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  1. Last 7 days
    1. Unfortunately, many classrooms focus on math facts in isolation, giving students the impression that math facts are the essence of mathematics, and, even worse, that mastering the fast recall of math facts is what it means to be a strong mathematics student. Both of these ideas are wrong, and it is critical that we remove them from classrooms, as they play a key role in creating math-anxious and disaffected students.

      This article uses the word "unfortunately quite a lot.

    2. If you think mathematics is difficult, tough, or you're scared of it, this article will indicate why and potentially show you a way forward for yourself and your children.

    3. The hippocampus, like other brain regions, is not fixed and can grow at any time,15 but it will always be the case that some students are faster or slower when memorizing, and this has nothing to do with mathematics potential.
    4. Notably, the brain can only compress concepts; it cannot compress rules and methods.
    5. Unfortunately for low achievers, they are often identified as struggling with math and therefore given more drill and practice—cementing their beliefs that math success means memorizing methods, not understanding and making sense of situations. They are sent down a damaging pathway that makes them cling to formal procedures, and as a result, they often face a lifetime of difficulty with mathematics.
    6. The low achievers did not know less, they just did not use numbers flexibly—probably because they had been set on the wrong pathway, from an early age, of trying to memorize methods and number facts instead of interacting with numbers flexibly.4
    1. adho-cratic,

      Neoligism

    2. IntroductIonxxixWhereas a social movement has to persuade people to act, a government or a powerful group defending the status quo only has to create enough confusion to paralyze people into inaction. The internet’s relatively chaotic nature, with too much information and weak gatekeepers, can asymmetri-cally empower governments by allowing them to develop new forms of cen-sorship based not on blocking information, but on making available information unusable.

      This is something we need to be able to overcome.

    3. Rather than a complete totalitarianism based on fear and blocking of information the newer methods include demonizing online mediums, and mobilizing armies of supporters or paid employees who muddy the online waters with misinformation, information glut, doubt, confusion, harrasment, and dis-traction, making it hard for ordinary people to navigate the networked pub-lic sphere, and sort facts from fiction, truth from hoaxes.

      Sometimes it seems like Trump does this as a one man band.

    4.  turned on the television only once, wanting to see how networks were covering the historic moment of Mubarak’s resignation. CNN was broad-casting an aerial shot of the square. The camera shot from far above the square was jarring because I had been following it all on Twitter, person by person, each view necessarily incomplete but also intimate. On television, all I could see was an undifferentiated mass of people, an indistinct crowd. It felt cold and alienating. The television pictures did not convey how today’s networked protests operate or feel
    5. Plurality, diversity, and tolerance were celebrated

      IndieWeb principles

    6. These others may challenge the de facto spokespersons, but the movements have few means to resolve their issues or make deci-sions. In some ways, digital technologies deepen the ever-existing tension between collective will and individual expression within movements, and between expressive moments of rebellion and the longer-term strategies requiring instrumental and tactical shifts.
    1. “What gets measured gets done, what gets measured and fed back gets done well, what gets rewarded gets repeated.”
    2. If you are one of those people sending hundreds of text messages throughout the day, then you are crazy and throwing your life away.

      Harsh, but probably true. This is definitely not me.

    3. Second, I have a not-very-well supported theory that’s paired with the book Thinking, Fast and Slow. The behavior design implication of that book is that you need to speak to two systems of the brain. Speaking to the rational, Slow System is easy. Just lay out the facts.Speaking to the emotional Fast System is much harder, namely because it’s so hard to see or introspect on what’s going on in there. But if you accept that difficulty (and this is the part of my theory that feels like pop brain science), then you realize that you need to start looking for ways to rewire your emotional core.Then, having accepted that rewiring your emotions is part of most behavior design, I’ve started to notice things — like that most self-improvement advice is not very rational. That’s by design. A self-improvement book is mostly emotional rewiring. That is exactly why you need to read the entire book rather than cheating with a summarized version.

      This is an interesting sounding take. Worth thinking about further.

    4. I’m absolutely positioning the Kindle to be a replacement habit for Facebook and Twitter. How much smarter would you be if you replaced half of your social media usage with reading?
    5. Do you want a book recommendation to go with this section? I’ve got one you’re not going to hear anywhere else. Go buy the sci-fi book Dune and read it in the context of personal development.The lady-witch advisors, the Bene Gesserit, are what happens when you have fine-tuned mastery over habit.The human computing Mentats are what’s possible through extreme brain training.The Gom Jabbar test of humanity? That’s the mind-over-matter possible through meditation. An animal gives in to the illusion of pain; a human can see through that illusion.The Butlerian Jihad where humanity overthrew and then banned all artificial intelligence? That’s what I keep saying here about making your phone a tool, not your boss.

      Certainly a unique take.

    1. With a personal blog, it’s about whatever is on your mind.  Each post is not the definitive answer, rather, it’s you thinking out loud.
    1. This may be a personal itch, but at least for personal archiving needs, I’m sick, sick, sick of the recency bias that’s eaten the internet since the first stirrings of Web 2.0. Wikis are practically the only sites that have escaped chronological organization. It would be cool to have easily-manipulated collections with non-kludgey support for series ordering, order-by-popularity, order-by-popularity with a manual bump for posts you want to highlight, hell even alphabetical ordering. None of these things are remotely unsolved problems, but they’re poorly supported on the social-media silos most people’s content lives on these days.
    1. “We will leave it to them and focus our efforts on creating the most welcoming environment possible for our community.”

      Isn't a lot of their community people who share and interact with just this sort of content?

    1. Here’s the simple sales framework I used to answer “sell me this pen”. Memorize it for yourself. Find out how they last used a pen (gather info) Emphasize the importance of the activity they last used a pen (respond to info) Sell something bigger than a pen, like a state of mind (deliver info) Ask for the buy (closing)
  2. Dec 2018
    1. signal-boost

      another great description of the phenomenon

    2. Among the many phenomena we’d tentatively attribute, in large part, to the trend: the rise of sharebait (nee clickbait) and the general BuzzFeedification of traditional media; the Internet hoax-industrial complex, which only seems to be growing stronger; and the utter lack of intelligent online discourse around any remotely complicated, controversial topic.

      sharebait BuzzFeedification Internet hoax-industrial complex

      Priceless!

    1. It’s the nature of the more more more culture: if you can run two miles, isn’t it better to run five? If you can write an article about something, isn’t it better to turn it into a book? If you can speak in four places this semester, isn’t it better to add on just… one… more…?

