162 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
    1. In the early 1480's the aging lutenist retreated to shelter at Mantua from the war that had broken out between Ferrara and Venice, and he had not yet returned in the early months of 1484, when Caleffini mentions the report of his supposed death. By 1486 he had certainly returned, however, when another diplomatie assign ment forced him to départ a

      Wasn't the Villa Belfiore burned down around this time?

    Tags

    Annotators

  2. Jan 2022
    1. Lucas said in a statement last night, "I'm glad my colleagues in the Senate recognize the importance of investing in research and combating the growing threat from the Chinese Communist Party, but I believe that effort must be as focused and strategic as our adversary is on accelerating research and development."

      The key word is 'a potential turf war' with regards to which path to channel the funding versus funding an instrument DOE that has existed and produced efficiently over 60 years. With over $17 billion already redirected to the Department of Energy National labs, the country is set to improve upon its sector and at the end of the day, more concerns should be based on what America is benefiting from institution it pours funding in, not necessarily a turf war in innovations, that it has to ignore sectors like the DOE that produces or discovers something that benefit the regular American on a daily basis.

  3. Dec 2021
    1. Η παράγραφος 1) του συγκεκριμένου άρθρου της Συμφωνίας, είναι αρκετά συγκεκριμένη, με ονομαστική αναφορά: «Συμμετοχή σε κοινές αναπτύξεις δυνάμεων ή αναπτύξεις σε θέατρα επιχειρήσεων προς υποστήριξη κοινών συμφερόντων, όπως, για παράδειγμα, τις υπό γαλλική διοίκηση επιχειρήσεις στο Σαχέλ».

      Τελικα, παλι fake διακινούσε ο Πρωθυπουργός μας για τη Γαλλική συμφωνία.

    1. In the broadest sense, the concept of war refers to organized violence between distinct social entities. The entities involved in war may refer to nation-states (inter-state war), distinct social groups within a given state (civil war or revolution) or third parties representing states or groups who choose not to engage in war directly (proxy war)

      The broad concept of war

  4. Nov 2021
    1. Last year Joshua Katz, a popular Princeton classics professor, wrote an article critical of a letter published by a group of Princeton faculty on race. In response The Daily Princetonian, a student newspaper, spent seven months investigating his past relationships with students, eventually convincing university officials to relitigate incidents from years earlier that had already been adjudicated—a classic breach of James Madison’s belief that no one should be punished for the same thing twice. The Daily Princetonian investigation looks more like an attempt to ostracize a professor guilty of wrong-think than an attempt to bring resolution to a case of alleged misbehavior.

      The example of Joshua Katz brings up the idea of double jeopardy within the social sphere. Is this form of punishment ethical or fair? Also, while those transgressions were held to account by the norms of their day, were there other larger harms (entailing unwritten rules) to humanity that weren't adjudicated at the time which are now coming to the surface as part of a bigger aggregate harm?

      It could be seen as related to the idea of reparations. In some sense, aside from the general harms of war—in which they participated—the South and slave holders in particular were never held to account or punished for their crimes against humanity. Though they may have felt as if they were. Where are those harms adjudicated? Because of a quirk of fate and poor politics following the Civil War and not being held to account, have those in the South continued perpetuating many of the same harms they were doing, simply in different guises? When will they be held to account? How would reparations look in the form of a national level of restorative justice?

    1. Εκτιμάται ότι το ΗΒ θα αξιοποιήσει τις Βρετανικές βάσεις στην Κύπρο προκειμένου να παραμείνει ενεργή δύναμη στην Ανατολική Μεσόγειο και να ανασχεθεί ο Γαλλικός παράγων. Αυτό ελλοχεύει τον κίνδυνο ως εγγυήτρια δύναμη να ταυτισθεί με τα Τουρκικά συμφέροντα. Απαιτείται επαγρύπνηση και ισχυρό lobbying.

      Οπως στον [[Α' ΠΠ]], η συμμαχίες ξεκιναν ενα ντόμινο, με Ελλάδα-Γαλλία να αντιπαρατίθεται σε Βρετανία-Γερμανία-Τουρκία.

  5. Oct 2021
    1. Would conscripted workers produce as strong an economy as those who could act of their own free will?

      A fascinating economic question.

      What happens if we extend from one or two countries against each other to multiple countries? What happens when we expand this to the entire world?

      As Charles Eliot says in the end:

      A precious lesson of the war will be this: Toward every kind of national efficiency discipline is good, and cooperation is good; but for the highest efficiency both should be consented to in liberty.

  6. Sep 2021
  7. Aug 2021
    1. Often wars are caused by one country's wish to take control of another country's wealth. Whatever the other reasons for a war may be, there is almost always an economic motive underlying most conflicts, even if the stated aim of the war is presented to the public as something more noble.

      Economic gain is the ever present underlying motive for wars.

    1. used for project management. The logistics for the Gulf War were managed on index cards. Read "Moving Mountains" by Lt. General George Pagonis.

      Example of index cards used for project management.

  8. Jul 2021
    1. Ebooks don’t have those limitations, both because of how readily new editions can be created and how simple it is to push “updates” to existing editions after the fact. Consider the experience of Philip Howard, who sat down to read a printed edition of War and Peace in 2010. Halfway through reading the brick-size tome, he purchased a 99-cent electronic edition for his Nook e-reader:As I was reading, I came across this sentence: “It was as if a light had been Nookd in a carved and painted lantern …” Thinking this was simply a glitch in the software, I ignored the intrusive word and continued reading. Some pages later I encountered the rogue word again. With my third encounter I decided to retrieve my hard cover book and find the original (well, the translated) text. For the sentence above I discovered this genuine translation: “It was as if a light had been kindled in a carved and painted lantern …”A search of this Nook version of the book confirmed it: Every instance of the word kindle had been replaced by nook, in perhaps an attempt to alter a previously made Kindle version of the book for Nook use. Here are some screenshots I took at the time:It is only a matter of time before the retroactive malleability of these forms of publishing becomes a new area of pressure and regulation for content censorship. If a book contains a passage that someone believes to be defamatory, the aggrieved person can sue over it—and receive monetary damages if they’re right. Rarely is the book’s existence itself called into question, if only because of the difficulty of putting the cat back into the bag after publishing.

