455 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
    1. 2021-07-21

    2. Dyer, O. (2021). Covid-19: Two thirds in India carry antibodies, while research suggests country’s death toll is 10 times official figure. BMJ, 374, n1856. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.n1856

    3. India’s fourth “serosurvey” of the covid pandemic has found neutralising antibodies to the novel coronavirus in 67.6% of people aged over 6, suggesting that more than two in three people have already been exposed to the virus or a vaccine.1The survey, conducted in the last 10 days of June and the first week of July, indicates the scale of the punishing second wave that hit the country in May. The previous survey, done in December and January, found seropositivity in only 24.1% of people tested.Some of the antibodies detected were due to vaccination rather than infection. India had administered about 300 million doses before the latest survey. The pace has since quickened, and 412 million doses have been given as of 21 July.About 400 million people remain highly susceptible to the virus, warned Balram Bhargava, director of the Indian Council of Medical Research, which conducted the survey. The distribution of antibodies was geographically uneven, he said, leaving pockets of greater vulnerability around the country. Women and city dwellers had slightly more antibodies than average. The most seropositive age group was people aged 45-60, of whom 77.6% had antibodies. The least seropositive group was children aged 6-9, of whom 57.2% had antibodies.
    4. 10.1136/bmj.n1856
    5. Covid-19: Two thirds in India carry antibodies, while research suggests country’s death toll is 10 times official figure
    1. 2021-07-21

    2. Holmberg, D., Bell, K. M., & Cadman, K. (2021). A Little Good News—Relationships During Early Stages of COVID-19 Pandemic. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/x7sq4

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/x7sq4
    4. Media attention has highlighted the Covid-19 pandemic’s negative effects on romantic relationships (e.g., increased partner aggression). The current mixed-method study also explored potential positive effects, and how the relative balance of positive versus negative effects might have changed over time during the first pandemic wave. Individuals (N = 186) who participated in a pre-COVID study were recruited through MTurk to participate in a four-wave longitudinal follow-up, every two weeks from mid-April to late May 2020. Participants completed an 8-item self-report measure assessing perceived negative and positive effects of the pandemic on their romantic relationship. Multi-level models revealed that perceived positive effects were substantially higher than perceived negative effects at each timepoint, even amongst those who reported being more heavily impacted by the pandemic. Both positive and negative effects were stable across time. Open-ended questions at the final time point were coded for common themes. The most common negative theme centered on increased stress or tension in the relationship, while the most common positive theme discussed the importance of focusing on and appreciating the relationship, including taking advantage of the gift of increased time together the pandemic had brought. Amongst all of the pandemic’s bad news, it is refreshing to consider the possibility of pandemic-related benefits for people’s romantic relationships.
    5. A Little Good News - Relationships During Early Stages of COVID-19 Pandemic
    1. 2021-07-21

    2. Anderson, J., Lueders, A., Sankaran, S., Green, E., & Politi, E. (2021). The COVID-19 Multifaceted Threat Scale. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/jfgvr

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/jfgvr
    4. The COVID-19 pandemic represents an unprecedented threat for individuals worldwide. This paper reports the initial psychometric properties for the recently developed COVID-19 Multifaceted Threat Scale. Across three studies the construction and initial psychometric evidence is presented. In Study 1 (n = 194, 11 national groups), we adopted an inductive qualitative methodology to elicit participants’ concerns, worries, or fears about the corona pandemic. A thematic analysis revealed 10 consistent themes around threat, from which we constructed a pool of 100 potential items. In Study 2, a sample from the United States (n = 322) provided data for an exploratory factor analysis which reduced the 100 items to 30 items across the 10 hypothesised dimensions sub-factors. In Study 3, these findings were then ratified in samples from the United States (n = 471) and India (n = 423) using a multi-group confirmatory factor analysis. We also present reliability estimates (internal consistency: Studies 2-3) and preliminary evidence of the validity for the scale across two national groups (United States and India). The evidence presented suggests that the COVID-19 Multifaceted Threat Scale is a psychometrically sound measure and can be used to explore current and long-lasting effects of the pandemic on individuals and societies.
    5. The COVID-19 Multifaceted Threat Scale
    1. 10.31234/osf.io/q3jus
    2. 2021-07-20

    3. Crandall, C., & Bahns, A. (2021). How Much Do Masks Affect Social Interaction? PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/q3jus