      It's like the old saying, I can't turn a profit with low numbers, so we'll make it up in volume.

    1. In this future, we’re all being asked to accept that the sticker price of our success is indifference to how things turn out for others. Of course, this isn’t a novelty, and it’s barely a disruption; this is how the demands of profit have needed work to be managed for a long time.
    2. It’s treating someone else’s wellbeing, someone’s lost job, someone’s public dressing-down, someone’s stolen idea as somehow not your problem, not your shoes.
    3. This is what higher education is currently saying to its long-term casual staff. While universities are underfunded for teaching and expected to compete globally on the basis of research, then the revenue from teaching will be diverted into research. This isn’t a blip, and there won’t be a correction. This is how universities are solving their funding problems with a solution that involves keeping labour costs (and associated overheads like paid sick leave) as low as possible. It’s a business model for bad times, and the only thing that makes it sustainable is not thinking about where the human consequences are being felt.

      This last sentence is so painful...

    1. Where’s my next dashboard? I imagine a next-gen reader that brings me the open web and my social circles in a way that helps me attend to and manage all the flow. There are apps for that, a nice example being FlowReader, which has been around since 2013. I try these things hopefully but so far none has stuck.

      I'm currently hoping that the next wave of social readers based on Microsub and which also support Micropub will be a major part of the answer.

    2. Where’s my Net dashboard?

      Interestingly, I came to this post in my feed reader while randomly looking for something I could use as an example in something I was writing about feed readers!!!

    3. “Who do I report this to?” Everyone.

      A brilliant ending!

    4. It’s not just that the silos can shut down their feeds. It’s that we allowed ourselves to get herded into them in the first place.
    1. He lost to New York billionaire Donald Trump,

      Is he really a "billionaire"?! I thought the Times' own reporting had refuted this pretty soundly?

    2. He negotiated the North American Free Trade Agreement with Canada and Mexico, a measure that was ratified by the Senate in President Bill Clinton’s first term.

      Interesting that he dies on the same day that Trump declares victory over the death of NAFTA.

    1. Kuratowski definition of an ordered pair
    2. Therefore we advise the beginner to skip from here, go directly to§3, and return to this section only when the need arises.

      They've buried the lede here apparently.

    3. Motivation

      I really wish more math textbooks had motivation sections like this one does.

    4. completions of partially orderedsets and of metric spaces,ˇCech-Stone compactifications of topological spaces, sym-metrizations of relations, abelianizations of groups, Bohr compactifications of topo-logical groups, minimalizations of reachable acceptors, etc.

      The tough part of category theory is lists of things like this right up front which will tend to scare off almost any reader but those who are working on Ph.D.s in mathematics...

  3. Nov 2018
    1. Two automatons stood on the table. One, called “The Singing Lesson,” was the creation of Jean-Eugène Robert-Houdin, the nineteenth-century watchmaker-turned-conjurer, who is considered the father of modern magic. The other was a Chinese cups-and-balls conjurer built by Robert-Houdin’s father-in-law, Jacques Houdin.
    2. The main thing that dissuaded him, he says, is that “I wouldn’t want to sell a book to a philistine, which is what every bookseller has to do.”
    3. Jean Prévost’s “La Première Partie des Subtiles et Plaisantes Inventions,” the earliest known important conjuring book, printed in Lyons in 1584.
    4. Magic is about working hard to discover a secret and making something out of it. You start with some small principle and you build a theatrical presentation out of it. You do something that’s technically artistic that creates a small drama.
    5. I once asked Mamet whether Jay had ever shared with him details of his childhood.Mamet replied, “I can’t remember.”I said, “You can’t remember whether you discussed it or you can’t remember the details?”He said, “I can’t remember whether or not I know a better way to dissuade you from your reiteration of that question without seeming impolite.”
  4. app.getpocket.com app.getpocket.com
    1. Two automatons stood on the table. One, called “The Singing Lesson,” was the creation of Jean-Eugène Robert-Houdin, the nineteenth-century watchmaker-turned-conjurer, who is considered the father of modern magic. The other was a Chinese cups-and-balls conjurer built by Robert-Houdin’s father-in-law, Jacques Houdin.
    2. The main thing that dissuaded him, he says, is that “I wouldn’t want to sell a book to a philistine, which is what every bookseller has to do.”
    3. Jean Prévost’s “La Première Partie des Subtiles et Plaisantes Inventions,” the earliest known important conjuring book, printed in Lyons in 1584.
    4. Magic is about working hard to discover a secret and making something out of it. You start with some small principle and you build a theatrical presentation out of it. You do something that’s technically artistic that creates a small drama.
    5. I once asked Mamet whether Jay had ever shared with him details of his childhood.Mamet replied, “I can’t remember.”I said, “You can’t remember whether you discussed it or you can’t remember the details?”He said, “I can’t remember whether or not I know a better way to dissuade you from your reiteration of that question without seeming impolite.”
    1. The conductor became frozen, with his arms in the air, just as when he was conducting. And he was still conducting! Only now he was conducting the silence! No one moved, the concert hall was completely enveloped in peace. With the conductor's arms still up, and the violin bows still poised above the strings, no one dared to applaud. If they were wrong and it was not the end, their clapping would be a rude interruption of the music. And I'm sure that was exactly what the conductor intended!
    2. The speaker made the point that Mahler gives the second violins their own voice, rather than merely having them give depth or support to the first violins. Because of this, he said the conductor (Herbert Blomstedt) had decided to use a placement of the performers that was becoming common in Europe for the Ninth. Instead of having all the violins on the left of the conductor, with the 1st violins on the outside and the 2nd violins on the inside, he was placing the 1st violins in their usual position, but the second violins would be on the right side of the conductor. This would have the effect of separating the voices so they could be more easily heard.
    1. Any pointers or experiences to share?

      There are a couple of WordPress plugins for Mastodon that allow you to syndicate your content from your own website into your instance. You might find that somewhat useful.

      The IndieWeb wiki has some generally useful information as well as some criticisms and related articles which might be helpful: https://indieweb.org/Mastodon

      Mastodon runs on the Activity Pub specification for sending messages back and forth. As a result some people are looking into having their personal websites support these protocols so that people on Mastodon (or other parts of the Fediverse) can subscribe to one's primary website. If you can do this then you don't necessarily need "yet another social platform" for interacting with those online. The two biggest of these efforts within the WordPress community are Fed Bridgy and the Activity Pub plugin

    2. other routes in.

      http://www.unmung.com/mastoview will show content from random instances to give one an idea about the content within a particular instance before joining.

