135 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
  2. Jul 2020
    1. The first REM sleep period not only begins too early in the night in people who are clinically depressed, it is also often abnormally long. Instead of the usual 10 minutes or so, this REM may last twice that.

      This is one of the effects of depression

    1. Therefore, it’s not so much that an appealing design makes an interface more effective, but that itmakes humans more effective. Thus, the human and the computer function better as a whole.This relationship between interface attractiveness and improved usability is known as theaesthetics-usability effect.
  3. Jun 2020
    1. Writing is a great tool to compound your learning. To write about something, you need to first understand it. Forcing yourself to write after reading something can help you create a "generational effect". Your brain retains the information more by having to "create" the information as opposed to passively reading it off of a screen/page.

      Writing in public is the preferential mode of writing. It allows you to receive critiques on your writing, which in turn can help you gain more knowledge. You can gain perspective, or discover new ways to tacke a problem.

  4. May 2020
    1. Myers, K. R., Tham, W. Y., Yin, Y., Cohodes, N., Thursby, J. G., Thursby, M. C., Schiffer, P. E., Walsh, J. T., Lakhani, K. R., & Wang, D. (2020). Quantifying the Immediate Effects of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Scientists. ArXiv:2005.11358 [Physics]. http://arxiv.org/abs/2005.11358

    1. Holmes, E. A., O’Connor, R. C., Perry, V. H., Tracey, I., Wessely, S., Arseneault, L., Ballard, C., Christensen, H., Silver, R. C., Everall, I., Ford, T., John, A., Kabir, T., King, K., Madan, I., Michie, S., Przybylski, A. K., Shafran, R., Sweeney, A., … Bullmore, E. (2020). Multidisciplinary research priorities for the COVID-19 pandemic: A call for action for mental health science. The Lancet Psychiatry, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/S2215-0366(20)30168-1

    1. The administration and its allies fear that the more people gravitate toward the successful, free-market self-insurance approach, the worse their government-engineered health “reform” will look. We’re already seeing the beginning of this trend.
    1. In a classroom or professional setting, an expert might perform some of these tasks for a learner (Metacognitive supports as cognitive scaffolding), but when a learner’s on their own, these metacognitive activities may be taxing or beyond reach.

      In a classroom setting a teacher may perform many of the metacognitive tasks that are necessary for the student to learn. E.g. they may take over monitoring for confusion as well as testing the students to evaluate their understanding.

  5. Apr 2020
    1. Ebbinghaus had also documented the serial position effect, which describes how the position of an item affects recall. The two main concepts in the serial position effect are recency and primacy. The recency effect describes the increased recall of the most recent information because it is still in the short-term memory. The primacy effect causes better memory of the first items in a list due to increased rehearsal and commitment to long-term memory.
    1. Graphically, interactions can be seen as non-parallel lines connecting means when we are working with the simple two-factor factorial with 2 levels of each main effect (adapted from Zar, H. Biostatistical Analysis, 5th Ed., 1999). Remember interactions are referring to the failure of a response variable to one factor to be the same at different levels of another factor. So when lines are parallel the response is the same. In the plots below you will see parallel lines as a consistent feature in all of the plots with no interaction. In plots depicting interactions, you notice that the lines cross (or would cross if the lines kept going).

      Main and interaction effects - graphs

    1. But recent events have made me question the prudence of releasing this information, even for research purposes. The arrest and aggressive prosecution of Barrett Brown had a marked chilling effect on both journalists and security researchers.
    2. At Brown’s sentencing, Judge Lindsay was quoted as saying “What took place is not going to chill any 1st Amendment expression by Journalists.” But he was so wrong. Brown’s arrest and prosecution had a substantial chilling effect on journalism. Some journalists have simply stopped reporting on hacks from fear of retribution and others who still do are forced to employ extraordinary measures to protect themselves from prosecution.
    3. Having said all that, I think this is completely absurd that I have to write an entire article justifying the release of this data out of fear of prosecution or legal harassment. I had wanted to write an article about the data itself but I will have to do that later because I had to write this lame thing trying to convince the FBI not to raid me.
  6. Mar 2020
    1. Factors that affect power

      Factors that affect power.

    2. Cohen’s recommendations:  Jacob Cohen has many well-known publications regarding issues of power and power analyses, including some recommendations about effect sizes that you can use when doing your power analysis.  Many researchers (including Cohen) consider the use of such recommendations as a last resort, when a thorough literature review has failed to reveal any useful numbers and a pilot study is either not possible or not feasible.  From Cohen (1988, pages 24-27):

      Recommendations from Cohen about choosing the effect size when doing a power analysis.