      This story of find and replace has chilling future potential. What if a dictatorial government doesn't like your content. It can be all to easy to remove the digital versions and replace them whole hog for "approved" ones.

      Where does democracy live in such a world? Consider similar instances when the Trump administration forced the disappearance of government websites and data.

    1. This new edition is based on an exhaustive two-year study by the Designer of the records that have come to light since the fall of the Berlin Wall. The game combines highly accurate information on the forces the Warsaw Pact actually had with now de-classified reports from the CIA and the Defense Intelligence Agency regarding what satellite surveillance and HUMINT revealed about their actual plans.
  9. May 2021
    1. he effect was to convince the ruling groups of all countries that a few more atomic bombs would mean the end of organized society, and hence of their own power. Thereafter, although no formal agreement was ever made or hinted at, no more bombs were dropped. All three powers merely continue to produce atomic bombs and store them up against the decisive opportunity which they all believe will come sooner or later. And meanwhile the art of war has remained almost stationary for thirty or forty years.
    2. The essential act of war is destruction, not necessarily of human lives, but of the products of human labour.
    3. On the contrary, war hysteria is continuous and universal in all countries, and such acts as raping, looting, the slaughter of children, the reduction of whole populations to slavery, and reprisals against prisoners which extend even to boiling and burying alive, are looked upon as normal, and, when they are committed by one's own side and not by the enemy, meritorious.
    4. It was rather more of a shock to him when he discovered from some chance remark that she did not remember that Oceania, four years ago, had been at war with Eastasia and at peace with Eurasia. It was true that she regarded the whole war as a sham: but apparently she had not even noticed that the name of the enemy had changed. 'I thought we'd always been at war with Eurasia,' she said vaguely. It frightened him a little.

      Julia's memory issues with war

  10. Apr 2021
    1. Adolf Eichmann

      From Wikipedia:

      Otto Adolf Eichmann was a German-Austrian SS-Obersturmbannführer and one of the major organizers of the Holocaust—the "Final Solution to the Jewish Question" in Nazi terminology.

  11. Mar 2021
    1. An answer to Mr. Bendetsen's testimony came from Milton S. Eisenhower, former president of Johns Hopkins University, who in 1942 directed the Federal War Relocation Authority.In a written statement, Mr. Eisenhower, who was unable to attend because of illness, called the internment of Japanese-Americans ''an inhuman mistake.'' Moreover, he said, the threat of Japanese forces' invading the West Coast was ''extremely remote.''He said that the relocation furor could have been avoid, ''had not false and flaming statements been dinned into the people of the West Coast by irresponsible commentators and politicians.''
  12. Feb 2021
  13. Jan 2021
    1. Secular Kemalist rhetoric relieved some of the international concerns about the future of Armenians who had survived the 1915 Armenian genocide, and support for Kurdish self determination similarly declined.

      Mustafa Kamal Ataturk wisdom in the defence of Turkey

    1. On 19 February 1915, British and French ships began a naval assault on the Dardanelles. The fighting culminated in a heavy setback for the Allies on 18 March due to large losses from Turkish mines. ... The Dardanelles campaign remains one of the First World War's most controversial episodes.

      Demolition of Ottoman Empire

  14. Dec 2020
    1. But so far, somewhat miraculously, we have figured out how to live with the bomb. Now we need to learn how to survive the social web.

      It's a sad thought that these two ideas can or need to be thought of in such close juxtaposition.

    1. A new study that found traces of coronavirus in US blood samples from December last year is adding to the growing evidence that the virus was circulating for months before China announced its existence, casting more shadows over the truth about the pandemic and fuelling suspicions of a cover-up by Beijing. 

      We know nothing about covid.

  15. Sep 2020
    1. loss of Silesia

      Conquered from Maria Theresa during the War of Austrian Succession in violation of the Pragmatic Sanction of 1713, to which Frederick was a signatory.

      In many ways, this is seen as an example of Realpolitik, in which a nation's strategic strength is the determining factor in how it conducts policy (rather than promises or a sense of honour). This is a concept that will become increasingly important in Prussian policy into the 19th century, under Bismarck.

  16. Aug 2020
    1. Much of the fire-suppression apparatus — the crews themselves, the infrastructure that supports them — is contracted out to private firms. “The Halliburton model from the Middle East is kind of in effect for all the infrastructure that comes into fire camps,” Beasley said, referencing the Iraq war. “The catering, the trucks that you can sleep in that are air-conditioned…”
  17. Jun 2020
    1. The results suggest that, in addition to a distinct beginning and end to the unprecedented bloodshed of 1910-1950, there was another abrupt shift towards a greater level of peace in the early 1990s.
  18. May 2020
  19. Dec 2019
    1. What rural Ohio makes of Turkey-Syria crisis

      This could be about really any town in the US. Except for some college towns and big cities, most Americans live in mostly remote places -- in an actual sense or in an intellectual sense. Let's read this warm-up article together. Please leave your actual name in the responses unless your ID is the school ID (for me, that would be Baekk).

  20. Oct 2019
  21. library.oapen.org library.oapen.org
    1. AtthistimeaprofessedlyfriéndlyIndtoldmenha$hiscountrymenhadbeenholdingacoEulneil&hadasterminedtadriveallthewhites£30mthepumehasedtémriboxythattheyweregoing£0killallcuraéntle&ifwewerestillherewhenthayhadkilled&eatenthemnhey[woulalkillusgMéantimetheywereinsistentintheexitemetheydiénotintendtoenterourhousewithouttheirdrawnknives0rwaralubsinnheirhands&snillcentinuednebagforfood.

