138 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
    1. The title of her essay “White Privilege and Male Privilege: A Personal Account of Coming to See Correspondences Through Work in Women’s Studies” was a mouthful. McIntosh listed 46 ways white privilege is enacted.
  2. Jun 2019
    1. I’ve actively participated in a revisionist sort of annotation that is part redaction/part revision in that I have gone through digital copies of some children’s books and in cases where it didn’t matter if the main character was male, I would actively use book editing software to make all the lead characters female for the sake of reading to girls. Often I’ve done this while reading out loud, but around the 1st/2nd grade level when children begin to read for themselves, physical annotations/revisions are required.
  3. May 2019
    1. an acute awareness of what their physical features actually are and why those features do not match up with the gender presentation expected of the gender with which they identify.

      If a person with Gender Dysphoria has Gender Confirmation Surgery it is not the same as someone with Body Dis-Morphia. Someone who knows they are not in the body they are supposed to be is having the surgery for different reasons. This is why it is not a mental illness and why we cannot call it a "sex change" anymore. Sex Change sounds too non-nonchalant rather than the person doing the surgery for a good reason, i.e. their mental health and happiness. Gender Confirmation Surgery sounds more accurate pointed to the persons' needs and affirms that this was their gender the whole time. When someone suffering from Body Dis-Morphia has a surgery it is because they have anxiety about their body and gender has nothing to do with it.

    2. bullying in childhood

      According to Doan, the coming out process is spatial as well as social. Research has mentioned that trauma is connected to Body Dis-Morphia. As discussed in class, people who are homosexual or trans are targets for violence in their childhoods both in the home and in school.

      It could also be that holding in your true gender or keeping it to yourself is harmful for your mental wellness. Children with Gender Dysphoria could be afraid to voice their discomfort in their bodies if they are surrounded by non-supporting spaces.

    1. Hacia la construcción de unas geografías de género de la ciudad. Formas plurales de habitar y significar los espacios urbanos en Latinoamérica

      Saludos cordiales. En el artículo especifica la investigación de género mediante varios aspectos destacables tales como, el espacio público visto de manera fundamental para comprender las relaciones de género y la violencia que genera, los estudios urbanos concebida al contexto social y entender las desigualdades en el territorio. Dentro de este análisis considera la movilidad, ya que está ligado a la forma restricción, violencia y desigualdades. Otro punto de la investigación menciona a las mujeres en la ciudad y repensar en los espacios públicos incluyendo la restructuración económica que son deliberaciones a la crítica incluyendo la participación por mujeres; por tanto ¿Cuál podría ser la planificación urbana aproximada o lineamientos específicos a través de estas reflexiones para poder aplicarse? Gracias

    2. Hacia la construcción de unas geografías de género de la ciudad. Formas plurales de habitar y significar los espacios urbanos en Latinoamérica

      Sludos afectusos...Dentro de este análisis considera la movilidad, ya que está ligado a la forma restricción, violencia y desigualdades; por tanto ¿Cuál podría ser la planificación urbana para movilidad aproximada o lineamientos específicos a través de estas reflexiones para poder aplicarse? ¿Existe datos estadísticos sobre este estudio en particular? Gracias

    1. How can we begin to use these articulations to produce positive outcomes – outcomes that allow cities to contribute to environmental sustainability?

      Al respecto me surge una duda: ¿Cómo poder tener resultados ambientalmente positivos en la Ordenación Territorial de las ciudades articulados del marco legal vigente desfavorable en temas de sostenibilidad con un impacto ambiental en la mayoría de los casos negativos, que generalmente responden a los intereses particulares inmobiliarios o industriales?

  4. Apr 2019
    1. Despite the controversy Rumisa doesn't regret making the poster. "I'm kind of happy that my poster got a lot of attention," she says.

      Damn straight. Radiant doing.

  5. Mar 2019
    1. there are various kinds of sex, such as chromosomal sex or hormonal sex, and all of us exist across several spectrums of sexual identity.

      This makes complete sense based on our prior readings. Gender as a spectrum. Infinitely more sense than "more than half of the population is just confused."

    1. gender stereotypes, or thebeliefs and expectations people holdabout the typical characteristics, preferences,and behaviors of men and women. Aperson’s gender identity refers to theirpsychological sense of being male orfemale.

      I think in today's society a lot of people struggle with gender stereotypes and their identity. Society is set up to believe that the man is masculine and the women is feminine, and that if those traits are switched, then it's wrong. It's hard teaching a child about gender stereotypes because you don't want your child to feel as though he or she can not do certain things, but it happens which "may or may not" cause a crisis with their gender identity. You want the child to explore their options but in this case a lot of parents may not agree because they don't want to cause confusion. According to the article gender stereotypes, or the beliefs and expectations people hold about the typical characteristics, preferences,and behaviors of men and women. A person’s gender identity refers to their psychological sense of being male or female.

  6. Feb 2019
    1. The opposition of suburban whites to the welfare state (“entitlements”), beginning with the 1970s tax revolts (Burton rails at having to pay high school taxes and then see his son be forced to go to school in the inner city, and against “welfare freeloaders”), only intensified as the “hard-working” (white) “common man” in his orderly suburban family saw the New Deal dream evaporate. Burton declared in 1974: “I wanted to be somebody”, and in the economic environment symbolized by the oil price shock of that year, his identity became more and more at odds with the desire of the excluded in US society to also “be somebody”. By 1976, Burton had abandoned the Democratic party and the New Deal ethos, seeing in Ronald Reagan someone who could “deliver the nation out of its malaise”, with a reprise of Wallace’s “freshness, independence, backbone and scrappy spirit”. This is not a new story. It is rather a reflection of US history as a whole, where a frontier-spirit, classless liberalism is organically bound up with anti-democratic exclusion and an ethic of private responsibility. It is but one facet of American racialized, gendered neoliberalism.
  7. engl22001.commons.gc.cuny.edu engl22001.commons.gc.cuny.edu
    1. Rough and unhospitabl

      This imagery describes the city as wild and dangerous to newcomers, makes it seem more like a dangerous countryside than an urban setting, emphasizing wildness. Reinforces Antonio's need to protect Sebastian here.

