I n 1790, Haiti’s enslavers saw the Declaration of t he Rights of Man (Article 1: “Men are born and remain free and equal in rights”) as a green light f or t heir i ndependence drive and for t heir demands for new trade relations t o increase their wealth. F ree and affluent bira-cial activists numbering almost 3 0,000 (slightly less t han the White population) started driving for t heir civil r ights. Close to half a mil-lion enslaved Africans, who were producing about half t he world’s sugar and coffee i n the most profitable European colony in the world, heard these curious cries f or r ights and liberty among the i sland’s f ree people. On August 22, 1791, enslaved Africans revolted, i nspired in more ways t han one by Vodou priest Dutty Boukman. They emerged as t he fourth faction in the civil war between White royalists, White independence seekers, and free biracial a ctivist

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  2. May 2020
  3. Apr 2020
    1. In the first of two enzymatic steps that produce high-glucose syrup as an intermediate to high-fructose syrup and other products, bacterial α-amylase is employed at pH 6–7 and about 105°C to hydrolyze starch purified by wet milling to roughly DE (dextrose equivalent) 10, DE being the percent of reducing end-groups in the aqueous sugar mixture relative to those in pure glucose of the same concentration. This indicates that the average maltooligosaccharide produced has a DP (degree of polymerization) of 10, although the mixture has a very wide DP range. DE 30 or more can be attained if the reaction proceeds to completion, but DE 10 is chosen to minimize the probability of pseudo-crystallization at lower DEs and the extent of alkaline-catalyzed isomerization of the reducing-end glucosyl residue at higher DEs.In the second step, at pH 4.3–4.5 and roughly 60°C, fungal glucoamylase and a small amount of pullulanase (pullulan 6-glucanohydrolase, EC 3.2.1.41), the latter used to rapidly hydrolyze the α-1,6 bonds from the original starch feed, convert the maltooligosaccharide mixture to approximately 96% glucose (dry basis). The remainder is composed of byproducts from α-amylase hydrolysis plus mainly isomaltose [α-glucopyranosyl-(1,6)-glucose] and isomaltotriose from the glucoamylase-catalyzed condensation of glucose.

      If I'm understanding this correctly, all I need is alpha amylase (easily obtainable) and beta amylase (AKA glucoamylase, also obtainable). When buying these, I've found that alpha amylase is advertised as simply amylase, whereas beta amylaze is advertised as glucoamylase

      This mentions both pH and temperature, but fails to mention time. I'd expect it only takes a matter of hours (or less).

  4. Dec 2019
    1. Sugar cane—the sole source of the sweetener—only really flourished in hot, humid regions where temperatures remained above 80 degrees Fahrenheit and where rain fell steadily or farmers had ample irrigation.

      It is difficult to product sugar. So, sugar is expensive and rare.

  5. Nov 2019
  6. Oct 2019
  7. Dec 2017
  8. Jun 2017
  9. Jan 2017
    1. My wife has learned by experimenting that she can take any cookie recipe, any cake recipe, and reduce the amount of sugar by one third, and it actually tastes better, and it doesn’t ruin the texture. If you go down by a half, then it does. But if you go down by a third, the cookies still come out just as good

      Reduce baking recipes byt a third

    2. My wife has learned by experimenting that she can take any cookie recipe, any cake recipe, and reduce the amount of sugar by one third, and it actually tastes better, and it doesn’t ruin the texture. If you go down by a half, then it does. But if you go down by a third, the cookies still come out just as good

      Reduce baking recipes byt a third

  10. Sep 2016
  11. Jul 2016
    1. spiritual senses of the occultist as are externally perceptible colors to the physical eye. This etheric body can actually be seen by the clairvoyant. It is the principle which calls the inorganic materials into life, which, summoning them from their lifeless condition, weaves them into the thread of life's garment.

      This reminds me of the diabetes and heart disease epidemic. If through forced choice you can engender a species of people to change the make up of their blood through outside chemicals and OVER FEEDING everyone sugar rendering most people diabetic you can in essence control the emerging medical needs of a society dependent on new forms of health care and medicines. The obama care state.

  12. Aug 2015
    1. coming.

      Study questions for this section:

      What roles do sugar and slavery play in the expansion of European empires?

      What diseases devastate Native American peoples?