109 Matching Annotations
  1. Aug 2019
    1. hisband&severalothersinthevicinityarenowsmokingthepipeofpeacewiththeSiouxs

      bands around Leech lake have made peace with the Sioux

    2. Mr.Hallmaybeinformed,thathisundertakingisnotonlysanctioned,butcordiallyapproved

      Department of war approves a Mission as well

    3. nacarexpeditionagainsttheirenemies,thewarpipeissent.Thisistheinvitation.Ifit‘ieaccepted,thepartyispledgedtojoinintheexpedition.Thedifferentbandsseldomornevermakewaroneachother.Theyarelesssavageandferociousthanmanyofthetribeswhichhavebeenfoundonourfrontiers.Theyhaveseldombeenknowntocommitoutrageousactsofbarbarityexceptwhenprovokedtoit.Theyseekrevengeformurderbysheddingblood

      ojibwe war rituals involve no in-fighting, and revenge for members of their band's that are killed

    1. iatinguiSEOd.batni§”na§F§hba:fdnght':~,..:#1:?)‘'*bahsrnth~0317u01&.theSiouxatnalatturofwh~mwegrin%le&guaziththePox&.a.TheOjibuosi~am-naéd-waaa-gieiégéenagahawere_ledby"rJohnston'sGrand-Fathei&listihgnished0h1e£?6n_tnquothérp,_-i‘‘;.1‘Van\‘.-r'.LefttheInllsat7A.:.&ascendedasuriemof“§ééigéwhichageaide,wereVictori

      Old Battle between Ojibwe and Sioux/Fox/Saoko(?) - Ojibwe won

    2. ucalluschildren.isarenotohildrn.bunman

      from here until the bottom of the next page, Boutwell repeats the speech the Chief gave to the tour about their war against the Sioux Main Points: the war is to avenge the death of men, women, and children killed by the Sioux

    3. Lakert’pinc‘a'niteuin,1.6.whereHwykilledus.ItissonamedfromtheSioux'ehereonchemurderingswholefamilyofOjihues

      Lake Topinoniteuin (where they killed us) - a band of Sioux killed an entire Ojibwe family

    4. Siouxembankmen

      at this part of the river, the Sioux have set up a hiding spot where they can easily kill anyone travelling by the river

    5. wasperformedaroundthegravesofthede

      the scalp dance was performed around the graves of the deceased Ojibwe

    6. tWM‘Lodbrthrow“qu-3,r;.1hearinginh.oneoftherecent30.11139.

      the "scalp dance" to celebrate the recent victory over the Sioux is led by three Squaws

    7. thelodgedirectlybefore.‘eeresuspenéledthreehuman.scalpe.Th

      the scalps of the killed Sioux hang in a lodge in the encampment they visit

    8. ioux'acametothetradingpostatPambipén§itn§?etheyaétlpéd.achildafl

      Sioux party came to Pombinau trading post and killed a child - revenge was had by Ojibwe's who killed 4 of the Sioux Party

    9. ‘nanhagJusta:ivedfromLeech.§ake,who1n£ormé~--‘-3_usorthereturnofthqPillagerafromtheirgtarpgxphrsigntuThagimhta'A‘s;-\‘l11.5;gf.“.u-3?V.‘''“‘."45:413‘LawarpartyoftheSioux'aAbothpartiesdennetoaqégeatorgfotedgqth.TheOjibuealostonoman,&killedthreeSionijgitnoéé's¢a1nénéhggf'his.usthat-téhnérty.H,*broughthomerejoici

      man arrives to the party from Leech Lake Pillagers from a war excursion Ojibwe's lost one man, Sioux lost 3 men (their scalps were brought home to celebrate the success)

    10. awar~paxtyharegone*fromLeashLakeagainsttheSioux'a.TheparnyconsistsOf160strong.TnoaeInds.&theirdamiliesareontheirta}tLhaan

      A war party has recently passed where the missionaries are camping, they are going from Loeoh Lake against the Sioux

  2. Jul 2019
  3. Jun 2019
    1. ogronourSiohagainstthoSioux's

      Local tribes preparing for war against Sioux

    Tags

    Annotators

    1. Tim O'Brien. The Things They Carried. Mariner Books, 2009.

      "Happening truth" vs. "story truth".

      Compare this discussion of truth with a similar discussion in a very different context: Ken Macrorie's Telling Writing.

  4. May 2019
    1. Procedural Rhetoric. Bogost, I. In Persuasive games: the expressive power of videogames, pages 1–64. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 2007.

      "...the rhetoric of failure. Tragedy in games tends to find its procedural representation in this trope." (85)

      "Political video games in the sense I have articulated above are characterized by procedural rhetorics that expose the logic of a political order, thereby opening a possibility for its support, interrogation, or disruption. Procedural rhetorics articulate the way political structures organize their daily practice; they describe the way a system “thinks” before it thinks about anything in particular." (90)

      In thinking through This War of Mine, I'm interested in the notion that the game is designed to thwart winning, and indeed every choice the player makes bring them closer to survival or to morally bankrupt behavior or both. In many moments of the game's narrative, there are no good choices. In some play-throughs I have felt better allowing my characters to die than I have with exercising the power at my disposal, e.g. killing and robbing the old couple. And in a strange way, my characters seem to feel more comfortable with that choice, too. TWoM seems to fall somewhere in between Kabul Kaboom and traditional winnable games.

    1. Only when Sweden stops being blind to its Nazi past will it be able to confront the threat posed by the rise of the far right today.

