330 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
    1. Für die Klimakommunikation aber ist es jetzt Zeit für eine Schwerpunktverschiebung: weg von der Frage der Generierung von Aufmerksamkeit, Interesse und Verständnis für das existenzielle Thema und hin zur Kommunikation von Lösungen, zur Beteiligung an Debatten und zur Ermutigung zum Diskurs, zum Engagement – und zum Wandel.
    1. The small size of the remaining carbon budget emphasises the need for net-zero CO2 emissions targets at the international, national and even subnational level. 

      Ein wichtiger Punkt sind die Net Zero Targets auf subnationaler Ebene,

    2. The relationship between cumulative CO2 emissions and temperature change is known as the “Transient Climate Response to Cumulative Emissions” (TCRE) and is a robust predictor of CO2-induced warming across a wide range of emissions levels and pathways.

      Ist für mich ein weiterer Topic bei der Darstellung der globalen Erwärmung.\(Insert LaTeX\)

    3. In the context of net-zero targets, our 230-440bn tonne range would be consistent with a scenario where CO2 emissions decrease linearly from 2019 levels to net-zero by between 2032 and 2042. 

      Das ist die Begründung für die XR-Forderung nach Dekarbonisierung bis 2025 in den reichen Ländern.

    1. Kerry, the former US secretary of state, acknowledged that America had been absent from the international effort to contain dangerous global heating during Donald Trump’s presidency but added that “today no country and no continent is getting the job done”.
    1. Alle an Klimakommunikation beteiligten Akteure können einen Beitrag leisten, die Debatte immer wieder auf den entscheidenden Punkt zu bringen: Was können wir und insbesondere diejenigen, die in Wirtschaft und Politik Verantwortung tragen, hier und jetzt tun, um die Emissionen von Kohlendioxid und anderen Treibhausgasen einzugrenzen? Die folgenden sechs Empfehlungen sind nicht als Allheilmittel oder Universalrezept gemeint, sondern als Anregung, darüber nachzudenken, wie wir über das Thema Klimawandel kommunizieren. Das zentrale Kriterium effektiver Kommunikation müsste dabei die Frage sein: Bringt das, was wir zum Thema sagen, die Menschen dazu, hier und jetzt über Klimaschutz nachzudenken?
    1. Even before Mr. Biden was inaugurated on Wednesday, some Republicans lashed out against his new policy direction.

      Bericht über die ersten Executive Orders Bidens zum Klimanotstand und über die Widerstände dagegen.

  2. Jan 2021
    1. Dieser Artikel enthält die wichtigsten Elemente des Temperaturrekords als eines historischen Events: Einordnung in eine Reihe, Extensivität und Konkretisierung (Europa). Temperatuurekord in Europa, Verweis auf die Temperaturen der Ozeane, Verlinkung auf wissenschaftliche Institutionen als Quellen. Bezug zum vorindustriellen Niveau. Verweis auf die Zukunft.

    1. Yesterday was the day that NASA, NOAA, the Hadley Centre and Berkeley Earth delivered their final assessments for temperatures in Dec 2020, and thus their annual summaries. The headline results have received a fair bit of attention in the media (NYT, WaPo, BBC, The Guardian etc.) and the conclusion that 2020 was pretty much tied with 2016 for the warmest year in the instrumental record is robust.

      Links zur Berichterstattung in der englischsprachigen Presse. Der Artikel geht vor allem auf die Sicherheit und Unsicherheit der Angaben zur Durchschnittstemperatur ein.

    1. People thrive in a wide range of climates. The projected climate change is small relative to the diurnal cycle. It is therefore rather peculiar to conclude that climate change will be disastrous. Those who claim so have been unable to explain why. https://twitter.com/RichardTol/status/1313182006310731776?s=20

      This is shocking!