      Most instances will have some general information about themselves. Usually the more thought out they are, the more likely they will be around for a while. Here's an example of the instance maintained by the creator of the original platform, which is also one of the largest and most popular instances out there: https://mastodon.social/about/more

    3. No other options presented themselves on the page

      This website has some reasonable set up for helping one determine an appropriate instance: https://instances.social/

    4. Is stability a problem in the Fediverse? 

      Stability is typically an issue based on who is running the instance and what sort of server they're doing it on. Is it fast or slow? Does it have 3 people or 300,000? Naturally the larger the instance, the more resources it requires. Some instances have popped up and shut themselves down because the maintainer was doing it as a hobby and just got tired of it. Often there isn't much information about who is running the server and how long it may or may not be around or how well it's maintained.

    5. What was that about crowdfunding instances?  How much of an instance’s conversation was visible to the outside?  How much of this is Google-spidered?  What are those anti-abuse tools?  Why can’t governments “completely block” Mastodon (as a whole, or just instances?)? Can one join more than a single instance?

      Managing an instance can come with a lot of work and maintenance, so some instances are crowdfunded to help defray the costs of full time management of a particular instance.

      Anti-abuse tools give users the ability to better block people as well as instances have the ability to block incoming messages from entire instances. Thus an instance that serves as a haven for Nazis could be completely blocked by one or more other instances which prevent their users from seeing any content from all users on an instance that is a "bad actor."

      Governments could block instances based on their IP addresses, but would have to do some work to block all instances (primarily by knowing where they all are).

      One can join as many instances as they'd like, but it would likely become confusing after a while. Ideally one should be able to join just one instance and be able to follow or be followed by anyone from any other instance. Some communities have particular sets of rules they expect their users to abide by. Some may be centered on particular topics of discussion as well. Some instances are individually run and have only one user.

    6. indieweb movement.

      hooray!

    1. Digital connectivity reshapes how movements connect, organize, and evolve during their lifespan.
    2. I have published a more extensive bibliography on the website for this book, http://www.twitterandteargas.com.

      I wish more books did this...

    3. My goal in this book was above all to develop theories and to present a conceptual analysis of what digital technologies mean for how social move-ments, power and society interact, rather than provide a complete empirical descriptive account of any one movement.
    4. The Za-patista solidarity networks marked the beginning of a new phase, the emer-gence of networked movements as the internet and digital tools began to spread to activists, and general populations.
    5. Globalization from below had arrived.

      an interesting turn of phrase here

    6. “tactical freeze,” the inability of these movements to adjust tactics, negotiate demands, and push for tangi-ble policy changes, something that grows out of the leaderless nature of these movements (“horizontalism”) and the way digital technologies strengthen their ability to form without much early planning, dealing with issues only as they come up, and by people who show up (“adhocracy”).
    7. Similar-looking moments and activities—large marches, big protests, occu-pations—do not represent the same points in the trajectories of the net-worked movements as they did in movements organized along traditional models and without digital tools.
    8. They also found themselves unable to sustain and organize in the long term in a manner proportional to the energy they had been able to attract initially and the legitimacy they enjoyed in their demands.

      This reminds me of an excellent example I heard recently on Scene on Radio's Men series which tells the story of a rape which occurred several years prior to the bus boycott that helped to rally the community and make the bus boycott far more successful than it would have been without the prior incident and local reportage.

      The relevant audio begins (with some background) at approximately 22:40 into the episode.

    9. As sociologist Doug McAdam and others have explored, tactical innovation is crucial for movements over the long term.
    10. Clay Shirky’s influential book on collective action in the digital age, Here Comes Everybody, had an important subtitle: The Power of Organizing without Organizations.
    11. I had begun to think of social movements’ abilities in terms of “capacities”—like the muscles one develops while exercising but could be used for other purposes like carrying groceries or walking long distances—and their repertoire of pro-test, like marches, rallies, and occupations as “signals” of those capacities.

      I find it interesting that she's using words from information theory like "capacities" and "signals" here. It reminds me of the thesis of Caesar Hidalgo's Why Information Grows and his ideas about links. While within the social milieu, links may be easier to break with new modes of communication, what most protesters won't grasp or have the time and patience for is the recreation of new links to create new institutions for rule. As seen in many war torn countries, this is the most difficult part. Similarly campaigning is easy, governing is much harder.

      As an example: The US government's breaking of the links of military and police forces in post-war Iraq made their recovery process far more difficult because all those links within the social hierarchy and political landscape proved harder to reconstruct.

    12. Finally, 2011 seemed to herald the true beginning of a new era, with a transformed communication landscape.

      There are some commonly reported misconceptions about revolutions and coups, particularly with respect to military take overs of television and newspapers, that the average reader may wish to familiarize themselves with as they enter this area. One of the best resources I've seen for this is a recent recap by On The Media.

    13. peoples rising up and shaking off aging autocracies, modes of rule on which history had already seemingly rendered its verdict long before, seemed unstoppable, even irreversible.

      Hidden here, though I highly suspect she'll cover it later, there is a huge value to the building and maintenance of institutions with respect to government and building into the future.

    14. As regime after regime fell, the world watched transfixed, glued to the social media feeds of thousands of young people from the region who had taken to tweeting, streaming, and reporting from the ground.

      I'm reminded of Gil Scott-Heron's seminal 1970 song The Revolution Will Not Be Televised

      https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vwSRqaZGsPw

    15. enrolled

      Perhaps not the best technical word here as one couldn't really enroll in the internet, but figuratively, particularly with respect to the decades of learning how and why to use it, it certainly has an interesting place in this setting.

    16. I had come of age in Turkey after the 1980 military coup. I had witnessed how effective censorship could be when all mass communication was cen-tralized and subject to government control: radio, television, and newspa-pers.

      I like the fact that she puts her personal background here upfront. It gives us a sense of the author's background while simultaneously setting the stage for what she'll be describing shortly.

    17. The author has made an online version of this work available under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International Public License. It can be accessed through the author’s website at http://www.twitterandteargas.com.

      A great example of academic samizdat on Zeynep Tufekci's part.