      Agreed; there's a newly made documentary on the Swedish involvement with the nazis. The documentary is "En svensk tiger"

    1. “On the ground in Syria,” he continued, “Assad is doing everything he can to make sure the physical evidence [of potential human-rights violations] is destroyed, and the digital evidence, too. The combination of all this—the filters, the machine-learning algorithms, and new laws—will make it harder for us to document what’s happening in closed societies.” That, he fears, is what dictators want.
    2. Google and Facebook break out the numbers in their quarterly transparency reports. YouTube pulled 33 million videos off its network in 2018—roughly 90,000 a day. Of the videos removed after automated systems flagged them, 73 percent were removed so fast that no community members ever saw them. Meanwhile, Facebook removed 15 million pieces of content it deemed “terrorist propaganda” from October 2017 to September 2018. In the third quarter of 2018, machines performed 99.5 percent of Facebook’s “terrorist content” takedowns. Just 0.5 percent of the purged material was reported by users first.Those statistics are deeply troubling to open-source investigators, who complain that the machine-learning tools are black boxes.
    3. “We were collecting, archiving, and geolocating evidence, doing all sorts of verification for the case,” Khatib recalled. “Then one day we noticed that all the videos that we had been going through, all of a sudden, all of them were gone.”It wasn’t a sophisticated hack attack by pro-Assad forces that wiped out their work. It was the ruthlessly efficient work of machine-learning algorithms deployed by social networks, particularly YouTube and Facebook.
  5. Mar 2019
    1. The Anglo-Nepalese War of 1814-16 was a victory for the East India Company, but not without heavy casualties inflicted on them by soldiers of the Gorkha Kingdom. Impressed by their discipline and ferocity, the British decided to recruit these soldiers starting in 1815. Since then, the Gurkhas have fought on the side of the British Empire in almost every war, including both World Wars.

      Martial races

    1. reaffirming its faith in government of the people, by the people, for the people

      "The Party of Lincoln." (Lincoln's death was only 51 years in the past in 1916.)

  6. Feb 2019
  7. Dec 2018
    1. A prerequisite for war, as well as bigotry, is that one sees a people or a country as a stereotype, as something sub-human or non-human; this is why politicians spend so much time trying to create stereotypical images for those countries they want to go to war with.
  8. Oct 2018
  9. allred720fa18.commons.gc.cuny.edu allred720fa18.commons.gc.cuny.edu
    1. To procure substitutes for his lost sailors, as well as supplies of water and sails, the captain, at the earliest opportunity, had made for Baldivia, the southernmost civilized port of Chili and South America;

      This "civilized port" called Valdivia, was named for invader Pedro de Valdivia, who also established what became Santiago de Chile in the mid 16th century.

      Valdivia became the first governor of the Captaincy General of Chile. In that post, he obeyed the viceroy of Peru and, through him, the King of Spain and his bureaucracy. Responsible to the governor, town councils known as Cabildo administered local municipalities, the most important of which was Santiago." (History of Chile), Wikipedia)

      "The greatest resistance to Spanish rule came from the Mapuche people, who opposed European conquest and colonization until the 1880s; this resistance is known as the Arauco War. Valdivia died at the Battle of Tucapel, defeated by Lautaro, a young Mapuche toqui (war chief), but the European conquest was well underway." See "A Brief History of the Mapuche People."

    1. Bear your shields forth

      Judith sends them into battle

    2. gave that to the bright and clever-thoughted woman

      Her victory treated as a military one

  10. Sep 2018
    1. Elene gave him yet again precious gifts

      Elene as gift-giver

    2. seven nights in his sorrow under the harm-closure, tortured by hunger

      torture

    3. a blazing pyre

      Elene begins threats

    4. Never have I heard before or since that a woman led a fairer force upon the water’s current, over the sea’s street

      Elene as military leader

    5. queen of warfare

      Elene as military

  11. Aug 2018
    1. But whether a highly productive modern industrial society chooses to spend 3 or 7 percent of its GNP on defense rather than consumption is entirely a matter of that society's political priorities, which are in turn determined in the realm of consciousness.

      It's not so much the percentage on produced defense goods, but how quickly could a society ramp up production of goods, services, and people to defend itself compared to the militaries of its potential aggressors.

      In particular, most of the effort should go to the innovation side of war materiel. The innovation of the atomic bomb is a particularly nice example in that as a result of conceptualizing and then executing on it it allowed the US to win the war in the Pacific and hasten the end of war in Europe. Even if we otherwise had massive stockpiles of people or other weapons, our enemies could potentially have equaled them and dragged the war on interminably. It was the unknown unknown via innovation that unseated Japan and could potentially do the same to us based on innovation coming out of almost any country in the modern age.

    1. But events in Europe unfolded more or less according to Fukuyama’s prediction, and, on December 26, 1991, the Soviet Union voted itself out of existence. The Cold War really was over.

      Or ostensibly, until a strong man came to power in Russia and began its downturn into something else. It definitely doesn't seem to be a liberal democracy, so we're still fighting against it.