    2. These predictions are absurd. A 3°C increase could trigger, and a6°C increase would trigger, every “tipping element” shown in Table 2. The Earth would have a climate unlike anything our species has experienced in its existence, and the Earth would transition to it hundreds of times faster than it has in any previous naturally-driven global warming event (McNeall et al., 2011). The Tropics and much of the globe’s temperate zone would be uninhabitable by humans and most other life forms. And yet Nordhaus thinks it would only reduce the global economy by just 8%?Comically, Nordhaus’s damage function is symmetrical — it predicts the same damages from a fall in temperature as for an equivalent rise. It therefore predicts that a 6°C fall in global temperature would also reduce GGP by just 7.9% (see Figure 3). Unlike global warming, we do know what the world was like when the temperature was 6°C below 20th century levels: that was the average temperature of the planet during the last Ice Age (Tierney et al., 2020), which ended about 20,000 years ago. At the time, all of America north of New York, and of Europe north of Berlin, was beneath a kilometre of ice. The thought that a transition to such a climate in just over a century would cause global production to fall by less than 8% is laughable.Again, I found myself in the position of a forensic detective, trying to work out how on Earth could otherwise intelligent people come to believe that climate change would only affect industries that are directly exposed to the weather, and that the correlation between climate today and economic output today across the globe could be used to predict the impact of global warming on the economy? The only explanation that made sense is that these economists were mistaking the weather for the climate.

      Wow!

    1. Bericht über eine Fernsehsendung mit Michael Mann, bei der es insbesondere darum geht, dass ein rascher stop der CO2 Emissionen schon in wenigen Jahren dazu führen kann, dass sich die globale Erhitzung nicht länger fortsetzt.

    1. The widespread idea that decades, or even centuries, of additional warming are already baked into the system, as suggested by previous IPCC reports, were based on an “unfortunate misunderstanding of experiments done with climate models that never assumed zero emissions.” 
    2. Wie sah die globale Erhitzung im vergangenen Jahr genau aus? Noch bedrohlicher, als erwartet, wie dieser Überblick über die letzten Daten und Forschungsergebnisse zeigt.

    1. The Zero Emissions Commitment (ZEC) is the change in global mean temperature expected to occur following the cessation of net CO2 emissions and as such is a critical parameter for calculating the remaining carbon budget. The Zero Emissions Commitment Model Intercomparison Project (ZECMIP) was established to gain a better understanding of the potential magnitude and sign of ZEC, in addition to the processes that underlie this metric. A total of 18 Earth system models of both full and intermediate complexity participated in ZECMIP. All models conducted an experiment where atmospheric CO2 concentration increases exponent
    1. removal of atmospheric carbon dioxide decreases radiative forcing, but is largely compensated by slower loss of heat to the ocean,

      Diese Ergebnisse sind inzwischen wohl revidiert.

    1. This reprieve will not necessarily spare polar ice sheets or evade tipping points that cannot be recrossed, the scientist cautions, and Earth is already experiencing “much more extreme weather … than we expected 10 years ago”.

      Die relativ optimistische Erkenntnis, dass ich die Erwärmung in den nächsten Jahren noch relativ schnell stoppen lässt, bedeutet also nicht, dass nicht vorher schon Kippelemente ausgelöst werden könnten. Michael Mann spricht hier ausdrücklich von einem Minenfeld, in dem sich die Menschheit bewegt.

    2. If we are going to avert ever more catastrophic climate change impacts, we need to limit warming below a degree and a half Celsius, a little less than three degrees Fahrenheit,” Mann said.

      Michael Mann hält eindeutig am 1,53° Ziel fest.

    1. The recent wave of net zero targets has put the Paris Agreement’s 1.5°C within striking distance. The Climate Action Tracker (CAT) has calculated that global warming by 2100 could be as low as 2.1°C as a result of all the net zero pledges announced as of November 2020
    1. The Dogger Bank windfarm is an engineering feat that marks a step change in the growth of renewable energy. Each steel structure, weighing 2,800 tonnes, has been designed to soar more than 250 metres from where their heels are buried in the seabed to the top of each 107-metre blade
    1. Dieses Jahr haben wir einen Anstieg des Wasserspiegels des Sees um mehr als 13 Meter erlebt, verursacht durch die ständigen Regenfälle, die es bei uns seit Oktober 2019 gibt.
    1. If human beings really were able to take the long view — to consider seriously the fate of civilization decades or centuries after our deaths — we would be forced to grapple with the transience of all we know and love in the great sweep of time. So we have trained ourselves, whether culturally or evolutionarily, to obsess over the present, worry about the medium term and cast the long term out of our minds, as we might spit out a poison.

