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  1. Last 7 days
  2. Jan 2021
  3. Dec 2020
  4. Nov 2020
    1. Your brain is hardwired to constantly think about all your unfinished activities until they’re completed, a phenomenon known as the Zeigarnik effect. This presents a problem for your work-life harmony, because when you leave the office, the last thing you want is to be inundated with thoughts about work. Luckily, evidence suggests that when you write a to-do list of outstanding tasks, your mind will stop reminding you about them, leaving you free to enjoy your evening in peace.

      Zeigarnik effect - Thinking about unfinished tasks unitl they are finished.

      The remedy for this is to write a to-do list.

    1. Psychologists have found that units—also referred to as schemas—of information are stored in our long-term memory.2 These schemas can be activated by sights, smells, and sounds. When these schemas are activated, our memories become easier to access. Priming suggests that certain schemas are activated in unison, which in turn leads related or connected units of information to be activated at the same time. Once related schemas are activated and more accessible, it becomes easier for us to draw related information into memory more quickly, and we can thus respond faster when the need arises. For example, the schemas related to rainstorms and slick roads may be linked in our memories. As a result, when we drive and it is raining, the memory of slick roads comes to mind, leading us to slow down and take precaution.There are numerous types of priming that can occur. Each one works in a specific way that produces different effects.

      [[units of information]] or [[schemas]] - stored in long term memory.

      Once these schemas are activated - memories associated to them are easier to access. Like having a smell remind you of a place - once that schema is activated, other things attached to it are easier to remember.

    1. The overjustification effect has inspired an entire field of study that focuses on students and how to help them reach their full potential. Though experts are divided on whether extrinsic rewards have a beneficial or negative effect on intrinsic motivation, a recent study showed that rewards may actually encourage intrinsic motivation when given early in a task.

      [[question]] What is the [[over-justification effect]]

  5. Oct 2020
    1. John Glubb and Avoiding the Fate of Empires

      John Glubb was an English Army officer who created a theory called the "Fate of Empires", which catalogues the typical rise and fall of hegemonic orders and attempts to explain why they fall. He wanted to understand where the North Atlantic European Hegemonic Order is in its cycle, in the hopes that we could avoid making the same mistakes as those before us.

      This is the typical cycle of empires:

      1. Age of Pioneers

      A small and insignificant nation on takes over its more powerful neighbors. This new nation is driven by a need to grow and improve, to become the power they took over. This phase is characterized by an optimistic sense of improvisation and initiative.

      1. The Age of Commerce

      The new empire has a lot of new territory, which is safer due to recent military successes. This sets the stage for economic growth. The conquering class benefits from the merchants but aren't motivated solely by material gains.

      1. Age of Affluence

      The ruling class look for ways to spend their new-found wealth, and because they still feel an idealistic sense of noble nationalism, they spend their money on large-scale civic and building projects and invest in art and culture.

      1. The Age of Intellect

      Gradually this material success corrodes the values of the ruling class and material wealth replaces nationalism as the primary virtue. This phase is characterized by a defensiveness and the need to protect what they have. Wall building comes at this phase.

      Often seen as a golden age, this is the phase that often comes before its downfall.

      1. The Age of Decadence

      The ruling class is completely disengaged from the issues of the state and are focussed almost completely on sport, entertainment, and personal gain.

    1. But then I learned a Norwegian phrase which eloquently explains that the longest mile of any journey is stepping across your doorstep and starting. They call it ‘The Doorstep Mile’.
    1. Ebbinghaus had also documented the serial position effect, which describes how the position of an item affects recall. The two main concepts in the serial position effect are recency and primacy. The recency effect describes the increased recall of the most recent information because it is still in the short-term memory. The primacy effect causes better memory of the first items in a list due to increased rehearsal and commitment to long-term memory.
    1. Removing likes could impact two types of biased decisions. One, deciding whether or not to “like” a photo. If you don’t know how many other people have liked that photo, your deci-sion to like it will probably be less biased. In Chapter 3, we’ll talk about the bandwagon effect, but knowing what opinion others have expressed can have a huge impact on the opinion you express. Removing likes is Instagram’s way of anonymiz-ing voting.



    1. The researchers found that women who reported being stressed out during the prior 24 hours burned 104 fewer calories than the women who were not stressed.
  6. Sep 2020
    1. 8-Up works like this: 1. Get eight people in a room and ask them a design ques-tion like “How might we do a better job of moving peo-ple around?”2. Then tell them: “You each have three minutes to come up with three ideas for how we might do a better job of moving people around.”3. Once those three minutes have passed, all eight people should have three ideas each. You then tell them: “Great, now turn to your neighbor, show them your three ideas, they will show you their three ideas, take those six ideas and whittle them down to two.”4. After they’ve done that, say to each pair: “Okay, show your two ideas to the pair next to you. They’ll show you their two ideas. Take those four ideas and whittle them down to two.”5. After that, you’ll have two groups of four with two ideas each. You get all eight people together and say: “Take those four ideas and whittle them down to one.”This tends to produce better ideas than just saying, “Hey, eight people, come up with ideas and we’ll vote on the best one.” Or: “Hey, eight people, I’m gonna lock you in a room until you agree on an idea.”

      How about the opposite of this with throwing out the worst option first as a means of setting a bar for coming up with better. Example: In a group of people going out to lunch, suggest everyone goes to McDonalds, a restaurant you're reasonably sure no one will want to go to, to get better ideas. This is another sort of framing by creating a dreadfully low set point.

    2. Question design is one of the key tools we have at our disposal when trying to get people to work together. The art of turning a “should” statement into a “how might we” statement works something like this: for any “should” question, understand what the goal of the proposed solution is, and then frame a “how” question around that goal.
    3. Again, we only changed a few words, but that new frame engenders a completely different conversation. This is why designers love the phrase “How might we...”—because it opens up the conversation to solutions.