    1. Instead of trying to force their messages into the mainstream, these adversaries target polarized communities and “embed” fake accounts within them. The false personas engage with real people in those communities to build credibility. Once their influence has been established, they can introduce new viewpoints and amplify divisive and inflammatory narratives that are already circulating. It’s the digital equivalent of moving to an isolated and tight-knit community, using its own language quirks and catering to its obsessions, running for mayor, and then using that position to influence national politics.
    2. However, as the following diagrams will show, the middle is a lot weaker than it looks, and this makes public discourse vulnerable both to extremists at home and to manipulation by outside actors such as Russia.
  12. Jul 2018
    1. "The internet has become the main threat — a sphere that isn't controlled by the Kremlin," said Pavel Chikov, a member of Russia's presidential human rights council. "That's why they're going after it. Its very existence as we know it is being undermined by these measures."
    2. "Putin was never very fond of the internet even in the early 2000s," said Andrei Soldatov, a Russian investigative journalist who specializes in security services and cyber issues. "When he was forced to think about the internet during the protests, he became very suspicious, especially about social networks. He thinks there's a plot, a Western conspiracy against him. He believes there is a very dangerous thing for him and he needs to put this thing under control."
    1. creating a new international news operation called Sputnik to “provide an alternative viewpoint on world events.” More and more, though, the Kremlin is manipulating the information sphere in more insidious ways.
    1. RuNet Echo has previously written about the efforts of the Russian “Troll Army” to inject the social networks and online media websites with pro-Kremlin rhetoric. Twitter is no exception, and multiple users have observed Twitter accounts tweeting similar statements during and around key breaking news and events. Increasingly active throughout Russia's interventions in Ukraine, these “bots” have been designed to look like real Twitter users, complete with avatars.
    1. We’ve built an information ecosystem where information can fly through social networks (both technical and personal). Folks keep looking to the architects of technical networks to solve the problem. I’m confident that these companies can do a lot to curb some of the groups who have capitalized on what’s happening to seek financial gain. But the battles over ideology and attention are going to be far trickier. What’s at stake isn’t “fake news.” What’s at stake is the increasing capacity of those committed to a form of isolationist and hate-driven tribalism that has been around for a very long time. They have evolved with the information landscape, becoming sophisticated in leveraging whatever tools are available to achieve power, status, and attention. And those seeking a progressive and inclusive agenda, those seeking to combat tribalism to form a more perfect union —  they haven’t kept up.
    2. As I wrote in “Hacking the Attention Economy,” manipulating the media for profit, ideology, and lulz has evolved over time. The strategies that hackers, hoaxers, and haters have taken have become more sophisticated. The campaigns have gotten more intense. And now many of the actors most set on undermining institutionalized information intermediaries are in the most powerful office in the land. They are waging war on the media and the media doesn’t know what to do other than to report on it.
    3. How many years did it take for the US military to learn that waging war with tribal networks couldn’t be fought with traditional military strategies? How long will it take for the news media to wake up and recognize that they’re being played? And how long after that will it take for editors and publishers to start evolving their strategies?
    4. there’s no cost to the administration to be helpful to the media because the people the Trump Administration cares about don’t trust the media anyhow.
    5. News agencies, long trained to focus on reporting information and maintaining a conceptual model of standards, are ill-equipped to understand that they may have a role in this war, that their actions and decisions are shaping the way the war plays out.
    1. When messaging is coordinated and consistent, it easily fools our brains, already exhausted and increasingly reliant on heuristics (simple psychological shortcuts) due to the overwhelming amount of information flashing before our eyes every day. When we see multiple messages about the same topic, our brains use that as a short-cut to credibility. It must be true we say — I’ve seen that same claim several times today.
    2. I saw Eliot Higgins present in Paris in early January, and he listed four ‘Ps’ which helped explain the different motivations. I’ve been thinking about these a great deal and using Eliot’s original list have identified four additional motivations for the creation of this type of content: Poor Journalism, Parody, to Provoke or ‘Punk’, Passion, Partisanship, Profit, Political Influence or Power, and Propaganda.This is a work in progress but once you start breaking these categories down and mapping them against one another you begin to see distinct patterns in terms of the types of content created for specific purposes.
    3. Back in November, I wrote about the different types of problematic information I saw circulate during the US election. Since then, I’ve been trying to refine a typology (and thank you to Global Voices for helping me to develop my definitions even further). I would argue there are seven distinct types of problematic content that sit within our information ecosystem. They sit on a scale, one that loosely measures the intent to deceive.
    4. As Danah Boyd outlined in a recent piece, we are at war. An information war. We certainly should worry about people (including journalists) unwittingly sharing misinformation, but far more concerning are the systematic disinformation campaigns.
  13. Apr 2018
    1. King George II

      King George II died on October 25, 1760, and was succeeded by his grandson, George III. During his reign, George II's reign oversaw the War of Austrian Succession and the Seven Years' War. As Secretary of State, William Pitt the Elder directed the policy of the Seven Years' War.

  14. Mar 2018
    1. We’re officially entering the final stretch leading up to Avengers: Infinity War because Marvel just released a brand-new trailer for the movie, revealing tons of new footage and details in the process.

      Avengers: Infinity War!--Can't wait!

  15. Feb 2018
    1. Godard’s Les Carabiners (1963)

      Les Carabiners is a film by French New Wave director Jean-Luc Godard. Although it is unclear from Sontag's description of the film, it's an anti-war film. For more info: http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0056905/.

  16. Oct 2017
    1. U.S. Secretary of State Rex Tillerson has continued to work on a diplomatic solution, telling CNN on Sunday he would continue to engage with North Korea “until the first bomb drops.”

      Jeez, well that's not really comforting...

