366 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
  2. Apr 2021
    1. Despite important agricultural advancements to feed the world in the last 60 years, a Cornell-led study shows that global farming productivity is 21% lower than it could have been without climate change. This is the equivalent of losing about seven years of farm productivity increases since the 1960s.
  3. Mar 2021
    1. The owners of coal-burning power stations in the UK have not obtained the consent of everyone who owns a lake or a forest in Sweden to deposit acid rain there.

      Reply to Rothbard absolute libertarianism.

    2. a simple and coherent explanation of why libertarianism is so often associated with climate change denial, and the playing down or dismissal of other environmental issues.

      They don't want to pay what is owed to the planet.

    1. Manmade CO2 Does Not Cause Measurable Warming

      Actually, CO2 does cause measurable warming. The warming effect is not huge, and not worrisome, but it is not zero, and it is large enough to be measurable.

      There really is no question about the fact that the Earth's average temperature has warmed slightly, as CO2 levels have risen, over the last six decades. The magnitude of that change is debatable: different "global" composite temperature indices vary in their measured trend by approximately a factor of two. But none of them show zero trend.

      https://sealevel.info/GISS_vs_UAH_and_HadCRUT_1958-2018_woodfortrees_annot2.png

      The "climate sensitivity" of the Earth's temperatures to changes in CO2 level can be estimated by careful comparison of measured temperatures to measured CO2 levels. Here's an example on my web site, showing how that can be done:

      https://sealevel.info/sensitivity.html

      Climate change is a highly politicized issue, so, as is the case for any politicized issue, if you want to understand it you need to seek out balanced information. If you want to learn about the SCIENCE of climate change, instead of political spin, here's a list of resources which can help:

      https://tinyurl.com/learnmore4

      It has:

      ● accurate introductory climatology information

      ● in-depth science from BOTH skeptics & alarmists

      ● links to balanced debates between experts on BOTH sides

      ● information about climate impacts

      ● links to the best blogs on BOTH sides of the issue

    1. Baker, C. M., Campbell, P. T., Chades, I., Dean, A. J., Hester, S. M., Holden, M. H., McCaw, J. M., McVernon, J., Moss, R., Shearer, F. M., & Possingham, H. P. (2020). From climate change to pandemics: Decision science can help scientists have impact. ArXiv:2007.13261 [Physics]. http://arxiv.org/abs/2007.13261

    1. The study, published in Nature Food, presents EDGAR-FOOD – the first database to break down emissions from each stage of the food chain for every year from 1990 to 2015. The database also unpacks emissions by sector, greenhouse gas and country. 
    1. ReconfigBehSci. (2020, November 9). Now underway at SciBeh workshop are our 3 hackathons: 1. Combatting COVID-19 misinformation with lessons from climate change denial 2. Optimising research dissemination and curation 3. ReSearch Engine: Search Engine for SciBeh’s knowledge base & beyond [Tweet]. @SciBeh. https://twitter.com/SciBeh/status/1325796158887882752

    1. „Die Meinung einer Minderheit kann in der Öffentlichkeit als Mehrheit erscheinen, wenn ihre Anhänger nur selbstbewusst genug auftreten und ihre Meinung öffentlich mit Nachdruck vertreten.“

      Einleitung (überarbeitet) des Handbuchs Klimakommunikation, das auf Noelle-Neumanns Konzept der Schweigespirale zurückgreift.