      Seymour says a Native told him that they were planning on driving the white people out of the land

    2. isexcitedtoahighdegreetheangeroftheSiouxwhothreatenedtotakevengeanceontheChippewayswherevertheycouldfindthemAsPokegomawas'theirnearestpointofattacktheyweredaily(forsomeweeks,)expectedthere.TheSpiritorherseemedtohavetakenentirepossessionofthem.neanwhiletheyassenbledtoaconsiderablenumbernearourhousetoholda.ned1cineDanceforthebenefitofawomanwhohadburnther—selfinash§kingmannerwithpowder'AfterbeingthereafewdaystheyheldtheirDance.TheynowshowedtheiranimositytowardthePrayingIndiansthoseespeciallywhohadrecentlyrenouncedthemiteui.‘A-pertofth

      Chippeway murder 13 Sioux, and Sioux seek revenge

    3. IshallstandmygrounduntilIseetheprovclearlyindicatesthatIshouldremove.Iknownotwhatthefuturewilldevelop.

      Boutwell is scared of another attack, but resolves to stay on

    4. tthetimeofthemelancholly[sic]occurrenceMrA.wasabsentfromthecountry.Hereturnedtohispost(SandyLake)onthenrstofJan.&ontheeightharrivedherewithapartyofmeninpursuitofthemurdere

      Aitkins oldest son was murdered, and he went out with a party for the killer

    1. shallhavethemeansofaidingtheInds,iftheyreturn&supportingmyfamilywithoutcallingupontheBeardanotheryaa

      Boutwell has resources, now that most Natives have fled war

    2. GodinhieProvidencehasagainbroughtmyoelf'afamilywithinashortdistanceofFeeon1&0!&thereasonofthisMovement,13,inshortth

      After war erupted at Pokegoma, the mission families decided to leave, some of whom wanted to go to La Pointe and others to Fond du Lac

    1. willnowgiveyouafewitemsofourdomestichistoryforafewmonthspast

      Boutwell's account of encountering the Ojibwe as they fled the Sioux

    2. arhasdeoolatedPokegoma0nthemognmhgofthe24thofMaymorethan100SiouxfelluponourquietgottlamentandintwoohorthoursmadeitasceneofWe.andd

      Sioux attack Pokegoma and level it - not many die, but everyone leaves North after the attack

    Tags

    Annotators

    1. mmediateprep—arationsweremadeforwa

      The Ojibwe bands are getting for war to avenge 100 that were killed by Sioux in the past summer

    Tags

    Annotators

  22. Sep 2019
    1. Icanonlysay,thatabout3weekssincetheSiouxfellupontwopartiesofOjibueyontheirreturnhomeironSt.Peter's&‘kill—ed96.

      Sioux attacked the Ojibwe and killed 96 people

    Tags

    Annotators

  23. Aug 2019
    1. hisband&severalothersinthevicinityarenowsmokingthepipeofpeacewiththeSiouxs

      bands around Leech lake have made peace with the Sioux

    2. Mr.Hallmaybeinformed,thathisundertakingisnotonlysanctioned,butcordiallyapproved

      Department of war approves a Mission as well

    3. nacarexpeditionagainsttheirenemies,thewarpipeissent.Thisistheinvitation.Ifit‘ieaccepted,thepartyispledgedtojoinintheexpedition.Thedifferentbandsseldomornevermakewaroneachother.Theyarelesssavageandferociousthanmanyofthetribeswhichhavebeenfoundonourfrontiers.Theyhaveseldombeenknowntocommitoutrageousactsofbarbarityexceptwhenprovokedtoit.Theyseekrevengeformurderbysheddingblood

      ojibwe war rituals involve no in-fighting, and revenge for members of their band's that are killed

    1. iatinguiSEOd.batni§”na§F§hba:fdnght':~,..:#1:?)‘'*bahsrnth~0317u01&.theSiouxatnalatturofwh~mwegrin%le&guaziththePox&.a.TheOjibuosi~am-naéd-waaa-gieiégéenagahawere_ledby"rJohnston'sGrand-Fathei&listihgnished0h1e£?6n_tnquothérp,_-i‘‘;.1‘Van\‘.-r'.LefttheInllsat7A.:.&ascendedasuriemof“§ééigéwhichageaide,wereVictori

      Old Battle between Ojibwe and Sioux/Fox/Saoko(?) - Ojibwe won

    2. ucalluschildren.isarenotohildrn.bunman

      from here until the bottom of the next page, Boutwell repeats the speech the Chief gave to the tour about their war against the Sioux Main Points: the war is to avenge the death of men, women, and children killed by the Sioux

    3. Lakert’pinc‘a'niteuin,1.6.whereHwykilledus.ItissonamedfromtheSioux'ehereonchemurderingswholefamilyofOjihues

      Lake Topinoniteuin (where they killed us) - a band of Sioux killed an entire Ojibwe family

    4. Siouxembankmen

      at this part of the river, the Sioux have set up a hiding spot where they can easily kill anyone travelling by the river

    5. wasperformedaroundthegravesofthede

      the scalp dance was performed around the graves of the deceased Ojibwe

    6. tWM‘Lodbrthrow“qu-3,r;.1hearinginh.oneoftherecent30.11139.

      the "scalp dance" to celebrate the recent victory over the Sioux is led by three Squaws

    7. thelodgedirectlybefore.‘eeresuspenéledthreehuman.scalpe.Th

      the scalps of the killed Sioux hang in a lodge in the encampment they visit

    8. ioux'acametothetradingpostatPambipén§itn§?etheyaétlpéd.achildafl

      Sioux party came to Pombinau trading post and killed a child - revenge was had by Ojibwe's who killed 4 of the Sioux Party

    9. ‘nanhagJusta:ivedfromLeech.§ake,who1n£ormé~--‘-3_usorthereturnofthqPillagerafromtheirgtarpgxphrsigntuThagimhta'A‘s;-\‘l11.5;gf.“.u-3?V.‘''“‘."45:413‘LawarpartyoftheSioux'aAbothpartiesdennetoaqégeatorgfotedgqth.TheOjibuealostonoman,&killedthreeSionijgitnoéé's¢a1nénéhggf'his.usthat-téhnérty.H,*broughthomerejoici

      man arrives to the party from Leech Lake Pillagers from a war excursion Ojibwe's lost one man, Sioux lost 3 men (their scalps were brought home to celebrate the success)