    1. Japan succeeded in lofting hundreds of incendiary balloons, swept eastward by the jet stream to the U.S. West Coast. These killed seven people, ignited forest fires and crashed in Medford, Oregon, and Billings, Montana. But the logistics of sending infected rats or fleas across the Pacific apparently proved overwhelming. Late in the war, the Japanese devised Operation Cherry Blossoms at Night, a plan to send kamikaze pilots to bomb San Diego with plague-infected fleas. But with the U.S.’ atomic attacks on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the plan was never carried out
    2. A three-day-old baby was said to have been jabbed with needles and submerged in icy water and live victims dissected without anesthesia. Circles of doctors would cut open screaming women to examine their reproductive organs.
  17. Jul 2017
    1. Those who thought he might use his enormous prestige to political effect, as Vietnam's communist leaders failed to deliver the economic benefits of peace, were disappointed
    2. Giap had his critics, too, most notably over his willingness to suffer casualties which would be politically unacceptable in anything other than a war for national liberation.“In the final analysis, victory in any war is determined by the willingness of the masses to shed blood on the battlefield,” Giap once wrote.
    3. In a biography, Peter MacDonald, a retired British brigadier, argues that Giap combined a strategic depth of vision with a mastery of guerrilla warfare and an outstanding grasp of logistics, seen most dramatically in the creation of the Ho Chi Minh trail to supply the south during the American War.
    4. But poised for what? The initial plan, endorsed by Giap’s Chinese military advisers, called for an early mass assault before the French could further strengthen their positions. On January 26, with six hours to go before the first attack was to be launched, Giap called it off, causing a near mutiny among his staff.“We chose to strike and advance surely,” he wrote later, “and to strike to win only when success is certain.” Giap redeployed his artillery to higher ground, ordering his men to begin steadily digging an extensive trench network towards the French positions where they could pick off the French forts one by one. At the same time, he continued diversionary movements into Laos and in the Mekong Delta, aimed at preventing Navarre from concentrating more of his forces on Dien Bien Phu.
    1. In March 1972, the North Vietnamese carried out the Easter offensive on three fronts, expanding their holdings in Cambodia and Laos and bringing temporary gains in South Vietnam. But it ended in defeat, and General Giap again bore the brunt of criticism for the heavy losses. In summer 1972, he was replaced by Gen. Van Tien Dung, possibly because he had fallen from favor but possibly because, as was rumored, he had Hodgkin’s disease.Although he was removed from direct command in 1973, General Giap remained minister of defense, overseeing North Vietnam’s final victory over South Vietnam and the United States when Saigon, the South’s capital, fell on April 30, 1975. He also guided the invasion of Cambodia in January 1979, which ousted the brutal Communist Khmer Rouge. The next month, after Hanoi had established a new government in Phnom Penh, Chinese troops attacked along the North Vietnamese border to drive home the point that China remained the paramount regional power.
    2. General Westmoreland relied on superior weaponry to wage a war of attrition, in which he measured success by the number of enemy dead. Though the Communists lost in any comparative “body count” of casualties, General Giap was quick to see that the indiscriminate bombing and massed firepower of the Americans caused heavy civilian casualties and alienated many Vietnamese from the government the Americans supported.With the war in stalemate and Americans becoming less tolerant of accepting casualties, General Giap told a European interviewer, South Vietnam “is for the Americans a bottomless pit.”
    3. “Every minute, hundreds of thousands of people die on this earth,” General Giap is said to have remarked after the war with France. “The life or death of a hundred, a thousand, tens of thousands of human beings, even our compatriots, means little.”
    4. “He learned from his mistakes and did not repeat them,” Gen. Marcel Bigeard, who as a young colonel of French paratroops surrendered at Dien Bien Phu, told Peter G. Macdonald, one of General Giap’s biographers. But “to Giap,” he said, “a man’s life was nothing.”
    5. But his critics said that his victories had been rooted in a profligate disregard for the lives of his soldiers. Gen. William C. Westmoreland, who commanded American forces in Vietnam from 1964 until 1968, said, “Any American commander who took the same vast losses as General Giap would not have lasted three weeks.”
    1. Giap's political timidity came as a crushing disappointment to many. His last years were spent polishing his image as the "red Napoleon". He adored giving interviews, charming his hagiographers and fawning journalists with the same gestures and stories told in a fluent but outdated French of which he was immensely proud. He was always careful to avoid the real questions that hung over his increasingly contested career. He could not, however, stop many people from reconsidering his versions of history and heroism. Many Vietnamese also began to question whether the sacrifices of war had been worth it. Others saw too many moments in Giap's career where he had refused to stand up to hardliners or had failed to capitalise on his popular support to force through political and economic changes.
    2. In 1986, in the runup to a Communist party congress, a group of officers urged Giap to take control and launch sweeping changes to the economy and political system. Giap refused, terrified of what might happen if he failed. Bui Tin, an army colonel who had been a protege, urged him again in 1990 to take over and provide a new direction for Vietnam. Giap demurred, preferring a comfortable retirement. Tin later condemned him bitterly, quoting an old Chinese saying that "the reputations of generals are built on the bodies of 10,000 men".
    3. General William Westmoreland, commander of the American forces, once remarked that any US general that suffered Giap's losses would have been sacked instantly. His skills lay less in military tactics and more in managing the logistics and politics that were so vital to sustain the war in the south. His diplomatic skills kept open supply lines from China and the Soviet Union, while at home he organised the movement of troops and material down the Ho Chi Minh Trail, a vast web of tracks stretching into Laos and Cambodia. "People should not be overawed by the power of modern weapons," Giap wrote. "It is the value of human beings that in the end will decide victory."
    1. Dien Bien Phu "was the first time that a non-European colonial independence movement had evolved through all the stages from guerrilla bands to a conventionally organized and equipped army able to defeat a modern Western occupier in a pitched battle," wrote British historian Martin Windrow, the author of “The Last Valley: Dien Bien Phu and the French Defeat in Vietnam.”
    2. For the French, however, the Viet Minh victory marked not just the end of their dominance in Indochina but the beginning of their decline as a colonial power. Inspired by the Viet Minh, many Algerians, a few of whom had even fought next to the French in Vietnam, began demanding their own independence. About six months later, Algerians would begin their own successful independence movement, through a bloody war that lasted over seven years. Julian Jackson, a historian, wrote for the BBC: "The French army held so desperately on to Algeria partly to redeem the honor it felt had been lost at Dien Bien Phu. So obsessed did the army become by this idea that in 1958 it backed a putsch against the government, which it believed was preparing what the generals condemned as a 'diplomatic Dien Bien Phu.'"
  18. May 2017
    1. Fraser’s Highlanders