    4. We test the effect of mask-wearing on normal social interactino. College students (N=250) were assigned to find and interact with a previously unknown student in a lecture hall, converse and then evaluate the interaction. Half were randomly assigned to wear a blue surgical mask, sunglasses, and hat; half wore no extra gear. Run in 2012 before masks carried political meaning, mask wearing had almost no effect on the ease, authenticity, or friendliness of the conversation, mood, discomfort or interestingness of the interaction. Those without masks were more likely to find people on the basis of preference for shared social activities (e.g., going to the gym in groups); those wearing masks were more likely to find people by shared preference for more individual activities (e.g., going to the gym alone). Mask-wearing did not fundamentally disable normal social interaction in this setting.
    5. How Much Do Masks Affect Social Interaction?
    1. 2021-07-20

    2. Ścigała, K. A., Schild, C., Lilleholt, L., Moshagen, M., Stückler, A., Zettler, I., & Pfattheicher, S. (2021). Aversive personality and COVID-19: A first review and meta-analysis. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/vg465

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/vg465
    4. The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has strongly affected individuals and societies worldwide. In this review and meta-analysis, we investigated how aversive personality traits—i.e., relatively stable antisocial personality characteristics—related to how individuals perceived, evaluated, and responded to the COVID-19 pandemic. Across 34 studies with overall 26,780 participants, we found that people with higher scores in aversive personality traits were less likely to perceive guidelines and restrictions to curb the spread of the virus as protective (p̂ = -.11), to engage in health behaviors related to COVID-19 (p̂ = -.16), and to engage in non-health related prosocial behavior related to COVID-19 (p̂ = -.14). We found no consistent relation between aversive personality and negative affect regarding the pandemic. The results thus indicate the importance of aversive personality traits in understanding individual differences with regard to COVID-19.
    5. Aversive personality and COVID-19: A first review and meta-analysis
    1. 2021-07-20

    2. Romero, P., Mikiya, Y., Nakatsuma, T., Fitz, S., & Koch, T. (2021). Modelling Personality Change During Extreme Exogenous Conditions. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/rtmjw

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/rtmjw
    4. A Bayesian Study On Social Media Language During The First Wave of the COVID-19 Pandemic. Personality traits change over time, however research on it was sparse, since previous approaches were too time-consuming and expensive. Also, the necessary methodological complexity was beyond the capabilities of classical personality researchers, which resulted in contradictory results and lack of methodological standards. In this paper, we presented a simple and cost-effective method that overcame these restrictions. We introduced a machine learning approach for daily measurements to personality research, and developed a bespoke Bayesian algorithm to analyse the observed change. This resulted in uncovering concrete points of regime-shift that overlapped with relevant exogenous events for a Japanese sample of social media users. With it, we showed that personality measures displayed significant elasticity under extreme exogenous conditions during the first wave of COVID-19 and the subsequent societal countermeasures, which can be interpreted as a temporary shift from normal expression of latent psychological traits z to their respective emergency expression ze. Concretely, we found that the group of top 25% Conscientiousness users displayed a significant change in the FFM factors Agreeableness and Extraversion. We finally compared our findings with those from similar studies in other cultures, and discussed generalisability as well as future qualitative and quantitative directions for research.
    5. Modelling Personality Change During Extreme Exogenous Conditions
    1. 2021-07-17

    2. Kanero, J., & Aktan-Erciyes, A. (2021). Parental contributions to language development during the COVID-19. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/wvbjd

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/wvbjd
    4. The COVID-19 pandemic caused temporary yet significant changes in young children’s learning environments around the world. In Turkey and many other countries where young children are commonly taken care of at home, a notable pandemic-related change was the increased presence of the father at home. This study utilized this unusual situation to examine the contributions of mothers and fathers in language learning. A two-part online survey was administered to the parents of an 8- to 36- month-old, and we analyzed data from 128 families at Time 1 (Mage = 21.91) and 52 families at Time 2 (Mage = 25.09). As a proxy of the parental language input, we asked the parents to write a story about a picture as if they were telling a bedtime story to their child. The number of words used in the mother’s story, but not the father’s story, predicted the vocabulary level of children.
    5. Parental contributions to language development during the COVID-19
    1. 2021-07-17

    2. Victor, S. E., Trieu, T. H., & Seymour, N. (2021). LGBTQ+ mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic: Testing mechanisms and moderators of risk. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/3famu