  7. Dec 2019
  8. Sep 2019
    1. One reason why the students assigned open textbooks may use those textbooks more is that they perceive a greater need for/relevance of their textbook relative to those assigned traditional textbooks

      The absence of the teacher here seems like an issue. To what extent may the students have come up with that perception on their own, or might they perceive it because the teacher told them about the work involved in vetting this particular textbook? What, if anything, did the traditional textbook teachers say?

      (Further down the paragraph it's made clear that the OERs were adapted to be more relevant, which I agree is part of the attraction of OERs and including that is fair. But I'd still like to know what the teachers said in class about it, if anything.)

    2. and students assigned an open textbook reported a significantly higher percentage of underutilized textbooks (M = 52.20, SE = 1.38) than those assigned a traditional textbook (M = 48.44, SE = 1.21)

      Students who have been primed with the knowledge that this course uses a lower-cost OER text are more critical of textbook price vs use in other courses?

  9. Aug 2019
    1. Lossofthecost-sharingsubsidiesalonemeansthatpremiumswillrisebyanestimated19%in2018,varyingfrom7%to38%bystate[17]–andbyfarmore(between35%and90%)overathree-yearperiod[18].Thisisontopofotherpremiumincreasesresultingfromhigherthananticipatedserviceutilization.(Pre-miumincreasesfromrepealoftheindividualmandatewillnotoccuruntil2019.)Whilethesizeofpremiumincreasesvariesagreatdealbystate,theyweresubstantialduringthe2018openenrollmentperiod(whichendedon15December2017inthefed-eralmarketplace)–anaverageincreaseof34%forSilverplans

      This is what the national conference came out with

    1. Thus, if the Birch effect carbon release is primarily from microbial materials, dry–wet cycling might reduce long-term carbon loss from soil. In contrast, if the Birch effect results from mobilizing otherwise stable old carbon pools, it would fuel microbial growth, possibly priming the loss of additional stable soil carbon.

      Implications of birch effect - Climate change

    2. It has long been recognized that rewetting a dry soil causes a pulse of CO2 (the Birch effect)
    3. It is also unclear whether the flush of activity on rewetting is driven by microbial growth or by the physical/chemical processes that mobilize organic matter

      birch effect conondrum

  10. Jul 2019
  11. Jun 2019
    1. This article concentrates on 5 different areas of Quebec (Beauce, Terrebonne, Charlevoix, Rimouski and Sanguenay) where hereditary disorders occur at varying rates and for a variety of specific disorders. They investigate how frequent or rare these genes and/ or mutations are in present day populations, keeping in mind the geographic migrations of the founding population. The population is unique because not only did the "founder's effect" occur, but the French-Canadians kept very in-depth genealogical records (mainly through Catholic Church supported baptismal and marriage records and the Church's encouragement of large families), and also due to their historical isolation after their "founding" due to political changes in Europe and the US.

      "Because of the structure and demographic history of its population, Quebec, which developed from a small pool of founders and whose rapid expansion was primarily the result of natural increase, constitutes a remarkable laboratory for population genetics studies. The genealogies that can be reconstructed for this context possess levels of completeness and depth rarely obtained elsewhere." Thoughts: these 5 populations are different than the usual studies I have come across which tend to focus just on the areas north of the St. Lawrence River (Saguenay-Lac-St-Jean) where the genetic disease rate is astronomical in comparison to the large immigrant-centered cities of Montreal and Quebec City. The study's authors note their weaknesses as: their relatively small sample size (must have skewed their results), also did not take in the nature of recessive genes in these populations.

  12. Mar 2019
    1. Edward Thorndike's three laws of learning. The page does not explain this, but his theories came out in about 1900. His three laws of learning appear to be relevant to our course work. This simple page features black text on a white page. It is brief and it simply describes the three laws of learning. rating 5/5

    1. Pitch Shift

      One example of this technique is Arcade Fire's album The Suburbs. Producer Craig Silvery explained in SOS November 2010 that he used "two short delays from an AMS with a little pitch-shift, one up and one down, which thickened the vocals like a doubler”. https://www.soundonsound.com/people/craig-silvey-mixing-arcade-fire-suburbs

  13. Feb 2019
    1. 1. Explore the current situation. Paint a picture in words by including the “presenting problem,” the impact it is having, the consequences of not solving the problem, and the emotions the problem is creating for those involved.