      +10

    2. These theories share a common principle: that human beings, whether in global organizations, democracies, industries, political parties or as individuals, are incapable of sacrificing present convenience to forestall a penalty imposed on future generations. When I asked John Sununu about his part in this history — whether he considered himself personally responsible for killing the best chance at an effective global-warming treaty — his response echoed Meyer-Abich. “It couldn’t have happened,” he told me, “because, frankly, the leaders in the world at that time were at a stage where they were all looking how to seem like they were supporting the policy without having to make hard commitments that would cost their nations serious resources.” He added, “Frankly, that’s about where we are today.”
  3. Dec 2020
    1. The science of the "Science is settled" crowd isn't an open system of skeptical inquiry, but a closed system of centralized authority funded and controlled by special interests, beholden to political agendas and intolerant of dissent. It has the same relationship to science that the various People's Democracies had to democracy.

      They try to mold our opinions so we are more amenable to their agendas.

    1. Hier ist auch bemerkenswert, wie viele Wissenschaftler mitgearbeitet haben.

      Der Artikel steht sehr gut klar, weshalb das net zero-Ziel problematisch ist. Unter anderem erklärt er Basics des schnellen und des langsamen Carbon Cycle.

      Unter anderem wird dabei klar, dass es nur relativ wenig bringt, einfach darauf zu setzen neue Bäume zu pflanzen.

    1. Nonethel ess, scholars have begun to iden-tify procedures that can potentially mitigate political sectarianism. These in clude efforts to help Americans comprehend opposing partisans regardless of their level of agree-ment, such as by focusing on commonalities rather than differences (e.g., “we’re all Amer-icans”; SM) or communicating in the moral language of the other side (e.g., when liberals frame the consequences of climate change in terms of sanctity violations; SM).

      Interesting, especially point re climate change.

      I would go further into the ontological sources of these issues e.g. attachment to views, and how we can address that.

    1. Stadtentwicklungskonzept 4.0: Graz strebt die Erhöhung der Lebensqualität und die Senkung des CO2 Ausstoßesan. Trotz wachsender Bevölkerung soll bis 2050 nur mehr ein Fünftel des Ressourcenverbrauchs anfall
    1. It seems to also highlight how much our governments, banks and big corporations roles play into the state of our planet, how much we need them to change so that our individual choices can actually make a significant difference. Read more

      Notice the subtle othering: it's not "us" who have been doing this but the "governments, banks and big corporations" ... But who are their shareholders, who are their citizens, staff, customers etc? Us ...

      Note this is a comment on Attenborough's book. I do wonder what his recommendations are...

    1. “Although we now have at our disposal some fairly sophisticated methods of characterizing uncertainty,” she warned, “these do not actually enable us to control or even predict the extent of the disaster.

      Many believe models predict the future. Exhibit A: Climate change

  4. Nov 2020
    1. On page 230, Li and Chakraborty3report that the rate at which tropical cyclones from the North Atlantic decay after landfall has changed since the 1960s — their intensity has been decreasing more slowly over time.
    1. The report finds that strongly reducing greenhouse gas emissions, protecting and restoring ecosystems, and carefully managing the use of natural resources would make it possible to preserve the ocean and cryosphere as a source of opportunities that support adaptation to future changes, limit risks to livelihoods and offer multiple additional societal benefits.
    1. Zu einer Studie. Nach der weitere Erwärmung nicht mehr zu verbinden ist. Die Studie ist simplistic just und widerlegt nicht, dass kurzfristig die Emissionen radikal reduziert werden müssen.