      The Fraser's Highlanders, also known as "The Old 78th Regiment" was a British regiment gathered under William Pitt in 1757 for fighting in the French and Indian War. They fought in many influential battles during the war which lasted until 1763, including the engagements at Louisbourg and Quebec. Many of the men in the regiment settled in Canada after 1763. Many men who were in the regiment had descendants who eventually had an active role in Canadian politics and history, including some who were even involved in exploration and the fur trade. Their legacy lives on as they are considered the first influential wave of Scottish immigration to Canada. They intermarried with the French-Canadians already settled in the region, creating what we know as the Scots-Quebec culture.

      Wallace, W.S. Some Notes on Fraser's Highlanders. Canadian Historical Review, 1937.

    1. Canol Pipeline
      Designed during the first months of World War II, the Canol Pipeline brought oil from Norman Wells near the Mackenzie River to Whitehorse, Yukon Territory. Once the oil was refined, it would be sent to Alaska via pipeline to ensure that the Japanese navy could not intercept any transport. The oil deposits at Norman Wells were discovered by the explorer Alexander Mackenzie during the 18th century. In January of 1942, Lieutenant General Brehon Somervell, commanding general of the Army Service Forces, ordered James H. Graham, former dean of engineering at the University of Kentucky, to investigate the possibility of harvesting oil from Norman Wells. On April 29, 1942, General Somervell immediately approved the recommendation of Dean Graham to implement a pipeline from Norman Wells to Whitehorse (O'Brien, 1970). The construction began in 1942 and was completed in 1944 by the United States Army. A road was also constructed alongside the Canol pipeline during this time. In 1945, soon after the completion of the Canol Pipeline, the volume of crude oil that was able to be transported compared to the cost of operating the pipeline could not be justified. The Canol Pipeline was shut down and abandoned in 1945 (Wilson, 1991). 
      

      References

      O'Brien, C. F. (1970). The Canol Project: A Study in Emergency Military Planning. The Pacific Northwest Quarterly, 101-108.

      Wilson, W. H. (1991). Review: A Walk on teh Canol Road: Exploring the First Major Northern Pipeline. The Pacific Northwest Quarterly, 114.

    2. Distant Early Warning Line (DEW Line)

      The Distant Early Warning (DEW) Line was a chain of 63 radio and communication centers that spread from Alaska to the Canadian Arctic to Greenland. The DEW line was an American defense project to protect them from Russian threat. The DEW line was the first joint American and Canadian defense project (Lajeunesse). Because the majority of the project was paid for and spearheaded by the United States, Canada feared losing sovereignty in the Arctic. The United States did not wish to control Canadian land, but would control military forces in that region. Canada feared American presence and demanded that any American military air force bases be located away from densely populated areas. The DEW Line was functional by 1957. The DEW line was primarily controlled by the American Air Force, as the Canadian Air Force personnel did not have proper training or manpower to serve the DEW line. The Canadian presence on the DEW line was largely ceremonial to display Canadian approval and control of their land. The Canadian government pushed for the DEW Line to become NATO territory to minimize American dominance of the region, but this hope was never realized. In order to regain control over their Arctic territory, Canada constructed its own radar line called the Mid-Canada Line. Constructing their own line allowed Canada to regain recognition as a powerful ally and partner to the United States.

      References: Lajeunesse, Adam. "The Distant Early Warning Line and the Canadian Battle for Public Perception." Canadian Military Journal. Accessed May 04, 2017. http://www.journal.forces.gc.ca/vo8/no2/lajeunes-eng.asp.

    3. Northwest Staging Route

      The Northwest Staging Route was an airfield between Alaska and Alberta. The airfield was used for military personal to transfer supplies from Canada to Alaska in World War II (Christie). The string of airfields along the Northwest Staging Route were responsible for great contributions to the North American war effort. The earliest records of the Northwest Staging Route are from a survey by the Canadian Department of Transportation in 1935, but the Northwest Staging Route only consisted of a few airstrips by the 1940s. The Route was not used until right before the attack at Pearl Harbor. After the attack, America greatly increased their work on the Route and prepared the airfields due to fears that the Japanese would attack Alaska. The first few tests of the Northwest Staging Route airfields were unsuccessful and several planes were crashed in the process. The airfields were undeveloped and the pilots untrained. The Canadian government attempted to fix the Staging Route alone, but received pressure from the United States. Canada and the United States worked together on improving the airfields in 1943. Overtime, the Canadian government feared permanent United States presence along the Route. The two governments eventually came to an agreement where Canada would reimburse the United States for any permanent improvements to the airfields. At the conclusion of the war, the United States ceased military action in Canada. Canada then struggled with documentation of aircraft along the Northwest Staging Route, which was resolved after a conference with American air force members in August of 1943.