      The free creative commons version is available in the footer link at https://www.twitterandteargas.org/

    1. Some news: there will be a free creative commons copy of my book. It will be available as a free PDF download in addition to being sold as a bound book. This is with the hopes that anyone who wants to read it can do so without worrying about the cost. However, this also means that I need to ask that a few people who can afford to do so to please consider purchasing a copy. This is not just so that Yale University Press can do this for more authors, but also because if it is not sold (at least a little bit!) in the initial few weeks, bookstores will not stock it and online algorithms will show it to fewer people. No sales will mean less visibility, and less incentive for publishers to allow other authors creative commons copies. 

      An excellent example of academic samizdat

    1. While the NTK Network does not have a large audience of its own, its content is frequently picked up by popular conservative outlets, including Breitbart.

      One wonders if they're seeding it and spreading it falsely on Facebook? Why not use the problem as a feature?!

    2. Then Facebook went on the offensive. Mr. Kaplan prevailed on Ms. Sandberg to promote Kevin Martin, a former Federal Communications Commission chairman and fellow Bush administration veteran, to lead the company’s American lobbying efforts. Facebook also expanded its work with Definers.

      Why not double down on fixing the problem? I still to this day don't get the impression that they're even attempting to fix the root issues.

    3. For tech firms, he argued in one interview, a goal should be to “have positive content pushed out about your company and negative content that’s being pushed out about your competitor.”

      Reminds me a bit of an old adage within CAA, but this one is far more toxic than the positive version that CAA used. Theirs amounted to occupying executives with CAA client meetings and material so they just didn't have time to handle other talent.

    4. In October 2017, Facebook also expanded its work with a Washington-based consultant, Definers Public Affairs, that had originally been hired to monitor press coverage of the company. Founded by veterans of Republican presidential politics, Definers specialized in applying political campaign tactics to corporate public relations — an approach long employed in Washington by big telecommunications firms and activist hedge fund managers, but less common in tech.
    5. Facebook’s lofty aims were emblazoned even on securities filings: “Our mission is to make the world more open and connected.”

      Why not make Facebook more open and connected? This would fix some of the problems.

      As usual, I would say that they need to have a way to put some value on the "connections" that they're creating. Not all connections are equal. Some are actively bad, particularly for a productive and positive society.

    6. “You threw us under the bus!” she yelled at Mr. Stamos, according to people who were present.

      Just imagine how all of your users feel Ms. Sandberg! And let's be honest, the fish stinks from the head.

    1. A lot of Democrats believe in what is called Enlightenment reasoning, and that if you just tell people the facts, they’ll reach the right conclusion. That just isn’t true.
    2. I take your point, but I wonder if Trump is just kryptonite for a liberal democratic system built on a free press.

      The key words being "free press" with free meaning that we're free to exert intelligent editorial control.

      Editors in the early 1900's used this sort of editorial control not to give fuel to racists and Nazis and reduce their influence.Cross reference: Face the Racist Nation from On the Media.

      Apparently we need to exert the same editorial control with respect to Trump, who not incidentally is giving significant fuel to the racist fire as well.

    1. As deepfakes make their way into social media, their spread will likely follow the same pattern as other fake news stories. In a MIT study investigating the diffusion of false content on Twitter published between 2006 and 2017, researchers found that “falsehood diffused significantly farther, faster, deeper, and more broadly than truth in all categories of information.” False stories were 70 percent more likely to be retweeted than the truth and reached 1,500 people six times more quickly than accurate articles.

      This sort of research should make it eaiser to find and stamp out from the social media side of things. We need regulations to actually make it happen however.

    1. Politicians, she believes, “owe us an answer,” and so she, in her own very Terry Gross way will “keep asking and re-asking and asking, and maybe I’ll ask it in separate ways, and maybe I’ll point out that they haven’t yet answered the question.”
    2. “Well, I don’t think it is in my self-interest to tutor people on how to dodge a question,” Ms. Gross said. But, when pressed — perhaps regretting the previous advice she gave to this interviewer about how to get people to answer questions they don’t want to answer (“keep asking”) — she suggests using honesty. Say, “I don’t want to answer that,” or, if that’s too blunt, hedge with a statement like, “I’m having a difficult time thinking of a specific answer to that.” Going the martyr route with something like, “I’m afraid by answering that I’m going to hurt somebody’s feelings and I don’t want to do that,” is another option.
    3. “Tell me about yourself,” a.k.a the only icebreaker you’ll ever need
    1. Why, though, do we not romanticize our preservation? The same matter of chance, of the fleeting nature of fate exists on the other side of the coin. What would have happened if we were better rested, if our energy was better preserved, if we managed our time and said what we really mean? Rarely do we approach whether we get eight hours of sleep with the same guilt as we do whether or not we attended a party, even when, according to sleep expert Matthew Walker, sleep deprivation prevents the brain from remembering information, creating new memories, and sustaining emotional well-being.

      A great observation!

    1. the technology platforms we rely on are changing and to leave things the way they are is to put our work at risk.
    1. If there is a sector more ripe for the reinvigoration of antitrust regulation, I do not know it.
    2. But now it was all for the best: a law of nature, a chance for the monopolists to do good for the universe. The cheerer-in-chief for the monopoly form is Peter Thiel, author of Competition Is for Losers. Labeling the competitive economy a “relic of history” and a “trap,” he proclaimed that “only one thing can allow a business to transcend the daily brute struggle for survival: monopoly profits.”

      Sounds like a guy who is winning all of the spoils.

    3. In total, Facebook managed to string together 67 unchallenged acquisitions, which seems impressive, unless you consider that Amazon undertook 91 and Google got away with 214 (a few of which were conditioned). In this way, the tech industry became essentially composed of just a few giant trusts: Google for search and related industries, Facebook for social media, Amazon for online commerce. While competitors remained in the wings, their positions became marginalized with every passing day.
    4. When a dominant firm buys its a nascent challenger, alarm bells are supposed to ring. Yet both American and European regulators found themselves unable to find anything wrong with the takeover.
    1. If pastors are afraid to alienate their constituents by condemning porn, what policymaker in his or her right mind would?
    2. Still, 43 percent approval leaves a majority of Americans disapproving. In political terms, 57 percent represents a winning issue. There is no question most Americans feel that there’s something wrong about porn; it’s barred at workplaces and unwelcome in polite company. In polls its acceptability registers lower than other hot-button culture issues like abortion, gay marriage and legal pot. So why won’t anyone in government go after it?

      I'm guessing that it polks at these numbers but in actuality it's closer to 90% acceptance or people would be using it as a wedge.