    1. In this pivotal year for climate action, much will depend on the updated 2030 emissions-reduction target that the US sets for itself. To meet the challenge at hand, the new target will need to be even more ambitious than the 50% reduction in greenhouse-gas emissions (from 2005 levels) that is currently being floated in Washington.
  4. Feb 2021
    1. More recently, from 2009 to 2014, Hastrup ran Waterworlds, a major European research project analysing social responses to climate change,[5] followed by fieldwork in Greenland, where she researched the effects of the modern world on a small community of hunters.[6]
    1. Die Dokumentation erhielt die Auszeichnung als „Bester Wissenschaftsfilm“ beim Internationalen Green Screen Naturfilmfestival in Eckernförde 2020. Die Einschätzung der internationalen Jury des Green Screen Festivals in der Laudatio zum Film: „Er zeigt anhand anschaulicher Einzelschicksale und verstörender Bilder die Auswirkungen des Klimawandels auf Rentierhirten und die Natur Sibiriens, ohne den globalen Bezug aus den Augen zu verlieren." Außerdem gewann der Film 2020 beim „Jackson Wild Festival“ in der Kategorie „Best Changing Planet Film - Long Form“.

      Ein differenzierter und bedrückender Film über die Folgen der globalen Erhitzung in Sibirien. Zwei Zitate: "In Sibirien wurde die Büchse der Pandora geöffnet." Und: "Die Nenzen stehen schon jetzt vor einer Entscheidung, die den Verursachern des Klimawandels noch erspart bleibt, der zwischen zwei Übeln. In ihrem Fall: Sollen ihre Rentiere verhungern oder erfrieren?"

    1. Section 1-102 of Executive Order 12898 of February 11, 1994

      NYU's Institute for Policy Integrity publish a report which

      "provides background on Executive Order 12,898 and explains how renewed national attention to environmental justice presents an opportunity to improve agency compliance with the Order." See: "Improving Environmental Justice Analysis: Executive Order 12,898 and Climate Change," By Iliana Paul, Christine Pries, and Max Sarinsky, January 28, 2021

  5. Jan 2021
    1. sectoral decarbonization,

      Hopefully, the focus on "decarbonization" will include all greenhouse gases, even those that contain no Carbon. It is important to recognize that carbon-free gases, including nitrogen oxides, hydrogen, and others, also have a significant Global Warming Potential (GWP) -- often much greater than that of carbon dioxide. According the EPA, nitrous oxide (N2O) has a GWP 265–298 times greater than CO2, which has a GWP of 1. Researchers report a GWP of 5.8 for hydrogen.

    2. a report identifying the climate strategies and technologies that will result in the most air and water quality improvements

      One would expect such a report to say much about reducing emissions from electricity generation, however, in many states, particularly those in the Northeast and North, electricity generation and use only produces a small portion of GHG emissions. In New York State, electricity generation is responsible for less than 20% of emissions while heating and transportation each produce between 35% and 40% of emissions. Thus, in New York, emissions from electricity are a third-level priority. In New York, a focus on adoption of heat pumps and electric vehicles will contribute more to cleaning our air and water than a focus on electricity.

      It is important that this report identify strategies and technologies which are appropriate for the various regions of the country.

    1. Ein kurzer Text von Brigitte Nerlich, der—wenn ich es richtig sehe—einige wichtige Elemente ihres Zugangs zur Analyse der Sprache wissenschaftlicher Texte enthält.

    2. Hulme and colleagues set out to reveal patterns of attention and, in particular, patterns of framing6 with regards to how climate change is portrayed in these editorials, and how these patterns are related to wider political and scientific events. The authors identified frames by reading and discussing nearly 500 editorials on climate change (333 in Nature, 160 in Science) published in the two journals between 1966 and 2016, extracted using search terms such as ‘climate’, ‘greenhouse’, ‘carbon’, ‘warming’, ‘weather’, ‘atmosphere’ and ‘pollution’.
    1. Für die Klimakommunikation aber ist es jetzt Zeit für eine Schwerpunktverschiebung: weg von der Frage der Generierung von Aufmerksamkeit, Interesse und Verständnis für das existenzielle Thema und hin zur Kommunikation von Lösungen, zur Beteiligung an Debatten und zur Ermutigung zum Diskurs, zum Engagement – und zum Wandel.
    1. The small size of the remaining carbon budget emphasises the need for net-zero CO2 emissions targets at the international, national and even subnational level. 

