263 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
    1. KLM has stated it is against this type of national CO2 aviation tax, because it believes Dutch passengers would travel by car to neighbouring countries, and continue to fly from there. On the company’s website, it says: “A global approach makes more sense. If the tax is implemented, we believe that it should be invested in sustainability of the aviation industry. National taxes will just go into the national coffers and won’t do anything to combat climate change.”

      This sounds like a delaying tactic

    1. Integration with local cloud providers is also being carried out. In addition, unlike Kubernetes, which only allows you to optimize resources within an existing cluster, MELODIC allows you to dynamically add cloud resources as the application needs, as well as delete them when they are not needed

      This is a thing K8s can't do? I though the point was that you can add new nodes to a resource group.

    1. Having determined the most suitable (i.e. ‘greenest’) dat-acentre location, the program sends a request to the cloudKubernetes or IaaS management API to provision a ResourceGroup at that datacentre, then verifies that this was successful.Upon confirming the success of Resource Group creation arequest to provision a Kubernetes cluster is sent. Typically,a new cluster takes around 10 minutes to provision and forthe credentials to be agreed upon9, and often an additionalminute or two for all of Kubernetes’s internal components tobe in a ‘Ready’ status.

      So, this presumably this is the collection of nodes you might drop pods into is they're particularly green when scheduling

    2. Secondly, electric energy is alsoconsumed during transmission over the network of any data(input to or results of computation), labeledEN(energynetwork). This energy consumption is proportional to thevolume of data transferred [49]. Finally, there is a ramp-upoverhead from deploying the Kubernetes service in the targetlocationER.

      Oh wow, so this scheduler takes into account the cost of shunting workloads into more distant but greener areas?

      That's clever.

    3. This,coupled with Kubernetes’s support for extendability and plug-ins makes Kubernetes the most suitable for which to develop aglobal scheduler and bring about the widest adoption, therebyproducing the greatest impact on carbon emission reduction.

      Okay, this IS interesting. Improving this makes in possible to improve ALL the k8s installs

    4. Hasan et al. discuss green cloud computing from a businesscloud user’s perspective: companies may choose to specifya requirement for green energy usage in their Service LevelAgreements (SLAs) with cloud computing providers [28]. Inthe paper they extend the Cloud Service Level Agreement(CSLA) language in order to incorporate two new thresholdparameters that ensure that more environmentally sustainablepolicies are adhered to.

      New language for me - Cloud Service Level Agreement

    5. ‘Green geographic load balancing’ was also used in apaper by Islam et al. [24]; however, this was with the aimof rationing water consumption in datacentres rather thanreducing carbon emissions. This is especially important duringperiods of drought, as experienced in California in recentyears

      Did not expect. Shifting workloads in DC to avoid worsening droughts

    1. The case studies highlight methods for increasing GPP through thorough evaluation of the cost and benefits of sustainable purchases and the engagement of the market in the tendering process. The life-cycle costing (LCC) approach to promote the mass purchase of energy-efficient, compact fluorescent lamps by Indian Railways was accompanied by an awareness campaign to demonstrate the ir economic benefits despite their high upfront cost

      I wonder if this is a vector for the Solar trains idea from @crisortunity...

    2. Given that ÖBB Infra’s annual investment expenditure amounts up to EUR 2 billion (approximately 1% of Austrian gross domestic product), procurement is deemed as an important lever for the development of sustainable economic operations throughout the enterprise, so as to reduce the consumption of energy and resources. A guidance note on sustainable procurement was published in 2011.

      These are the night train peeps

    3. According to the Act of 2005, state agencies should purchase green products and services for which the eco-label criteria exist. In 2012, there were about 870 umbrella organisations comprising about 30 000 subsidiary organisations subject to the Act of 2005. Green procurement can be made in two ways. Each organisation can directly purchase green products and services. If the total amount of purchase exceeds a certain threshold, the purchase is commissioned by the Korea Public Procurement Service (PPS), the central public procurement agency. Otherwise, each organisation can require contractors to purchase green products in delivering their services (e.g.construction, maintenance, repair and operation services) by including special conditions or green specifications in the contract.

      Wait they automatically need to prioritise green products over others? Did not expect.

    1. Argument maps can be structured as text but can also be produced as a specialised form of mindmap

      argument maps exist? wow

    2. Using structured questions (for instance, a series of yes/no questions related to the area of theassembly), software such as pol.is can be used to identify ​different clusters of opinions​ . Thismeans the assembly can be presented with the different kinds of views that are present, without alarge number of people who have been mobilised for one category artificially dominating theagenda.

      so this makes it clear that loads of opinions come from one group rather than it looking like an artificial consenus

    3. Potential uses are divided into three broad areas covering the use of digital tools before, duringand after a Citizen’s Assembly.

      prep - bringing people in internal - facilitating external - sharing products

  2. greening.oecd.org greening.oecd.org
    1. 78% of the total emissions reported in 2017 was linked to air travel.


  3. Jul 2019
    1. adopt an “e-conferencing facility first” approach/policy to meetings, seeking to positively impact reduction of journeys with a target of 40% reduction

      This is the first time I've seen explicit recommendations from a public sector org on this.

    1. CHÔRA is a space of intense creative and entrepreneurial activities and effects, and InnoSPACES are different from the standard “garage”-like innovation labs and accelerators on account of the distinctly strategic nature of this context of activities: the level of intelligence, of sollicitations, of contaminations and fertilisations and the febrile intensity with which they are pursued mean that the InnoSPACES enjoy a uniquely privileged context in which to operate and generate value.