    3. A study of the subject in 2009, undertaken by a researcher at the University of Montreal, had to be canceled. The reason: He could not find a control group of men in their 20s who had not viewed pornography.
    4. In 1524, with the printing press still less than a century old, the Italian engraver Marcantonio Raimondi published a book depicting 16 positions of sexual intercourse, copies of which spread throughout Europe. Raimondi was arrested and jailed by Pope Clement VII—the first known collision between porn and politics.
    1. He believed that the reason why non-Arabs were accepted as part of Arab society was due to their mastery of the Arabic language.
    2. Concerning the discipline of sociology, he described the dichotomy of sedentary life versus nomadic life as well as the inevitable loss of power that occurs when warriors conquer a city. According to the Arab scholar Sati' al-Husri, the Muqaddimah may be read as a sociological work. The work is based around Ibn Khaldun's central concept of 'aṣabiyyah, which has been translated as "social cohesion", "group solidarity", or "tribalism". This social cohesion arises spontaneously in tribes and other small kinship groups; it can be intensified and enlarged by a religious ideology. Ibn Khaldun's analysis looks at how this cohesion carries groups to power but contains within itself the seeds – psychological, sociological, economic, political – of the group's downfall, to be replaced by a new group, dynasty or empire bound by a stronger (or at least younger and more vigorous) cohesion. Some of Ibn Khaldun's views, particularly those concerning the Zanj people of sub-Saharan Africa,[27] have been cited as a racist,[28] though they were not uncommon for their time. According to the scholar Abdelmajid Hannoum, Ibn Khaldun's description of the distinctions between Berbers and Arabs were misinterpreted by the translator William McGuckin de Slane, who wrongly inserted a "racial ideology that sets Arabs and Berbers apart and in opposition" into his translation of the Muqaddimah.
    1. We need to learn to see the cumulative impact of a multitude of efforts, while simultaneously keeping all those efforts visible on their own. There exist so many initiatives I think that are great examples of how distributed digitalisation leads to transformation, but they are largely invisible outside their own context, and also not widely networked and connected enough to reach their own full potential. They are valuable on their own, but would be even more valuable to themselves and others when federated, but the federation part is mostly missing. We need to find a better way to see the big picture, while also seeing all pixels it consists of. A macroscope, a distributed digital transformation macroscope.

      This seems to be a related problem to the discovery questions that Kicks Condor and Brad Enslen have been thing about.

    1. More ways to combat feed overwhelm Before IndieWebCamp, we had a discussion about Readers in a traditional Nürnberger restaurant. Here also, people came up with some ideas to deal with accruing unread-counts. One idea came from how Aperture deletes posts after 7 days. This actually prevents the overload. It would be nice if you can tell your reader that, for example your Twitter feed, is ephemeral and that the posts can be discarded if you did not read them in time. One other idea that came up was to keep track of the average time between posts of a certain feed. This way a Reader could boost posts when they are from a feed that is not regularly updated. These kind of posts are usually lost in piles of more posts from more frequently updates feeds. Yet a last idea was to tell your reader to leave out posts with certain words for a small period of time. This can come in handy when you haven’t watched the newest episode of Game of Thrones yet, but want to stay connected to your feeds without spoilers.

      Some good ideas here to deal with feeds.

    2. I have discovered new interesting posts by looking at the likes my friends post.
    3. this is another single point of Aaron in our stack.

      As opposed to another single point of Ryan....

    4. I have a problem with algorithms that sort my posts by parameters I don’t know about, made by people who want to sell my attention to others.
    5. Oh IndieWebCamp. You come with a few things you want to for your own website, then you do some completely other things, and after that you leave with an even longer list of things to do for your own website.

      The story of us all...

    1. The kids at the record company are very enthusiastic, and they have a lot of friends they have made, and they all want to have an interview, and the only problem is they’re asking the same things people asked me a long, long time ago, because that’s what they do when they’re starting—you ask questions you already know the answer to. I don’t want to disappoint them, but you can’t disappoint unless you have an appointment. They don’t know I only like to talk to people who have something to talk about other than me. Like everybody in New York, they know everything. How can you tell them anything?”
    2. “It’s the death of the vertical,” he went on. “They have taken all this time to stand up straight so that they can say ‘I.’ They’re very proud of that. The way you get to know yourself is by the expressions on other people’s faces, because that’s the only thing that you can see, unless you carry a mirror about. But if you keep saying ‘I’ and they’re saying ‘I,’ you don’t get much out of it. They’re not really into you, or we, or they; they’re into I. That makes conversation slow.
    3. “My grandmother was dead serious,” he said one day, sitting on his couch. “Her sense of humor was a secret.
    4. A philosopher might miss appointments, but so might someone with a propane torch in his apartment, even if he is a philosopher.
    5. All the dreams you show up in are not your own.
    1. They can spew hate amongst themselves for eternity, but without amplification it won’t thrive.

      This is a key point. Social media and the way it amplifies almost anything for the benefit of clicks towards advertising is one of its most toxic features. Too often the extreme voice draws the most attention instead of being moderated down by more civil and moderate society.

  5. Oct 2018
    1. "I am really pleased to see different sites deciding not to privilege aggressors' speech over their targets'," Phillips said. "That tends to be the default position in so many online 'free speech' debates which suggest that if you restrict aggressors' speech, you're doing a disservice to America—a position that doesn't take into account the fact that antagonistic speech infringes on the speech of those who are silenced by that kind of abuse."
    1. “We need to puncture this myth that it’s only affecting far-right people. Trans rights activists, Black Lives Matter organizers, LGBTQI people have been demonetized or deranked. The reason we’re talking about far-right people is that they have coverage on Fox News and representatives in Congress holding hearings. They already have political power.”
    2. Deplatforming works “best” when the people being deplatformed don’t have any power to begin with.
    1. “Solutions journalism’ is another promising trend that answers some of the respondents’ sense of helplessness in the face of the barrage of crisis coverage.62
    2. When news began moving into the first digital spaces in the early 1990s, pro-Web journalists touted the possibilities of hypertext links that would give news consumers the context they needed. Within a couple of years, hypertext links slowly began to disappear from many news stories. Today, hypertext links are all but gone from most mainstream news stories.
    3. At the tactical level, there are likely many small things that could be tested with younger audiences to help them better orient themselves to the crowded news landscape. For example, some news organizations are more clearly identifying different types of content such as editorials, features, and backgrounders/news analysis.57More consistent and more obvious use of these typological tags would help all news consumers, not just youth, and could also travel with content as itis posted and shared in social media. News organizations should engage more actively with younger audiences to see what might be helpful.
    4. information diet
    5. Some respondents, though not all, did evaluate the veracity of news they shared on social media. More (62%) said they checked to see how current an item was, while 59% read the complete story before sharing and 57% checked the URL to see where a story originated (Figure 7). Fewer read comments about a post (55%) or looked to see how many times an item was tweeted or shared (39%).

