1,212 Matching Annotations
  1. Jul 2021
    1. Padilla, L., Hosseinpour, H., Fygenson, R., Howell, J., Chunara, R., & Bertini, E. (2021). Effects of COVID-19 Uncertainty Visualizations on Novice Risk Estimates. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/6axc7

    2. 2021-07-06

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/6axc7
    4. Policy-makers and the general public have made decisions using COVID-19 data visualizations that have affected the health of the global population. However, the impact that such wide use of data visualizations has had on people's beliefs about their personal risk for COVID-19 is unclear. We conducted two experiments (N = 2,549) during the height of the COVID-19 epidemic in the United States to examine if real-time COVID-19 visualizations influenced participants' beliefs about the risk of the pandemic to themselves and others. This work also examined the impact of two elements of COVID-19 data visualizations, data properties (cumulative- vs. incident-death metrics) and uncertainty visualization techniques (historical data only, and forecasts with no uncertainty, vs. nine uncertainty visualization techniques). The results revealed that viewing COVID-19 visualizations with rising trends resulted in participants believing themselves and others at greater risk than before viewing the COVID-19 visualizations. Further, uncertainty visualization techniques that showed six or more models evoked the largest increases in risk estimates compared to the visualizations tested. These results could inform the design of public pandemic risk communication.
    5. Effects of COVID-19 Uncertainty Visualizations on Novice Risk Estimates
    1. Soral, W., & Bilewicz, M. (2021). The Politics of Vaccine Hesitancy: An Ideological Dual-Process Approach. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/djm3a

    2. 2021-07-01

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/djm3a
    4. Ideological convictions are known to shape attitudes and behaviour in various life domains. Based on existing psychological analyses of political ideology, we use an ideological dual-process approach to explain people’s vaccine hesitancy, in which distinguish between authoritarian (RWA) and hierarchical (SDO) facets of conservatism as potential antecedents of vaccination attitudes. In a large international study performed in Germany (N = 1210), Poland (N = 1209), and the United Kingdom (N = 1222), we tested the roles of SDO and RWA in predicting vaccination hesitancy, as well as cross-cultural universality of the the pattern of relationships between political ideologies and attitudes toward vaccines. In all three countries, high SDO was associated with higher vaccine hesitancy, whereas high RWA was associated with lower vaccine hesitancy. These findings contribute to our understanding of the distinctive roles that these two facets of right-wing ideology might play in the domain of public health.
    5. The Politics of Vaccine Hesitancy: An Ideological Dual-Process Approach
    1. Williams, W. C., Haque, E., Mai, B., & Venkatraman, V. (2021). Face masks influence how facial expressions are perceived: A drift-diffusion model of emotion judgments. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/a8yxf

    2. 2021-07-04

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/a8yxf
    4. Face masks slow the spread of SARS-CoV-2, but it has been unknown whether masks influence how individuals communicate emotion through facial expressions. Masks could influence how accurately—or how quickly—individuals perceive expressions, and how rapidly they accumulate evidence for emotion. Over two independent pre-registered studies, conducted three and six months into the COVID-19 pandemic, participants judged expressions of 6 emotions (anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, surprise) with the lower or upper face “masked” or unmasked. Participants in Study 1 (N = 228) identified expressions above chance with lower face masks. However, they were less likely—and slower—to correctly identify these expressions versus without masks, and they accumulated evidence for emotion more slowly—via decreased drift rate in drift-diffusion modeling. This pattern replicated and intensified three months later in Study 2 (N = 264). These data could inform interventions to promote mask wearing by addressing concerns with emotion communication.
    5. Face masks influence how facial expressions are perceived: A drift-diffusion model of emotion judgments
    1. Park, A., & Velez, C. (2021). A mixed methods study of the psychological impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on American life. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/tjz32