    1. Especially helpful to Astell were the arguments of Descartes that extensive classical learning, from which women had been largely excluded. was not necessary to a vibrant intellectual life: All people were innately capable of reason. the key men· tal activity

      Aaaaaand here is where de Pizan would probably give her a high-five.

      More seriously, Christine de Pizan did something very similar to what I think Astell has done. They both seem to take the philosophical arguments made by famous male philosophers that were used against them/their sex/gender and instead make those philosophical arguments work with and for them/their sex/gender. Astell also seems to do this with religion.

    2. a serious secular education

      This call for women's education (and not just in manners and fine arts) is largely ignored for some time, despite its repetition. In the Rhetorical Tradition reading from last week, they mentioned Archbishop Fénelon published a call for women's education in 1687; here Astell says something similar (1694); others are mentioned below; Wollstonecraft is still calling for it in 1792 (100 years later).

      Fénelon's call was for basic reading and writing; Wollstonecraft's was for equality in education with boys (much like Astell's education was). The nature of Astell's school is discussed here, but what was her vision of the curriculum (the "serious secular education")?

    1. the intellectual effectiveness exercised today by a given human

      It is sobering to think that no amount of augmentation was going to allow Engelbart in 1962 to even imagine that there might be a problem, however persistent, in referring to a "given human being" as if it could be anyone, when in fact it was such a small and privileged segment of humanity that could participate in the dozens of disciplines to which he refers as a means of intellect augmentation. Perhaps we need to supplement this solving of problems through the application of augmented intellect with a stepping back to consider the shortcomings in our conception of both the problem and the means to resolving it.

    1. 011 1/w Ed11catio11 of Girls (published in 1687),

      Cf. Wollstonecraft's Vindication of the Rights of Woman, written about 100 years later, making a similar argument. Specifically, Wollstonecraft argues that women are not naturally inferior or frivolous but have been bred that way through poor education. Taken in comparison to the Enlightenment's exploration of human nature and with a lack of significant progress between 1687 and 1792 (outside of literacy, noted below), it seems clear that "human nature" really means "man's nature."

  8. Jan 2019
    1. nature—as opposed to cul-ture—is ahistorical and timeless?

      Doreen Massey has an interesting book that touches on this (Space, Place, and Gender), where she points out that time and space are treated as binaries, where time is typically masculine and dynamic and space is feminine and static. Nature (gendered feminine) is spatial, a place, and therefore not a time ("ahistorical and timeless"). Culture, on the other hand, is temporal, dynamic, masculine. It's a very particular rhetoric which begs the "which one?" question.

      (While Massey points out this common way of conceiving of time/space and binaries in general [A vs. Not A], she argues that the concept of space needs to be defined on its own merit, distinct from its binary opposite.)

    1. As white women and women and men of color have increasingly participated in public forums, they have begun to theorize lhc differ-ences race and gender make in language use.

      I'm so glad it's come to this head, since I've been making note of these types of differences throughout the piece.

    1. since its purpose is neither resolution nor stasis but continuing process.

      Rhetoric, like the story of the carrier bag, like women's work...never finished, done, complete.

    2. We've heard it, we've all heard all about all the sticks ond spears and swords, the things to bash and poke and hit with, the long, hard things, but we have not heard about the thing to put things in, the container for the thing contained.

      Phallic vs vaginal stories--one prevalent, the other less so

    1. Train someone in it and, according co Quintilian's way of thinking, you have trained that person to be virtuous. "Virtuosity is some evidence of virtue." To chink of this at/through toggle switch as "virtuous," as implicitly moral, is to com-prehend the deeply felt "reasoning" behind Quintilian's evasive answer to his own question and to glimpse, perhaps, the beginnings of a legitimate explanation of, and justification for, what the humanities do--or at least can do.

      The image of Lady Justice popped into my head as I was reading this, and I was particularly thinking about her blindfold and how it's meant to represent impartiality, the philosphical ideal that "justice should be applied "without regard to wealth, power, or other status." Upon looking at her Wikipedia page, I discovered that Lady Justice did not originally wear a blindfold because her "maidenly form" guaranteed her impartiality. If we're "toggling" between rhetoric and philosophy here, then it must also be argued that we're "toggling" between the feminine and the masculine. And If sex/gender was once what qualified someone to be impartial, how does this complicate the idea of virtue/training someone to be virtuous? How does it complicate our understanding of what the humanities do/can do? How does it help us work at/through what/who was/is/could be considered human?

    2. As with Ramus, reason is one thing, and primary; rhetoric is another, derivative and cosmetic. Permitted in the service of n ch, it is otherwise an abomination.

      I read this as: Reason = primary = (hu)man/masculine Rhetoric = other = woman/feminine

      To be a woman is to be other. To be other is to be an abomination and, therefore, not human.

  9. Dec 2018
    1. as societies become wealthier and more gender equal, women are less likely to obtain degrees in STEM. The researchers call this a “gender-equality paradox.”

      ok that is very surprising

    2. Countries with greater gender equality have lower percentage of female STEM graduates

      Why would this happen?