      I'm not sure I believe these self-reported numbers at all. 59% read the complete story before sharing?! 57% checked the URL? I'll bet that not that many could probably define what a URL is.

    6. As a matter of recourse, some students in the study “read the news laterally,” meaning they used sources elsewhere on the Internet to compare versions of a story in an attempt to verify its facts, bias, and ultimately, its credibility.25

      This reminds me how much I miss the old daily analysis that Slate use to do for the day's top news stories in various outlets in their Today's Papers segmet.

    7. Some (36%) said they agreed that the threat of “‘fake news’ had made them distrust the credibility of any news.” Almost half (45%) lacked confidence with discerning “real news” from “fake news,” and only 14% said they were “very confident” that they could detect “fake news.”

      These numbers are insane!

    8. But on the Web, stories of all kinds can show up anywhere and information and news are all mixed together. Light features rotate through prominent spots on the "page" with the same weight as breaking news, sports coverage, and investigative pieces, even on mainstream news sites. Advertorial "features" and opinion pieces are not always clearly identified in digitalspaces.

      This difference is one of the things I miss about reading a particular newspaper and experiencing the outlet's particular curation of their own stories.Perhaps I should spend more time looking at the "front page" of various news sites.

    9. news is stressful and has little impact on the day-to-day routines —use it for class assignments, avoid it otherwise.” While a few students like this one practiced news abstinence, such students were rare.

      This sounds a bit like my college experience, though I didn't avoid it because of stressful news (and there wasn't social media yet). I generally missed it because I didn't subscribe directly to publications or watch much television. Most of my news consumption was the local college newspaper.

    10. Some students (28%) received news from podcasts in the preceding week.
    11. The purpose of this study was to better understand the preferences, practices, and motivations of young news consumers, while focusing on what students actually do, rather than what they do not do.
    12. YouTube (54%), Instagram (51%) or Snapchat (55%)

      I'm curious to know which sources in particular they're using on these platforms. Snapchat was growing news sources a year ago, but I've heard those sources are declining. What is the general quality of these sources?

      For example, getting news from television can range from PBS News Hour and cable news networks (more traditional sources) to comedy shows like Stephen Colbert and The Daily Show with Trevor Noah which have some underlying news in the comedy, but are far from traditional sources.

    1. Anyone can open up Twitter and instantly know what the world is gabbing about from minute to minute, all day long, across thousands of electronic sources that are instantly available all over the globe.

      But we don't get the journalistic criticism of the coverage, who's doing it better, who's more thorough, etc. We're still missing that.

    2. The Today’s Papers job was first offered to Matt Drudge,
    3. That enterprising writer could read the papers the moment they went online in the wee hours, summarize their lead stories and other juicy pieces, and post this briefing on Slate before the paperboys could toss physical copies onto driveways in Middle America’s cul-de-sacs.

      For me, it wasn't so much the summary, but who was it that had the best coverage. It was the comparison of the coverage. I read most of the particular stories anyway.

  6. www.projectinfolit.org www.projectinfolit.org
    1. Major Findings (2:35 minutes)

      I'm quite taken with the variety of means this study is using to communicate its findings. There are blogposts, tweets/social posts, a website, executive summaries, the full paper, and even a short video! I wish more studies went to these lengths.

    2. telephone interviews with 37 participants

      I have to wonder at telephone samples of this age group given the propensity of youth to not communicate via voice phone.

    1. A more active stance by librarians, journalists, educators, and others who convey truth-seeking habits is essential.

      In some sense these people can also be viewed as aggregators and curators of sorts. How can their work be aggregated and be used to compete with the poor algorithms of social media?

    2. nearly 6,000 students from a wide variety of institutions

      Institutions = colleges/universities? Or are we also considering less educated youth as well?

    3. Side note: After recently seeing Yale Art Gallery’s show “Seriously Funny: Caricature Through the Centuries,” I think there’s a good article to be written about the historical parallels between today’s visual memes and political cartoons from the past.

      This also makes me think back to other entertainments of the historical poor including the use/purpose of stained glass windows in church supposedly as a means of entertaining the illiterate Latin vulgate masses.

    1. Facebook’s use of “ethnic affinity” as a proxy for race is a prime example. The platform’s interface does not offer users a way to self-identify according to race, but advertisers can nonetheless target people based on Facebook’s ascription of an “affinity” along racial lines. In other words, race is deployed as an externally assigned category for purposes of commercial exploitation and social control, not part of self-generated identity for reasons of personal expression. The ability to define one’s self and tell one’s own stories is central to being human and how one relates to others; platforms’ ascribing identity through data undermines both.
    2. Facebook’s use of “ethnic affinity” as a proxy for race is a prime example. The platform’s interface does not offer users a way to self-identify according to race, but advertisers can nonetheless target people based on Facebook’s ascription of an “affinity” along racial lines. In other words. race is deployed as an externally assigned category for purposes of commercial exploitation and social control, not part of self-generated identity for reasons of personal expression. The ability to define one’s self and tell one’s own stories is central to being human and how one relates to others; platforms’ ascribing identity through data undermines both.
    1. His most famous contribution to the study of grammar may have been his tentative suggestion that sentences ending with a preposition
    2. Lowth's grammar is the source of many of the prescriptive shibboleths that are studied in schools,
    3. Lowth seems to have been the first modern Bible scholar to notice or draw attention to the poetic structure of the Psalms and much of the prophetic literature of the Old Testament.
    1. To improve reporting standards, NIF has spearheaded the effort to have authors supply a standard syntax that includes a unique identifier, called an RRID (research resource identifier) for specifying exactly which resources they used in a paper. The RRID standard is now used by more than 150 journals within biomedicine.
    1. I am giving this one a go as it seems to be the most widely used.

      It is widely used, and I had it for a while myself. I will note that the developer said he was going to deprecate it in favor of some work he'd been doing with another Mastodon/WordPress developer though.

    2. the autoposts from Twitter to Facebook were

      a hanging thought? I feel like I do this on my site all too often...