      Ein wichtiger Punkt sind die Net Zero Targets auf subnationaler Ebene,

    2. The relationship between cumulative CO2 emissions and temperature change is known as the “Transient Climate Response to Cumulative Emissions” (TCRE) and is a robust predictor of CO2-induced warming across a wide range of emissions levels and pathways.

      Ist für mich ein weiterer Topic bei der Darstellung der globalen Erwärmung.\(Insert LaTeX\)

    3. In the context of net-zero targets, our 230-440bn tonne range would be consistent with a scenario where CO2 emissions decrease linearly from 2019 levels to net-zero by between 2032 and 2042. 

      Das ist die Begründung für die XR-Forderung nach Dekarbonisierung bis 2025 in den reichen Ländern.

    1. Kerry, the former US secretary of state, acknowledged that America had been absent from the international effort to contain dangerous global heating during Donald Trump’s presidency but added that “today no country and no continent is getting the job done”.
    1. Alle an Klimakommunikation beteiligten Akteure können einen Beitrag leisten, die Debatte immer wieder auf den entscheidenden Punkt zu bringen: Was können wir und insbesondere diejenigen, die in Wirtschaft und Politik Verantwortung tragen, hier und jetzt tun, um die Emissionen von Kohlendioxid und anderen Treibhausgasen einzugrenzen? Die folgenden sechs Empfehlungen sind nicht als Allheilmittel oder Universalrezept gemeint, sondern als Anregung, darüber nachzudenken, wie wir über das Thema Klimawandel kommunizieren. Das zentrale Kriterium effektiver Kommunikation müsste dabei die Frage sein: Bringt das, was wir zum Thema sagen, die Menschen dazu, hier und jetzt über Klimaschutz nachzudenken?
    1. Even before Mr. Biden was inaugurated on Wednesday, some Republicans lashed out against his new policy direction.

      Bericht über die ersten Executive Orders Bidens zum Klimanotstand und über die Widerstände dagegen.

    1. Dieser Artikel enthält die wichtigsten Elemente des Temperaturrekords als eines historischen Events: Einordnung in eine Reihe, Extensivität und Konkretisierung (Europa). Temperatuurekord in Europa, Verweis auf die Temperaturen der Ozeane, Verlinkung auf wissenschaftliche Institutionen als Quellen. Bezug zum vorindustriellen Niveau. Verweis auf die Zukunft.

    1. Yesterday was the day that NASA, NOAA, the Hadley Centre and Berkeley Earth delivered their final assessments for temperatures in Dec 2020, and thus their annual summaries. The headline results have received a fair bit of attention in the media (NYT, WaPo, BBC, The Guardian etc.) and the conclusion that 2020 was pretty much tied with 2016 for the warmest year in the instrumental record is robust.

      Links zur Berichterstattung in der englischsprachigen Presse. Der Artikel geht vor allem auf die Sicherheit und Unsicherheit der Angaben zur Durchschnittstemperatur ein.

    1. People thrive in a wide range of climates. The projected climate change is small relative to the diurnal cycle. It is therefore rather peculiar to conclude that climate change will be disastrous. Those who claim so have been unable to explain why. https://twitter.com/RichardTol/status/1313182006310731776?s=20

      This is shocking!

    2. These predictions are absurd. A 3°C increase could trigger, and a6°C increase would trigger, every “tipping element” shown in Table 2. The Earth would have a climate unlike anything our species has experienced in its existence, and the Earth would transition to it hundreds of times faster than it has in any previous naturally-driven global warming event (McNeall et al., 2011). The Tropics and much of the globe’s temperate zone would be uninhabitable by humans and most other life forms. And yet Nordhaus thinks it would only reduce the global economy by just 8%?Comically, Nordhaus’s damage function is symmetrical — it predicts the same damages from a fall in temperature as for an equivalent rise. It therefore predicts that a 6°C fall in global temperature would also reduce GGP by just 7.9% (see Figure 3). Unlike global warming, we do know what the world was like when the temperature was 6°C below 20th century levels: that was the average temperature of the planet during the last Ice Age (Tierney et al., 2020), which ended about 20,000 years ago. At the time, all of America north of New York, and of Europe north of Berlin, was beneath a kilometre of ice. The thought that a transition to such a climate in just over a century would cause global production to fall by less than 8% is laughable.Again, I found myself in the position of a forensic detective, trying to work out how on Earth could otherwise intelligent people come to believe that climate change would only affect industries that are directly exposed to the weather, and that the correlation between climate today and economic output today across the globe could be used to predict the impact of global warming on the economy? The only explanation that made sense is that these economists were mistaking the weather for the climate.