    10. awar~paxtyharegone*fromLeashLakeagainsttheSioux'a.TheparnyconsistsOf160strong.TnoaeInds.&theirdamiliesareontheirta}tLhaan

      A war party has recently passed where the missionaries are camping, they are going from Loeoh Lake against the Sioux

  24. Jul 2019
  25. Jun 2019
    1. ogronourSiohagainstthoSioux's

      Local tribes preparing for war against Sioux

    Tags

    Annotators

    1. Tim O'Brien. The Things They Carried. Mariner Books, 2009.

      "Happening truth" vs. "story truth".

      Compare this discussion of truth with a similar discussion in a very different context: Ken Macrorie's Telling Writing.

  26. May 2019
    1. Procedural Rhetoric. Bogost, I. In Persuasive games: the expressive power of videogames, pages 1–64. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 2007.

      "...the rhetoric of failure. Tragedy in games tends to find its procedural representation in this trope." (85)

      "Political video games in the sense I have articulated above are characterized by procedural rhetorics that expose the logic of a political order, thereby opening a possibility for its support, interrogation, or disruption. Procedural rhetorics articulate the way political structures organize their daily practice; they describe the way a system “thinks” before it thinks about anything in particular." (90)

      In thinking through This War of Mine, I'm interested in the notion that the game is designed to thwart winning, and indeed every choice the player makes bring them closer to survival or to morally bankrupt behavior or both. In many moments of the game's narrative, there are no good choices. In some play-throughs I have felt better allowing my characters to die than I have with exercising the power at my disposal, e.g. killing and robbing the old couple. And in a strange way, my characters seem to feel more comfortable with that choice, too. TWoM seems to fall somewhere in between Kabul Kaboom and traditional winnable games.

    1. Only when Sweden stops being blind to its Nazi past will it be able to confront the threat posed by the rise of the far right today.

      Agreed; there's a newly made documentary on the Swedish involvement with the nazis. The documentary is "En svensk tiger"

    1. “On the ground in Syria,” he continued, “Assad is doing everything he can to make sure the physical evidence [of potential human-rights violations] is destroyed, and the digital evidence, too. The combination of all this—the filters, the machine-learning algorithms, and new laws—will make it harder for us to document what’s happening in closed societies.” That, he fears, is what dictators want.
    2. Google and Facebook break out the numbers in their quarterly transparency reports. YouTube pulled 33 million videos off its network in 2018—roughly 90,000 a day. Of the videos removed after automated systems flagged them, 73 percent were removed so fast that no community members ever saw them. Meanwhile, Facebook removed 15 million pieces of content it deemed “terrorist propaganda” from October 2017 to September 2018. In the third quarter of 2018, machines performed 99.5 percent of Facebook’s “terrorist content” takedowns. Just 0.5 percent of the purged material was reported by users first.Those statistics are deeply troubling to open-source investigators, who complain that the machine-learning tools are black boxes.
    3. “We were collecting, archiving, and geolocating evidence, doing all sorts of verification for the case,” Khatib recalled. “Then one day we noticed that all the videos that we had been going through, all of a sudden, all of them were gone.”It wasn’t a sophisticated hack attack by pro-Assad forces that wiped out their work. It was the ruthlessly efficient work of machine-learning algorithms deployed by social networks, particularly YouTube and Facebook.
  27. Mar 2019
    1. The Anglo-Nepalese War of 1814-16 was a victory for the East India Company, but not without heavy casualties inflicted on them by soldiers of the Gorkha Kingdom. Impressed by their discipline and ferocity, the British decided to recruit these soldiers starting in 1815. Since then, the Gurkhas have fought on the side of the British Empire in almost every war, including both World Wars.

      Martial races

    1. reaffirming its faith in government of the people, by the people, for the people

      "The Party of Lincoln." (Lincoln's death was only 51 years in the past in 1916.)

  28. Feb 2019
  29. Dec 2018
    1. A prerequisite for war, as well as bigotry, is that one sees a people or a country as a stereotype, as something sub-human or non-human; this is why politicians spend so much time trying to create stereotypical images for those countries they want to go to war with.
  30. Oct 2018
  31. allred720fa18.commons.gc.cuny.edu allred720fa18.commons.gc.cuny.edu
    1. To procure substitutes for his lost sailors, as well as supplies of water and sails, the captain, at the earliest opportunity, had made for Baldivia, the southernmost civilized port of Chili and South America;

      This "civilized port" called Valdivia, was named for invader Pedro de Valdivia, who also established what became Santiago de Chile in the mid 16th century.

      Valdivia became the first governor of the Captaincy General of Chile. In that post, he obeyed the viceroy of Peru and, through him, the King of Spain and his bureaucracy. Responsible to the governor, town councils known as Cabildo administered local municipalities, the most important of which was Santiago." (History of Chile), Wikipedia)

      "The greatest resistance to Spanish rule came from the Mapuche people, who opposed European conquest and colonization until the 1880s; this resistance is known as the Arauco War. Valdivia died at the Battle of Tucapel, defeated by Lautaro, a young Mapuche toqui (war chief), but the European conquest was well underway." See "A Brief History of the Mapuche People."

    1. Bear your shields forth

      Judith sends them into battle

    2. gave that to the bright and clever-thoughted woman

      Her victory treated as a military one

  32. Sep 2018
    1. Elene gave him yet again precious gifts

      Elene as gift-giver

    2. seven nights in his sorrow under the harm-closure, tortured by hunger

      torture

    3. a blazing pyre

      Elene begins threats

    4. Never have I heard before or since that a woman led a fairer force upon the water’s current, over the sea’s street

      Elene as military leader

    5. queen of warfare

      Elene as military

  33. Aug 2018
    1. But whether a highly productive modern industrial society chooses to spend 3 or 7 percent of its GNP on defense rather than consumption is entirely a matter of that society's political priorities, which are in turn determined in the realm of consciousness.