      SO my reading here is that this InnoSpace is essentially a well run coworking space, with explicit provision of specialist services to the people in the program

    2. The primary effect of Users accessing the Capability is to design and activate Options and use them to articulate Portfolios

      So, in digital terms, build collections of useful products in there org

    3. It is a design principle of CHÔRA that Founders should not be exclusive owners of the system, but rather that ownership should evolve to adequately represent engagement, which could occur by establishing rights of ownership accrued through terms of usership

      ok, so this interesting, and acknowledges that you need more than founders, if say… you're talking about growing a space of companies, NGOs etc.

    4. The flat image that Platform carries is a semantic legacy of the “grounded” meeting place that markets used to be, a legacy that has recently been reduced into the “motherboardness” of technology platforms and of technology enabled two sided match-making exchanges.


    5. Robust Strategic Arguments articulate and support new intents, determine strategic commitments, allocate resources and effectuate innovation

      Okay, so this is a bit like an investment thesis, or an underlying world view that would inform activity. I think

    6. The core activity that the Capability enables is the design of Strategic Options and the dynamic management of Strategic Portfolios

      Okay, now we're talking. This talk of strategic options reminds me of the black swan chat about options in product management



    1. This requires a molecular approach to the generation of scale and the production of impact effects, and a system capability to generate the internal fastening, a sap that nourishes and holds together the elements, the liquid binding that enables intermolecular bonds to occur and build scale and density.


    2. The deliberate design of cross-fertilising effects, of exchange and integrated outcomes is what ultimately builds up to a core density of assimilated experiences, and it is at this stage that the system will begin to generate scaling and exponentially growing outcomes.

      so far, the key diff seems to having projects talk to each other more, and try to share what they learn so patterns are revealed quickly. this doesn't seem all that new

    3. It is an effect of dynamic accrual, of a pelleting that produces an organic thickening, a coming together around attractors, a scaling up through molecular composition of the forms with which we seek impact effects



    1. And what happened when they started building this line was that the farmers got so upset and once again I mean this is exactly what we saw in Arkansas, felt that they were being taken advantage of, felt that they were being taken for granted, that their land wasn't valuable and he leads a mini revolt. I mean he literally took his tractor and ran over some of the tribox and they surveying equipment and the people came out, chasing people off, was arrested for that. And this protest movement grew and grew and to the point where there was a winter where several of the new lattice steel towers were toppled and hundreds of glass insulators shot out.

      Waaaat. So we've seen people attacking infra before in the states

    1. urkhardt and her colleagues used a computer model of the atmosphere to estimate how much warming contrails caused in 2006 – the latest year for which a detailed air traffic inventory is available – and how much they will cause by 2050, when air traffic is expected to be four times higher.

      I wonder what the radiative forcing figures might be for 2020?

    1. The noise issue remains, and Boom estimates of 1,000 to 2,000 orders (versus 14 Concordes), assume the plane won’t initially be able to operate over land.

      Oh wow, it's still really loud too?

  4. Jun 2019
    1. Recruit enough volunteers to staff all waste stations throughout facility during heavy traffic times; goal of 250 volunteers for waste bins throughout the event

      Wow. Staffing the waste stations?

    2. Use sustainability clauses in all hotel contracts

      What do these look like?

    3. 50% GreenLeader certified hotels

      Presumably this?


      You can't seem to filter a search based on this.

    4. No red meat at any catered event, concession and not available on menu

      So, this was in Atlanta, at a 15k person conference.

    5. 70% GMEGG audit participation for show management

      So, nearly 3/4 of the orgs paying to be there filled out the stats

    6. Collect and dispose of 99% of gaffing tape to avoid recycling stream contamination

      Never really thought of the difficulty of recycling gaffer tape, but…

    7. Increase carbon offset program to $15 and provide backstory in registration of what project we are supporting for a stronger message to attendee

      So they deliberately had it in, or people had control over whether they took part or not?

    8. Emission factors for electricity consumption at venues were obtained from EPA eGRID V1.0 (2010 Data)

      Given the decarbonisation of the energy grid since 2010, these are likely overestimates now, as coal comes off the grid

    9. reported by hauler

      ok. so this would involve getting these stats from the commercial waste provider for the venue

    10. Hotels – based on average hotel water usage per occupied room (L) in Chicago, Illinois (Cornell Hotel Sustainability Benchmarking Index 2016: Energy, Water, Carbon).

      Okay, so if we tracked water we would need some idea of who was in hotels

    11. based on total gallons of water consumed to produce total gallons of gasoline consumed

      Ah, so this is a bit like scope 3 - as in water that was needed to make the gasoline that the cards and vans used.

    12. The exhibitor will not use individual waste containers in exhibit booths. The venue and show management will provide recycling stations throughout the exhibit area for attendee and exhibitor use during show hours. Each exhibitor is responsible for disposing of waste and recyclables at these stations.

      Ah, to capture the waste, and not end up with a case of exhibitors sending their own crap to landfill untracked

    13. COMPUSYSTEMS: Through months of testing badge materialoptions, Greenbuild and CompuSystems found a paper-based badge solution that works for Greenbuild and can be used for any other show looking to eliminate the cost and waste associated with plastic name badge holders

      A way to get rid of these awful plastic lanyard badge holders?

    14. For the first time, a focused event sustainability education session was offered to event organizers, venues, and vendors. The session featured the Greenbuild sustainability team along with our partners, sharing how Greenbuild incorporates sustainability throughout the event as well as offering actions and information on how to include greener practices into any event management strategy.