    2. 2021-06-04

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/tjz32
    4. This study examined the psychological impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on American daily life. In May 2020, adults living in the United States (N=345; 63% European American; 64% male) completed an online survey on their functioning, psychological stress, and health locus of control. Inductive thematic analysis was used to identify themes in qualitative responses about the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. Themes included, but were not limited to, impacts on employment and finances (“I have not been paid a dime for the last eight weeks”), physical distancing practices (“I have left my neighborhood three times in eight weeks”), work environment (“I am working from home”), emotional well-being (“I feel stressed, anxious, and nervous pretty much all the time”), and social support (“I miss seeing and being with my friends and family”). Results showed moderate correlations between changes in mood and concentration, time spent caregiving and quality of caregiving, quality of social interactions and quality of work, quality of social interactions and mood, time spent working and quality of work, and number of social interactions and quality of social interactions. Being an essential worker and holding beliefs that health is determined by others and chance but not themselves was associated with increased psychological stress; holding beliefs that health is determined by others and chance also predicted changes in functioning. These findings supplement existing knowledge about the psychological impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and highlight opportunities for promoting well-being and functioning as Americans recover from consequent health, economic, and social stressors.
    5. A mixed methods study of the psychological impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on American life
    1. Lacassagne, D., Béna, J., & Corneille, O. (2021). Is Earth a Perfect Square? Repetition Increases the Perceived Truth of Highly Implausible Statements. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/fce8z

    2. 2021-06-28

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/fce8z
    4. A single exposure to statements is typically enough to increase their perceived truth. This Truth-by-Repetition (TBR) effect has long been assumed to occur only with statements whose truth value is unknown to participants. Contrary to this hypothesis, recent research found a TBR effect with statements known to be false. Of note, a recent model even posits that repetition could increase the perceived truth of highly implausible statements. As for now, however, no empirical evidence has reported a TBR effect for highly implausible statements. Here, we reasoned that one may be found provided a sensitive truth measure is used and statements are repeated more than just once. In a preregistered experiment, participants judged the truth of highly implausible statements on a 100-point scale, and these statements were either new to them or had been presented five times before the judgment task. We observed a TBR effect: truth judgments were higher for repeated statements than for new ones - even if all statements were still judged as false. Exploratory analyses additionally suggest that all participants were not equally prone to this TBR effect: about half the participants showed no or even a reverse effect. Overall, the results provide direct empirical evidence to the claim that repetition can increase perceived truth even for highly implausible statements, although not equally so for all participants and not to the point of making the statements look true.
    5. Is Earth a Perfect Square? Repetition Increases the Perceived Truth of Highly Implausible Statements
  2. Jun 2021
    1. Here’s Where That COVID-19 Vaccine Infertility Myth Came From—And Why It Is Not True. (n.d.). Retrieved June 18, 2021, from https://www.henryford.com/blog/2021/04/fertility-rumor-covid-vaccine

    2. 2021-04-23

    3. Last December, a German epidemiologist said the COVID-19 vaccines might make women’s bodies reject a protein that’s connected to placenta, therefore making women infertile. He thought this because the genetic code of the placenta protein, called syncytin-1, shares a hint of similarity with the genetic code of the spike protein in COVID-19. If the vaccines caused our bodies to make antibodies to protect us from COVID-19, he thought, they could also make antibodies to reject the placenta. This, however, was a theoretical risk that was completely disproven in the clinical trials and continues to be disproven in real time as more women of child-bearing age become fully vaccinated. “It’s inaccurate to say that COVID-19’s spike protein and this placenta protein share a similar genetic code,” says D’Angela Pitts, M.D., a maternal fetal medicine specialist with Henry Ford Health System. “The proteins are not similar enough to cause placenta to not attach to an embryo.” 
    4. Here’s Where That COVID-19 Vaccine Infertility Myth Came From—And Why It Is Not True
    1. Carlos del Rio. (2021, June 7). Here’s Where That COVID-19 Vaccine Infertility Myth Came From—And Why It Is Not True https://t.co/DvBYcCsEJx The evidence firmly shows that the COVID-19 vaccines don’t cause infertility. [Tweet]. @CarlosdelRio7. https://twitter.com/CarlosdelRio7/status/1401928031787225091