    3. Grant Potter

      Seeing the commentary from Greg McVerry and Aaron Davis, it's probably worthwhile to point you to the IndieWeb for Education wiki page which has some useful resources, pointers, and references. As you have time, feel free to add yourself to the list along with any brainstorming ideas you might have for using some of this technology within your work realm. Many hands make light work. Welcome to the new revolution!

    4. My hope is that it will somehow bring comments on Facebook back to the blog and display them as comments here.

      Sadly, Aaron Davis is right that Facebook turned off their API access for this on August 1st, so there currently aren't any services, including Brid.gy, anywhere that allow this. Even WordPress and JetPack got cut off from posting from WordPress to Facebook, much less the larger challenge of pulling responses back.

    5. Right now, I just want to write.

      You might find that the micropub plugin is a worthwhile piece for this. It will give your site an endpoint you can use to post to your site with a variety of third party applications including Quill or Micropublish.net.

    1. People who study online disinformation generally look at three criteria to assess whether a given page, account cluster, or channel is manipulative. First is account authenticity: Do the accounts accurately reflect a human identity or collection of behaviors that indicates they are authentic, even if anonymous? Second is the narrative distribution pattern: Does the message distribution appear organic and behave in the way humans interact and spread ideas? Or does the scale, timing, or volume appear coordinated and manufactured? Third, source integrity: Do the sites and domains in question have a reputation for integrity, or are they of dubious quality? This last criteria is the most prone to controversy, and the most difficult to get right.
    2. Our political conversations are happening on an infrastructure built for viral advertising, and we are only beginning to adapt.
    1. It was the schoolteacher and writer Anne Fisher whose English primer of 1745 began the notion that it's somehow bad to use they in the plural and that he stands for both men and women.
    1. Two of Elemental’s biggest early clients were the Mormon church, which used the technology to beam sermons to congregations around the world, and the adult film industry, which did not.

      Seems like the writer slid this sentence in very carefully. Ha!

    1. Designing for selfishness does not mean abandoning the group good.
    2. Except that the aggregate selfish behavior of millions of people tagging billions of photos means that the public tag pages make entertaining surfing for everyone.

      Reading this reminds me of some of Brad Enslen and Kicks Condor's conversations about discovery on the net.

      How can one leverage selfish behaviour to the benefit of all?

    3. The last thing most people need is another microphone. They need something to say. (And time to say it.)

      Interesting to hear this from 2006 and looking back now...

    4. I think the internet's core message can be summed up in one word: Share.

      An early reference to the sharing economy?

    1. The page was set up to show any post that contained a link to it - in other words, if you linked to that page, then your post appeared on that page.

      An early implementation of Webmention?!

  7. Sep 2018
    1. The result of this is easy to see: Those specifically requesting a lighter workload, who were disproportionately women, suffered in their performance reviews; those who took a lighter workload more discreetly didn’t suffer. The maxim of “ask forgiveness, not permission” seemed to apply.
    1. Third, the post-LMS world should protect the pedagogical prerogatives and intellectual property rights of faculty members at all levels of employment. This means, for example, that contingent faculty should be free to take the online courses they develop wherever they happen to be teaching. Similarly, professors who choose to tape their own lectures should retain exclusive rights to those tapes. After all, it’s not as if you have to turn over your lecture notes to your old university whenever you change jobs.

      Own your pedagogy. Send just like anything else out there...

    2. The real internet is structured by myriad people with different aesthetics and different needs. Online course design decisions should reflect the instructor’s individuality in the same way that everyone else’s webpages do.
    1. variability amongst males

      Does it need to be a mate-related thing? Why not an environmental one. I seem to recall that external temperature had a marked effect on the sexual selection within alligator populations such that a several degree change during gestation would swing the sex proportion one way or another. Could these effects of environment have caused a greater variability?

      Further, what other factors may be at play? What about in sea horse populations where males carry the young? Does this make a difference?

    2. Our prehistoric ancestors were not doing higher mathematics, so we would need to think of some way that being on the spectrum could have caused a man at that time to become highly attractive to women.

      One needs to remember that it isn't always the men that themselves need to propagate the genes directly (ie, they don't mate with someone to hand their genes down to their progeny directly). Perhaps a man on the autism spectrum, while not necessarily attractive himself, has traits which improve the lives and fitness of the offspring of his sister's children? Then it's not his specific genes which are passed on as a result, but those of his sister's which have a proportion of his genes since they both share their parent's genes in common.

    1. Then, venturing further into the store: this is what we happen to have.

      I'm also reminded here of the idea of serendipity. Perhaps I go into a library looking for a specific topic and browse to that section via Dewey decimal. What about the serendipity of finding something interesting in that same section (or even nearby sections) that I wasn't specifically looking for?

      Google's search ranking rarely if ever unearths this sort of serendipitous material.

    1. One explanation has been that many of an animal's traits are not fixed, but can change during its lifetime. This "phenotypic plasticity" enables individual animals to alter their appearance or behavior enough to survive in a new environment. Eventually, new adaptations promoting survival arise in the population through genetic changes and natural selection, which acts on the population over generations. This is known as the "Baldwin effect" after the psychologist James Mark Baldwin, who presented the idea in a landmark paper published in 1896.
    1. I love the voice of their help page. Someone very opinionated (in a good way) is building this product. I particularly like this quote: Your data is a liability to us, not an asset.
    1. Not only is the notion that OER-sustainability is the responsibility of the end-user pragmatically unnecessary, it also places barriers to adoption that will inhibit rather than encourage future use.

      This is certainly true. It reminds me of the early historical growth of the Catholic church. Paul of Tarses came in and relaxed the dietary restrictions and the need for circumcision which effectively lowered the barrier for entry into the church. One needn't be a Jew to be a follower of Jesus; this helped early growth tremendously.

    1. 2011-06-23 at OSBridge2011 having lunch with Ward, Tantek exclaimed: The Read Write Web is no longer sufficient. I want the Read Fork Write Merge Web. #osb11 lunch table. #diso #indieweb

      This is what I want too!

    1. Github has taught a generation of programmers that copies are good, not bad, and as we noted, it’s copies that are essential to the Garden.
    2. But imagine a world where you write an article named Subsidies and Local Government in WordPress, and that pings a notifier that indexes that page. And immediately you are notified of all pages named this, and presented with a list of pages those pages link to.

      A great argument to add webmentions to wiki software!

    3. I know why textbook companies are closed. They want to make money.
    4. I’m shocked and amazed that we still struggle to find materials.