      Wow!

    1. Bericht über eine Fernsehsendung mit Michael Mann, bei der es insbesondere darum geht, dass ein rascher stop der CO2 Emissionen schon in wenigen Jahren dazu führen kann, dass sich die globale Erhitzung nicht länger fortsetzt.

    1. The widespread idea that decades, or even centuries, of additional warming are already baked into the system, as suggested by previous IPCC reports, were based on an “unfortunate misunderstanding of experiments done with climate models that never assumed zero emissions.” 
    2. Wie sah die globale Erhitzung im vergangenen Jahr genau aus? Noch bedrohlicher, als erwartet, wie dieser Überblick über die letzten Daten und Forschungsergebnisse zeigt.

    1. The Zero Emissions Commitment (ZEC) is the change in global mean temperature expected to occur following the cessation of net CO2 emissions and as such is a critical parameter for calculating the remaining carbon budget. The Zero Emissions Commitment Model Intercomparison Project (ZECMIP) was established to gain a better understanding of the potential magnitude and sign of ZEC, in addition to the processes that underlie this metric. A total of 18 Earth system models of both full and intermediate complexity participated in ZECMIP. All models conducted an experiment where atmospheric CO2 concentration increases exponent
    1. removal of atmospheric carbon dioxide decreases radiative forcing, but is largely compensated by slower loss of heat to the ocean,

      Diese Ergebnisse sind inzwischen wohl revidiert.

    1. This reprieve will not necessarily spare polar ice sheets or evade tipping points that cannot be recrossed, the scientist cautions, and Earth is already experiencing “much more extreme weather … than we expected 10 years ago”.

      Die relativ optimistische Erkenntnis, dass ich die Erwärmung in den nächsten Jahren noch relativ schnell stoppen lässt, bedeutet also nicht, dass nicht vorher schon Kippelemente ausgelöst werden könnten. Michael Mann spricht hier ausdrücklich von einem Minenfeld, in dem sich die Menschheit bewegt.

    2. If we are going to avert ever more catastrophic climate change impacts, we need to limit warming below a degree and a half Celsius, a little less than three degrees Fahrenheit,” Mann said.

      Michael Mann hält eindeutig am 1,53° Ziel fest.

    1. The recent wave of net zero targets has put the Paris Agreement’s 1.5°C within striking distance. The Climate Action Tracker (CAT) has calculated that global warming by 2100 could be as low as 2.1°C as a result of all the net zero pledges announced as of November 2020
    1. The Dogger Bank windfarm is an engineering feat that marks a step change in the growth of renewable energy. Each steel structure, weighing 2,800 tonnes, has been designed to soar more than 250 metres from where their heels are buried in the seabed to the top of each 107-metre blade
    1. Dieses Jahr haben wir einen Anstieg des Wasserspiegels des Sees um mehr als 13 Meter erlebt, verursacht durch die ständigen Regenfälle, die es bei uns seit Oktober 2019 gibt.
    1. If human beings really were able to take the long view — to consider seriously the fate of civilization decades or centuries after our deaths — we would be forced to grapple with the transience of all we know and love in the great sweep of time. So we have trained ourselves, whether culturally or evolutionarily, to obsess over the present, worry about the medium term and cast the long term out of our minds, as we might spit out a poison.