    2. 2021-06-07

    3. Here’s Where That COVID-19 Vaccine Infertility Myth Came From—And Why It Is Not True https://henryford.com/blog/2021/04/fertility-rumor-covid-vaccine… The evidence firmly shows that the COVID-19 vaccines don't cause infertility.
    1. Eric Topol. (2021, June 9). Despite increasing incentives, the US vaccination campaign is really struggling. Notably, the top 5 states are approaching 60% total population fully vaccinated which should provide strong protection vs the delta variant. A different story for the bottom 5 states @OurWorldInData https://t.co/boqk3Khhuc [Tweet]. @EricTopol. https://twitter.com/EricTopol/status/1402413221667954690

    2. 2021-06-09

    3. The 2 clusters, opposite ends of the V-spectrum 1 is delta ready The other is highly vulnerable
    4. Despite increasing incentives, the US vaccination campaign is really struggling. Notably, the top 5 states are approaching 60% total population fully vaccinated which should provide strong protection vs the delta variant. A different story for the bottom 5 states @OurWorldInData
  3. May 2021
    1. Rasolt, D. H. (n.d.). Mistrust fuels covid-19 vaccine doubts in Colombia’s Indigenous groups. New Scientist. Retrieved May 17, 2021, from https://www.newscientist.com/article/2272195-mistrust-fuels-covid-19-vaccine-doubts-in-colombias-indigenous-groups/

    2. As covid-19 vaccines begin to arrive in the Andean highlands in Colombia, Maria Pito, a leader of the Nasa people, is reluctant to receive one. “As a nurse, I will be required by the clinic where I work to be vaccinated but if I had the choice, I would not take it and would continue to rely on traditional medicine,” she says. “I and many others don’t trust this untransparent government.”
    3. 2021-03-24

    4. Mistrust fuels covid-19 vaccine doubts in Colombia's Indigenous groups
    1. Chen, I.-H., Ahorsu, D. K., Ko, N.-Y., Yen, C.-F., Lin, C.-Y., Griffiths, M., & Pakpour, A. (2021). The development and validation of the Motors of COVID-19 Vaccination Acceptance Scale: Psychometric evaluation among mainland Chinese university students. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/abfp6

    2. 2021-03-02

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/abfp6
    4. Background: COVID-19 continues to ravage the world with economies and life significantly and negatively affected. Fortunately, there has been significant progress in the production of vaccines to stem the infection. However, with controversies and myths surrounding vaccinations, it is timely to examine individuals’ willingness to vaccinate. The present study developed and validated the Motors of COVID-19 Vaccination Acceptance Scale (MoVac-COVID19S) and assessed the acceptance of COVID-19 vaccination utilizing the cognitive model of empowerment (CME). Methods: A total of 3145 university students (mean age=20.80 years; SD=2.09) were recruited for the present study between January 5 and 16, 2021. Two MoVac-COVID19S scales (9-item and 12-item) were adapted from the MoVac-Flu Scale, an instrument developed using CME. Psychometric tests were conducted to ascertain reliability and validity properties. Results: The findings indicated that the MoVac-COVID19S had high internal consistency in both the 9-item version (ω=0.921) and 12-item version (ω=0.898). The factor structure of the MoVac-COVID19S (9-item and 12-item versions) corresponded well with CME theory. All the fit indices were satisfactory (CFI=0.984, TLI=0.971, RMSEA=0.088, SRMR=0.058) but the 9-item MoVac-COVID had better fit indices than the 12-item MoVac-COVID due to the negative wording effects existing in the 12-item MoVac-COVID19S. The scale had satisfactory known-group validity in both 9-item and 12-item versions. Conclusions: The MoVac-COVID19S has promising psychometric properties based on internal consistency, factor structure, and known-group validity.
    5. The development and validation of the Motors of COVID-19 Vaccination Acceptance Scale: Psychometric evaluation among mainland Chinese university students
    1. Daly, M., & Robinson, E. (2021). Willingness to vaccinate against COVID-19 in the US: Representative longitudinal evidence from April–October 2020. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/r28yh