      Reference: Christie, Carl A. "The Northwest Staging Route." Homefront in Alberta - The Northwest Staging Route. Accessed May 03, 2017. http://wayback.archive-it.org/2217/20101208171343/http://www.albertasource.ca/homefront/feature_articles/northwest_staging_route4.html.

  19. Apr 2017
    1. the appeal was the choice of the king

      The occupation of Boston, from October of 1768 until March 17, 1776, was the first aggressive act by the King in response to the unrest in the Colonies. The British hoped that by suppressing the Bostonians, they could quell the rebellion before it could get started.

    2. nineteenth of April, i. e. to the commencement of hostilities

      The Battles of Lexington and Concord, the beginning of the war, were April 18-19, 1775.

    1. Alaska Highway
      The Alaska Highway was originally constructed for and used by the military during World War II which lasted from 1939 to 1945. It was opened in November of 1942. Its length reached nearly 1,525 miles. When Richard Bucksar wrote his article The Alaska Highway Development published in the journal Arctic Volume 27, Number 1 in 1974, the Alaska Highway had not been paved in its entirety despite many proposals to do so. In 1974, it remained mostly a gravel road described as “rough and uneven” (Bucksar 1974, 74). About 400 of the 1,525 miles were paved. 
      
      Since the Alaska Highway passes through Canadian territory to connect the continental United States to Alaska, both country’s governments had to be consulted regarding improvements to the Alaska Highway. The Canadian Parliament and United States Congress were presented with numerous proposals to improve the Alaska Highway including improving the road, developing railways, introducing new sea-routes, reconstructing, paving, etc. (Bucksar 1974, 74-75). Mostly all of these propositions were not passed since alternate “adequate modes of transportation were developing and that the expected traffic on the [Alaska] Highway did not warrant reconstruction and paving at that time” (Bucksar 1974, 78). 
      
      The Alaska Highway was the only land-based link between Alaska and the continental United States. Some towns, cities, and other landmarks that the Alaska Highway passes through include Dawson Creek, Fort Saint John, Fort Nelson, Muncho Lake Provincial Park, Liard River Hotsprings Provincial Park, Watson Lake, Teslin, Whitehorse, Halnes Junction, Beaver Creek, Delta Junction, North Pole, Fairbanks, and many more. A detailed current map of the Alaska Highway is displayed below. 
      

      References

      The Milepost. Alaska Highway. 2016. https://www.themilepost.com/highway-info/highways/alaska-highway (accessed April 4, 2017).

      Bucksar, Richard G. "The Alaska Highway Development." Arctic 27, no. 1 (1974): 74-80. http://www.jstor.org.ezproxy.bucknell.edu/stable/40508483.

  20. enst31501sp2017.courses.bucknell.edu enst31501sp2017.courses.bucknell.edu
    1. foreign oi

      This article considers other ongoing world events (specifically, the Gulf War) in order to pressure Congress’s pending approval of drilling in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. At this point in time, there had been a joint drilling executed by BP and Chevron, but the results were declared a corporate secret and were not released to policy makers, other oil companies, or the public. A major reason why the drilling was being pushed was to have a lesser reliance on foreign oil.

      Balzar, John. "Arctic Wildlife Refuge may be Casualty of Persian Gulf Crisis." Los Angeles Times (1923-Current File), Aug 26, 1990. Accessed March 25, 2017. https://search.proquest.com/docview/1461028582?accountid=9784

  21. Mar 2017
    1. We refer to that ultimate disease of cooperation: war. (You will understand war much better if you think of it, not simply as strife come to a ~ head, but rather as a disease, or perversion of communion. Modern war characteristically re-quires a myriad of constructive acts for each de-i.tructive one; before each culminating blast there must be a vast network of interlocking opera-tions, directed communally.)

      Thinking with Carl Von Clausewitz's theory that war is an extension of a nation's politics, the dialectical synthesis of the political sphere and physical violence.

    1. The old Rhetoric was an offspring of dis-pute; it developed as the rationale of pleadings and persuadings; it was the theory of the battle of words and has always been itself dominated by the combative impulse.

      I guess "old Rhetoric" is still alive, because especially on cable news or in arguments with friends, discussions are not "expositions" but "battles of words."

  22. Jan 2017
    1. Back then there were two major browsers competing for the soul of the web: Microsoft Internet Explorer and Netscape Navigator. They were incompatible by design. One browser would invent a new HTML element or attribute.