      +10

    2. These theories share a common principle: that human beings, whether in global organizations, democracies, industries, political parties or as individuals, are incapable of sacrificing present convenience to forestall a penalty imposed on future generations. When I asked John Sununu about his part in this history — whether he considered himself personally responsible for killing the best chance at an effective global-warming treaty — his response echoed Meyer-Abich. “It couldn’t have happened,” he told me, “because, frankly, the leaders in the world at that time were at a stage where they were all looking how to seem like they were supporting the policy without having to make hard commitments that would cost their nations serious resources.” He added, “Frankly, that’s about where we are today.”
  6. Dec 2020
    1. The science of the "Science is settled" crowd isn't an open system of skeptical inquiry, but a closed system of centralized authority funded and controlled by special interests, beholden to political agendas and intolerant of dissent. It has the same relationship to science that the various People's Democracies had to democracy.

      They try to mold our opinions so we are more amenable to their agendas.

    1. Hier ist auch bemerkenswert, wie viele Wissenschaftler mitgearbeitet haben.

      Der Artikel steht sehr gut klar, weshalb das net zero-Ziel problematisch ist. Unter anderem erklärt er Basics des schnellen und des langsamen Carbon Cycle.

      Unter anderem wird dabei klar, dass es nur relativ wenig bringt, einfach darauf zu setzen neue Bäume zu pflanzen.

    1. Nonethel ess, scholars have begun to iden-tify procedures that can potentially mitigate political sectarianism. These in clude efforts to help Americans comprehend opposing partisans regardless of their level of agree-ment, such as by focusing on commonalities rather than differences (e.g., “we’re all Amer-icans”; SM) or communicating in the moral language of the other side (e.g., when liberals frame the consequences of climate change in terms of sanctity violations; SM).

      Interesting, especially point re climate change.

      I would go further into the ontological sources of these issues e.g. attachment to views, and how we can address that.

    1. Stadtentwicklungskonzept 4.0: Graz strebt die Erhöhung der Lebensqualität und die Senkung des CO2 Ausstoßesan. Trotz wachsender Bevölkerung soll bis 2050 nur mehr ein Fünftel des Ressourcenverbrauchs anfall
    1. It seems to also highlight how much our governments, banks and big corporations roles play into the state of our planet, how much we need them to change so that our individual choices can actually make a significant difference. Read more

      Notice the subtle othering: it's not "us" who have been doing this but the "governments, banks and big corporations" ... But who are their shareholders, who are their citizens, staff, customers etc? Us ...

      Note this is a comment on Attenborough's book. I do wonder what his recommendations are...

    1. “Although we now have at our disposal some fairly sophisticated methods of characterizing uncertainty,” she warned, “these do not actually enable us to control or even predict the extent of the disaster.

      Many believe models predict the future. Exhibit A: Climate change

  7. Nov 2020
    1. On page 230, Li and Chakraborty3report that the rate at which tropical cyclones from the North Atlantic decay after landfall has changed since the 1960s — their intensity has been decreasing more slowly over time.
    1. The report finds that strongly reducing greenhouse gas emissions, protecting and restoring ecosystems, and carefully managing the use of natural resources would make it possible to preserve the ocean and cryosphere as a source of opportunities that support adaptation to future changes, limit risks to livelihoods and offer multiple additional societal benefits.
    1. Zu einer Studie. Nach der weitere Erwärmung nicht mehr zu verbinden ist. Die Studie ist simplistic just und widerlegt nicht, dass kurzfristig die Emissionen radikal reduziert werden müssen.