    2. 2021-02-15

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/r28yh
    4. Introduction: Vaccines against COVID-19 have been developed in unprecedented time. However, the effectiveness of any vaccine is dictated by the proportion of the population willing to be vaccinated. In this observational population-based study we examined intentions to be vaccinated against COVID-19 throughout the pandemic. Methods: In November, 2020 we analyzed longitudinal data from a nationally representative sample of 7,547 US adults enrolled in the Understanding America Study (UAS) using multinomial logistic regresion. Participants reporting being willing, undecided and unwilling to get vaccinated against coronavirus across 13 assessments conducted from April-October, 2020. Public attitudes to vaccination against the coronavirus were also assessed on a four-point Likert scale. Results: Willingness to vaccinate declined from 71% in April to 53.6% in October. This was explained by an increase in the percentage of participants undecided about vaccinating (from 10.5% to 14.4%) and the portion of the sample unwilling to vaccinate (from 18.5% to 32%). The population subgroups most likely to be undecided/unwilling to vaccinate were those without a degree (undecided: RRR=2.47, 95% CI: 2.04-3.00; unwilling: RRR=1.92, 95% CI:1.67-2.20), Black participants (undecided: RRR=2.18, 95% CI: 1.73-2.74; unwilling: RRR=1.98, 95% CI:1.63-2.42), and females (undecided: RRR=1.41, 95% CI:1.20-1.65; unwilling: RRR=1.29, 95% CI:1.14-1.46). Participants who were older or were on higher incomes were least likely to be undecided or unwilling to vaccinate. Concerns about potential side effects of a vaccine were common. Conclusions: Intentions to be vaccinated against coronavirus have declined rapidly during the pandemic and close to half of Americans are undecided or unwilling to be vaccinated.
    5. Willingness to vaccinate against COVID-19 in the US: Representative longitudinal evidence from April–October 2020
    1. Jiang, Y., Zilioli, S., Balzarini, R. N., Zoppolat, G., & Slatcher, R. B. (2021). Education, Financial Stress, and Trajectory of Mental Health During the COVID-19 Pandemic. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/tvry4

    2. 2021-05-03

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/tvry4
    4. Socioeconomic disparities in mental health have been reported during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, few studies have examined the mechanisms through which such disparities in mental health occurred. This pre-registered study aimed to examine socioeconomic disparities, as indexed by education levels, in the trajectory of mental health at the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic and whether financial stress associated with the pandemic mediated socioeconomic disparities in mental health. Data were drawn from the Love in the Time of COVID project, of which we included four waves of data (N = 2,204) collected between March 27th and June 21st, 2020. Education was assessed at baseline, and mental health outcomes (i.e., eudaimonic well-being, positive affect, negative affect, depressive and anxious symptoms) and financial stress associated with the COVID-19 pandemic were assessed at each wave. Results indicated that there were educational disparities in eudaimonic well-being, negative affect, and depressive and anxiety symptoms at baseline, with those with lower education levels reporting poorer mental health. However, education did not amplify disparities in mental health outcomes over time, showing no associations with the rates of change in mental health outcomes. Financial stress mediated the associations between education and eudaimonic well-being, negative affect, and depressive and anxious symptoms at baseline, and there were no temporal variations in the mediation effects of financial stress. These results highlight persistent educational disparities in mental health at the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic, and such educational disparities may be partially explained by financial stress associated with the COVID-19 pandemic.
    5. Education, Financial Stress, and Trajectory of Mental Health During the COVID-19 Pandemic
    1. India’s crisis should be a warning against covid-19 complacency. (n.d.). New Scientist. Retrieved May 15, 2021, from https://www.newscientist.com/article/mg25033323-400-indias-crisis-should-be-a-warning-against-covid-19-complacency/

    2. 2021-04-28

    3. THE covid-19 situation in India is terrible and is likely to get worse. The country has set one new record after another for the most daily coronavirus cases reported in any country. Just as the world was hoping the worst of the pandemic was over, we are seeing its biggest outbreak.
    4. India's crisis should be a warning against covid-19 complacency
    1. One billion COVID vaccines, psychedelic sensor and COVID transmission halved. (2021). Nature, 593(7857), 13–13. https://doi.org/10.1038/d41586-021-01141-5

