59 Matching Annotations
  1. Jul 2019
    1. evaporative social cooling effect.

      high value contributors leave a community because they cannot gain something from it, which leads to the decrease of the quality of the community. Since the people most likely to join a community are those whose quality is below the average quality of the community, these newcomers are very likely to harm the quality of the community.

      https://blogs.cornell.edu/info2040/2015/10/14/the-evaporative-cooling-effect-in-social-network/

  2. Apr 2019
    1. drei Dimensionen der Resonanzbeziehung

      Dinge Menschen Welt … Tiere Pflanzen Orte Landschaften Elemente … konzeptionelle Übersimplifizierung der Theorie? oder: treffende Beschreibung "moderne[r] Gesellschaften westlichen Typs" ?

    2. Lebendigkeit entsteht aus der Akzeptanz des Unverfügbaren

      Lebendigkeit? =: ein Gradmesser für Gegenwart/ Geistesgegenwärtigkeit/ SEIN/ flow/ …

      das Unverfügbare? =: Heisenbergsche Unschärferelation: wenn ich über das Unv. verfüge, zerstöre ich es (--> Schmetterling)

      --> Gelassenheit: ich muss nicht sammeln, besitzen kann mich über den Moment, die Begegnung freuen. der bewusste Verzicht auf Verfügung/ Besitz lässt mich wachsen, weil ich durch den Verzicht, immerhin im Falle des Schmetterlings, Leben schenke

      aber wie kann ich teilen? wenn ich kein Foto machen darf? --> schreiben! (es gibt bereits bilder von fast allem)

    1. Digital sociology needs more big theory as well as testable theory.

      Here I might posit that Cesar Hidalgo's book Why Information Grows (MIT, 2015) has some interesting theses about links between people and companies which could be extrapolated up to "societies of linked companies". What could we predict about how those will interact based on the underlying pieces? Is it possible that we see other emergent complex behaviors?

    2. Digital sociology needs more big theory as well as testable theory.

      I can't help but think here about the application of digital technology to large bodies of literature in the creation of the field of corpus linguistics.

      If traditional sociology means anything, then a digital incarnation of it should create physical and trackable means that can potentially be more easily studied as a result. Just the same way that Mark Dredze has been able to look at Twitter data to analyze public health data like influenza, we should be able to more easily quantify sociological phenomenon in aggregate by looking at larger and richer data sets of online interactions.

      There's also likely some value in studying the quantities of digital exhaust that companies like Google, Amazon, Facebook, etc. are using for surveillance capitalism.

  3. Jan 2019
    1. hose who divorce indicates that young married adults under age 30 have been particularly exposed to the risk of divorce in recent years, and this holds true especially for women.

      So is it fair to assume that the Goode Hypothesis is based on the idea that First only the rich can divorce and do so at there own rate Then it becomes available to the lower classes and so they begin to do it gradually as it is not immediately socially accepted despite being available. Then as it becomes common place amoung the poor the rich begin to see it as "lowly" to divorce and avoid it due to social stigma. Is that the presumed chain or are there other motivations that I am missing?