      It's not so much the percentage on produced defense goods, but how quickly could a society ramp up production of goods, services, and people to defend itself compared to the militaries of its potential aggressors.

      In particular, most of the effort should go to the innovation side of war materiel. The innovation of the atomic bomb is a particularly nice example in that as a result of conceptualizing and then executing on it it allowed the US to win the war in the Pacific and hasten the end of war in Europe. Even if we otherwise had massive stockpiles of people or other weapons, our enemies could potentially have equaled them and dragged the war on interminably. It was the unknown unknown via innovation that unseated Japan and could potentially do the same to us based on innovation coming out of almost any country in the modern age.

    1. But events in Europe unfolded more or less according to Fukuyama’s prediction, and, on December 26, 1991, the Soviet Union voted itself out of existence. The Cold War really was over.

      Or ostensibly, until a strong man came to power in Russia and began its downturn into something else. It definitely doesn't seem to be a liberal democracy, so we're still fighting against it.

    1. Instead of trying to force their messages into the mainstream, these adversaries target polarized communities and “embed” fake accounts within them. The false personas engage with real people in those communities to build credibility. Once their influence has been established, they can introduce new viewpoints and amplify divisive and inflammatory narratives that are already circulating. It’s the digital equivalent of moving to an isolated and tight-knit community, using its own language quirks and catering to its obsessions, running for mayor, and then using that position to influence national politics.
    2. However, as the following diagrams will show, the middle is a lot weaker than it looks, and this makes public discourse vulnerable both to extremists at home and to manipulation by outside actors such as Russia.
  34. Jul 2018
    1. "The internet has become the main threat — a sphere that isn't controlled by the Kremlin," said Pavel Chikov, a member of Russia's presidential human rights council. "That's why they're going after it. Its very existence as we know it is being undermined by these measures."
    2. "Putin was never very fond of the internet even in the early 2000s," said Andrei Soldatov, a Russian investigative journalist who specializes in security services and cyber issues. "When he was forced to think about the internet during the protests, he became very suspicious, especially about social networks. He thinks there's a plot, a Western conspiracy against him. He believes there is a very dangerous thing for him and he needs to put this thing under control."
    1. creating a new international news operation called Sputnik to “provide an alternative viewpoint on world events.” More and more, though, the Kremlin is manipulating the information sphere in more insidious ways.
    1. RuNet Echo has previously written about the efforts of the Russian “Troll Army” to inject the social networks and online media websites with pro-Kremlin rhetoric. Twitter is no exception, and multiple users have observed Twitter accounts tweeting similar statements during and around key breaking news and events. Increasingly active throughout Russia's interventions in Ukraine, these “bots” have been designed to look like real Twitter users, complete with avatars.
    1. We’ve built an information ecosystem where information can fly through social networks (both technical and personal). Folks keep looking to the architects of technical networks to solve the problem. I’m confident that these companies can do a lot to curb some of the groups who have capitalized on what’s happening to seek financial gain. But the battles over ideology and attention are going to be far trickier. What’s at stake isn’t “fake news.” What’s at stake is the increasing capacity of those committed to a form of isolationist and hate-driven tribalism that has been around for a very long time. They have evolved with the information landscape, becoming sophisticated in leveraging whatever tools are available to achieve power, status, and attention. And those seeking a progressive and inclusive agenda, those seeking to combat tribalism to form a more perfect union —  they haven’t kept up.
    2. As I wrote in “Hacking the Attention Economy,” manipulating the media for profit, ideology, and lulz has evolved over time. The strategies that hackers, hoaxers, and haters have taken have become more sophisticated. The campaigns have gotten more intense. And now many of the actors most set on undermining institutionalized information intermediaries are in the most powerful office in the land. They are waging war on the media and the media doesn’t know what to do other than to report on it.
    3. How many years did it take for the US military to learn that waging war with tribal networks couldn’t be fought with traditional military strategies? How long will it take for the news media to wake up and recognize that they’re being played? And how long after that will it take for editors and publishers to start evolving their strategies?
    4. there’s no cost to the administration to be helpful to the media because the people the Trump Administration cares about don’t trust the media anyhow.
    5. News agencies, long trained to focus on reporting information and maintaining a conceptual model of standards, are ill-equipped to understand that they may have a role in this war, that their actions and decisions are shaping the way the war plays out.
    1. When messaging is coordinated and consistent, it easily fools our brains, already exhausted and increasingly reliant on heuristics (simple psychological shortcuts) due to the overwhelming amount of information flashing before our eyes every day. When we see multiple messages about the same topic, our brains use that as a short-cut to credibility. It must be true we say — I’ve seen that same claim several times today.
    2. I saw Eliot Higgins present in Paris in early January, and he listed four ‘Ps’ which helped explain the different motivations. I’ve been thinking about these a great deal and using Eliot’s original list have identified four additional motivations for the creation of this type of content: Poor Journalism, Parody, to Provoke or ‘Punk’, Passion, Partisanship, Profit, Political Influence or Power, and Propaganda.This is a work in progress but once you start breaking these categories down and mapping them against one another you begin to see distinct patterns in terms of the types of content created for specific purposes.
    3. Back in November, I wrote about the different types of problematic information I saw circulate during the US election. Since then, I’ve been trying to refine a typology (and thank you to Global Voices for helping me to develop my definitions even further). I would argue there are seven distinct types of problematic content that sit within our information ecosystem. They sit on a scale, one that loosely measures the intent to deceive.
    4. As Danah Boyd outlined in a recent piece, we are at war. An information war. We certainly should worry about people (including journalists) unwittingly sharing misinformation, but far more concerning are the systematic disinformation campaigns.
  35. Apr 2018
    1. King George II

      King George II died on October 25, 1760, and was succeeded by his grandson, George III. During his reign, George II's reign oversaw the War of Austrian Succession and the Seven Years' War. As Secretary of State, William Pitt the Elder directed the policy of the Seven Years' War.