    1. nail-adorned jewels she gave to the heroes:

      She is well-respected within the mead hall and in return respects the men of the hall

    2. ’Mid hall-building holders. The highly-famed queen, 55 Peace-tie of peoples, oft passed through the building, Cheered the young troopers; she oft tendered a hero A beautiful ring-band, ere she went to her sitting

      Wealhtheow portrays the role of a traditional Anglo-Saxon woman at the time. Wealhtheow is first introduced to the audience, she immediately falls into her role as peaceful greeter and cocktail waitress. The author then reinforces that she is a member of the weaker gender by directing Wealhtheow to her proper position behind the king. When the queen is not serving drinks or greeting the hall guests, she may usually be found obediently following Hrothgar throughout the mead hall and "waiting for hope-news".

    1. Oh, I have not the smallest doubt of our being a great deal better off where we are now

      Austen emphasizes gender stereotypes in this section by highlighting the different expectations of the Parker's sons versus daughters and emphasizing Mrs Parker's submissive nature through her decision to give up the garden in their old house and submit to her husband's love of Sanditon.

  10. Nov 2018
    1. The problem is far worse when used to generalize about groups, such as gender and especially race. When combined with the cultural belief that only the "brainy" are worthy of science training, it becomes a self-reinforcing cycle: only certain white men are inherently "smart enough", as decided primarily by other white men. You'll hear (and I'll bet cash money that someone will argue in the comments) that African-American underrepresentation in science is because they're not "smart" or "motivated" enough, not that black-majority school districts are often underfunded, lacking teachers, supplies, and other necessities for STEM prep — not to mention daily challenges to their authority and intelligence for those who do earn STEM degrees.
    2. This problem disproportionately affects white girls and children of color. (There's a complicated exception for some children of Asian heritage, who have another set of stereotypes to cope with.) School-aged girls slightly outperform boys in math and science, but men take up a higher fraction of positions at each successive level of academia, from undergraduate science majors to faculty positions to administrative positions with the power to hire and promote. In other words, the message of braininess corresponding to scientific skill is applied more heavily to boys and men than to women.
  11. Sep 2018
    1. But if you have, and still can shake hands with the murderers, then are you unworthy the name of husband, father, friend, or lover, and whatever may be your rank or title in life, you have the heart of a coward, and the spirit of a sycophant.

      Paine is appealing here to his reader's sense of independence and manhood. What might this indicate about eighteenth-century ideas about gender roles?

    1. and have no other preliminaries to settle with the reader, than that he will divest himself of prejudice and prepossession, and suffer his reason and his feelings to determine for themselves ; that he will put on, or rather that he will not put off the true character of a man, and generously enlarge his views beyond the present day.

      Paine assumes here that his reader is male, and associates an openness of thought with being "manly."

    1. man

      Paine is using "man" to refer to all of humanity. It is important to remember, however, that women were excluded from formal participation in politics as citizens. They could not vote. Neither could most African-Americans and Native Americans.

    2. Paine is using "man" to refer to all of humanity. It is important to remember, however, that women were excluded from formal participation in politics as citizens. They could not vote. Neither could most African-Americans and Native Americans.

  12. Aug 2018
    1. gender

      Wycombe District Council have got this wring. Gender ius NOT a protected characteristic under the Equality Act 2010, sex is.

      According to the Equality and Human Rights Commission:

      'Gender’ refers to socially constructed roles of women and men and/or an individual’s conception of their identity. The term is often used interchangeably with ‘sex’, partly in recognition that much of the inequality between women and men is driven by underlying social and power structures rather than by biological sex. Although the Equality Act protects people from discrimination because of their sex, other UK legislation (such as the regulations requiring employers to publish their gender pay gap) refers to gender. This may cause confusion in some circumstances.

      Language and the meaning of words are important and proper understanding of these terms is vital so that staff and the public are aware of what rights they have and what your Public Sector Equality Duty is.

      Mis-stating the protected characteristics under the Act cannot give a good impression to the public and it can only reflect poorly on the organisation. Any confusion or inconsistency over meaning of undefined terms may prevent people from accessing their rights under the law.

  13. Jul 2018
    1. This result is consistent with analysis by the data science team at Quora, a site where users ask and answer questions. That team found that women use uncertain words and phrases more often than men do, even when they are just as confident.
    1. “I support a social transition for a kid who is in distress and needs to live in a different way. And I do so because I am very focused on what the child needs at that time,” said Johanna Olson-Kennedy, medical director of the Center for Transyouth Health and Development at Children’s Hospital Los Angeles, the largest transgender youth clinic in the United States with some 750 patients. A social transition to the other gender helps children learn, make friends, and participate in family activities. Some will decide later they are not transgender, but Olson-Kennedy says the potential harm in such cases may be overstated.

      This is one of the major problems in how so many approach this whole issue weather as a topic or in deciding a course of action for their own child. Furthermore the possibility of that happiness now rests on either on secrecy and passing or as is more often the case today it rests on the cooperation and orchestration of a comprehensive enough segment of the total people with whom your child is interacting to support this transition. What if we did that for gay kids. How much different would things be if tital 9 applied to all gender nonconforming kids even those who identified as gay? What if 12 states didn't have laws against speaking positively about gay as an identity in schools. What if parents where expected to do the work to insure that a self identified gay student was provided a social network for similarly identified adults and young people. And for just about any teen how might life be different emotionally speaking if we had been chemically castrated during our teen years. What if gay kids had the same wealth of support materials - public discourse etc. The reaason they don't is because we can not deal with their difference and we can not deal with it being about their sexual desire because we are unnerved by a the fact that children can identify and feel and act on sexual interests at a very young age. Gay kids know this and that is a big hurdle to comming out. I wished so much to have a boyfirend then I felt I could come out because it wouldn't mean telling my parents that I think about boys in a sexual way but I love this boy and won't deny him to anyone. No sad to say as was noted when oposition was initially raised amoung APA members over the introduction of GID to the DSM when they stated that it may just be that gay is a normal healthy worthy course of human development that as part of that process involves being in some way emotionally maimed by which they meant that there are certain painfull encounters with being different than ones own parents and most people in your community that gay people by dfinitioon must edure and untill society changes being gay is known to be a bad undesirable thing by children at a tremendously young age. So to be and develop as a person who is homosexual is not going to happen without certain paiuns and obsticles that others can easily avoid and mostly do.