  4. Dec 2018
    1. Social scientists call the person connecting these two otherwise separate clusters a “bridge tie.” Research shows that weak ties are more likely to be bridges between disparate groups.
    2. homophily
    3. Te c h nolo-gies alter our ability to preserve and circulate ideas and stories, the ways in which we connect and converse, the people with whom we can interact, the things that we can see, and the structures of power that oversee the means of contact.
  5. Nov 2018
    1. Concerning the discipline of sociology, he described the dichotomy of sedentary life versus nomadic life as well as the inevitable loss of power that occurs when warriors conquer a city. According to the Arab scholar Sati' al-Husri, the Muqaddimah may be read as a sociological work. The work is based around Ibn Khaldun's central concept of 'aṣabiyyah, which has been translated as "social cohesion", "group solidarity", or "tribalism". This social cohesion arises spontaneously in tribes and other small kinship groups; it can be intensified and enlarged by a religious ideology. Ibn Khaldun's analysis looks at how this cohesion carries groups to power but contains within itself the seeds – psychological, sociological, economic, political – of the group's downfall, to be replaced by a new group, dynasty or empire bound by a stronger (or at least younger and more vigorous) cohesion. Some of Ibn Khaldun's views, particularly those concerning the Zanj people of sub-Saharan Africa,[27] have been cited as a racist,[28] though they were not uncommon for their time. According to the scholar Abdelmajid Hannoum, Ibn Khaldun's description of the distinctions between Berbers and Arabs were misinterpreted by the translator William McGuckin de Slane, who wrongly inserted a "racial ideology that sets Arabs and Berbers apart and in opposition" into his translation of the Muqaddimah.
  6. Aug 2018
    1. Social scientists explain link formation through two families of mechanisms; one that finds it roots in sociology and the other one in economics. The sociological approach assumes that link formation is connected to the characteristics of individuals and their context. Chief examples of the sociological approach include what I will call the big three sociological link-formation hypotheses. These are: shared social foci, triadic closure, and homophily.
  7. Jul 2018
    1. In more than twenty years of running diversity-training and cultural-competency workshops for American companies, the academic and educator Robin DiAngelo has noticed that white people are sensationally, histrionically bad at discussing racism. Like waves on sand, their reactions form predictable patterns: they will insist that they “were taught to treat everyone the same,” that they are “color-blind,” that they “don’t care if you are pink, purple, or polka-dotted.” They will point to friends and family members of color, a history of civil-rights activism, or a more “salient” issue, such as class or gender. They will shout and bluster. They will cry. In 2011, DiAngelo coined the term “white fragility” to describe the disbelieving defensiveness that white people exhibit when their ideas about race and racism are challenged—and particularly when they feel implicated in white supremacy. Why, she wondered, did her feedback prompt such resistance, as if the mention of racism were more offensive than the fact or practice of it?
  8. Apr 2018
    1. Although Hillman has not flown for more than 20 years as part of a personal commitment to reducing carbon emissions, he is now scornful of individual action which he describes as “as good as futile”. By the same logic, says Hillman, national action is also irrelevant “because Britain’s contribution is minute. Even if the government were to go to zero carbon it would make almost no difference.” Instead, says Hillman, the world’s population must globally move to zero emissions across agriculture, air travel, shipping, heating homes – every aspect of our economy – and reduce our human population too. Can it be done without a collapse of civilisation? “I don’t think so,” says Hillman. “Can you see everyone in a democracy volunteering to give up flying? Can you see the majority of the population becoming vegan? Can you see the majority agreeing to restrict the size of their families?”
  9. Nov 2017
    1. collaborative effort between a university professor and a government researcher (much like the collaborations at the beginnings of the Internet)

      Brief History of the Internet has been in my required readings for Sociology of Cyberspace.

    1. Innovation involves the acceptance of the goals of a culture but the rejection of the traditional and/or legitimate means of attaining those goals. For example, a member of the Mafia values wealth but employs alternative means of attaining his wealth; in this example, the Mafia member’s means would be deviant.
  10. Sep 2017
    1. If communities have changed, becoming more global and less connected offline, how does social capital transfer in this new age?

      I think this is one of the central questions of the new subfield of Digital Sociology.

    1. dive too much into the small world theory, let’s review some key SNA concepts.

      I LOVE LOVE LOVE this. It tells me you have a purpose to your blog post. You have an audience in mind and you understand the goal here is to communicate beyond the academy to inform a broader public. This is what public sociology is all about! Excellent!

    1. nvestigate the networks in the modern society

      I think this is the main methodology for digital sociology. We just don't know it yet.

    1. people’s behavior and emotions are affected by the people that they know, the people that those people know, and so on – in other words, by the social network which an individual is integrated in

      This is the essence of sociology. And is the fundamental challenge to the logic of individualism and neoliberalism.

  11. Aug 2017
    1. What it means to be poor, with many additions in the replies. It is a shame that people are made to feel shame for accepting help or asking for help. If your charity group is giving kids something for Christmas, that's great. But don't put them on the local news.

  12. Jul 2017
  13. Jun 2017
  14. Jan 2017
    1. How could political leaders betray what were supposed to be national values? How could brutal practices be embraced by ordinary Americans?