  36. Mar 2018
    1. We’re officially entering the final stretch leading up to Avengers: Infinity War because Marvel just released a brand-new trailer for the movie, revealing tons of new footage and details in the process.

      Avengers: Infinity War!--Can't wait!

  37. Feb 2018
    1. Godard’s Les Carabiners (1963)

      Les Carabiners is a film by French New Wave director Jean-Luc Godard. Although it is unclear from Sontag's description of the film, it's an anti-war film. For more info: http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0056905/.

  38. Oct 2017
    1. U.S. Secretary of State Rex Tillerson has continued to work on a diplomatic solution, telling CNN on Sunday he would continue to engage with North Korea “until the first bomb drops.”

      Jeez, well that's not really comforting...

    1. Japan succeeded in lofting hundreds of incendiary balloons, swept eastward by the jet stream to the U.S. West Coast. These killed seven people, ignited forest fires and crashed in Medford, Oregon, and Billings, Montana. But the logistics of sending infected rats or fleas across the Pacific apparently proved overwhelming. Late in the war, the Japanese devised Operation Cherry Blossoms at Night, a plan to send kamikaze pilots to bomb San Diego with plague-infected fleas. But with the U.S.’ atomic attacks on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the plan was never carried out
    2. A three-day-old baby was said to have been jabbed with needles and submerged in icy water and live victims dissected without anesthesia. Circles of doctors would cut open screaming women to examine their reproductive organs.
  39. Jul 2017
    1. Those who thought he might use his enormous prestige to political effect, as Vietnam's communist leaders failed to deliver the economic benefits of peace, were disappointed
    2. Giap had his critics, too, most notably over his willingness to suffer casualties which would be politically unacceptable in anything other than a war for national liberation.“In the final analysis, victory in any war is determined by the willingness of the masses to shed blood on the battlefield,” Giap once wrote.
    3. In a biography, Peter MacDonald, a retired British brigadier, argues that Giap combined a strategic depth of vision with a mastery of guerrilla warfare and an outstanding grasp of logistics, seen most dramatically in the creation of the Ho Chi Minh trail to supply the south during the American War.
    4. But poised for what? The initial plan, endorsed by Giap’s Chinese military advisers, called for an early mass assault before the French could further strengthen their positions. On January 26, with six hours to go before the first attack was to be launched, Giap called it off, causing a near mutiny among his staff.“We chose to strike and advance surely,” he wrote later, “and to strike to win only when success is certain.” Giap redeployed his artillery to higher ground, ordering his men to begin steadily digging an extensive trench network towards the French positions where they could pick off the French forts one by one. At the same time, he continued diversionary movements into Laos and in the Mekong Delta, aimed at preventing Navarre from concentrating more of his forces on Dien Bien Phu.
    1. In March 1972, the North Vietnamese carried out the Easter offensive on three fronts, expanding their holdings in Cambodia and Laos and bringing temporary gains in South Vietnam. But it ended in defeat, and General Giap again bore the brunt of criticism for the heavy losses. In summer 1972, he was replaced by Gen. Van Tien Dung, possibly because he had fallen from favor but possibly because, as was rumored, he had Hodgkin’s disease.Although he was removed from direct command in 1973, General Giap remained minister of defense, overseeing North Vietnam’s final victory over South Vietnam and the United States when Saigon, the South’s capital, fell on April 30, 1975. He also guided the invasion of Cambodia in January 1979, which ousted the brutal Communist Khmer Rouge. The next month, after Hanoi had established a new government in Phnom Penh, Chinese troops attacked along the North Vietnamese border to drive home the point that China remained the paramount regional power.
    2. General Westmoreland relied on superior weaponry to wage a war of attrition, in which he measured success by the number of enemy dead. Though the Communists lost in any comparative “body count” of casualties, General Giap was quick to see that the indiscriminate bombing and massed firepower of the Americans caused heavy civilian casualties and alienated many Vietnamese from the government the Americans supported.With the war in stalemate and Americans becoming less tolerant of accepting casualties, General Giap told a European interviewer, South Vietnam “is for the Americans a bottomless pit.”
    3. “Every minute, hundreds of thousands of people die on this earth,” General Giap is said to have remarked after the war with France. “The life or death of a hundred, a thousand, tens of thousands of human beings, even our compatriots, means little.”
    4. “He learned from his mistakes and did not repeat them,” Gen. Marcel Bigeard, who as a young colonel of French paratroops surrendered at Dien Bien Phu, told Peter G. Macdonald, one of General Giap’s biographers. But “to Giap,” he said, “a man’s life was nothing.”
    5. But his critics said that his victories had been rooted in a profligate disregard for the lives of his soldiers. Gen. William C. Westmoreland, who commanded American forces in Vietnam from 1964 until 1968, said, “Any American commander who took the same vast losses as General Giap would not have lasted three weeks.”
    1. Giap's political timidity came as a crushing disappointment to many. His last years were spent polishing his image as the "red Napoleon". He adored giving interviews, charming his hagiographers and fawning journalists with the same gestures and stories told in a fluent but outdated French of which he was immensely proud. He was always careful to avoid the real questions that hung over his increasingly contested career. He could not, however, stop many people from reconsidering his versions of history and heroism. Many Vietnamese also began to question whether the sacrifices of war had been worth it. Others saw too many moments in Giap's career where he had refused to stand up to hardliners or had failed to capitalise on his popular support to force through political and economic changes.
    2. In 1986, in the runup to a Communist party congress, a group of officers urged Giap to take control and launch sweeping changes to the economy and political system. Giap refused, terrified of what might happen if he failed. Bui Tin, an army colonel who had been a protege, urged him again in 1990 to take over and provide a new direction for Vietnam. Giap demurred, preferring a comfortable retirement. Tin later condemned him bitterly, quoting an old Chinese saying that "the reputations of generals are built on the bodies of 10,000 men".
    3. General William Westmoreland, commander of the American forces, once remarked that any US general that suffered Giap's losses would have been sacked instantly. His skills lay less in military tactics and more in managing the logistics and politics that were so vital to sustain the war in the south. His diplomatic skills kept open supply lines from China and the Soviet Union, while at home he organised the movement of troops and material down the Ho Chi Minh Trail, a vast web of tracks stretching into Laos and Cambodia. "People should not be overawed by the power of modern weapons," Giap wrote. "It is the value of human beings that in the end will decide victory."
    1. Dien Bien Phu "was the first time that a non-European colonial independence movement had evolved through all the stages from guerrilla bands to a conventionally organized and equipped army able to defeat a modern Western occupier in a pitched battle," wrote British historian Martin Windrow, the author of “The Last Valley: Dien Bien Phu and the French Defeat in Vietnam.”
    2. For the French, however, the Viet Minh victory marked not just the end of their dominance in Indochina but the beginning of their decline as a colonial power. Inspired by the Viet Minh, many Algerians, a few of whom had even fought next to the French in Vietnam, began demanding their own independence. About six months later, Algerians would begin their own successful independence movement, through a bloody war that lasted over seven years. Julian Jackson, a historian, wrote for the BBC: "The French army held so desperately on to Algeria partly to redeem the honor it felt had been lost at Dien Bien Phu. So obsessed did the army become by this idea that in 1958 it backed a putsch against the government, which it believed was preparing what the generals condemned as a 'diplomatic Dien Bien Phu.'"
  40. May 2017
    1. Fraser’s Highlanders