  14. Jun 2018
    1. Player A's role is to trick the interrogator into making the wrong decision, while player B attempts to assist the interrogator in making the right one.

      Why are these roles gendered, the man always dissembling, the woman assisting?

  15. May 2018
    1. Sexuality may be experienced and expressed in a variety of ways, including thoughts, fantasies, desires, beliefs, attitudes, values, behaviors, practices, roles, and relationships. These manifest themselves not only in biological, physical, and emotional ways, but also in sociocultural ways, which have to do with the effects of human society and culture on one’s sexuality. Some researchers believe that sexual behavior is determined by genetics; however, others assert that it is largely molded by the environment. Human sexuality impacts, and is impacted by, cultural, political, legal, and philosophical aspects of life, and can interact with issues of morality, ethics, theology, spirituality, or religion.

      Sexual Behavior

  16. Apr 2018
    1. Asshewroteshefeltsomepower(rememberwearedealingwiththemostobscuremanifestationsofthehumanspirit)readingoverhershoulder,andwhenshehadwritten'Egyptiangirls',thepowertoldhertostop.Grass,thepowerseemedtosay,goingbackwitharulersuchasgovernessesusetothebeginning,isallright;thehangingcupsoffritillaries--admirable;thesnakyflower--athought,strongfromalady'spen,perhaps,butWordsworthnodoubt,sanctionsit;but--girls?Aregirlsnecessary?YouhaveahusbandattheCape,yousay?Ah,well,that'lldo.Andsothespiritpassedon.

      Here, Orlando is being interrogated by a figurative manifestation of the spirit of the age while she trying to write. The figure questions her writing and the appropriability of writing about things that go against the accepted thoughts and opinions of the time period. Once the figure realizes that she has a husband, it leaves her alone. This section of the Chapter is essentially calling attention to how, although she is now married, Orlando still feels the same when it comes to her writing. She questions what the age would approve of her marriage and, in the end, decides that she does not feel the need to submit to the standards of the age. This idea can be closely associated with the theme of identity and gender because we see that Orlando is trying to navigate through her role as a married woman at the time. I find this passage to be interesting because in the beginning of Chapter 5, Orlando felt a strong pressure to conform to the standards of the age which resulted in buying a marriage ring for herself. But in this Chapter, she no longer feels pressured to adhere to those standards.

    2. Orlandowasawoman--LordPalmerstonhadjustprovedit.Andwhenwearewritingthelifeofawoman,wemay,itisagreed,waiveourdemandforaction,andsubstituteloveinstead.Love,thepoethassaid,iswoman'swholeexistence.AndifwelookforamomentatOrlandowritingathertable,wemustadmitthatneverwasthereawomanmorefittedforthatcalling.Surely,sincesheisawoman,andabeautifulwoman

      I found this to be interesting because the subject of love is said to be a feminine topic. Action related literature is seen as masculine. I thought it was ironic because most of Orlando's life was spent thinking about love and pining over a heartbreak, a well as feeling the pressure to get married. I think the tie between the gender female and literature about love is proven by Orlando's need to get married(tingling finger). I also think there's reason to say that Orlando had perhaps always had feminine qualities since she had always thought about love and perhaps didn't write about it since she was a male(?)

    3. Theweddingringhastobeputonthethirdfingerofthelefthand',shesaid,likeachildcautiouslyrepeatingitslesson,'forittobeofanyuseatall.

      I find it interesting how something so little like a ring, could symbolize a whole concept such as marriage. Even so that without it, one feels that they have no proof that they're married..like Orlando. This relates to a theme of identity/gender. For a woman to be classified as "married" she needs proof, and for a ring, a female accessory to symbolize so is an example of how "the clothes wear us, we don't wear them" saying--goes back to the question of whether gender determines identity or the other way around.

  17. Mar 2018
    1. There are factors other than sexism or discrimination that could in part explain why Google does not have 50 percent female representation. There are differences between men and women on average, based on population level statistics. (He qualifies this by noting a number of these differences are small and there is significant overlap between the genders.) These differences may in part explain the gender gap in tech. Women and men may differ partly because of biological reasons.

      Summary of Damore's claims.

    1. Last month at Portland State University, when biologist Heather Heying made the point that women and men are biologically different, protesters in the audience screamed and excoriated her and tried to damage the sound system before they were removed. “We should not listen to fascism. Nazis are not welcome in civil society,” a protester scowled.

      The belief that sexism is at the root of fascism, although well founded, causes hyperactivists to censor scientists.

  18. engl22049.commons.gc.cuny.edu engl22049.commons.gc.cuny.edu
    1. Give me thy hand,And let me see thee in thy woman’s weeds

      Orsino is okay with Viola's cross dressing in the past and he accepts her. He tells her that she can change her clothing and stop hiding. Shakespeare uses imagery and talks about her clothing. He refers to the clothing as "weeds" which offers a unique view on the idea of someone changing their physical appearance. This goes along with the theme of gender and goes to show that even in successfully getting Orsino, Viola is still defined by her gender.

      -Brian, Daniel, Douglas

  19. Feb 2018
    1. strategy to diminish gender bias in the peer review process. Suggesting female and young scientist when a male reviewer declines invitation to review.