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/3famu
    4. The COVID-19 pandemic has created tremendous, and unequal, burdens on mental and physical health throughout the United States. Prior work suggests that LGBTQ+ individuals have experienced disproportionate harms due to the COVID-19 pandemic, but potential mechanisms underlying these disparities remain unclear. In a large (N = 893) sample of U.S. LGBTQ+ adults, we examined four theoretically derived risk factors as potential contributors to depression, anxiety, and suicidal ideation during the summer of 2020. Stressors and disruptions due to the COVID-19 pandemic were common, with over 25% of participants experiencing changes in their living situation, 40% reporting interruptions in health care access, and high levels stress due to social isolation, financial concerns, and increased mental health symptoms. We found that social disconnection, disruptions in health care, financial strain, and efforts to avoid disclosing one’s sexual orientation or gender identity at home were each associated with poorer mental health, with the largest effects evident for identity disclosure avoidance. Transgender and gender diverse adults reported poorer mental health overall, but gender identity did not moderate the effects of other tested risk factors. Results highlight the importance of considering LGBTQ+ mental health in the context of minority-specific stress processes, in addition to more general social determinants of health.
    5. LGBTQ+ mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic: Testing mechanisms and moderators of risk
    1. 2021-07-14

    2. Brunson EK, Schoch-Spana M, Carnes M, Hosangadi D, Long R, Ravi S, Taylor M, Trotochaud M, Veenema TG, on behalf of the CommuniVax Coalition. Carrying Equity in COVID-19 Vaccination Forward: Guidance Informed by Communities of Color. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins Center for Health Security; 2021.

    3. Carrying Equity in COVID-19 Vaccination Forward: Guidance Informed by Communities of Color
    4. Seven months into the COVID-19 vaccination campaign in the United States, nearly 50% of the American population has been vaccinated. While this is a monumental accomplishment, there is still much work to do. In the coming months, the country will face a series of vaccination challenges including serving groups with persistently low vaccine uptake (due to, for example, low/no access, vaccine hesitancy, or a combination of factors), expanding COVID-19 vaccination to children (particularly those whose parents may be less willing to vaccinate their children than to get vaccinated themselves), and orchestrating a potential booster dose campaign (with its own hesitancy issues). As the COVID-19 vaccination campaign continues, lessons from the vaccine rollout to date can help provide direction moving forward. One challenge that deserves closer attention and more refined solutions is the campaign’s limited success at delivering vaccines to low-income persons and communities of color. During the pandemic, these populations have experienced significant physical, financial, and psychological harms at a disproportionate rate. The continued emergence and spread of new SARS-CoV-2 virus variants and the resumption of routine social, commercial, and educational activities across the country amplify the risks that COVID-19 poses to these groups. This report provides specific guidance on adapting COVID-19 vaccination efforts to achieve greater vaccine coverage in underserved populations and, through this, to develop sustainable, locally appropriate mechanisms to advance equity in health. In the first half of the report, we outline findings from local, ethnographic research conducted within Black and Hispanic/Latino communities in Alabama, California, Idaho, Maryland, and Virginia. Since January, local research teams have been assessing community infrastructure; listening to community members, public health officials, and government leaders; and coordinating engagement activities to understand how best to promote awareness of, access to, and acceptability of COVID-19 vaccines. In the second half of this report, we present the policy and practice implications of the local research. The Working Group on Equity in COVID-19 Vaccination—an advisory body of community advocates, public health experts, and social scientists—developed the recommendations, eliciting local team feedback.
  2. Jul 2021
    1. 2021-07-12

    2. Swire-Thompson, B., Miklaucic, N., Wihbey, J., Lazer, D., & DeGutis, J. (2021). Backfire effects after correcting misinformation are strongly associated with reliability. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/e3pvx