    2. 2021-05-05

    3. 10.1038/d41586-021-01141-5
    4. The world has reached the milestone of administering one billion doses of COVID-19 vaccines, just four months after the World Health Organization (WHO) approved the first vaccine for emergency use, and roll-outs began in countries such as the United States and the United Kingdom. The speed at which they have been administered is remarkable, but unequal distribution of the vaccinations highlights global disparities, say researchers (see ‘Divided by doses’).
    5. One billion COVID vaccines, psychedelic sensor and COVID transmission halved
    1. Burton-Chellew, M. N., & West, S. A. (2021). Payoff-based learning best explains the rate of decline in cooperation across 237 public-goods games. Nature Human Behaviour, 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41562-021-01107-7

    2. 2021-05-03

    3. 10.1038/s41562-021-01107-7
    4. What motivates human behaviour in social dilemmas? The results of public goods games are commonly interpreted as showing that humans are altruistically motivated to benefit others. However, there is a competing ‘confused learners’ hypothesis: that individuals start the game either uncertain or mistaken (confused) and then learn from experience how to improve their payoff (payoff-based learning). Here we (1) show that these competing hypotheses can be differentiated by how they predict contributions should decline over time; and (2) use metadata from 237 published public goods games to test between these competing hypotheses. We found, as predicted by the confused learners hypothesis, that contributions declined faster when individuals had more influence over their own payoffs. This predicted relationship arises because more influence leads to a greater correlation between contributions and payoffs, facilitating learning. Our results suggest that humans, in general, are not altruistically motivated to benefit others but instead learn to help themselves.
    5. Payoff-based learning best explains the rate of decline in cooperation across 237 public-goods games
    1. Braud, M., Gaboriaud, A., Ferry, T., Mardi, W. E., Silva, L. D., Lemouzy, M., Guttierrez, J., Petit, S., Szabelska, A., & IJzerman, H. (2021). COVID-19-related conspiracy beliefs and their relationship with perceived stress and pre-existing conspiracy beliefs in a Prolific Academic sample: A replication and extension of Georgiou et al. (2020). PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/t62s7

    2. 2021-05-01

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/t62s7
    4. The authors conducted a close replication of a study by Georgiou et al (2020), who found amongst 660 (reported in abstract) or 640 (reported in participant section) participants that 1) Covid-19 related conspiracy theory beliefs were strongly related to broader conspiracy theory beliefs, that 2) Covid-19 related conspiracy beliefs were higher in those with lower levels of education, and that 3) Covid-19 related conspiracy beliefs were positively (although weakly) correlated with more negative attitudes towards different individual items measuring the government’s response. Finally, they find that 4) Covid-19 beliefs were unrelated to self-reported stress. In a pre-registered replication and extension in a study sufficiently well-powered to detect f2 = 0.05, at an alpha level of .05, with an a priori power of .95, and with 5 Predictors in a multiple regression analysis, we do not find the same results. First, we find that education level is unrelated to Covid-19 related conspiracy beliefs, that stress is related to Covid-19 related conspiracy beliefs, but that the government’s response is indeed related to Covid-19 related conspiracy beliefs. We point out measurement problems in measuring conspiracy beliefs, extend the study through supervised machine learning by finding that attachment avoidance and anxiety are important predictors of conspiracy beliefs (Covid-19-related and beyond). Part of the differences between their and our study are likely due to differences in analysis approach; others may be due to the errors in Georgiou et al.’s (2020 reporting.
    5. COVID-19-related conspiracy beliefs and their relationship with perceived stress and pre-existing conspiracy beliefs in a Prolific Academic sample: A replication and extension of Georgiou et al. (2020)
    1. Lalot, F., Abrams, D., Heering, M. S., Babaian, J., Özkeçeci, H., Peitz, L., Hayon, K. D., & Broadwood, J. (2021). Distrustful complacency and the COVID-19 vaccine: How concern and political trust interact to affect vaccine hesitancy. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/y9amb