      If competition can lead to innovation, it's a hurdle when you try to build standards

    1. "But I wouldn't do it again," he added, listing the challenges of having so many kin -- like the need to build each wife a house away from the others to prevent friction

      instead of having friction he should have made the disition to have i wify

  23. Dec 2016
    1. the great powers in this world will become far more like each other out of necessity. Their opposition to one another will become increasingly theoretical and less meaningful in reality, and they will find that they need each other a great deal. They are like a husband and wife who cannot leave each other and must learn to get along because they love each other. Russians love you; you love the Russians. But when you love someone and you do not communicate, you harbor hard feelings and you become estranged. Along with this, the developing nations in your world will have increasing power in the years to come, and this will complete the requirement for a global community.
    2. The wars that are erupting now, like cancerous sores upon the world, are based upon tribes fighting to regain their identity, attempting to re-establish their former role, their territory, their spirituality, their government and their heritage. You will see many attempts to reassert the past in the times to come, but the past is gone. Many of these attempts will be quite violent and disruptive. That is why we must teach peace. That is why there is a great deal of instruction going on currently, so that people may have a greater spiritual capacity to undergo this tremendous transition.
  24. Nov 2016
  25. Sep 2016
  26. online.salempress.com.lacademy.idm.oclc.org online.salempress.com.lacademy.idm.oclc.org
    1. El Salvador's population growth has slowed, with a decline in the number of youths and a slowly aging population. Life expectancy is 71 years for men and 78 years for women (2014 estimate). Over one million Salvadorans, or approximately 20 percent of the population, live abroad, mainly because of economic and social hardship within their native country. During the civil war, an estimated 75,000 Salvadorans were killed.

      I found this interesting because El Salvador has quite a small population, so 75,000 people is a lot of people to die in a civil war.

    1. El Salvador's population growth has slowed, with a decline in the number of youths and a slowly aging population. Life expectancy is 71 years for men and 78 years for women (2014 estimate). Over one million Salvadorans, or approximately 20 percent of the population, live abroad, mainly because of economic and social hardship within their native country. During the civil war, an estimated 75,000 Salvadorans were killed

      I find that the last part of this is pretty interesting. Seeming that El Salvador doesn't have that big of a population, a civil war where 75,000 people died is pretty huge.

    1. The author affirms that “Zombies—lacking interior, lacking mind—cannot look; they are, for this reason, completely realized colonial objects. Zombies cannot be recognized, accommodated, or negotiated with; once identified, they must immediately be killed.” He contends that the coding of the zombie figure in the biopolitical terms of epidemic is evidence that “The biopolitical state . . . needs to create this sort of racial imaginary in order to retain its power to kill.”

      I've been a big fan of the zombie/living dead sub-genre since I was pretty young, and the interest has grown even more in the last 12+ years. Overtime, I have wondered whether this sub-genre, our fascination with zombies/infected apocalyptic themes/elements, has deeper meaning for us that can point back to the innate nature of othering or ingroup/outgroup. There are stories of genocide and wars in literature throughout time and across every culture. Humankind has an extensive history that involves the oppression and marginalization of many different civilizations and people. We have an intimate relationship with war and conflict. In the past, it may have not been so usual to see apocalyptic literature with themes that target a certain race or groups of people, even a race that was deemed inferior or less than fully human, due to the prevailing ideologies and worldviews during those times. But the same attitude and worldview is unacceptable today, at least to many. Survivors of the apocalypse can't go all feral and Purge on another group of people, at least not on such a wide scale. However, zombies/infected seem to take that place. Zombies serve a similar function. Not only is there the classic world-ending event that has existed in religious literature for millennia, but survivors get to maintain human supremacy (rather than racial) over non-humans. It becomes unacceptable because these things are no longer conscious or recognized as a living, sentiment human.

  27. Jun 2016
    1. Title: The dying breed of craftsmen behind the tools that make scientific research possible - LA Times

      Keywords: government-funded research opened, snake glass coils, fuse glass beakers, organic chemistry, research hubs, world war, experienced glassblowers, glassblowers remain, church laboratory, befallen glassblowing, glass manufacturer, glass technicians, cost-cutting world, jobs tend, entry-level jobs

      Summary: Hunkered down in the sub-basement of the Norman W. Church Laboratory for Chemical Biology, underneath a campus humming with quantum teleportation devices, gravity wave detectors and neural prosthetics, Rick Gerhart chipped away at a broken flask.<br>Peering into the dancing flames, he examined his work for wrinkles — imperfections invisible to the untrained eye.<br>“It not only should be functional,” he said, smoothing the rim with a carbon rod, “it has to look good.”<br>Here in Caltech’s one-man glass shop, where Gerhart transforms a researcher’s doodles into intricate laboratory equipment, craftsmanship is king.<br>In a cost-cutting world of machines and assembly plants, few glassblowers remain with the level of mastery needed at research hubs like Caltech.<br>“He’s a somewhat dying breed,” said Sarah Reisman, who relied on Gerhart to create 20 maze-like contraptions for her synthetic organic chemistry lab.<br>Rick Gerhart, scientific glass blower at Caltech, has been helping to make scientific research possible at the campus since 1992.<br>(Dillon Deaton/Los Angeles Times)<br>Similar fates have befallen glassblowing at UCLA and NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory.<br>Across the U.S., those who land such jobs tend to stay until retirement.<br>He chuckled: “Looks like we have to steal somebody.”<br>To master scientific glassblowing, proper training and apprenticeships are key.<br>In addition to the hands-on training, which requires a knack for precision as well as coordination, students must take courses in organic chemistry, math and computer drawing.<br>So it really takes a long time to get to a position like Rick’s.”<br>Gerhart enrolled in the Salem program in 1965, after dropping out of college to give his father’s profession a try.<br>The craft, which dates back to alchemy in the 2nd century, took hold in America by the 1930s and 1940s, after World War I cut off glassware supply from Germany.<br>The profession peaked after World War II, when booms in oil and government-funded research opened up numerous glassblowing jobs in many a lab.<br>At first, Gerhart hopped around a number of firms and worked alongside more experienced glassblowers at TRW Inc. and UCLA.<br>When he settled at Caltech in 1992, the glassblower before him handed over the key to the shop and said, “Good luck.” On his own, Gerhart pieced together his patchwork of experience to twist and fuse glass beakers and snake glass coils over vacuum chambers.<br>“That’s when I really started learning.”<br>Social media videos have sparked new interest in the craft, Briening said.<br>But while his students have no trouble getting entry-level jobs at companies like Chemglass Life Sciences, a glass manufacturer, and General Electric Global Research, rarely are universities willing to budget the overhead costs for more than one glassblower, if any.<br>“Years ago, all the universities had two or three people,” Briening said.<br>One of the few resources left for the next generation is the American Scientific Glassblowers Society, a close-knit group that hosts national workshops and swaps ideas when a researcher’s custom order stumps one of its members.<br>Its members also serve as Caltech’s best — and possibly only — options once Gerhart leaves.<br>“Rick’s one of those glass technicians that I put in the top 5%,” Ponton said.<br>