      Or, as she put it, “Why did no one stop people from doing bad things?”

      The answer you’re supposed to give to children – one I heard myself as a child – is “That’s just the way things were.” You’re supposed to say “Lots of good people owned slaves” or “It was legal then”. You’re supposed to pretend that historic injustices have either been resolved or that they were never that bad, that they didn’t linger and structure the politics of the present.

      You’re supposed to normalize cruelty, and in doing so exonerate those who practiced it.

      A lot of people will do whatever they can get away with. There aren't always enough people brave enough to bluntly say something is wrong.

    1. But for me, hope is not a feeling. It is not an emotion. Hope is action. Hope is found in motion.

      ...

      Hope begins the moment that somebody stands up and says, “Let’s roll.”

      ...

      It is clear to me though that hopelessness and despair often lead to an inability to act. When that happens, we must rely on others to act. Anyone that was gone through trauma and faced extended periods of indecisiveness can understand this. This is why a sense of community is so important, and that we share in our action by relying on others to back us up.

  15. Dec 2016
    1. Thoughtful blog by Grete Howland, about being raised as an evangelical Christian -- and then discovering that it isn't for her.

      For those raised in more liberal, free-thinking denominations, such as certain Episcopal congregations or the Unitarian-Universalist church, the religious molding might not be such a bad thing. In those cases, you might have been taught that everyone is unconditionally welcome in the love of God, that all belief systems are worthy of respect, that decolonization is mandatory practice, to have a community service mindset, and the basic lesson of self-reliance. These are examples of habits and traditions one might want to continue practicing, regardless of personal faith or continued church involvement.

      ...

      I had been taught (1) to put my faith in God regarding everything--finances, relationships, and so on--and (2) that the way to deal with stress and pain was to pray for their causes to be gone. I was not supposed to change my thinking; God was supposed to change my circumstances.

  16. Nov 2016
    1. I grew up in rural, Christian, white America. ... The problem isn’t that I don’t understand these people. The problem is they don’t understand themselves, the reasons for their anger/frustrations, and don’t seem to care to know why.

      ...

      Since facts and reality don’t matter, nothing you say to them will alter their beliefs. “President Obama was born in Kenya, is a secret member of the Muslim Brotherhood who hates white Americans and is going to take away their guns.” I feel ridiculous even writing this, it is so absurd, but it is gospel across large swaths of rural America. Are rural, Christian, white Americans scared? You’re damn right they are. Are their fears rational and justified? Hell no. The problem isn’t understanding their fears. The problem is how to assuage fears based on lies in closed-off fundamentalist belief systems that don’t have the necessary tools for properly evaluating the fears.

      What CAN change their minds?

      • Someone they consider "one of them" and respect as an authority, who preaches tolerance and critical thinking. We need more of those. (Unfortunately, there are now many public figures who reinforce their worst beliefs.)
      • Personal experience: knowing people from the groups they are prejudiced against.
  17. Jul 2016
    1. the results remain compelling nonetheless

      At least, they’ve become unavoidable in class discussions even tangentially related to social psychology. In intro sociology, they lead to some interesting thoughts about lab vs. field experiments.

  18. Jun 2016
    1. There is also the matter of the system that we—the liberal elite—are quietly creating in which all abuse claims are trusted at face value and any questioning of them is subsequently shamed. I understand that a big part of our culture, our rape culture, is founded on ignoring or disbelieving victims and the societal imperative among the sensitive and educated is to correct that. But without scrutiny even where it’s uncomfortable, we are putting justice at grave risk. So are abuse victims, thereby, at grave risk. Weide’s exercise strikes me as morally sound, at heart.
  19. Apr 2016
    1. As sociologists, we study and teach about women’s devalued place in society. But the stigma against the romance genre is so strong that even our background as scholars in the sociology of gender wasn’t enough to inoculate us against the stigma. If anyone was going to know better, it should have been us.

      Greyson and Lois establish the pervasive and deeply ingrained pejorative attitude toward the popular romance novel. Admit their own assumptions about the genre mirrored that of our culture.