      This step is somewhat similar to the EEC (Evidence/Example Effect Change/Challenge) model, often used with Feedback?

  14. Jan 2019
    1. recede the media concepts they generate

      This brings to mind Cicero's De Oratore, where Crassus discusses art (in the sense of a skill, systematic knowledge of a particular field) and eloquence. Instead of a theory of rhetoric/oratory leading to eloquence, "certain people have observed and collected the practices that eloquent men have followed of their own accord. Thus, eloquence is not the offspring of art, but art [is the offspring] of eloquence." The skill itself always precedes the systematization of the skill.

  15. Nov 2018
    1. He and other SHM officials have pushed hospitalists for the past few years to formalize their HIT duties by seeing if they would qualify to take the exam for board certification in medical informatics, which was created in 2013 by the American Board of Medical Specialties (ABMS). Between certification of that skill set and working more with technology vendors and others to improve HIT, Dr. Rogers sees HM being able to help reform much of the current technology woes in just a few years.
    2. “To me, this is the new frontier,” Dr. Wachter says. “If our defining mantra as a field is, ‘How do we make care better for patients, and how do we create a better system?’ … well, I don’t see how you say that without really owning the issue of informatics.”
    3. SHM’s Information Technology Committee, believes that hospitalists have to take ownership of health information technology (HIT) in their own buildings.
      • Kendall Rogers = Chair of SHM Information Technology Committee
      • Future role of hospitalist = QI initiatives, health information technology
      • Training needs, fellowship curricular components
    4. Dr. Bessler of Sound Physicians notes that advances in technology have come with their hurdles as well. Take the oft-maligned world of electronic medical records (EMRs). “EMRs are great for data, but they’re not workflow solutions,” Dr. Bessler says. “They don’t tell you what do next.” So Sound Physicians created its own technology platform, dubbed Sound Connect, that interacts with in-place EMRs at hospitals across the country. The in-house system takes the functional documentation of EMRs and overlays productivity protocols, Dr. Bessler says. “It allows us to run a standard workflow and drive reproducible results and put meaningful data in the hands of the docs on a daily basis in the way that an EMR is just not set up to do,” he adds. Technology will continue “to be instrumental, of course, but I think the key thing is interoperability, which plenty has been written on, so we’re not unique in that. The more the public demands and the clinicians demand … the better patient care will be. I think the concept of EMR companies not being easy to work with has to end.”

      Biggest challenge will be integration of different technological solutions and sources of data - workflows for delivering care and for research purposes (e.g., person-level QI initiatives, passive baseline data)

    5. “It doesn’t just help make hospitalists work better. It makes nursing better. It makes surgeons better. It makes pharmacy better.”
    6. In the last 20 years, HM and technology have drastically changed the hospital landscape. But was HM pushed along by generational advances in computing power, smart devices in the shape of phones and tablets, and the software that powered those machines? Or was technology spurred on by having people it could serve directly in the hospital, as opposed to the traditionally fragmented system that preceded HM? “Bob [Wachter] and others used to joke that the only people that actually understand the computer system are the hospitalists,” Dr. Goldman notes. “Chicken or the egg, right?” adds Dr. Merlino of Press Ganey. “Technology is an enabler that helps providers deliver better care. I think healthcare quality in general has been helped by both.

      Chicken or the egg? Technological advances were tailored for specific needs in accordance with growth of hospitalist model

  16. Oct 2018
    1. Liliana began experiencing abuse as a young child and it followed her through adulthood. She explained that the abuse started while she was very young; her mother was an alcoholic and nearly beat her to death. The beatings she received from her mother became so bad that she had to go live with her grandmother. Furthermore, a family friend sexually abused Liliana as a child. As an adolescent her friends held her down while a man raped her.

      Las fuertes e impactantes declarciones de Liliana son un ejemplo de efecto acumulativo en cuanto a que estuvo prolongadamente expuesta a factores negativos y mientras más intensa es la exposición, peor se manifiesta el efecto en la salud.

    1. Angela suffers from bouts of depression related to childhood memories of abuse.

      Angela fue afectada por abusos en su niñez y ese cuadro lo reproduce en su hijo como si tuviera alguna predisposición inconsciente.<br>

    1. Silvia’s father went to prison when she was a baby, and served 10 years for selling drugs. Without his support, her mother struggled to provide financially for her and her brother. Her mother also suffered from a mental disorder for which she received SSI. While Silvia was growing up, the family relied on public assistance and ate mostly cheap food such as canned ravioli and Ramen noodles. Silvia remembers being hungry often and recalls that her mother often ignored Silvia and her brother.