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/e3pvx
    4. The backfire effect is when a correction increases belief in the very misconception it is attempting to correct, and it is often used as a reason not to correct misinformation. The current study aimed to test whether correcting misinformation increases belief more than a no-correction control. Furthermore, we aimed to examine whether item-level differences in backfire rates were associated with test-retest reliability or theoretically meaningful factors. These factors included worldview-related attributes, namely perceived importance and strength of pre-correction belief, and familiarity-related attributes, namely perceived novelty and the illusory truth effect. In two nearly identical experiments, we conducted a longitudinal pre/post design with N = 388 and 532 participants. Participants rated 21 misinformation items and were assigned to a correction condition or test-retest control. We found that no items backfired more in the correction condition compared to test-retest control or initial belief ratings. Item backfire rates were strongly negatively correlated with item reliability (⍴ = -.61 / -.73) and did not correlate with worldview-related attributes. Familiarity-related attributes were significantly correlated with backfire rate, though they did not consistently account for unique variance beyond reliability. While there have been previous papers highlighting the non-replicable nature of backfire effects, the current findings provide a potential mechanism for this poor replicability. It is crucial for future research into backfire effects to use reliable measures, report the reliability of their measures, and take reliability into account in analyses. Furthermore, fact-checkers and communicators should not avoid giving corrective information due to backfire concerns.
    5. Backfire effects after correcting misinformation are strongly associated with reliability
  3. Jun 2021
    1. 2021-06-04

    2. Hotez, P. J., & Ko, A. I. (2021, June 4). Opinion | Why Are So Many Children in Brazil Dying From Covid-19? The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2021/06/04/opinion/Brazil-covid-children.html

    3. In the modern history of catastrophic infectious diseases in Brazil, children often suffer the most in terms of deaths and disability. When dengue epidemics emerged in Brazil in 2007 and 2008, children accounted for more than half of the fatalities. When pregnant women became infected with the Zika virus during an epidemic that began in 2015, more than 1,600 newborn Brazilian infants were born with devastating microcephaly birth defects, far more than in any other nation. Respiratory viruses continue to disproportionately affect Brazil’s children, while hookworms and other intestinal parasites stunt childhood growth and development, especially in poor rural areas.
    4. Why Are So Many Children in Brazil Dying From Covid-19?
    1. 2021-06-04

    2. Karlinsky, A., & Kobak, D. (2021). The World Mortality Dataset: Tracking excess mortality across countries during the COVID-19 pandemic. MedRxiv, 2021.01.27.21250604. https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.01.27.21250604

    3. Comparing the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic between countries or across time is difficult because the reported numbers of cases and deaths can be strongly affected by testing capacity and reporting policy. Excess mortality, defined as the increase in all-cause mortality relative to the expected mortality, is widely considered as a more objective indicator of the COVID-19 death toll. However, there has been no global, frequently-updated repository of the all-cause mortality data across countries. To fill this gap, we have collected weekly, monthly, or quarterly all-cause mortality data from 94 countries and territories, openly available as the regularly-updated World Mortality Dataset. We used this dataset to compute the excess mortality in each country during the COVID-19 pandemic. We found that in several worst-affected countries (Peru, Ecuador, Bolivia, Mexico) the excess mortality was above 50% of the expected annual mortality. At the same time, in several other countries (Australia, New Zealand) mortality during the pandemic was below the usual level, presumably due to social distancing measures decreasing the non-COVID infectious mortality. Furthermore, we found that while many countries have been reporting the COVID-19 deaths very accurately, some countries have been substantially underreporting their COVID-19 deaths (e.g. Nicaragua, Russia, Uzbekistan), sometimes by two orders of magnitude (Tajikistan). Our results highlight the importance of open and rapid all-cause mortality reporting for pandemic monitoring.
    4. 10.1101/2021.01.27.21250604
    5. The World Mortality Dataset: Tracking excess mortality across countries during the COVID-19 pandemic
    1. 2021-06-08

    2. Meijer, L. L., Hasenack, B., Kamps, J., Mahon, A., Titone, G., Dijkerman, H. C., & Keizer, A. (2021). Out of touch: Touch deprivation and affective touch perception during the COVID-19 pandemic. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/peq7m

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/peq7m
    4. Interpersonal touch and affective touch play a crucial role in social interactions and have a positive influence on mental health. The social distancing regulations related to the COVID-19 pandemic have reduced the ability to engage in interpersonal touch. This could cause touch deprivation, and it might alter the way in which affective touch is perceived. To investigate this, we conducted an online survey with 2348 participants, which contained questions regarding the COVID-19 regulations, touch deprivation and the perceived pleasantness of affective and non-affective touch. Results showed that participants reported feelings of touch deprivation. This significantly increased with the duration and severity of the COVID-19 regulations. Participants who experienced more touch deprivation rated videos of affective and non-affective touch as more pleasant. Current results provide insight in the impact of sudden and prolonged COVID-19 regulations and show that increasing the duration and severity of these regulations is associated with a higher desire for touch, which leads to increased perceived pleasantness of touch.
    5. Out of touch: Touch deprivation and affective touch perception during the COVID-19 pandemic
    1. 2021-06-08