    1. Title: Is Polite Philosophical Discussion Possible? (guest post by Nomy Arpaly) - Daily Nous

      Keywords: implicit bias, philosophical discussion, war crimes, moral inhibitions—

      Summary: For brevity’s sake, let’s just say it’s a big part of politeness or civility not to correct people.<br>A soldier who is fighting, even for a just cause, is in a precarious situation, with regard to morality, because he has lost, of necessity, the basic moral inhibition against killing people.<br>A philosopher who is arguing with another, even in pursuit of truth, is in a precarious situation with regard to politeness, because she has lost, of necessity, the basic civil inhibition against correcting people.<br>Having lost, of necessity, the inhibition against killing people, some soldiers find themselves shedding other moral inhibitions—and committing war crimes.<br>Having lost, of necessity, the inhibition against correcting people, some philosophers find themselves shedding other social inhibitions—and being terribly, terribly rude.<br>That’s just the nature of inhibition loss.<br>You need the real thing.<br>Being compelled to break the rule of thumb against telling people that they are mistaken in the understanding of an important thing is no excuse for also yelling at them, repeatedly interrupting them and talking over them, responding to their painstakingly prepared talks with a sneering “why should I be interested in any of this”?<br>Furthermore, I will argue against the philosophical Henry Kissinger within many of us who worries that whatever might be true about war and war crimes, realistically speaking philosophical rigor just requires rudeness.<br>It’s clearly a vice, virtue ethicists would say.<br>I would like to add the following.<br>First, if everyone is rude, women are judged unfairly (as potential colleagues, for example) because rude women are treated more harshly than rude men, by everyone, due to implicit bias.<br>Again, changing behavior is much easier than changing implicit bias.<br>Some think philosophy should change here—either through what I called “pacifism” earlier or through changing the way we evaluate people, or otherwise.<br>It won’t solve everything, but if we reduce rudeness, I solemnly promise that more women will want to do philosophy.<br>It is shown most emphatically by downright quiet, mild-mannered philosophers whose objections, expressed in a nice tone of voice, are nonetheless absolutely lethal.<br>They say revenge is best served cold.<br>Philosophical discussion can legitimately feel like a very tiring game of squash.<br>(Vincent Van Gogh, detail of “Four Cut Sunflowers”)<br>

    1. BAGHDAD — After weeks of battling the Islamic State, Iraqi forces quickly entered central areas of Falluja on Friday, as thousands of civilians fled in a new wave of displacement that has overwhelmed the ability of aid agencies to care for them.

      this is interesting

  28. May 2016
  29. Oct 2015
    1. V. Seven Years’ War

      Week 9 Video Lecture

      Study Questions for this week's reading in American Yawp:

      What tensions between France and England and the colonies did the Seven Years’s War reveal?

      What impact did England’s victory in the Seven Years'

      War have upon Native Americans? How was their relationship different with the French than it was with the English?

      How does England attempt to increasingly regulate and tax the colonies after the war?

  30. Sep 2015
  31. May 2015
  32. Nov 2014
  33. Feb 2014
    1. That changed with the end of WWII. Waves of discharged soldiers subsidized by the GI Bill, joined by the children of the expanding middle class, wanted or needed a college degree.
  34. Oct 2013
    1. have studied the wars of other countries as well as those of his own, and the way they ended; similar causes are likely to have similar results.
    1. These are great things and compel our admiration; but the facts which I now give entitle him to even greater praise. For although he saw that you respected only the kind of generals who threatened and tried to terrify the other cities and were always for setting up some revolution or other among your allies

      Many people respect the military nowadays. We are in a war that most people do not realize is happening. We have had men and women fighting overseas in the middle-east for over 10 years. It has become a part of life; there are good and bad parts to this. People at home recognize and respect the sacrifices of soldiers when they are coming home or are in uniform, but I feel like they forget about them when they are not in sight. People are getting killed over there and we are not getting upset about it which shows how little people know or care about what is happening.

  35. Aug 2013
    1. In On War, Carl von Clausewitz argues that every battle revolves around a “central hub” of activity—a center of gravity or “heavy point” (Schwerpunkt)—that forms the nodal point of the enemy’s material military power. Info War, however, makes civil society itself the center of gravity. Info War targets not only the physical infrastructure of information (nodes, cables, links, servers, towers, routers, electricity grids)

      Test text.