      Pienso que esto es Pathway effect en cuanto a que Silvia de alguna manera reprodujo lo que vio en su hogar porque ya tenia un escenario predispuesto. El health behavior que quiero destacar es el comportamiento en cuanto a la dieta ya que eran pobres y comía comida enlatada no saludable y no tenían seguridad alimentaria.

    2. A life course perspective takes into account the intergenerational aspects of poverty that affect child health and well being and contributes to an understanding of child food insecurity not as a static event experienced over a month or a year but rather as a series of experiences that reverberate through adulthood. With a life course perspective, childhood experiences are shown to influence and shape adult health, ability to work, and earning potential.

      Este es un ejemplo que demuestra como mientras más prolongada sea la exposición a series de experiencias negativas acumulativas, peor el desenlace y los efectos

    3. adversity and traumatic events that occur in childhood have a decisive impact on behaviors, choices, and social relationships that extend into adulthood. In such contexts, adults may seek out violent relationships, may constantly be in a state of heightened aggressive arousal, may withdraw and experience social isolation, or may struggle to keep boundaries associated with normal social and professional behavior related to intimacy, safety and security, and job stability.

      Como indica el efecto de vía o camino, aquí se demuestra como las experiencias traumáticas a temprana edad pueden predestinarte a tener un futuro fracasado, es decir, dan forma a la experiencias subsecuentes.

    4. esults from the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Study have repeatedly demonstrated that, controlling for all other factors, adverse experiences such as neglect and abuse are associated with major adult diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, depression, anxiety, and early mortality.41

      Esto es un ejemplo de efectos latentes en la medida en que el rechazo y el abuso en la niñez están asociados directamente con enfermedades reflejadas más en la adultez como la diabetes, enfermedades mentales y del corazón. Es un ejemplo de experiencias en la niñez que forman o moldean la vida adulta:

  17. Sep 2018
    1. One explanation has been that many of an animal's traits are not fixed, but can change during its lifetime. This "phenotypic plasticity" enables individual animals to alter their appearance or behavior enough to survive in a new environment. Eventually, new adaptations promoting survival arise in the population through genetic changes and natural selection, which acts on the population over generations. This is known as the "Baldwin effect" after the psychologist James Mark Baldwin, who presented the idea in a landmark paper published in 1896.
  18. Mar 2018
    1. “Kilgore was well aware that what he was doing was illegal but his sick sexual fantasy to have sex with a little girl pushed him to having an Uber deliver her to him,” Canadian County Sheriff Chris West said.

      Biasing statement, made by a trusted official in position of power. Pro-prosecution effect.

    2. Pervert

      Emotional, not factual information. Pro-prosecution effect

    1. But she seemed like a different person on other online accounts.
    2. full-time wife and mom on Facebook but lived another life on other social media platforms. With a resemblance to Marilyn Monroe, she called herself an exhibitionist and posted risque photos with a chance for subscribers to see sexier images for $15.99 a month.

      This is not relevant to the successful prosecution of this woman's murderer. Pro-defense effect. Casts the victim in a sketchy light so as to evoke emotion from the jury pool. Attempting to separate the victim from possible jury pool (i.e., harder for jurors to imagine themselves the victim).

    3. “He was the suspect from the very beginning,” Lemley said.

      Pro-prosecution effect. Biasing towards the defendant.

  19. Jan 2018
    1. Small release groups can fail to establish populations owing to either chance fates of those individuals (demographic stochasticity), or to low reproduction or survival rates at low densities (Allee effects)

      Initial population has to be large enough to avoid founder effects and stochasticity, as well as remain dense enough to support the survival of individuals.

  20. Oct 2017
    1. Gas! GAS! Quick, boys!—An ecstasy of fumbling

      WWI marked the introduction of chemical warfare which in return created complete terror and pandemonium; soldiers were not prepared for the effects of chemical warfare. As Jones indicates, the use of chemical warfare was to “terrorize the enemy and make their troops temporarily lose their minds.” Alexander Watson also claimed in his study (as cited in Jones, 2014) “gas created uncertainty: unlike shrapnel, it killed from the inside, eroding a soldier’s sense of control, while raising the terrifying fear of being suffocated." Going off the “created uncertainty” we have the use of "ecstasy" which encompasses a trance-like state; coinciding with the idea of being "drunk with fatigue" (see above annotation) from the effects of the gas. The delayed reactions of the soldiers against the gas would result in a behavior of "fumbling." The gas was designed to attack the nervous system; accelerating the deterioration of the body and mind.