      So, to the sponsors and venue people and folks involved, they had a training session and webinar shared

    15. By tweaking this objective to “Lead the Event Industry Through the Advancement of Sustainable Event Management Initiatives,” we focused on how Greenbuild could do better for the event industry as a whole.

      This is pretty similar to "work openly and share what works", basically

    16. McCormick Place was located a few miles from most of the hotels in our room block. Knowing this would impact our carbon footprint, Greenbuild partnered with ride-sharing operator Lyft to encourage event participants to share rides to and from the convention center and hotels. Lyft offset all the carbon emissions for rides taken to and from McCormick Place during the dates of the conference. Attendees received a 5% discount off their fare to encourage the use of Lyft. Almost 20% of Greenbuild attendees used our code.

      20% of attendees used Lyft

    17. Field to Table served as the caterer for the Celebration. They are committed to sourcing almost everything locally, finding ingredients from farmers in Illinois and bordering states. They were also a fantastic partner in managing waste. All waste leaving the kitchen was weighed, and they had front of house and back of house recycling and composting stations with volunteers to help us achieve waste diversion goals.

      So, this is how they came up with the figures then.

    18. Greenbuild 2018 Chicago Sustainability Pledges

      Get attendees to consider how they got around while at the event, and where they stay

    19. This year, Greenbuild collaborated with Waste Management to help us engage and train a team of 400+ volunteers about proper materials management. Through back-of-house tours and daily training, they worked together to drive as much material to recycling and compost

      There was a training program needed for the volunteers at the conf

    20. A significant portion of our reduction calculations came from the enforcement of Greenbuild’s 500 piece maximum limit on publications that media partners can bring to the show

      So, they don't try to track it, but they have a maximim limit on swag they can bring.

    21. attendees were asked to indicate if they wanted a printed guide during registration, significantly reducing overages in printing

      Simple. Just ask if it's wanted.

    1. Unlike the Gold Standard or CDM, VCS has no requirement that its carbon offset projecthave additional social benefits, allowing for a wider range of projects.

      Ah, so THAT'S the key difference

    1. We recommend to prioritise battery-electric and hydrogen (pure and/or in the form of ammonia) technologiesfrom sustainable renewablesourcesto decarbonise shipping

      So, hydrogen fuel cells are less energy dense than ammonia fuel cells, but they need extra reformers to turn the ammonia to hydrogen to use for power, and ammonia is toxic. So it's a trade off of energy density versus relative simplicity

    1. Chancellor Merkel was probably also the first world leader to recognize that fighting climate change at its roots in Africa was probably a better way to stem the flow of migrants than to invest in more patrol boats along the Mediterranean coast.

      It's good that she's recognised for this, but oh god, it's depressing that this is even considered more than a basic level understanding.

    1. This said global greenhouse gas emissions should reach net-zero by 2070 to limit warming to 1.5C, with CO2 at net-zero by 2050.

      Presumably this is because other non CO2 gases don't hang around for as long, I think

    2. “This is a whole economy target…and we intend for it to apply to international aviation and shipping.”


  5. May 2019
    1. MIT professor Eric Von Hippel’s research into user-driven innovation shows that when the user is given direct access to the means for creating a solution, potentially at least, tremendous innovation can result. The "sticky information" that otherwise must be rendered into requirements documents or transferred from user to builder is difficult and never complete. When this step doesn’t have to take place because user and builder are the same person or same team, the outcome is much better. Amazon’s Away Team model embraces this concept and allows teams to create building blocks that have ideal fit to purpose.

      This feels a bit like the system of theft from Simon Wardley's stuff

    1. Every technology worker that leaves a company does so at a cost of £30,000.1 The cost of not addressing workers’ concerns is bad for business — especially when the market for skilled workers is so competitive.

      30k per employee. What's the typical turnover in a given company per year? You lose of your staff 3% per annum?

    2. Although the idea of a ‘hippocratic oath’ for tech has often been discussed as a way to embed ethical practice in the tech industry, only 2% saw a voluntary commitment as the most effective way to mitigate potential harms.

      Useful stats when referring to the pledge

    3. In AI, 59% of people have experience of working on products that they felt might be harmful for society, compared to 28% of tech workers as a whole.

      Cripes :0

    1. Local-first applications keep the primary copy of the data in files in each device’s local filesystem, so the user can read and write this data anytime, even while offline.

      Local first is different to offline-first

    1. Aggregation as 'carbon dioxide equivalent'73 fails to capture this fundamental difference in how emissions of short-lived and long-lived GHGs affect global temperature. However, other constraints such as international comparability (Box 2.4) support the continued use of existing 'CO2 equivalence' metrics for now

      So using CO2e doesn't make total sense here, as the time in the atmosphere means it's not quite compatible

    2. Distribution of risks. The additional increase in climate risk between 1.5°C and 2°C warmingwould affect poor and vulnerable people most of all. Poverty and disadvantage have increasedwith recent warming and are expected to increase for many populations as average globaltemperature increases from 1°C to 1.5°C and higher.

      Does this imply you would have much less climate migration betwee 1.5 and 2 degrees?

    3. Climate change has affected crop yields, with more negative impacts than positive effects. Climate change has been acting to reduce global average yields of wheat and maize by around 1% per decade since 1960, preventing yields increasing as fast as they would otherwise have done due to other factors.