    2. Bahrampour, T. (n.d.). For those who lost loved ones to covid, there is no return to normal. Washington Post. Retrieved June 9, 2021, from https://www.washingtonpost.com/local/social-issues/covid-widows-reopening/2021/06/07/7a55f9e6-c3bc-11eb-8c18-fd53a628b992_story.html

    3. Last month, when the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention said vaccinated people could resume gathering indoors unmasked, many saw it as the most hopeful sign so far of the nation’s reopening.But Pamela Addison felt blindsided. She got on a Zoom call with other women whose husbands had died of covid-19. To many, it felt too soon to stop wearing masks. And the CDC announcement felt like a punch in the stomach.Support our journalism. Subscribe today.arrow-right“I think it makes our grief deeper,” said Addison, 37, a teacher in Waldwick, N.J. Her 44-year-old husband Martin, a speech pathologist at a hospital, died of the coronavirus in April 2020, leaving behind two children, who are now 3 and 1. “As people move forward who haven’t been impacted, I kind of feel like they forget and don’t care about the people whose lives were. You kind of don’t feel cared about.”
    4. For those who lost loved ones to covid, there is no return to normal
    1. 2021-06-09

    2. Pritchard, E., Matthews, P. C., Stoesser, N., Eyre, D. W., Gethings, O., Vihta, K.-D., Jones, J., House, T., VanSteenHouse, H., Bell, I., Bell, J. I., Newton, J. N., Farrar, J., Diamond, I., Rourke, E., Studley, R., Crook, D., Peto, T. E. A., Walker, A. S., & Pouwels, K. B. (2021). Impact of vaccination on new SARS-CoV-2 infections in the United Kingdom. Nature Medicine, 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41591-021-01410-w

    3. 10.1038/s41591-021-01410-w
    4. The effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccination in preventing new severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections in the general community is still unclear. Here, we used the Office for National Statistics COVID-19 Infection Survey—a large community-based survey of individuals living in randomly selected private households across the United Kingdom—to assess the effectiveness of the BNT162b2 (Pfizer–BioNTech) and ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (Oxford–AstraZeneca; ChAdOx1) vaccines against any new SARS-CoV-2 PCR-positive tests, split according to self-reported symptoms, cycle threshold value (<30 versus ≥30; as a surrogate for viral load) and gene positivity pattern (compatible with B.1.1.7 or not). Using 1,945,071 real-time PCR results from nose and throat swabs taken from 383,812 participants between 1 December 2020 and 8 May 2021, we found that vaccination with the ChAdOx1 or BNT162b2 vaccines already reduced SARS-CoV-2 infections ≥21 d after the first dose (61% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 54–68%) versus 66% (95% CI = 60–71%), respectively), with greater reductions observed after a second dose (79% (95% CI = 65–88%) versus 80% (95% CI = 73–85%), respectively). The largest reductions were observed for symptomatic infections and/or infections with a higher viral burden. Overall, COVID-19 vaccination reduced the number of new SARS-CoV-2 infections, with the largest benefit received after two vaccinations and against symptomatic and high viral burden infections, and with no evidence of a difference between the BNT162b2 and ChAdOx1 vaccines. Download PDF
    5. Impact of vaccination on new SARS-CoV-2 infections in the United Kingdom
  4. May 2021
    1. Op-Ed: How Not to Message the Public on COVID Vaccines — A "cringe-inducing" public service announcement with doctors and nurses
    1. 2021-05-18

    2. Sgaier, S. K. (2021, May 18). Opinion | Meet the Four Kinds of People Holding Us Back From Full Vaccination. The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2021/05/18/opinion/covid-19-vaccine-hesitancy.html