      Framing the problem can create different sorts of solutions



    1. Ip, A., Ahn, J., Zhou, Y., Goy, A. H., Hansen, E., Pecora, A. L., Sinclaire, B. A., Bednarz, U., Marafelias, M., Mathura, S., Sawczuk, I. S., Underwood, J. P., Walker, D. M., Prasad, R., Sweeney, R. L., Ponce, M. G., LaCapra, S., Cunningham, F. J., Calise, A. G., … Goldberg, S. L. (2020). Hydroxychloroquine in the treatment of outpatients with mildly symptomatic COVID-19: A multi-center observational study. MedRxiv, 2020.08.20.20178772. https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.08.20.20178772

  7. Aug 2020
    1. name-pronunciation effect. And it’s exactly what you would expect. People with names you find easy to pronounce are viewed more favorably than those with names deemed difficult to pronounce, which can lead to pro-motions, votes, and more.
    2. The framing effect, which is the bias the above examples exploit, is in my opinion the most dangerous bias in the world.
    3. mere-exposure effect, which occurs when you like something simply because you’ve seen it before. What’s remarkable about this effect is that it works even if you don’t remember seeing the thing before!
  8. Jul 2020
    1. The first REM sleep period not only begins too early in the night in people who are clinically depressed, it is also often abnormally long. Instead of the usual 10 minutes or so, this REM may last twice that.

      This is one of the effects of depression

    1. Therefore, it’s not so much that an appealing design makes an interface more effective, but that itmakes humans more effective. Thus, the human and the computer function better as a whole.This relationship between interface attractiveness and improved usability is known as theaesthetics-usability effect.
  9. Jun 2020
    1. Writing is a great tool to compound your learning. To write about something, you need to first understand it. Forcing yourself to write after reading something can help you create a "generational effect". Your brain retains the information more by having to "create" the information as opposed to passively reading it off of a screen/page.

      Writing in public is the preferential mode of writing. It allows you to receive critiques on your writing, which in turn can help you gain more knowledge. You can gain perspective, or discover new ways to tacke a problem.

  10. May 2020
    1. Myers, K. R., Tham, W. Y., Yin, Y., Cohodes, N., Thursby, J. G., Thursby, M. C., Schiffer, P. E., Walsh, J. T., Lakhani, K. R., & Wang, D. (2020). Quantifying the Immediate Effects of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Scientists. ArXiv:2005.11358 [Physics]. http://arxiv.org/abs/2005.11358

    1. Holmes, E. A., O’Connor, R. C., Perry, V. H., Tracey, I., Wessely, S., Arseneault, L., Ballard, C., Christensen, H., Silver, R. C., Everall, I., Ford, T., John, A., Kabir, T., King, K., Madan, I., Michie, S., Przybylski, A. K., Shafran, R., Sweeney, A., … Bullmore, E. (2020). Multidisciplinary research priorities for the COVID-19 pandemic: A call for action for mental health science. The Lancet Psychiatry, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/S2215-0366(20)30168-1

    1. The administration and its allies fear that the more people gravitate toward the successful, free-market self-insurance approach, the worse their government-engineered health “reform” will look. We’re already seeing the beginning of this trend.
    1. In a classroom or professional setting, an expert might perform some of these tasks for a learner (Metacognitive supports as cognitive scaffolding), but when a learner’s on their own, these metacognitive activities may be taxing or beyond reach.

      In a classroom setting a teacher may perform many of the metacognitive tasks that are necessary for the student to learn. E.g. they may take over monitoring for confusion as well as testing the students to evaluate their understanding.

  11. Apr 2020
    1. Graphically, interactions can be seen as non-parallel lines connecting means when we are working with the simple two-factor factorial with 2 levels of each main effect (adapted from Zar, H. Biostatistical Analysis, 5th Ed., 1999). Remember interactions are referring to the failure of a response variable to one factor to be the same at different levels of another factor. So when lines are parallel the response is the same. In the plots below you will see parallel lines as a consistent feature in all of the plots with no interaction. In plots depicting interactions, you notice that the lines cross (or would cross if the lines kept going).

      Main and interaction effects - graphs

    1. But recent events have made me question the prudence of releasing this information, even for research purposes. The arrest and aggressive prosecution of Barrett Brown had a marked chilling effect on both journalists and security researchers.
    2. At Brown’s sentencing, Judge Lindsay was quoted as saying “What took place is not going to chill any 1st Amendment expression by Journalists.” But he was so wrong. Brown’s arrest and prosecution had a substantial chilling effect on journalism. Some journalists have simply stopped reporting on hacks from fear of retribution and others who still do are forced to employ extraordinary measures to protect themselves from prosecution.
    3. Having said all that, I think this is completely absurd that I have to write an entire article justifying the release of this data out of fear of prosecution or legal harassment. I had wanted to write an article about the data itself but I will have to do that later because I had to write this lame thing trying to convince the FBI not to raid me.
  12. Mar 2020
    1. Factors that affect power

      Factors that affect power.

    2. Cohen’s recommendations:  Jacob Cohen has many well-known publications regarding issues of power and power analyses, including some recommendations about effect sizes that you can use when doing your power analysis.  Many researchers (including Cohen) consider the use of such recommendations as a last resort, when a thorough literature review has failed to reveal any useful numbers and a pilot study is either not possible or not feasible.  From Cohen (1988, pages 24-27):

      Recommendations from Cohen about choosing the effect size when doing a power analysis.

  13. Dec 2019
  14. Sep 2019
  15. journals.sagepub.com journals.sagepub.com