      First case I've seen of it being cited as a factor already

    4. Future climate risks to society are dependent on the interaction of hazard, exposure and vulnerability:

      This is slightly different to Risk = impact X frequency

    5. Around 420 million fewer people would beexposed to extreme heatwaves if warming was kept to 1.5°C than 2°C.

      holy caw. Like the heatwaves that killed 90k people in Western Europe? Those heatwaves?

  6. Apr 2019
    1. Simple, fair, predictable pricing.Deploy your first app in minutes.

      This is the other alternative to Heroku, offering a nice developer experience

    1. The rule, which was decided at the last minute and reportedly pushed by Saudi Arabia, means fuels with a 10% or higher reduction in lifecycle emissions compared to standard “Jet A1” can be counted as “clean oil” and eligible for in-sector offsets.


    2. However, the requirements only apply for operators with international emissions above 10,000tCO2 per year. This means most of the world’s private jets are exempt.

      Private jets, the most egregious of emitters, are exempt. Wow.

    3. International aviation alone is responsible for around 1.3% of global CO2 emissions, according to ICAO.

      So, international aviation is greater than domestic

    4. Significantly, these estimates do not account for the impacts of aircraft emissions other than CO2, such as nitrogen oxides (NOx) and soot. These factors are thought to more than double the global warming impact of aviation.


    1. The solution enables groups from across the company to view emissions data based on group-specific access parameters; on initial rollout, we restricted each group’s view to data that was immediately actionable by them. For example, our data center team has a global view of data center emissions data, whereas oursubsidiaryfacilities teams can access data for facilities in their specific geographical region. By giving them access to just the data that is relevant to their partof the organization (and not the broader organization), we help eliminate distractions and keep the groups focused on opportunities to drive emissions-reducing initiatives within their areas.

      Sacrificing transparency to avoid distractions. Would this also save embarassing some high emitting areas like enterprise sales or exec travel?

    2. Vintagerefers to the year that the green power isgenerated. Carbon accounting specifies that the green power purchases be generated in the reporting inventory yearthat the green power will be credited.

      You can't buy offsets from 2014 to offset emissions in 2018

    1. Across the seven countries surveyed by the CASPI team, a clear link emerged between people’s wellbeing and the extent to which they engaged in low-carbon behaviours: people who were ‘greener’ also tended to be happier, even taking into account their own personal income.50

      oh, wow, not just because they're already rich?

    2. There are plenty of campaigns which have been completely oblivious to the relationship between one pro-environmental behaviour and another. One striking and bizarre initiative saw consumers encouraged by a supermarket marketing campaign to “turn lights into flights” by earning “air miles” through the purchase of energy-efficient lightbulbs.


    3. Many campaigns in the 1990s and 2000s focused on ordinary citizens ‘doing their bit’ through reducing their personal carbon-footprints.8 But there was then a concerted shift away from openly talking about the role of individual behaviours, in part reflecting the failure of most campaigns to bring about meaningful changes in people’s behaviours (and more importantly their carbon footprints


    4. Carbon emissions increase sharply with income: the top 10% of emitters are responsible for close to half of all emissions; and much of this difference is underpinned by household income



    1. ur focus is on creatings systems ofdecision-making, like Citizens’ Assemblies, where ordinary people learn from each other and help usall to take collective decisions.

      This doesn't come across so strongly in the protests yet, but it's an important point

    1. Air pollution contributed to nearly one in every 10 deaths in 2017, making it a bigger killer than malaria and road accidents and comparable to smoking, according to the State of Global Air (SOGA) 2019 study published on Wednesday. In south Asia, children can expect to have their lives cut short by 30 months, and in sub-Saharan Africa by 24 months, because of a combination of outdoor air pollution caused by traffic and industry, and dirty air indoors, largely from cooking fires. In east Asia, air pollution will shorten children’s lives by an estimated 23 months. However, the life expectancy burden is forecast to be less than five months for children in the developed world.

      And we still SUBSIDISE fossil fuels

  7. Mar 2019
    1. The secret sauce to mitigating uninformed opinions is to explicitly state where you are in the decision cycle, and your confidence in the decision at this stage. Add in a dash of the decision’s importance and you’ve got a reliable, repeatable template for how to communicate where you’re at.

      This is a really nice way to frame it.

    1. Despite the existence of these two contradictory trends, even the most optimistic studies express concerns regarding the capacity of technological progress to counter the growth in volumes by 2020.For example, this report from the American Department of Energy and the University of California on the energy consumption of data centers in 2016 in the United States, states:"The key levers for optimizing theenergy efficiency [of data centers] identified in this report, better PUE, better rate of use of servers and more linear consumption all have theoretical and practical limits and the amount of progress already achieved suggests that these limits will be reached in the relatively near future."(Shehabi, A. et al., 2016)

      Okay it was that same paper they referred to.

    2. India plans to launch a massive program to deploy commercial 5G networks in 2020 to boost the performance and capacity of existing mobile networks, taking into account that the 4G networks (which only took off in 2017 due to a price war over data started by the telecommunications operator Reliance Jio)are making big advances towards general coverage.

      Hello, so they do reference the massive increase in data and data plans

    3. Scenario 3 –ideal case, where the exchanges are made exclusively with the platform.

      His number seems super duper high

    4. We have therefore sought to identify levers of action more closely related to the demand and consumption of digital services than on the energy efficiency of supply.