    1. Those with the highest degree of functional literacy aren’t necessarily those with the highest social status.

      In precise contrast with school. In some ways, literacy is such a basic part of schooling that it’s nearly impossible to imagine other core skills (from numeracy to empathy) giving pupils and students any kind of social status outside of literacy.

    2. “Language in the Inner City,”

      Labov’s key text on the sociolinguistics of African American Vernacular English, with special attention to verbal eloquence (such as ritual insults, similar to Hip Hop taunts) regardless of literacy levels.

  20. Jan 2016
    1. As any debate club veteran knows, if you can’t make your opponent’s point for them, you don’t truly grasp the issue. We can bemoan political gridlock and a divisive media all we want. But we won’t truly progress as individuals until we make an honest effort to understand those that are not like us. And you won’t convince anyone to feel the way you do if you don’t respect their position and opinions.

      The two-party system, formal debate, and typical advice for essay writing all emphasize picking A or B, and then defending it to the death. We should place more emphasis on the identification of alternatives and the collection of objective facts.

      https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/False_dilemma

    2. In psychology, the idea that everyone is like us is called the “false-consensus bias.”

      https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/False-consensus_effect

      We tend to assume that most people think and feel similarly to us. We then categorize those who don't as "other" and somehow inferior. This tendency is intensified when we gather with people who are in fact like-minded. And that happens in social media, where we tend to follow those with similar views.

    3. Sharing links that mock a caricature of the Other Side isn’t signaling that we’re somehow more informed. It signals that we’d rather be smug assholes than consider alternative views. It signals that we’d much rather show our friends that we’re like them, than try to understand those who are not.

      I agree. But on the other hand, "mocking a caricature of the Other Side" is a description of satire, which seems to be a valuable way to spread ideas.

    1. Stupid models are extremely useful. They are usefulbecause humans are boundedly rational and because language is imprecise. It is often only by formalizing a complex system that we can make progress in understanding it. Formal models should be a necessary component of the behavioral scientist’s toolkit. Models are stupid, and we need more of them.

      Formal models are explicit in the assumptions they make about how the parts of a system work and interact, and moreover are explicit in the aspects of reality they omit.

      -- Paul Smaldino

    2. Microeconomic models based on rational choice theory are useful for developing intuition, and may even approximate reality in a fewspecial cases, but the history of behavioral economics shows that standard economic theory has also provided a smorgasbord of null hypotheses to be struck down by empirical observation.
    3. Where differences between conditions are indicated, avoid the mistake of running statistical analyses as if you were sampling from a larger population.

      You already have a generating model for your data – it’s your model. Statistical analyses on model data often involve modeling your model with a stupider model. Don’t do this. Instead, run enough simulations to obtain limiting distributions.

    4. A model’s strength stemsfromits precision.

      I have come across too many modeling papers in which the model – that is, the parts, all their components, the relationships between them, and mechanisms for change – is not clearly expressed. This is most common with computational models (such as agent-based models), which can be quite complicated, but also exists in cases of purely mathematical models.

    5. However, I want to be careful not to elevate modelers above those scientists who employ other methods.

      This is important for at least two reasons, the first and foremost of which is that science absolutely requires empirical data. Those data are often painstaking to collect, requiring clever, meticulous, and occasionally tedious labor. There is a certain kind of laziness inherent in the professional modeler, who builds entire worlds from his or her desk using only pen, paper, and computer. Relatedly, many scientists are truly fantastic communicators, and present extremely clear theories that advance scientific understanding without a formal model in sight. Charles Darwin, to give an extreme example, laid almost all the foundations of modern evolutionary biology without writing down a single equation.

    6. Table 1.Twelve functions served by false models. Adapted with permissionfrom Wimsatt

      Twelve good uses for dumb models, William Wimsatt (1987).

    7. To paraphrase Gunawardena (2014), a model is a logical engine for turning assumptions into conclusions.

      By making our assumptions explicit, we can clearly assess their implied conclusions. These conclusions will inevitably be flawed, because the assumptions are ultimately incorrect or at least incomplete. By examining how they differ from reality, we can refine our models, and thereby refine our theories and so gradually we might become less wrong.