      The Fraser's Highlanders, also known as "The Old 78th Regiment" was a British regiment gathered under William Pitt in 1757 for fighting in the French and Indian War. They fought in many influential battles during the war which lasted until 1763, including the engagements at Louisbourg and Quebec. Many of the men in the regiment settled in Canada after 1763. Many men who were in the regiment had descendants who eventually had an active role in Canadian politics and history, including some who were even involved in exploration and the fur trade. Their legacy lives on as they are considered the first influential wave of Scottish immigration to Canada. They intermarried with the French-Canadians already settled in the region, creating what we know as the Scots-Quebec culture.

      Wallace, W.S. Some Notes on Fraser's Highlanders. Canadian Historical Review, 1937.

    1. Canol Pipeline
      Designed during the first months of World War II, the Canol Pipeline brought oil from Norman Wells near the Mackenzie River to Whitehorse, Yukon Territory. Once the oil was refined, it would be sent to Alaska via pipeline to ensure that the Japanese navy could not intercept any transport. The oil deposits at Norman Wells were discovered by the explorer Alexander Mackenzie during the 18th century. In January of 1942, Lieutenant General Brehon Somervell, commanding general of the Army Service Forces, ordered James H. Graham, former dean of engineering at the University of Kentucky, to investigate the possibility of harvesting oil from Norman Wells. On April 29, 1942, General Somervell immediately approved the recommendation of Dean Graham to implement a pipeline from Norman Wells to Whitehorse (O'Brien, 1970). The construction began in 1942 and was completed in 1944 by the United States Army. A road was also constructed alongside the Canol pipeline during this time. In 1945, soon after the completion of the Canol Pipeline, the volume of crude oil that was able to be transported compared to the cost of operating the pipeline could not be justified. The Canol Pipeline was shut down and abandoned in 1945 (Wilson, 1991). 
      

      References

      O'Brien, C. F. (1970). The Canol Project: A Study in Emergency Military Planning. The Pacific Northwest Quarterly, 101-108.

      Wilson, W. H. (1991). Review: A Walk on teh Canol Road: Exploring the First Major Northern Pipeline. The Pacific Northwest Quarterly, 114.

    2. Distant Early Warning Line (DEW Line)

      The Distant Early Warning (DEW) Line was a chain of 63 radio and communication centers that spread from Alaska to the Canadian Arctic to Greenland. The DEW line was an American defense project to protect them from Russian threat. The DEW line was the first joint American and Canadian defense project (Lajeunesse). Because the majority of the project was paid for and spearheaded by the United States, Canada feared losing sovereignty in the Arctic. The United States did not wish to control Canadian land, but would control military forces in that region. Canada feared American presence and demanded that any American military air force bases be located away from densely populated areas. The DEW Line was functional by 1957. The DEW line was primarily controlled by the American Air Force, as the Canadian Air Force personnel did not have proper training or manpower to serve the DEW line. The Canadian presence on the DEW line was largely ceremonial to display Canadian approval and control of their land. The Canadian government pushed for the DEW Line to become NATO territory to minimize American dominance of the region, but this hope was never realized. In order to regain control over their Arctic territory, Canada constructed its own radar line called the Mid-Canada Line. Constructing their own line allowed Canada to regain recognition as a powerful ally and partner to the United States.

      References: Lajeunesse, Adam. "The Distant Early Warning Line and the Canadian Battle for Public Perception." Canadian Military Journal. Accessed May 04, 2017. http://www.journal.forces.gc.ca/vo8/no2/lajeunes-eng.asp.

    3. Northwest Staging Route

      The Northwest Staging Route was an airfield between Alaska and Alberta. The airfield was used for military personal to transfer supplies from Canada to Alaska in World War II (Christie). The string of airfields along the Northwest Staging Route were responsible for great contributions to the North American war effort. The earliest records of the Northwest Staging Route are from a survey by the Canadian Department of Transportation in 1935, but the Northwest Staging Route only consisted of a few airstrips by the 1940s. The Route was not used until right before the attack at Pearl Harbor. After the attack, America greatly increased their work on the Route and prepared the airfields due to fears that the Japanese would attack Alaska. The first few tests of the Northwest Staging Route airfields were unsuccessful and several planes were crashed in the process. The airfields were undeveloped and the pilots untrained. The Canadian government attempted to fix the Staging Route alone, but received pressure from the United States. Canada and the United States worked together on improving the airfields in 1943. Overtime, the Canadian government feared permanent United States presence along the Route. The two governments eventually came to an agreement where Canada would reimburse the United States for any permanent improvements to the airfields. At the conclusion of the war, the United States ceased military action in Canada. Canada then struggled with documentation of aircraft along the Northwest Staging Route, which was resolved after a conference with American air force members in August of 1943.