      This is long overdue, I'm ready Glad to see this

    5. Spending 10 minutes watching a high definition video by streamingon a smartphone is equivalent to using a 2,000W electric oven at full power for 5 minutes


  8. Feb 2019
    1. Last year, Google quietly started an oil, gas, and energy division. It hired Darryl Willis, a 25-year veteran of BP, to head up what the Wall Street Journal described as “part of a new group Google has created to court the oil and gas industry.” As the VP of Google Cloud Oil, Gas, and Energy, Willis spent the year pitching energy companies on partnerships and lucrative deals. “If it has to do with heating, lighting or mobility for human beings on this planet, we’re interested in it,” Mr. Willis told the Journal. “Our plan is to be the partner of choice for the energy industry.”

      Jeez. At what point do we grow a spine and take climate change seriously?

    1. Salesforce was the first major internet company that exclusively leased data center space to adopt a 100 percent renewable energy commitment in 2013. Salesforce has multiple data center leases in Data Center Alley, totaling 46 megawatts, including a massive new lease with QTS in its new Manassas data center.[

      How to do green DCs when you don't own DCs

    2. But despite recent creative claims of being “100 Percent Renewable Globally” from surplus supply of renewable credits in other markets,[66] Google has not yet taken steps to add renewable energy to meet the demand of its data centers in Virginia

      Ah! So they do the "RECs in other markets" too!

    3. In 2018, five major IT brands with long-term commitments to renewable energy[52] and who operate data centers or have significant colocation leases in Virginia sent a letter to the Virginia State Corporation Commision (SCC) asking that they not be used by Dominion to justify new fossil fuel growth, asking instead for a greater supply of renewable energy.[53] The SCC ultimately rejected Dominion’s Integrated Resource Plan for the first time in December 2018, providing an important opportunity for additional large corporate customers to tell regulators they need a greater supply of renewables, not more investment in fossil fuel generation assets or pipelines like the ACP.[54]

      Wait, so these things two things are related? The letter forced the SCC to respond?

    4. The rapid deployment of renewable energy and the stagnation of mandatory renewable energy targets in many states has created a large surplus of “naked” or unbundled renewable credits available at the national level for purchase by the voluntary market, driving their price to record lows, less than $1/megawatt hour.

      So, if you're a huge buyer of electricity, and you are opaque about your offsets, it's easy to imagine that you're just loading up on these.

    5. AWS customers seeking to immediately reduce carbon emissions related to their cloud hosting could request to be hosted in Amazon’s California cloud, which is connected to a grid that is 50[33] to 70[34] percent powered by clean sources of electricity

      Not oregon?

    6. Dominion’s projected demand for the pipeline ignores the fact that six of its 20 largest customers, five of which are data center operators, have made commitments to run on 100 percent renewable energy.[

      How can you publicly audit a commitment like this?

    7. However, neither of these options improves the energy mix of Virginia or influences future direction and is therefore not ideal for those companies concerned with meaningfully reducing their operational carbon emissions. Of the 15 companies measured in this report, only Apple has invested in enough renewable energy procurement to match its demand in the region

      Ok, this makes me think that companies are relying on RECs everywhere else, and crediting Apple with specifically investing directly in RE in Virginia.

    8. Company Scorecard

      OK, so this is the table used to create that wild chart above showing DC capacity, compared to renewables capacity in Virginia

    9. If Amazon and other internet companies continue their rapid expansion of data centers in Virginia, but allow Dominion to continue with its strategy to use rising data center demand to justify significant new investment in fossil fuel infrastructure, they will be responsible for driving a massive new investment in fossil fuels that the planet cannot afford.

      So this is interesting. This report seems to be more about Dominion than anything, else, and basically pressuring amazon to get Dominion to step away from fossil fuels

    10. Dominion Energy, Virginia’s largest electricity provider and the primary electric utility for Data Center Alley, has strongly resisted any meaningful transition to renewable sources of electricity, currently representing only 4 percent of its generation mix, with plans to increase to only slightly over 10 percent by 2030.[1]

      Wow, 10% by 2030? That it?

    1. The purpose of spend control is simply to challenge what we’re doing. It’s important to remember that it doesn’t control the budgets. Those budgets belong to other departments or business units. Spend control simply says that if we’re going to spend more than £25K on something then that has to be presented to us and exposed to a bit of challenge.

      Easy enough to explain, and anchor stuff to.

    1. The ultimate guide to remote team meetings

      This was pretty accurate - it covers a lot of useful ground.

    1. Today the decline in deaths from the traditional diseases of density—tuberculosis and diarrheal and intestinal infectious diseases—in many large cities is due less to prevention through infrastructure improvements and public health oversight (see below). Instead the evidence suggests that treatment (e.g., antibiotics, childhood vaccines, oral rehydration solutions), rather than prevention (e.g., clean water, sanitation, and strong urban public health systems), has mattered the most

      Did not expect

    1. When I first started thinking/talking about this, I use the term maturity with people. That unfortunately implies a judgement and it turns out that people don’t want to think of themselves (or be thought of) as immature. Most of the terms that came up had that same characteristic: sophistication, evolution, depth, … The antonyms are off-putting. Fact is, there is no one right answer here — there is nothing inherently better or worse about being at a particular point on the spectrum. That led me to engagement. We really are just talking about what kind, what role, how much, … your engagement with open source plays in your organization. Naming is hard. I’d love to hear alternatives.