    1. In Wissenschaft, Politik, Behörden, Medien, Zivilgesellschaft und anderswo - viele Menschen sprechen, schreiben, kommunizieren über den Klimawandel. In unserer Serie stellen wir einige von ihnen vor. Jeden Monat stellen wir dazu einer anderen Person dieselben sechs Fragen. Teil 11: Martha Stangl, Mitarbeiterin des österreichischen Klimaforschungsnetzwerk CCCA und Nebenerwerbslandwirtin
    1. Während Richard Walker seinen Vortrag über den New Deal zum Green New Deal hält, brennen nördlich der San Francisco Bay die Wälder. In den Wintern fällt zu wenig Regen und Schnee. Die Sommer sind zu heiß. Gleichzeitig sind die Immobilien in den Städten begehrte Investitions- und Spekulationsobjekte, die hohe Renditen versprechen. Die Folge sind exorbitante Mieten, die sich in San Francisco immer weniger Menschen leisten können. Sie ziehen in immer abgelegenere Gegenden. Dorthin, wo Immobilien noch bezahlbar sind. Oftmals gibt es in den preiswert errichteten Siedlungen nur eine Durchgangsstraße. 2018 verbrannten Einwohner in Paradise auf der Flucht vor den Flammen im Stau.Immer wieder entstehen die Feuer durch Funkenflug oberirdischer Stromleitungen, die trockene Blätter und Gräser in Brand setzen. Mitverantwortlich dafür sind fehlende Investitionen in Wartung und Pflege.
    1. Das Analyse-Unternehmen Vico Research & Consulting untersucht seit 2003 regelmäßig, wie in den sozialen Netzwerken über den Klimawandel debattiert wird. Die Ergebnisse der aktuellen Studie vom ersten Halbjahr 2020 basieren auf über eine Million deutschsprachige Social-Media-Beiträgen, die sich mit dem Thema beschäftigten.

      Diese Studie hat offenbar ein ziemliches mediales Echo gefunden. Rein vorn der Berichterstattung her lässt sich vermuten, dass es sich um ein industriefreundliches PR-Produkt handelt.

  5. Oct 2020
    1. Umfrage unter amerikanischen Wählern im Jahr 2020, die zeigt, dass die Klimakrise immer noch eine geringe Priorität hat und dass die meisten die Folgen von Temperaturerhöhungen nicht einschätzen können. Via Genvieve Günther auf Twitter https://twitter.com/doctorvive/status/1308760710470676480?s=21

    1. Kommentar in der NYT zu den mörderischen Folgen der Trump'schen Anti-Wissenschaftspolitik. Wir sollten uns nicht zu sehr darüber erheben: Auch die europäischen Regierungen ignorieren konsequent die Erkenntnisse zu den planetaren Grenzen.

    1. More recently, from 2009 to 2014, Hastrup ran Waterworlds, a major European research project analysing social responses to climate change,[5] followed by fieldwork in Greenland, where she researched the effects of the modern world on a small community of hunters.[6]
    1. The places migrants left behind never fully recovered. Eighty years later, Dust Bowl towns still have slower economic growth and lower per capita income than the rest of the country. Dust Bowl survivors and their children are less likely to go to college and more likely to live in poverty. Climatic change made them poor, and it has kept them poor ever since.

      Intergenerational social problems here; we should be able to learn from the past and not repeat our mistakes.

    2. Part of the problem is that most policies look only 12 months into the future, ignoring long-term trends even as insurance availability influences development and drives people’s long-term decision-making.

      Another place where markets are failing us. We need better regulation for this sort of behavior.

    1. Miya Yoshitani, executive director of the Asian Pacific Environmental Network, which focuses on environmental justice issues affecting working-class Asian and Pacific Islander immigrant and refugee communities.
    2. There's a grassy vacant lot near her apartment where Franklin often takes a break from her job as a landscaping crew supervisor at Bon Secours Community Works, a nearby community organization owned by Bon Secours Health System. It's one of the few places in the neighborhood with a lot of shade — mainly from a large tree Franklin calls the mother shade. She helped come up with the idea to build a free splash park in the lot for residents to cool down in the heat. Now Bon Secours is taking on the project. "This was me taking my stand," Franklin says. "I didn't sit around and wait for everybody to say, 'Well, who's going to redo the park?' "

      Reminiscent of the story in Judith Rodin's The Resilience Dividend about the Kambi Moto neighborhood in the Huruma slum of Nairobi. The area and some of the responsibility became a part of ownership of the space from the government. Meanwhile NPR's story here is doing some of the counting which parallels the Kambi Moto story.