    1. In Wissenschaft, Politik, Behörden, Medien, Zivilgesellschaft und anderswo - viele Menschen sprechen, schreiben, kommunizieren über den Klimawandel. In unserer Serie stellen wir einige von ihnen vor. Jeden Monat stellen wir dazu einer anderen Person dieselben sechs Fragen. Teil 11: Martha Stangl, Mitarbeiterin des österreichischen Klimaforschungsnetzwerk CCCA und Nebenerwerbslandwirtin
    1. Während Richard Walker seinen Vortrag über den New Deal zum Green New Deal hält, brennen nördlich der San Francisco Bay die Wälder. In den Wintern fällt zu wenig Regen und Schnee. Die Sommer sind zu heiß. Gleichzeitig sind die Immobilien in den Städten begehrte Investitions- und Spekulationsobjekte, die hohe Renditen versprechen. Die Folge sind exorbitante Mieten, die sich in San Francisco immer weniger Menschen leisten können. Sie ziehen in immer abgelegenere Gegenden. Dorthin, wo Immobilien noch bezahlbar sind. Oftmals gibt es in den preiswert errichteten Siedlungen nur eine Durchgangsstraße. 2018 verbrannten Einwohner in Paradise auf der Flucht vor den Flammen im Stau.Immer wieder entstehen die Feuer durch Funkenflug oberirdischer Stromleitungen, die trockene Blätter und Gräser in Brand setzen. Mitverantwortlich dafür sind fehlende Investitionen in Wartung und Pflege.
    1. Das Analyse-Unternehmen Vico Research & Consulting untersucht seit 2003 regelmäßig, wie in den sozialen Netzwerken über den Klimawandel debattiert wird. Die Ergebnisse der aktuellen Studie vom ersten Halbjahr 2020 basieren auf über eine Million deutschsprachige Social-Media-Beiträgen, die sich mit dem Thema beschäftigten.

      Diese Studie hat offenbar ein ziemliches mediales Echo gefunden. Rein vorn der Berichterstattung her lässt sich vermuten, dass es sich um ein industriefreundliches PR-Produkt handelt.

  8. Oct 2020
    1. Umfrage unter amerikanischen Wählern im Jahr 2020, die zeigt, dass die Klimakrise immer noch eine geringe Priorität hat und dass die meisten die Folgen von Temperaturerhöhungen nicht einschätzen können. Via Genvieve Günther auf Twitter https://twitter.com/doctorvive/status/1308760710470676480?s=21

    1. Kommentar in der NYT zu den mörderischen Folgen der Trump'schen Anti-Wissenschaftspolitik. Wir sollten uns nicht zu sehr darüber erheben: Auch die europäischen Regierungen ignorieren konsequent die Erkenntnisse zu den planetaren Grenzen.

    1. The places migrants left behind never fully recovered. Eighty years later, Dust Bowl towns still have slower economic growth and lower per capita income than the rest of the country. Dust Bowl survivors and their children are less likely to go to college and more likely to live in poverty. Climatic change made them poor, and it has kept them poor ever since.

      Intergenerational social problems here; we should be able to learn from the past and not repeat our mistakes.

    2. Part of the problem is that most policies look only 12 months into the future, ignoring long-term trends even as insurance availability influences development and drives people’s long-term decision-making.

      Another place where markets are failing us. We need better regulation for this sort of behavior.

    1. Miya Yoshitani, executive director of the Asian Pacific Environmental Network, which focuses on environmental justice issues affecting working-class Asian and Pacific Islander immigrant and refugee communities.
    2. There's a grassy vacant lot near her apartment where Franklin often takes a break from her job as a landscaping crew supervisor at Bon Secours Community Works, a nearby community organization owned by Bon Secours Health System. It's one of the few places in the neighborhood with a lot of shade — mainly from a large tree Franklin calls the mother shade. She helped come up with the idea to build a free splash park in the lot for residents to cool down in the heat. Now Bon Secours is taking on the project. "This was me taking my stand," Franklin says. "I didn't sit around and wait for everybody to say, 'Well, who's going to redo the park?' "

      Reminiscent of the story in Judith Rodin's The Resilience Dividend about the Kambi Moto neighborhood in the Huruma slum of Nairobi. The area and some of the responsibility became a part of ownership of the space from the government. Meanwhile NPR's story here is doing some of the counting which parallels the Kambi Moto story.