      I really like this framing of it. Sure, maturity is a nice way to categorise, human frailty is worth taking into account

    1. pite the coal-friendly policies of the central government. A study showed that Australia is currently installing 250 watts of PV or wind for each inhabitant per year. The EU and US are about one fifth of this. If this rate of growth continues, Australia will reach 50% renewables by 2024 and 100% of electricity demand by 2032. Costs of new large scale PV and wind are now around US35/MWh, lower than the running costs of older coal stations.

      Wow, go Australia

    1. We look at the different types of ‘dark matter’ at play in the system around complex disadvantage — law and guidance, strategies and policies, contracts and processes. We examine how what can seem to be the law may actually be someone’s interpretation of it. We look at how through investigation you can start to question rules, by discovering that the reason the rule was initially created may have changed, so that the rule is no longer needed.

      This is a bit like the different kinds of inertia in Wardley mapping

    1. Williams and Tang (2013)8performed a rigorous and detailed energy consumption analysis of three cloud-based office productivity applications. They analyzed the power consumption ofthe data center, network, and user devices that access the cloud service. The study also performed an energy consumption analysis on “traditional” noncloud versions of the software to understand the overall impact of cloud services.

      Are the findings accessible publicly?

    2. Average power consumption can be estimated from single points, although this results in increasing uncertainty. Manufacturers publish the maximum measured electricity (MME)value, which is the maximum observed power consumption by a server model. The MME can often be calculated with online tools, which may allow the specification of individual components for a particular server configuration. Based on these estimations of maximum power consumption, the average power consumption is commonly assumed to be 60 percent of MME for high-end servers and 40 percent for volume and mid-range servers.

      okay, this is a useful stat. I think

    3. In most cases, the “embodied emissions” (all stages excluding the use stage) of software are not significant compared with the overall emissions of the ICT system, particularly when the embodied emissions caused by development of the software are amortized over a large number of copies. In these cases, it is not necessary to carry out a detailed life cycle assessment of the software as part of a wider system. An exception is where bespoke software has very high emissions associated with its development, and these emissions are all allocated to a small number of software copies.

      Smaller, internal software might count

    4. Currently, input-output(IO)tables are published every five years, a long time in IT product evolution. Consequently, EEIO is good at representing basic commodities / materials industries like plastics or metals manufacturing, but not high-tech industries like microprocessors and fiber optic lasers manufacturing.

      Every 5 years. So, when the iPhone 6 was the brand new hotness, compared to today.

    5. Calculating cradle-to-gate GHG emissions of IH by the component characterization method

      Ah! This is new to m

    6. EEIO tables are updated infrequently thus may not be up to date with ICT’s newest technologies and materials. EEIO tables have limited resolution at the aggregate sector level.

      Valuable problem to solve?

    7. rapidly with the onset of innovations, but lag in being included in EEIO databases available to the practitioner. More detail on EEIO data is provided in the calculation sections below

      Useful point. Because the top-down data is lagging, it'll give worse than expecred figures for hardware

    8. It is interesting to note that the figures from GSMA and GeSI show that energy intensity per gigabyte is improving at about 24% per year for mobile networks, and at about 22% per year for fixed line networks.(The study by Aslan et al calculates a figure of 50% reduction in energy intensity every two years for fixed line networks, equivalent to 29% reduction per year).Also the data shows that the energy intensity per gigabyte for mobile networks is about 50 times that for fixed line networks.

      Okay, this isn't that far from the 45x figure before

    9. Assuming that the reduction in energy efficiency can be fitted to an exponentially decreasing curve (i.e. because it is more and more difficult to achieve the same reductions), then the data points can be extrapolated to give energy intensity factors for 2015 of 0.15 for fixed linenetworks, and 6.5 for mobile networks, with both factors measured in kWh/GB (kilowatt-hours per gigabyte).


    10. A simple energy intensity factor for the use of the internet would make calculating the emissions resulting from ICT simpler and more widely accessible. Whilst this has been attempted in the past, resulting estimates show huge disparities. Coroama and Hilty6review 10 studies that have attempted to estimate the average energy intensity of the internet where estimates varied from 0.0064 kWh/GB to 136 kWh/GB, a difference factor of more than 20,000.


      Did I drive across London? Or did I drive to the moon?

    11. Typically, for cloud and data center services the largest impacts are from the use stage emissions of the data center and the end user devices.

      End user devices?

    12. Simplified parameters for allocation of data center emissions include

      Useful for the screening stage

    13. Optional processes that are not attributable to the GHG impact of cloud and data center services are:


    14. The end-of-life stage typically represents only -0.5 to -2 percent of a service’s total GHG emissions. This is because of the high level of recycling of network equipment.

      Where would I check to learn this?

    15. For global average electricity emission factors across 63 countries where the points of presence were located, data from the Carbon Trust Footprint Expert Database was used.

      Is this database free?

    16. Operational activities and non-ICT support equipment covers people (labor)-activities and non-ICT support equipment and activities that are directly engaged and dedicated to the service being assessed.

      in addition to the other emissions

    17. For example, these measurements might involve running a series of traffic traces16over a period of time to build up statistics on network parameters. The measurements also need to include the energy consumption for the network’s ancillary equipment such as cooling, power conditioning, and back-up power. If this latter data is not attainable, then techniques described in Section 2.8.2“Calculating GHG emissions for the customer domain use stage,” (TPCF and PUE factors), can be used to provide an estimated value for this equipment.


    18. Equipment manufacturers may have estimates of TPCFs for their equipment based on defined operating conditions. In all cases, if a TPCF approach is selected, then the basis for selecting the factor should be fullynoted and documented in the GHG inventory report

      How much do these figures fluctuate for cloud boxen?