    1. Consumer demand is one of four important variables that, when combined, can influence and shape farming practices, according to Festa. The other three are the culture of farming communities, governmental policies, and the economic system that drives farming.
    2. Festa argues that this is why organic farming in the U.S. saw a 56 percent increase between 2011 and 2016.

      A useful statistic but it needs more context. What is the percentage of organic farming to the overall total of farming?

      Fortunately the linked article provides some additional data: https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2019/01/10/organic-farming-is-on-the-rise-in-the-u-s/

    3. "The fundamental problem with climate change is that it's a collective problem, but it rises out of lots of individual decisions. Society's challenge is to figure out how we can influence those decisions in a way that generates a more positive collective outcome," says Keith Wiebe, senior research fellow at the International Food Policy Research Institute.
    4. Agriculture, forestry, and other types of land use account for 23 percent of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, according to the IPCC.
    1. Still, organic farming makes up a small share of U.S. farmland overall. There were 5 million certified organic acres of farmland in 2016, representing less than 1% of the 911 million acres of total farmland nationwide. Some states, however, had relatively large shares of organic farmland. Vermont’s 134,000 certified organic acres accounted for 11% of its total 1.25 million farm acres. California, Maine and New York followed in largest shares of organic acreage – in each, certified organic acres made up 4% of total farmland.
  6. Sep 2020
    1. If everyone did all of the above things, they would have the personal infrastructure in place to enable their lives to become zero-emissions. But the above changes only cover 45% of average American emissions—so what gives? The remaining 55% of emissions come indirectly from the goods, services, and food we buy. The only way we’ll get to a zero-carbon world is for each of those industries to adopt new technology and change their processes to be emissions-free, or be replaced with a zero-emissions alternative. That’s why your first action is voting to make sure that policies and incentives are put in place to accelerate the overall transition.

      The "above things" being:

      1. Vote for elected officials who prioritize smart climate policy; join climate action or political groups to support pro-climat candidates and non-profits.
      2. Use only electric vehicles. Your next car [and this right here is a measure of how very car-dependent Americans as a whole are] needs to be electric. [AND you also need to press your power companies and government for clean electricity; lots of electricity comes from coal!]
      3. Electrify your house. There's a reason California's no longer permitting gas in new construction. Induction has vastly improved!
      4. Switch to all-green electricity. See my note on #2.
    1. Although relocations can be difficult, it requires a certain level of privilege to be a climate change migrant in America right now. Most of the people I spoke with are relatively free to move around, without the ties of children or home ownership, and with enough money to afford to relocate.

      There's a racial divide here, too. With harassment and violence on the rise against Black and Asian Americans, moving anywhere where there are fewer of us is another dimension of precarity.

    1. Die wichtigsteUnterkategorie der Kategorie"Energie" ist Verkehr mit einem Anteil von 31% an den gesamten Emissionen (ohne LULUCF; vgl. Table A.I-1 in Umweltbundesamt, 2020a),

      Der Verkehr hat einen Anteil von 31% an den gesamten Emissionen in Österreich.

    1. CO2-Emissionen von neu zugelassenen PKWs in Österreich

    2. In den letzten Jahren konnten die Verbräuche und damit die CO2-Emissionen durch technische Weiterentwicklungen, vor allem durch die voranschreitende Elektrifizierung und das Downsizing der Antriebe, reduziert werden. Diese Verbrauchsvorteile wurden durch den Trend zu leistungsstärkeren und schwereren Fahrzeugen teilweise kom-pensiert: So hat etwa die durchschnittliche Motorleistung bei neu zugelassenen Dieselfahr-zeugen von 2000 bis 2018um rd.44%zugenommen und ist 2018auf 108kW gestiegen

      Die Emissionen pro km steigen weiter an. Geringfügige Steigerungen der Effizienz werden dadurch aufgefressen, dass immer stärkere Autos gekauft werden. Die durchschnittliche Motorleistung bei neuzugelassenen Dieselfahrzeugen hat von 2000 bis 2018 um 44% zugenommen.