    2. 2021-04-09

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/y9amb
    4. We test the hypothesis that COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy is attributable to ‘distrustful complacency’ – an interactive and not just additive combination of concern and distrust. Across two studies, 9695 respondents across 13 different parts of Britain reported their level of concern about COVID-19, trust in the UK government, and intention to accept or refuse the vaccine. Multilevel regression analysis, controlling for geographic area and relevant demographics, confirmed the predicted interactive effect of concern and trust. Respondents with both low trust and low concern were 10%-22% more vaccine hesitant than respondents with either high trust or high concern, and 20%-29% more hesitant than respondents with both high trust and high concern. Results hold equally among White, Black, and Muslim respondents, consistent with the view that, regardless of mean level differences, a common process underlies vaccine hesitancy, underlining the importance of tackling distrustful complacency both generally and specifically amongst unvaccinated individuals and populations.
    5. Distrustful complacency and the COVID-19 vaccine: How concern and political trust interact to affect vaccine hesitancy
    1. Armitage, C., Keyworth, C., Leather, J., Byrne-Davis, L., & Epton, T. (2020). Identifying Targets For Interventions To Support Public Adherence To Government COVID-19-Related Instructions. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/8gfvb

    2. 2020-07-27

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/8gfvb
    4. Adherence to government COVID-19-related instructions is important in preventing, detecting, treating and emerging successfully from the acute phase of the pandemic. Public adherence to instructions has been high but will only remain so as long as people’s capabilities, opportunities and motivations are supported. Policy makers should ensure that strategies are developed that will prevent people’s capabilities, opportunities and motivations from being undermined. Men, younger people, and people with black, Asian and minority ethnic backgrounds represent important targets for such interventions.
    5. Identifying Targets For Interventions To Support Public Adherence To Government COVID-19-Related Instructions
    1. 2021-05-04

    2. Grahlow, M., Rupp, C., & Derntl, B. (2021). The impact of face masks on emotion recognition performance and perception of threat. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/6msz8

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/6msz8
    4. Facial emotion recognition is crucial for social interaction. However, in times of a global pandemic, where wearing a face mask covering mouth and nose is widely encouraged to prevent the spread of disease, successful emotion recognition may be challenging. In Study 1, we investigated whether emotion recognition, assessed by a validated emotion recognition task, is impaired for faces wearing a mask compared to uncovered faces, in a sample of 790 participants between 18 and 89 years. Additionally, perception of threat for faces with and without mask was assessed. We found impaired emotion recognition for faces wearing a mask compared to faces without mask, especially for those depicting anger, sadness and disgust. Further, we observed that perception of threat was altered for faces wearing a mask. In Study 2, we compared emotion recognition performance for faces with and without face mask to faces that are occluded by something other than a mask, i.e. a bubble as well as only showing the upper part of the faces. We found that, for most emotions and especially for disgust, there seems to be an effect that can be ascribed to the face mask specifically, both for emotion recognition performance and perception of threat. Methodological constraints as well as the importance of wearing a mask despite temporarily compromised social interaction are discussed.
    5. The impact of face masks on emotion recognition performance and perception of threat
    1. 2021-05-10

    2. Janke, S., Rudert, S. C., Petersen, Ä., Fritz, T., & Daumiller, M. (2021). Cheating in the wake of COVID-19: How dangerous is ad-hoc online testing for academic integrity? PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/6xmzh

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/6xmzh
    4. Worldwide, higher education institutions made quick and often unprepared shifts from on-site to online examination in 2020 due to the COVID-19 health crisis. This development sparked an ongoing debate on whether this development made it easier for students to cheat. We investigated whether students indeed cheated more often in online than in on-site exams and whether the use of online exams was also associated with higher rates of other behaviors deemed as academic dishonesty. To answer our research questions, we questioned 1,608 German students from a wide variety of higher education institutions about their behavior during the summer semester of 2020. The participating students reported that they cheated more frequently in online than in on-site exams. Effects on other measures of academic dishonesty were more negligible. These results speak for the notion that the swift application of ad-hoc online testing during 2020 has led to negative consequences for academic integrity.
    5. Cheating in the wake of COVID-19: How dangerous is ad-hoc online testing for academic integrity?
    1. Hall, V. J., Foulkes, S., Saei, A., Andrews, N., Oguti, B., Charlett, A., Wellington, E., Stowe, J., Gillson, N., Atti, A., Islam, J., Karagiannis, I., Munro, K., Khawam, J., Chand, M. A., Brown, C. S., Ramsay, M., Lopez-Bernal, J., Hopkins, S., … Heeney, J. L. (2021). COVID-19 vaccine coverage in health-care workers in England and effectiveness of BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine against infection (SIREN): A prospective, multicentre, cohort study. The Lancet, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(21)00790-X