    19. Allocation of emissions among independent products that share the same process: for example, multiple products sharing the same transport process (vehicle); multiple telecommunication services sharing the same network; multiple cloud services (email, data storage, database applications) sharing the same data center

      k8s makes this a pain, if its designed to co-mingle services on the same boxen

    20. Depending on the goal and scope of the assessment, a rule of thumb may be used for assessing ICT products where theemissions from a specific life cycle stage or element are determined by the screening assessment to be less than 5 percent of the total emissions. In this case, a detailed assessment for that stage or element is not required. The emissions for that stage or element are then calculated using the percentage determined in the screening assessment. The sum of the emissions calculated in this way (i.e., based on the percentage from the screening estimate) should not exceed 20 percent of the total emissions.

      Less than 5? skip it

    21. A “screening assessment” is an initial assessment of a product to understand its significant and relevant sources of emissions. This assessment is described in the Product Standard in section 8.3.3.

      Entry level

    22. This chapter provides software developers and architects guidance to benchmark and report the GHG emissions from software use in a consistent manner and make informed choices to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The chapter is in two parts. Part A provides guidance on the full life cycle assessment of software, while Part B relates specifically to the energy use of software, and covers the three categories of software: operating systems (OS), applications, and virtualization.

      actual formal guidance!

    23. 2015 GeSI published the SMARTer 20308report, extending the analysis out to 2030. This study predicted that the global emissions of the ICT sector will be 1.25 Gt CO2e in 2030 (or 1.97% of global emissions), and emissions avoided through the use of ICT will be 12 Gt CO2e,which is nearly 10 times higher than ICT’s own emissions.

      theres a 2030 report now. I did not know

    24. the total abatement potential from ICT solutions by 2020 is seven times its own emissions.

      increasing confidence in the potental then

    25. Rebound Effects


    26. The Product Standard (sections 11.2 and 11.3.2) states that“avoided emissions shall not be deducted from the product’s total inventory results, but may be reported separately.”

      ah, so its not like a magic offset. more transparent. good.

    27. The Product Standarddefines products to be both goods and services, thus for the ICT sector it covers both physical ICT equipment and delivered ICT services. This Sector Guidance, however, focuses more on the assessment of ICT services. In this Sector Guidance the definition of products includes both networks and software as ICT services.

      this makes me think that services like e-commerce or ride sharing might not count on he first read thru

  9. Dec 2018
    1. As the chief executive of the world’s biggest cement company observed, “we know how to make very low carbon cement – by why would we? There is no incentive.”


    2. In the growing trade war between China and the US, it seems the world is unwilling even to think about the entirely legitimate use of consumption-based or border carbon pricing either to encourage cleaner production in China, or to deter the Trump administration from using discriminatory trade measures to re-industrialize drawing partly on older and more carbon-intensive technologies.

      How would border carbon pricing work? You pay a tax on the CO2 emissions 'imported'?

    3. The European utilities that tried to ignore the energy transition are now economic zombies; some split their companies in two to try and isolate the assets that have already turned into liabilities in a decarbonizing system.

      E-on as an example?

    4. Averaged over the full 35 years, a constant percentage reduction would require c = - 10%/yr to reach the same end-point – almost impossible at the starting point, but entirely feasible and easily observed in the latter stages of sunset industries.

      Okay, so the argument as I see it so far is that, change, while averaged out might be 3.68 per year, but assuming it's a straight line, is a mistake, as substition of high carbon energy to low carbon looks more like an S shaped curve

    5. their analysis leads both teams to the – only slightly caveated - conclusion that the emission reductions required to the deliver the Paris Aims (“well below 2 deg.C”) are implausible, by almost any standard of macroeconomic evidence – and still more so for the most ambitious “1.5 deg.C” end of the spectrum.

      Ah, so this is a response to the we're doomed papers from before

    1. Electricity Intensity of Internet Data Transmission: Untangling the Estimates

      This is the html version of the PDf I was referring to before.

  10. Oct 2018
    1. Video streaming service Netflix is the world's most data-hungry application, consuming 15% of global net traffic, according to research from bandwidth management company Sandvine.

      Ah, there's new sandvine report for 2018

  11. Sep 2018
  12. Apr 2018
    1. By eliminating cold servers and cold containers with request-based pricing, we’ve also eliminated the high cost of idle capacity and helped our customers achieve dramatically higher utilization and better economics.

      Cold servers and cold containers is a term I haven't heard before, but it sums up the waste of excess capacity nicely

    1. Robust It is this flirty declarative nature makes HTML so incredibly robust. Just look at this video. It shows me pulling chunks out of the Amazon homepage as I browse it, while the page continues to run. Let’s just stop and think about that, because we take it for granted. I’m pulling chunks of code out of a running computer application, AND IT IS STILL WORKING. Jut how… INCREDIBLE is that? Can you imagine pulling random chunks of code out of the memory of your iPhone or Windows laptop, and still expecting it to work? Of course not! But with HTML, it’s a given.
  13. Mar 2018
    1. For the five studies that satisfy our criteria, the electricityintensity of transmission networks has declined by factor of170 between 2000 and 2015

      It's got 170x more energy efficient in 15 years

    2. 2Example of daily variation of Internet traffic in 2012, based on number of page views per 15-minute interval for part of theAkamai network (Peill-Moelter 2012, reprinted with permission).

      This looks similar the curve in the Power of Wireless Cloud. I wonder if it's the same now?