      Reference: Christie, Carl A. "The Northwest Staging Route." Homefront in Alberta - The Northwest Staging Route. Accessed May 03, 2017. http://wayback.archive-it.org/2217/20101208171343/http://www.albertasource.ca/homefront/feature_articles/northwest_staging_route4.html.

  41. Apr 2017
    1. the appeal was the choice of the king

      The occupation of Boston, from October of 1768 until March 17, 1776, was the first aggressive act by the King in response to the unrest in the Colonies. The British hoped that by suppressing the Bostonians, they could quell the rebellion before it could get started.

    2. nineteenth of April, i. e. to the commencement of hostilities

      The Battles of Lexington and Concord, the beginning of the war, were April 18-19, 1775.

    1. Alaska Highway
      The Alaska Highway was originally constructed for and used by the military during World War II which lasted from 1939 to 1945. It was opened in November of 1942. Its length reached nearly 1,525 miles. When Richard Bucksar wrote his article The Alaska Highway Development published in the journal Arctic Volume 27, Number 1 in 1974, the Alaska Highway had not been paved in its entirety despite many proposals to do so. In 1974, it remained mostly a gravel road described as “rough and uneven” (Bucksar 1974, 74). About 400 of the 1,525 miles were paved. 
      
      Since the Alaska Highway passes through Canadian territory to connect the continental United States to Alaska, both country’s governments had to be consulted regarding improvements to the Alaska Highway. The Canadian Parliament and United States Congress were presented with numerous proposals to improve the Alaska Highway including improving the road, developing railways, introducing new sea-routes, reconstructing, paving, etc. (Bucksar 1974, 74-75). Mostly all of these propositions were not passed since alternate “adequate modes of transportation were developing and that the expected traffic on the [Alaska] Highway did not warrant reconstruction and paving at that time” (Bucksar 1974, 78). 
      
      The Alaska Highway was the only land-based link between Alaska and the continental United States. Some towns, cities, and other landmarks that the Alaska Highway passes through include Dawson Creek, Fort Saint John, Fort Nelson, Muncho Lake Provincial Park, Liard River Hotsprings Provincial Park, Watson Lake, Teslin, Whitehorse, Halnes Junction, Beaver Creek, Delta Junction, North Pole, Fairbanks, and many more. A detailed current map of the Alaska Highway is displayed below. 
      

      References

      The Milepost. Alaska Highway. 2016. https://www.themilepost.com/highway-info/highways/alaska-highway (accessed April 4, 2017).

      Bucksar, Richard G. "The Alaska Highway Development." Arctic 27, no. 1 (1974): 74-80. http://www.jstor.org.ezproxy.bucknell.edu/stable/40508483.

  42. enst31501sp2017.courses.bucknell.edu enst31501sp2017.courses.bucknell.edu
    1. foreign oi

      This article considers other ongoing world events (specifically, the Gulf War) in order to pressure Congress’s pending approval of drilling in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. At this point in time, there had been a joint drilling executed by BP and Chevron, but the results were declared a corporate secret and were not released to policy makers, other oil companies, or the public. A major reason why the drilling was being pushed was to have a lesser reliance on foreign oil.

      Balzar, John. "Arctic Wildlife Refuge may be Casualty of Persian Gulf Crisis." Los Angeles Times (1923-Current File), Aug 26, 1990. Accessed March 25, 2017. https://search.proquest.com/docview/1461028582?accountid=9784

  43. Mar 2017
    1. We refer to that ultimate disease of cooperation: war. (You will understand war much better if you think of it, not simply as strife come to a ~ head, but rather as a disease, or perversion of communion. Modern war characteristically re-quires a myriad of constructive acts for each de-i.tructive one; before each culminating blast there must be a vast network of interlocking opera-tions, directed communally.)

      Thinking with Carl Von Clausewitz's theory that war is an extension of a nation's politics, the dialectical synthesis of the political sphere and physical violence.

    1. The old Rhetoric was an offspring of dis-pute; it developed as the rationale of pleadings and persuadings; it was the theory of the battle of words and has always been itself dominated by the combative impulse.

      I guess "old Rhetoric" is still alive, because especially on cable news or in arguments with friends, discussions are not "expositions" but "battles of words."

  44. Jan 2017
    1. Back then there were two major browsers competing for the soul of the web: Microsoft Internet Explorer and Netscape Navigator. They were incompatible by design. One browser would invent a new HTML element or attribute.

      If competition can lead to innovation, it's a hurdle when you try to build standards

    1. "But I wouldn't do it again," he added, listing the challenges of having so many kin -- like the need to build each wife a house away from the others to prevent friction

      instead of having friction he should have made the disition to have i wify

  45. Dec 2016
    1. the great powers in this world will become far more like each other out of necessity. Their opposition to one another will become increasingly theoretical and less meaningful in reality, and they will find that they need each other a great deal. They are like a husband and wife who cannot leave each other and must learn to get along because they love each other. Russians love you; you love the Russians. But when you love someone and you do not communicate, you harbor hard feelings and you become estranged. Along with this, the developing nations in your world will have increasing power in the years to come, and this will complete the requirement for a global community.
    2. The wars that are erupting now, like cancerous sores upon the world, are based upon tribes fighting to regain their identity, attempting to re-establish their former role, their territory, their spirituality, their government and their heritage. You will see many attempts to reassert the past in the times to come, but the past is gone. Many of these attempts will be quite violent and disruptive. That is why we must teach peace. That is why there is a great deal of instruction going on currently, so that people may have a greater spiritual capacity to undergo this tremendous transition.