    1. Die wichtigsten Verursacher von Treibhausgas-Emissionen (ohneEmissions-handel) waren 2018die Sektoren Verkehr (47,3%),Landwirtschaft (16,2%),Ge-bäude (15,6%)sowie Energie und Industrie (11,6%).

      2018 betrug der Anteil des Verkehrs an den in Österreich verursachten Treibhausgasemissionen 47,3 %.

    1. Die österreichischen CO2-Emissionen sind 2019 das fünfte Jahr in Folge gestiegen statt gesunken. Sie betragen rund 24. Millionen Tonnen. Sie liegen deutlich über dem im Klimaschutzgesetz vorgesehenen Ziel (21,8 Mill. Tonnen). Es wurden 2,7 Milliarden Liter mehr getankt als 2018.

    1. Keenan calls the practice of drawing arbitrary lending boundaries around areas of perceived environmental risk “bluelining,” and indeed many of the neighborhoods that banks are bluelining are the same as the ones that were hit by the racist redlining practice in days past. This summer, climate-data analysts at the First Street Foundation released maps showing that 70% more buildings in the United States were vulnerable to flood risk than previously thought; most of the underestimated risk was in low-income neighborhoods.

      Bluelining--a neologism I've not seen before, but it's roughly what one would expect.

    2. Jesse Keenan, an urban-planning and climate-change specialist then at Harvard’s Graduate School of Design, who advises the federal Commodity Futures Trading Commission on market hazards from climate change. Keenan, who is now an associate professor of real estate at Tulane University’s School of Architecture, had been in the news last year for projecting where people might move to — suggesting that Duluth, Minnesota, for instance, should brace for a coming real estate boom as climate migrants move north.

      Why can't we project additional places like this and begin investing in infrastructure and growth in those places?

    3. That’s what happened in Florida. Hurricane Andrew reduced parts of cities to landfill and cost insurers nearly $16 billion in payouts. Many insurance companies, recognizing the likelihood that it would happen again, declined to renew policies and left the state. So the Florida Legislature created a state-run company to insure properties itself, preventing both an exodus and an economic collapse by essentially pretending that the climate vulnerabilities didn’t exist.

      This is an interesting and telling example.

    4. And federal agriculture aid withholds subsidies from farmers who switch to drought-resistant crops, while paying growers to replant the same ones that failed.

      Here's a place were those who cry capitalism will save us should be shouting the loudest!

    5. The federal National Flood Insurance Program has paid to rebuild houses that have flooded six times over in the same spot.

      We definitely need to quit putting good money after bad.

    6. Similar patterns are evident across the country. Census data shows us how Americans move: toward heat, toward coastlines, toward drought, regardless of evidence of increasing storms and flooding and other disasters.

      And we wonder why there are climate deniers in the United States?

    7. Climate Change Will Force a New American Migration

    1. Studie zur Klimaungerechtigkeit in Österreich, vor allem wegen der Vorschläge zum Erreichen von mehr Klimagerechtigkeit durch ökologische Steuerreform u.ä. interessant. Siehe auch Standard-Artikel dazu Greenpeace-Report - Wesentlich mehr CO2 durch Reiche als Arme - noen.at

    2. Kenner vertritt die Ansicht, dass einige dieser Personen durch ihre überlegenen finanziellen Möglichkeiten die poli-tische Debatte aktiv und erfolgreich beeinflussen und damit indirekt zu einer Verschärfung der Ungleichheit in der Verteilung der CO2-Emissionen beitragen

      Beziehung zur aktiven Klimaleugnung z.B. in der Murdoch-Presse

    1. Artikel in der NYT, in dem die Waldbrände als offensichtliches Ergebnis der Klimakrise bezeichnet werden - als ein Ergebnis, das viel schneller kommt als erwartet.