    8. the stupidity of a model is often its strength. By focusing on some key aspects of a real-world system(i.e., those aspectsinstantiated in the model), we can investigate how such a system would work if, in principle, we really couldignore everything we are ignoring. This only sounds absurd until one recognizes that, in our theorizing about the nature of reality –both as scientists and as quotidianhumans hopelessly entangled in myriad webs of connection and conflict –weignore thingsall the time.
    9. The generalized linear model, the work horse ofthe social sciences, models data as being randomly drawn from a distribution whose mean varies according to some parameter. The linear model is so obviously wrong yet so useful that the mathematical anthropologist Richard McElreathhas dubbed it “the geocentric model of applied statistics,”in reference to the Ptolemaic model of the solar system that erroneously placed the earth rather than the sun at the center but nevertheless produced accurate predictions of planetary motion as they appeared in the night sky(McElreath 2015).

      A model that approximates some aspect of reality can be very useful, even if the model itself is flat-out wrong.

      But on the other hand, we can't accept approximation of reality as hard proof that a model is correct.

    10. Unfortunately, my own experience working with complex systems and working among complexity scientistssuggests that we are hardly immune to such stupidity. Consider the case of Marilyn Vos Savantand the Monty Hall problem.

      Many people, including some with training in advanced mathematics, contradicted her smugly. But a simple computer program that models the situation can demonstrate her point.

      2/3 times, your first pick will be wrong. Every time that happens, the door Monty didn't open is the winner. So switching wins 2/3 times.

      http://marilynvossavant.com/game-show-problem/

    11. Mitch Resnick, in his book Turtles, Termites, and Traffic Jams, details his experiences teaching gifted high school students about the dynamics of complex systems using artificial life models (Resnick 1994). He showed them how organized behavior could emerge when individualsresponded only to local stimuli using simple rules, without the need for a central coordinating authority. Resnick reports that even after weeks spent demonstrating the principles of emergence,using computer simulations that the students programmed themselves, many students still refused to believe that what they were seeing could really work without central leadership.
    1. Alice Maz on communication failures due to different cultures of conversation and values.

      Most people value feelings, shared perspectives, and social status. They see correction as an attempt to knock them down a peg. Nerds value facts, logic, and the sharing of information. A genuine nerd shares information with no intention of knocking anyone down, and prefers being corrected to remaining misinformed.

  21. Dec 2015
    1. The fact that professionals prefer anecdotes from people like us over concerted efforts to understand a demographic as a whole is shameful. More importantly, it’s downright dangerous. It shapes what the tech industry builds and invests in, what gets promoted by journalists, and what gets legitimized by institutions of power. This is precisely why and how the tech industry is complicit in the increasing structural inequality that is plaguing our society.

      Danah Boyd points out that people in the tech industry are far too quick to think of themselves as "typical", and ignore millions of Americans and billions of people who have little in common with them.

    1. The Book of Human Emotions, Tiffany Watt Smith

      Emotions are not just biological, but cultural. Different societies have unique concepts for combinations of feelings in particular circumstances.

      If you know a word for an emotion, you can more easily recognize it, control it -- and perhaps feel it more intensely.

      Emotions and how they are valued also varies across time as well as space. Sadness was valued in Renaissance Europe: they felt it made you closer to God. Today we value happiness, and we may value it too much. Emodiversity is the idea that feeling a wide range of emotions is good for you mentally and physically.

  22. Oct 2015
    1. Was ist mit "Änderungen" an wisssenschaftlichen Texten gemeint? Wie muss ich mir das vorstellen? Geht es nur um das Wiederveröffenltichen von Textteilen z.B. in Lehrbüchern oder tatsächlich um das Remixen von Sätzen?

  23. Oct 2013
    1. If we want to understand how social structures, let alone put ourselves in a position to take control of them (that is, to “reassemble” them) we must dispose of the assumption that the local is explained by the global, and start tracing the process by which the local GENERATES global structures

      local/global

    2. Traditional sociologists start with a macro-scale entity or force–”society” or “culture”–that they then use to explain myriad local interactions.

      Bruno Latour reassembling the knowledge