      Something about this sentence and its lead up reminds of this particularly great section of the Microformats wiki about why not email: http://microformats.org/wiki/wiki-better-than-email

    5. And we see that develop into the web as we know it today. A web of “hey this is cool” one-hop links. A web where where links are used to create a conversational trail (a sort of “read this if you want to understand what I am riffing on” link) instead of associations of ideas. The “conversational web”. A web obsessed with arguing points. A web seen as a tool for self-expression rather than a tool for thought. A web where you weld information and data into your arguments so that it can never be repurposed against you. The web not as a reconfigurable model of understanding but of sealed shut presentations.
    6. It really is the ultimate garden.

      I've long wanted to create my own personal wiki, and while reading this thus far have continued to think about it. Perhaps I need to just jump in and build one to supplement my stream-based commonplace book? I'll need to think about how to best dovetail the two together.

    7. A stunning thing that we forget, but the link here is not part of the author’s intent, but of the reader’s analysis. The majority of links in the memex are made by readers, not writers. On the world wide web of course, only an author gets to determine links.
    8. these abilities – to link, annotate, change, summarize, copy, and share — these are the verbs of gardening.
    9. So most people say this is the original vision of the web.

      I look it and say, it's just another version of the commonplace book!

    10. I’m going to assume most people in the room here have read Vannevar Bush’s 1945 essay As We May Think. If you haven’t read it yet, you need to.

      I seem to run across references to this every couple of months. Interestingly it is never in relation to information theory or Claude Shannon references which I somehow what I most closely relate it to.

    11. In many ways the Stream is best seen through the lens of Bakhtin’s idea of the utterance. Bakhtin saw the utterance, the conversational turn of speech, as inextricably tied to context. To understand a statement you must go back to things before, you must find out what it was replying to, you must know the person who wrote it and their speech context. To understand your statement I must reconstruct your entire stream.

      If the semantics are correct here, then Bakhtin may be the originator of the idea of context collapse.

    12. Rather than imagine a timeless world of connection and multiple paths, the Stream presents us with a single, time ordered path with our experience (and only our experience) at the center.
    13. The Stream is a newer metaphor with old roots.

      Mixed metaphor! Roots relate to gardens which are literally full of roots, but roots are out of place in streams.

    1. All tribes need tribal leaders, who in turn need loyalty. Followers of Corbyn and Trump will both detest the comparison, but note how both have the merch, the chants, the hagiography. They’re radically different, but both are products of the tribalism that social media has accidentally brought about.
    1. My relationship is a lot healthier with blogs that I visit when I please. This is another criticism I have with RSS as well—I don’t want my favorite music blog sending me updates every day, always in my face. I just want to go there when I am ready to listen to something new. (I also hope readers to my blog just stop by when they feel like obsessing over the Web with me.)

      Amen!

    1. “We found that 58% of teenagers said they had taken at least one break from at least one social media platform. The most common reason? It was getting in the way of schoolwork or jobs, with more than a third of respondents citing this as their primary reason for leaving social media. Other reasons included feeling tired of the conflict or drama they could see unfolding among their peer group online, and feeling oppressed too by the constant firehose of information.”
  8. Aug 2018
    1. IF WE ADMIT for the moment that the fascist and communist challenges to liberalism are dead, are there any other ideological competitors left? Or put another way, are there contradictions in liberal society beyond that of class that are not resolvable? Two possibilities suggest themselves, those of religion and nationalism.
    2. Perhaps this very prospect of centuries of boredom at the end of history will serve to get history started once again.

      Has it started again with nationalism, racism, and Trump?

    3. But whatever the particular ideological basis, every "developed" country believed in the acceptability of higher civilizations ruling lower ones
    4. This school in effect applies a Hobbesian view of politics to international relations, and assumes that aggression and insecurity are universal characteristics of human societies rather than the product of specific historical circumstances.
    5. At present, no more than 20 percent of its economy has been marketized, and most importantly it continues to be ruled by a self-appointed Communist party which has given no hint of wanting to devolve power.

      If Facebook were to continue to evolve at it's current rate and with it's potential power as well as political influence, I could see it attempting to work the way China does in a new political regime.

    6. Beginning with the famous third plenum of the Tenth Central Committee in 1978, the Chinese Communist party set about decollectivizing agriculture for the 800 million Chinese who still lived in the countryside. The role of the state in agriculture was reduced to that of a tax collector, while production of consumer goods was sharply increased in order to give peasants a taste of the universal homogenous state and thereby an incentive to work. The reform doubled Chinese grain output in only five years, and in the process created for Deng Xiaoping a solid political base from which he was able to extend the reform to other parts of the economy. Economic Statistics do not begin to describe the dynamism, initiative, and openness evident in China since the reform began.
    7. But those who believe that the future must inevitably be socialist tend to be very old, or very marginal to the real political discourse of their societies.

      and then there are the millennials...

    8. FAILURE to understand that the roots of economic behavior lie in the realm of consciousness and culture leads to the common mistake of attributing material causes to phenomena that are essentially ideal in nature.
    9. This is not to say that there are not rich people and poor people in the United States, or that the gap between them has not grown in recent years. But the root causes of economic inequality do not have to do with the underlying legal and social structure of our society, which remains fundamentally egalitarian and moderately redistributionist, so much as with the cultural and social characteristics of the groups that make it up, which are in turn the historical legacy of premodern conditions.
    10. After the war, it seemed to most people that German fascism as well as its other European and Asian variants were bound to self-destruct. There was no material reason why new fascist movements could not have sprung up again after the war in other locales, but for the fact that expansionist ultranationalism, with its promise of unending conflict leading to disastrous military defeat, had completely lost its appeal. The ruins of the Reich chancellery as well as the atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki killed this ideology on the level of consciousness as well as materially, and all of the pro-fascist movements spawned by the German and Japanese examples like the Peronist movement in Argentina or Subhas Chandra Bose's Indian National Army withered after the war.

      And yet somehow we see these movements anew in America and around the world. What is the difference between then and now?

    11. anomie

      I feel like this word captures very well the exact era of Trumpian Republicanism in which we find ourselves living.

    12. For our purposes, it matters very little what strange thoughts occur to people in Albania or Burkina Faso, for we are interested in what one could in some sense call the common ideological heritage of mankind.

      While this seems solid on it's face, we don't know what the future landscape will look like. What if climate change brings about massive destruction of homo sapiens? We need to be careful about how and why we explore both the adjacent possible as well as the distant possible. One day we may need them and our current local maximum may not serve us well.