    1. 'An lá nach bhféadfaim/bean o bhréagadh/nil an báire liom' (i)

      The epigraph in the book's beginning directs our attention towards the kind of image of woman we might encounter in the text. It means 'the day I can't entice a woman, I am defeated', and is attributed to 'some poet.'

      Like the book itself on a miniature scale, the epilogue is an act of selection, that speaks to a certain agenda on the part of the collector.

      Here, an idea of female as passive object and the male as questing subject trains our attention on how these roles feature in the songs.

  20. Dec 2017
    1. Gender socialization can direct some men to withhold or restrict emotional expression, leaving men with limited ways to express their feelings of emotional pain and psychological distress.

      ... Or not. It's just as likely, if not more likely, to be biological. Unless there has also been a sex-specific bias in autism diagnosis, it could just as easily be argued that men's autistic personalities cause this effect

  21. Nov 2017
    1. To know his rights; to exercise with order & justice those he retains; to choose with discretion the fiduciaries of those he delegates; and to notice their conduct with diligence with candor & judgment.

      The idea of educating students on their own rights is interesting when considering the unequal rights of individuals of different race, class, and gender. While students may come to know their own democratic rights as upper class white males of the time, they might fail to gain exposure to the lack of rights of others around them. This most likely perpetuated a system of inequality in which the most educated elite who likely assumed powerful roles were allowed to continue institutional discrimination. However, it is very possible that if there were progressive professors in the University at the time that may have been honorable enough to teach students about the universal rights of all humans.

  22. Oct 2017
    1. To give to every citizen the information he needs for the transaction of his own business.

      Within the highlighted excerpt, I want to focus on the masculine articles of "he" and "his" as they depict the forms of gender discrimination and inequality that were present within the University prior to 1920. Preceding 1920, women were not legally allowed to enroll within publicly funded professional and graduate schools. Consequently, following 1920 and the legislation which allowed female enrollment, the University exercised forms of gender discrimination within its application process, thus illustrating its masculine roots. However, following a law-suit accusing the University of its discrimination, it was determined that the school could no longer exercise any forms of discrimination, "with respect to race, color, religion, national origin, or sex." Therefore, as a result of such legislation, female students now consist of 55% of the student population thus inviting the revision of masculine pronouns within the Rockfish Gap Report, thus illustrating the University's progress toward gender equality.

    1. Josie and the Pussycats, both the film and the soundtrack, continue to influence people who do not identify with the aggressively male music world. Even before this reissue, female-identifying musicians have discussed how revolutionary it was for them to see women in a mainstream platform.
    1. n. Women countered some of the denigrating attitudes expressed toward them by males and asserted positive self-images. The local folklore, to which females as well as males contributed, stresses the importance of women, their indispensable role, and their ability to get their way.76
    2. ven Christians and Jews shared these practices and enforced them.6
    3. Far more basic and important than the distinction between slave and freeman was that between male and femal
  23. Sep 2017
    1. Elizabeth’s confidence that “independent” young men with “indepen-dent” fortunes always act freely is undercut at several points by the sly Austenian voice, who lauds “the fire and independence of [Mr. Collins’s] character”

      This is also interesting for a modern reader in the discussion of what makes a young man act "manly" or not, bringing up, again, a discrepancy in modernity, but now this difference is between Austen and her contemporary reader.

    2. MELINA MOE

      She works in the fields of both 18th Century Literature, as well as Women's, Gender, and Sexuality studies at Yale University

  24. Apr 2017
    1. I write the myths in me, the myths I am, the myths I want to become

      This seems a lot like Woolf. Women have to kill mythologies of women (like the Angel of the House) by writing their myths.

    1.   FTLN 2380Counterfeit, I assure you. OLIVER  FTLN 2381Well then, take a good heart, and counterfeit to FTLN 2382 be a man. ROSALIND , as Ganymede  FTLN 2383185So I do; but, i’ faith, I should FTLN 2384 have been a woman by right.

      gender issues of identity

    2.   FTLN 1545Can you remember any of the principal evils FTLN 1546 that he laid to the charge of women? ROSALIND , as Ganymede  FTLN 1547There were none principal. FTLN 1548360 They were all like one another as halfpence are, FTLN 1549 every one fault seeming monstrous till his fellow FTLN 1550 fault came to match it. ORLANDO  FTLN 1551I prithee recount some of them. ROSALIND , as Ganymede  FTLN 1552No, I will not cast away my FTLN 1553365 physic but on those that are sick. There is a man FTLN 1554 haunts the forest that abuses our young plants with FTLN 1555 carving “Rosalind” on their barks, hangs odes upon FTLN 1556 hawthorns and elegies on brambles, all, forsooth, FTLN 1557 deifying the name of Rosalind. If I could meet FTLN 1558370 that fancy-monger, I would give him some good FTLN 1559 counsel, for he seems to have the quotidian of love FTLN 1560 upon him. ORLANDO  FTLN 1561I am he that is so love-shaked. I pray you tell FTLN 1562 me your remedy. ROSALIND , as Ganymede  FTLN 1563375There is none of my uncle’s FTLN 1564 marks upon you. He taught me how to know a man FTLN 1565 in love, in which cage of rushes I am sure you are FTLN 1566 not prisoner. ORLANDO  FTLN 1567What were his marks? ROSALIND , as Ganymede  FTLN 1568380A lean cheek, which you 115 As You Like It ACT 3. SC. 2 FTLN 1569 have not; a blue eye and sunken, which you have FTLN 1570 not; an unquestionable spirit, which you have not; a FTLN 1571 beard neglected, which you have not—but I pardon FTLN 1572 you for that, for simply your having in beard is a FTLN 1573385 younger brother’s revenue. Then your hose should FTLN 1574 be ungartered, your bonnet unbanded, your sleeve FTLN 1575 unbuttoned, your shoe untied, and everything FTLN 1576 about you demonstrating a careless desolation. But FTLN 1577 you are no such man. You are rather point-device in FTLN 1578390 your accouterments, as loving yourself than seeming FTLN 1579 the lover of any other

      gender issues of identity

  25. Mar 2017
    1. Let one of these crusted distinctions return to its source, and in this alchemic center it may be re-made, again becoming molten liquid, and may enter into new combinations, whereat it may be again thrown forth as a new crust, a different dis-tinction. So that A may become non-A. But not merely by a leap from one state to the other. Rather, we must take A back into the ground of its existence, the logical substance that is its causal ancestor, and on to a point where it is con-substantial with non-A; then we may return, this time emerging with non-A instead.