    2. Drunk with fatigue

      War is not only difficult on the physical aspect of an individual; it is just as difficult on the emotional and mental capacity of a human. It is factual that WWI culminated an astronomical amount of casualties, destruction, and disablement. This reference to being “drunk” may help guide us into the notion that soldiers are not able to differentiate between fantasy and reality under the duress of mentioned “fatigue.” We can understand that the state of "drunk" alters your reality and can have dangerous repercussions; in this sense, the loss of one's mind or life. In the prior lines we have loss of physical functionalities of the human body with words such as “limped on,” “lame,” and “blind,” which coincides with the premature aging or physical deterioration of the soldiers.

  21. Sep 2017
    1. Anyone who looked directly at the blast would be blinded
    2. combination of blast, heat, and radiation would kill virtually everyone in this zone. The blast would be accompanied by winds of many hundreds of miles per hour
    3. . Out to more than half a mile, the blast would be strong enough to collapse most residential buildings and create a serious danger that office buildings would topple over, killing those inside and those in the path of the rubble
    4. Thousands of panic-stricken people might receive deadly doses of radiation as they fled from their homes. Some of the radiation will be longer-lived; areas most severely affected would have to be abandoned for many years after the attack

      Secondary effect from panic

  22. Aug 2017
    1. The trend of deeply negative reporting still serves the corporate culture, because if people just feel doom and gloom, then you might as well just keep buying a bunch of crap, eat hamburgers, and chain smoke cigarettes because there's no future anyway.

      This is so important to note. This is in a way is comparable to the Rebound Effect squared. Where the Rebound Effect goes mostly unnoticed and takes places on a subconscious level, this is rather a "Well, f**k it then...", which is more severe...

  23. Jun 2017
  24. Mar 2017
    1. "effective literature could be noth-ing else but rhetoric."

      Thereby implying that "ineffective literature" can be a thing and that the absence of rhetoric in literature can also be a thing. Which, idk, I'm not sure if I buy this. But I suppose that depends on my definition of rhetoric and also my definition of effective.

    1. Dunning–Kruger effect is a cognitive bias in which low-ability individuals suffer from illusory superiority, mistakenly assessing their ability as much higher than it really is.

      Never knew that it had a name...

  25. Oct 2016
    1. high-level staffers, about half “attended private colleges for their undergraduate degree, including 10 percent who went to an Ivy League school.” They are typically the ones who get the internships inside the D.C. beltway, as well as can afford to carry the expenses of internships.

      The only people that can make a change haven't ever experienced what its like to not be able to succeed educationally.

    2. In Draut’s analysis, after the 2008 crash, about half of the news focused on the banks, a third on the federal response, a fifth on businesses and only a smattering on working-class people who might have lost jobs or their houses

      The media isn't giving the needed attention to the private sector, only furthering the negative effects.

    3. 1990s and the first decade of the 2000s” those from higher classes have little substantive contact with those from the working class except when they ring up their groceries or take care of their elderly relatives.

      Wealth gap furthering in the U.S.

    4. steep increase in student debt and student work hours.

      Students are working harder (EFFECT) and going into greater amounts of debt (EFFECT)

    5. The cultural divide has two daunting consequences.

      EFFECTS. (1) media careers come from college degrees; (2) political interns/congressional staffers come from college degrees. Discuss the implications here.

  26. Sep 2016
    1. Activities such as time spent on task and discussion board interactions are at the forefront of research.

      Really? These aren’t uncontroversial, to say the least. For instance, discussion board interactions often call for careful, mixed-method work with an eye to preventing instructor effect and confirmation bias. “Time on task” is almost a codeword for distinctions between models of learning. Research in cognitive science gives very nuanced value to “time spent on task” while the Malcolm Gladwells of the world usurp some research results. A major insight behind Competency-Based Education is that it can allow for some variance in terms of “time on task”. So it’s kind of surprising that this summary puts those two things to the fore.

  27. Jul 2016
    1. By merely being in the room, the devices will monitor students’ behavior in the same way that the cameras and switches and lab coats did in Milgram’s experiments.

      Hope education scientists are deeply concerned about the consequences of their observing learners.

  28. Jun 2016
  29. Apr 2016
  30. gamesandlearning.wordpress.com gamesandlearning.wordpress.com
    1. participants in a university graduate course

      Can’t shake the feeling that there’s a bit of a Hawthorne Effect at play with #ILT5320.