    3. Getting everyone vaccinated in the United States has become much harder now that demand for the Covid-19 vaccine is flagging. America’s vaccination strategy needs to change to address this, and it starts with understanding the specific reasons people have not been vaccinated yet. The conventional approach to understanding whether someone will get vaccinated is asking people how likely they are to get the vaccine and then building a demographic profile based on their answers: Black, white, Latinx, Republican, Democrat. But this process isn’t enough: Just knowing that Republicans are less likely to get vaccinated doesn’t tell us how to get them vaccinated. It’s more important to understand why people are still holding out, where those people live and how to reach them.
    4. Meet the Four Kinds of People Holding Us Back From Full Vaccination
    1. 2021-05-19

    2. Israelow, B., Mao, T., Klein, J., Song, E., Menasche, B., Omer, S. B., & Iwasaki, A. (2021). Adaptive immune determinants of viral clearance and protection in mouse models of SARS-CoV-2. BioRxiv, 2021.05.19.444825. https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.05.19.444825

    3. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused more than 160 million infections and more than 3 million deaths worldwide. While effective vaccines are currently being deployed, the adaptive immune determinants which promote viral clearance and confer protection remain poorly defined. Using mouse models of SARS-CoV-2, we demonstrate that both humoral and cellular adaptive immunity contributes to viral clearance in the setting of primary infection. Furthermore, we find that either convalescent mice, or mice that receive mRNA vaccination are protected from both homologous infection and infection with a variant of concern, B.1.351. Additionally, we find this protection to be largely mediated by antibody response and not cellular immunity. These results highlight the in vivo protective capacity of antibodies generated to both vaccine and natural infection.
    4. 10.1101/2021.05.19.444825
    5. Adaptive immune determinants of viral clearance and protection in mouse models of SARS-CoV-2
    1. 2021-05-12

    2. Imada, H., & Mifune, N. (2021). Pathogen Threat and In-Group Cooperation. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/kebyd

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/kebyd
    4. Disease-causing parasites and pathogens play a pivotal role in intergroup behavior. Previous studies have suggested that the selection pressure posed by pathogen threat has resulted in in-group assortative sociality, including xenophobia and in-group favoritism. While the current literature has collated numerous studies on the former, strikingly, there has not been much research on the relationship between pathogen threat and in-group cooperation. Drawing upon prior studies on the function of the behavioral immune system (BIS), we argued that the BIS might facilitate cooperation with in-group members as a reactive behavioral immune response to pathogen threat. More specifically, we held that individuals might utilize cooperative behavior to ensure that they can receive social support when they have contracted an infectious disease. We reviewed existing findings pertaining to the potential role of the BIS in in-group cooperation and discussed directions for future studies.
    5. Pathogen Threat and In-Group Cooperation
    1. 2021-05-11

    2. Zhao, W. J., Coady, A., & Bhatia, S. (2021). Computational mechanisms for context-based behavioral interventions: A large-scale analysis. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/8cyad

    3. 10.31234/osf.io/8cyad
    4. Choice context influences decision processes, and is one of the primary determinants of what people choose. This insight has been used by academics and practitioners to study decision biases and design behavioral interventions to influence and improve choices. In this paper we analyze the effects of context-based behavioral interventions on the computational mechanisms underlying decision making. We collect data from two very large laboratory studies involving nineteen prominent behavioral interventions, and model the influence of each intervention using a leading computational model of choice in psychology and neuroscience. This allows us to parametrize the biases induced by each intervention, interpret these biases in terms of underlying decision mechanisms and their properties, quantify similarities between interventions, and predict how different interventions alter key choice outcomes. In doing so, we offer researchers and practitioners a theoretically principled approach to understanding and manipulating choice context in decision making.
    5. Computational mechanisms for context-based behavioral interventions: A large-scale analysis
    1. 2021-05-05

    2. Dempsey, H., & Parkin, B. (2021, May 5). India’s Covid surge rocks global shipping industry. https://www.ft.com/content/cf40d764-6ab6-4638-bea6-594cc3cd5d53

    3. India’s huge wave of Covid-19 infections has hit the international shipping industry, which relies on the country for seafarers, as crews come down with the disease and ports deny entry to vessels.Ports including Singapore and Fujairah in the United Arab Emirates have barred ships from changing crew members who have recently travelled from India, notices from maritime authorities show. Zhoushan in China has banned the entry of ships or crew that have visited India or Bangladesh in the past three months, according to Wilhelmsen Ship Management, a crew provider.Industry executives also said that crews coming from India were testing positive for Covid-19 on ships, despite quarantining and testing negative before boarding.
    4. India’s Covid surge rocks global shipping industry