    1. Eric Topol. (2021, April 23). Just published @TheLancet: Effect of vaccine in >23,000 health care workers https://t.co/ohy3VyHM3C Dose response: No vaccine 977 infections; 1 dose 71 infections; 2 doses 9 infections (14|8|4 per 10,000 person-days) "can prevent both symptomatic and asymptomatic infection " https://t.co/EybVBFmXrU [Tweet]. @EricTopol. https://twitter.com/EricTopol/status/1385729322472730626

    1. Hilda Bastian, PhD. (2021, February 6). Unofficial unnamed AstraZeneca insider says they are doing the interim analysis for the US trial of the Oxford vaccine. AstraZeneca spokesperson says 4-6 weeks till data release. Https://t.co/VUHgbHN02d One is wrong? Or they’ll release only when have FDA minimum follow-up? Https://t.co/LgjfX8AIti [Tweet]. @hildabast. https://twitter.com/hildabast/status/1357862227106095105

    1. Faria, N. R., Mellan, T. A., Whittaker, C., Claro, I. M., Candido, D. da S., Mishra, S., Crispim, M. A. E., Sales, F. C. S., Hawryluk, I., McCrone, J. T., Hulswit, R. J. G., Franco, L. A. M., Ramundo, M. S., Jesus, J. G. de, Andrade, P. S., Coletti, T. M., Ferreira, G. M., Silva, C. A. M., Manuli, E. R., … Sabino, E. C. (2021). Genomics and epidemiology of the P.1 SARS-CoV-2 lineage in Manaus, Brazil. Science. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.abh2644

    1. Alessandro Vespignani. (2021, April 14). “Genomics and epidemiology of the P.1 SARS-CoV-2 lineage in Manaus, Brazil”—P.1 may be 1.7–2.4-fold more transmissible—Previous (non-P.1) infection provides 54–79% of the protection against infection with P.1 that it provides against non-P.1 lineages https://t.co/aUpL4YOFYo https://t.co/YniaLb9YiF [Tweet]. @alexvespi. https://twitter.com/alexvespi/status/1382370044374511621

    1. Emary, K. R. W., Golubchik, T., Aley, P. K., Ariani, C. V., Angus, B. J., Bibi, S., Blane, B., Bonsall, D., Cicconi, P., Charlton, S., Clutterbuck, E., Collins, A. M., Cox, T., Darton, T., Dold, C., Douglas, A. D., Duncan, C. J. A., Ewer, K., Flaxman, A., … Group, O. C. V. T. (2021). Efficacy of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AZD1222) Vaccine Against SARS-CoV-2 VOC 202012/01 (B.1.1.7) (SSRN Scholarly Paper ID 3779160). Social Science Research Network. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3779160

    1. ReconfigBehSci. (2020, November 25). We didn’t have explicit discussion of Red Team process at our SciBeh workshop, but I suspect it’s an extremely useful way to manage criticism- simply because the recipient is inviting it [Tweet]. @SciBeh. https://twitter.com/SciBeh/status/1331558570668806147

    1. Adam Kucharski. (2021, February 6). It’s flattering being asked for your opinion by the media (especially if you have lots of them) but I do think it’s important to defer to others if you’re being asked on as a ‘scientific expert’ and the subject of the interview falls outside your area of research/expertise. [Tweet]. @AdamJKucharski. https://twitter.com/AdamJKucharski/status/1358050473098571776

    1. Lizzie O’Leary. (2021, February 2). I have done a lot of interviews about covid in the past year. And one thing that really stays with me is something @nataliexdean said. That the public is used to hearing from scientists at the end of the process. And right now, we are in the middle. [Tweet]. @lizzieohreally. https://twitter.com/lizzieohreally/status/1356410686319026176