      Looking ahead to Cixous, there will be some interesting overlaps here. In "The Laugh of the Medusa" she attempts to break down the gender binary of "man=A" and "woman=non-A" (castration, mutilation, MEDUSA), to be annotated there...

      I had never realized it until now, but she even uses the same earthly metaphors:

      This doesn't mean that she's an undifferentiated magma, but that she doesn't lord it over her body or her desire (1533).

    1. neuter language

      This week is offering new ways of thinking about the interconnection of language and gender, with this idea of a neuter language which is unbiased and has no passion and the idea of ambiguous language which is what Woolf argues is the best. In terms of gender, language and terminology are not just masculine or feminine.

    2. If it is a weakness to harbor feel-ings, and if furthermore it is a weakness to be caught up in historical situations, then rhetoric is construable as a dealer in weaknesses

      This sounds like the reasoning behind the frequent characterization of rhetoric as feminine.

    1. telling the truth about my own experiences as a body

      Woolf is so difficult because of her contradictions.She often seems to advocate that there is some essence in women which they haven't been able to discover; but here she seems to suggest a lower-case "truth," in which truth is confined to individual experience. I wonder if the contradictions of her text are part of her mission for "elasticity."

    2. But almost without exception they are shown in their rela-tion to men.

      The Bechdel Test. Note the nod to Woolf.

    3. will now be discharged by women also

      New rhetorical work to undertake.

    4. reason

      This is quite a departure from the praise of reason we've encountered from many of the Enlightenment writers. For Woolf, reason stifles imagination, especially women's imagination. Is reason stifling because it has often been defined/used by men, including in their defense of the "phantom" of gender roles?

  26. Feb 2017
    1. how clothing defines masculinity and femininity — and how it scrambles these notions

      Discussion Question:

      What are the major differences of and consequences for:

      Interpretations of masculinity and femininity, defining masculinity and femininity vs. blurring the notions of gender and dissecting the system of a gender binary.

    2. SUSAN CHIRA

      Susan Chira - Editor of News for the New York Times since 2011

      https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Susan_Chira

      Most of Chira's pieces are opinion pieces concerning gender, feminism, and women's rights.

    1. places of worship, in the age of the Apostles, were not built a.o; they are with us, but that the Wl''llen had a cor-ner of their own, railed off by a close fence reach-ing above their heads. It was thus made difficult for them lo hear, and in their eager, untutored slate, wholly unaccustomed to public audiences, they "chattered" and asked questions

      This an is interesting example of how spaces shape rhetoric and knowledge. The way in which religious spaces where arranged and people were situated reflects and reinforces women's inferior position in religious discourse.

    2. Men reason in the abstract, women in the con-crete. A syllogism symbolizes one. a rule of life the other.

      Philosophy : male :: rhetoric : female

    3. She gives much attention to gauging the audience and avoiding any appearance of superior knowl-edge, along with canny advice on how to deal with obtuse or hostile questioners

      Sound like specific issues that women would have to deal with as speakers: they can't intimidate their audience by seeming too smart, and I imagine that they received harsh opposition from some audiences (though it's interesting that this opposition isn't discussed as much in here as it was in introductions for Grimke and Douglass last week).

    1. She

      Nietzsche mentions later that we arbitrarily separate things according to gender, but we see him doing that very practice here as he assigns masculine pronouns to individual people and feminine pronouns to nature--which is also something we've seen in a lot of other readings for this class.

    2. What arbitrary as-~ ( signments!6

      Pretty rad that Nietzsche was already dismissing the concept of gender as a construct as early as 1873.

    1. Why should she not be an embodiment of every thing pure, lovely, and of good rcport?

      The Church as a body, a female body=.

    2. They arc instruments through which divine instruction is communicated to the people.

      One cannot but help of the objectification of women here.

    3. At the same time, Palmer deplored "emotive, subjective pietism"12 and empha-sized rationality in guiding the seeker to conviction.

      Beyond her conviction, which we have no reason to doubt, that one should avoid these, what other reasons might a female speaker have for positioning herself this way?

    4. Yes, the women could speak-but only if it was obvious that the Holy Spirit was providing their words.

      This is the most fascinating aspect here, which is not unprecedented. Think of the phrase handmaiden to truth that we earlier ran across. That seems to be at work here.

      This is, then, a really interesting end around the prohibition of women speaking.

    1. "Either I am mistaken, or this is going to be the most famous adventure that has ever been seen, for those black bodies we see there must be, and doubtless are, magicians who are carrying off some stolen princess in that coach, and with all my might I must undo this wrong."

      In this passage and the passages that follow we see Don Quixote assume the helplessness of the "princess" and that he as a knight errant is obligated in his masculinity to save her. This demonstrates DQ's belief in the traditional roles of the woman as helpless and gentle and the man as the strong actor.

  27. Jan 2017
    1. Eloquence, like the fair sex, has too prevailing beauties in it to suffer itself ever to be spoken ~~-•k..l, against. And it is in vain to find fault with those arts of deceiving, wherein men find pleasure to be deceived.

      The continuation of the move to gender rhetoric/eloquence as feminine.

    1. Emotional appeals are something of an embarrassmcnt in the classical system.

      Hmm. I don't know what to make of this comment, but I would like to highlight that the Greeks, Plato especially, heavily gendered logos and pathos. "Logos" was what all men should strive for, and was considered male. It made one's argument stronger according to the Greeks (as outlined a few lines down). "Pathos" was less respected and, in some cases, avoided in order to make a "stronger" argument. It was gendered female. I think this gendering of logic and emotion can help us understand why it was avoided in the Greek culture. I do like that the author acknowledges the importance of both when it comes to constructing a sound argument.

    1. The advancement of feminism requires awareness from both genders. It isn’t isolated to how men treat women, but extends to how women treat each other.
  28. Oct 2016
    1. Tiresias

      as previously mentioned, Tiresias lived life both as a man initially, but he was transformed into a women for several years. He makes appearances in many Greek legends and stories, but the one that stands out to many is his role in Oedipus the King. He speaks truths that people often don't want to know (like when Oedipus asks who killed Laius). His prophesies always come true through the actions of others (even as they try to prevent it). Even in the afterlife, he advises Odysseus, which is what is alluded to in the following line: "bring the sailor home from sea." Tiresias experiences a doubleness which allows him to see more.

    2. Good night, ladies, good night, sweet ladies, good night, good night.

      This line is taken from Hamlet. Ophelia speaks it to Gertrude and Claudius while she grieves (and sings) for the death of her father. This line is interesting to think about in that context, especially when you consider the tragic/unfair fate Shakespeare writes for Ophelia and the larger issue of gender in Hamlet. Does this relate to Lil?

    1. The Big Bang Theory. While Bernadette remains inept in her job, she enjoys a somewhat more successful relationship with Howard

      Female that cant be both good at her job and relationship.

    2. Since Amy becomes a mirror to Sheldon, she must be intelligent, but her showings of this intelligence can be awkward. F
    3. For both Amy and Bernadette the gender role expectations occur outside work and within the domestic spaces of the various characters on the show
    4. Amy is expected to take care of Sheldon,

      Why is the female expected to do this?

  29. Sep 2016
    1. University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee LGBT Resource Centre card: declines non-binary gender pronouns

    2. "It maximises the student's ability to control their identity," says Keith Williams, the university's registrar, who helped to launch the updated student information system in 2009

      PGP allows students to control their identity

    3. For example, when new students attended orientation sessions at American University in Washington DC a few months ago, they were asked to introduce themselves with their name, hometown, and preferred gender pronoun (sometimes abbreviated to PGP).

      Example of introducing by Preferred Gender Pronoun

  30. Aug 2016
    1. It’s another example of “male as default”—the idea that men are a ”neutral” category, with women in a separate, non-default, and markedly different one.
    2. One major example of gender differences in VR is that women are far more susceptible to VR-induced nausea.
    1. “Starting from a place of 'I don’t have biases' is never helpful.” It’s not necessarily the gender of an engineer that matters, it’s that engineer’s ability to consider perspectives outside their own.
    1. Because I am interested in complicating your definition of maleness and of boyhood. I was born into that shitty town, maleness, full of broken ideals and misplaced machismo and repression and there are some good people stuck living there. They are not in charge. They did not build it.
  31. Jul 2016
    1. The thing is, I don’t really present as myself. I mean that in a way that goes beyond my clothing. Presentation is the way I talk, the way I walk, the way I act, the things I admit to liking, the people I surround myself with, the way I won’t hold hands with a guy in public. I present as a negotiation between myself and the space around me, a compromise between vibrancy and violence. It’s a compromise queer people around the world make every day. Flamboyancy means drawing attention to yourself. Being openly queer draws attention to yourself. Attention means they see you, and when they see you, they can hurt you.
    2. I walk into the dressing room. I try it on. I love it. It’s not the me I’d dreamt of in rural Oklahoma — the me I could have been if I had been allowed to grow up uninterrupted — but it’s a baby step in the right direction.
    1. adget design is a pretty well-known boys’ club, a field where male engineers design products with other men in mind, rarely considering the way the needs, anatomy, or lived experience of women might change the way a product should work. It’s not uncommon to hear stories of how male engineers forgot to factor in the smaller size of women’s hands and wrists, or the way female fashion doesn’t always include a pocket.
  32. Jun 2016
    1. "It was Woman, with her sudden fears, her irrational whims, her instinctive fears, her unprovoked bravado, her daring and her delicious delicacy of feeling" Who is speaking in this way? Is it the story's hero, concerned to ignore the castrato concealed beneath the woman? Is it the man Balzac, endowed by his personal experience with a philosophy of Woman?

      Interesting that the prompt is gender fluidity.

    1. value. The final model was significant, F(l, 349) = 52.80, p < .001 (R2 = .51). There was a significant gender main effect, ? = 08, ?(349) = 1.98, p < .05, indicating that females' intrinsic value was higher at Time 2 than males' intrinsic value, controlling for intrinsic value at Time 1. T

      Women have stronger intrinsic motivation, even after grading, than males do.

    1. It was of interest that all attribute categories of un- creative characteristic~ and almost all attribute catego- ries of creative traits (39 of 42) were suggested by both male and female teachers

      Relatively little gender difference in perceptions of what makes for creativity (!)

      I find this surprising, to be honest.

  33. Mar 2016
    1. Marsh, H. W., Bornmann, L., Mutz, R., Daniel, H. D., & O’Mara, A. (2009). Gender effects in the peerreviews of grant proposals: A comprehensive meta-analysis comparing traditional and multilevelapproaches.Review of Educational Research, 79, 1290–1326
    1. I know a large number of people in that category, in my own experience, who ...opted out because they didn’t want to play. They didn’t want to play the kind ofgames that have to be played to be successful, and in bringing in money and gettingthe papers out. There’s so much more than just doing good science that comes intoit. There’s so much communication and there’s salesmanship that has to go on

      On the negative impact competition has on career choice

  34. Feb 2016
    1. Audre Lorde wasn’t denouncing math when she referred to “the master’s tools.”

      Great quote.

  35. Jan 2016
    1. Today, she encourages the women she works with to NEVER say they know nothing about technology.

      Gender differences in self-assessments of technological skills are a well-known phenomenon, but it remains tricky. Brenda’s approach works really well, in no small part because of her own skills and personality.

  36. Oct 2015
    1. As long as we consciously or unconsciously subscribe to the idea that gender is a binary system of oppositions, we cannot be open to the full range of human experience, expression, or emotion.
    2. The only way to preserve my mental well–being was to abandon that box and to give up the idea of gender as binary, to give up the idea of gender as a system of dominance, to give up even the idea of gender as a spectrum, and to see gender as a complex system of people in motion, exploring a vast untraveled common ground together.
    3. The woman has called into question the masculinity of the man’s interests simply by showing an interest in it. The gender binary is composed largely of arbitrary oppositions and exclusions; the extreme logical extension of this is that men and women should never share interests. Aside from being a terrible guideline for partnerships, this makes any approach into a perceived male space by a woman yet another threat to the masculinity of the man or men in question.

      so sad.

    4. Ultimately, though, the Box is, as with every other Man Box, under siege from other anxious men and from the binary–policing society at large. This need for constant vigilance is stressful, and masculinity is a stress–related anxiety disorder.
    1. women and housewives have totake on many of the tasks traditionally assigned to men like paying bills,attending to bank business, dealing with car mechanics, daily shopping,taking children from school, or going to government offices.

      I think this is a good thing. It puts women closer to holding equal ground with men within the household and outside it.

  37. Sep 2015
    1. she is merely an artifact used by men to display their prowess.

      Women should not be objectified regardless of what the "built environment" is. We have the ability to influence our "built environment" so let's do it in a way that helps to evolve it.

    2. The girls unanimously agree that this is a constant problem in their work and they feel helpless to combat it.

      But they're okay with it...... ??? They seem to just accept the fact that these are the working conditions and it's "a part of the job"..

    3. The girls hesitate to use such tactics against some men and fall back on feminine displays of weak­ness and helplessness to get them to move.

      Ladies... this is exactly the opposite of "tactics" we want to use to help society understand we deserve gender inequality.. Fight the urge to give in the easy way out

    4. the customer won't leave her alone and she must do her best to ignore him....

      This is interesting because it counteracts the original problem presented about the waitress being ignored. It seems because of the way the social structure influences the atmosphere of the bar, the waitress is essentially in a losing position each time..

    1. Having descended from a long line of mothers who nursed, fed, cleaned, carried, comforted, and defended their young, we should not be surprised by gender differences in human empathy, such as those proposed to explain the disproportionate rate of boys affected by autism, which is marked by a lack of social communication skills.
  38. Jul 2015
    1. The result? Students’ sense of vulnerability is skyrocketing.

      I had similar thoughts around the immensely popular video about street harassment made by hollaback! after a former partner compared an unwelcome invitation I had extended to see a concert together to street harassment. It got me wondering what disciplines have good dialectic for separating useful from harmful exposure. So far I have only an inkling that trauma therapy offers some hope, and it connects the conversation to concepts like triggers.

  39. May 2015
    1. without qualitatively changing enough to warrant a new name

      This limit fascinates me; I think about how much it is possible to change masculinity (e.g.) before it changes enough to warrant a new name...

    1. a feminine speaking style

      The idea of "feminine style" here fascinates me. Femininity stands in for sensory/sensuous speech & for intimacy. Here's a challenge: "what if we stopped using the words 'masculinity' and 'femininity' and only said the specific things they're supposed to be shorthand for" (Imogen Binnie).

  40. Nov 2014
    1. Perhaps a belief endures in these women that sidling up to men with power, rather than organising for it collectively, will yield individual gains.
    2. The recognition of feminism is that women exist at a social disadvantage to a history that privileges and resources men at their expense.
    3. ...and yet they really do believe that by pandering to the blokes, they'll be treated with respect and equality!

  41. Sep 2014
    1. The researchers linguistically coded job descriptions found in a U.S. Department of Labor database that were predominately populated for masculine-themed words such as active, ambitious, analytical, competitive, dominate, challenging, confident, decisive, determined, independent, leader, objective, etc., as well as feminine-themed words such as committed, connected, cooperative, dependable, interpersonal, loyal, responsible, supportive, trust, etc. The results confirmed that job descriptions for male-dominated jobs contained more masculine-themed words associated with male stereotypes than job descriptions from female-dominated jobs and vice versa.

      I wish society would spend more time dismantling the gender coding of these words than wringing its hands over the repercussions of using them with their present connotations. We clearly can't ignore how the words we choose make people feel, but I can't help feeling like we do so sometimes at the cost of addressing deeper structural issues.

      It seems sexist to me that these researchers begin from the assumption that these words are gendered.

  42. Aug 2014
    1. Of course, the radical feminist position that masculinity is natural and healthy, and femininity artificial and harmful, is also inherently sexist

      Of course. That's an important theme. It's as though it's being suggested here that radical feminists chose this view, when I think it's more correct to say that they are reacting to it.