    3. A white paper released byCisco (2015) predicts Internet traffic growth of 42% per yearto 2020.

      42% compounding, year on year?

    4. the broader trends identified by Koomey andcolleagues (2011) and Koomey and Naffziger (2015, 2016) aresuggestive of the rates of change we would expect to see innetworking devices constructed from silicon microprocessorsand related components.

      So assumptions about Moore's law about increasing energy efficiency can be applied

    5. Williams and Tang (2012)estimate the carbon intensity

      Oh, so they've gone the other way here

    6. Estimatesbased on specific or state-of-the-art equipment, such as Baligaand colleagues (2009), omit the less efficient legacy equip-ment (i.e., equipment with higher electricity use per GB ofdata transferred) in use within country-wide Internet networks,resulting in a substantial underestimate of electricity intensityat the lower end of the observed range (0.004 kWh/GB for2008).

      Ah, so that's why it's so low - they assumed all the network kit was, new, shiny and frugal

    7. Existing estimates for the electricity intensity of Internetdata transmission, for 2000 to 2015, vary up to 5 orders of mag-nitude, ranging from between 136 kilowatt-hours (kWh)/GBin 2000 (Koomey et al. 2004) and 0.004 kWh/GB in 2008(Baliga et al. 2009). While increased efficiency over time canaccount for 2 orders of magnitude of this variation (based onresults presented below), alone it does not explain the spreadof results.
    8. For ex-ample, Mayers and colleagues (2014) applied electricity in-tensity estimates as part of an LCA study comparing differentmethods of games distribution, concluding that the carbon-equivalent emissions arising from an Internet game download(for an average 8.8-gigabyte [GB] game) were higher than thosefrom Blu-ray Disc distribution in 2010

      I still have a hard reading getting my head around this

    9. This article derives criteria to identify accurate estimates over time andprovides a new estimate of 0.06 kWh/GB for 2015.



    1. However, the app also collected the information of the test-takers’ Facebook friends, leading to the accumulation of a data pool tens of millions-strong. Facebook’s “platform policy” allowed only collection of friends data to improve user experience in the app and barred it being sold on or used for advertising.


    1. He uses the PURE Method for easy of use.

      I like this idea, I'm curious about how the split the steps, and how each step is ranked

    2. Let’s acknowledge the five purposes of research:

      This is worth comparing to mydleton's list

    1. One argument I've heard against this approach is that if everyone did this, then we would run out of pink, sparkly marbles. We'll know this is something to be worried about when women are paid significantly more than men for the same work.


  14. Feb 2018
    1. The extraterritorial nature of these two frameworks — they protect the privacy rights of people in Europe regardless of where their data is collected — means that they will become the de facto standard for privacy around the world.

      I'm not totally clear on how would be enforced yet, but jeepers

    2. Your privacy testing procedures should predict the ways unauthorized users would access actual data on your system. Would a suspicious search for user data, or an alteration to a record, be logged as a security vulnerability? Is data stored in login cookies? Could someone gain access to data by intentionally triggering an error?

      This sounds a lot like threat modelling.

    3. Data should be deleted, either automatically or through user actions, when it is no longer needed. Take care to think of how deleted data may still be present in archives and backups. You will also need to work with third parties whom you pass data to or receive it from, such as a SAAS or a cloud service, to ensure that a request for data deletion on your end also removes the data on their end, and to verify that this has been done.

      I would love to see what an agreement for this looks like, when postgres, Cassandra etc. essentially use a append-only-log to capture new data

    4. The European term “personal data” differs from the American term “personally identifiable information.” The latter pertains to a much more limited set of information than the European model. It also does not see information as contextual, whereas the European framework emphasizes the risks inherent in data aggregation.

      Important distinction. This is a useful article

    1. Pollution, broadly, is the number one source of unrest and citizen dissatisfaction, and it’s actually an essential threat to the rule of the Chinese Communist Party because they have to do something about it to keep their people content.

      Source of unrest too?

    2. In the late 1970s, it cost $100 a watt for solar panel material, but the price has dropped 300-fold over the last 40 years. The first 100x price drop didn’t matter because solar was still more expensive than coal or gas. So all through that incredible price drop, people could say, “It’s a toy. It’s never going to make sense.”

      TODO: Find the source for this quote

    1. The AutoGrid Flex platform interfaces with a wide variety of IoT devices, from residential to industrial-scale energy applications. In addition to energy-consumption data, typical residential appliances may also provide telemetry about air temperature, humidity, water temperature, and occupancy. Industrial devices often generate a variety of interesting process-specific data, but some of the most common and useful measurements include wind speed, solar irradiance, and thermal limits. These data streams can be leveraged by the AutoGrid machine learning algorithms to enhance forecasting and optimization of flexible energy resources throughout the network.
    2. If, for example, an OhmConnect consumer saves one kilowatt hour (kWh) of electricity, the California ISO will reward OhmConnect as if that consumer generated one kWh. OhmConnect in turn passes a significant portion of that savings to its end user.
    3. Winn said that solar plant operators can also attach thermal cameras to drones to help identify solar cells that are less efficient, perhaps even broken: A solar cell that’s absorbing all the energy and producing electricity is going to be much cooler than one that is not.
    4. The Heila IQ box runs powerful software that presents an abstract view to the operator. Instead of directly controlling the individual assets, the operator describes higher-level goals and constraints such as “reduce emissions” or “avoid using gas-based generators because they are expensive.” Then, as the microgrid is operating, the Heila IQ automatically controls the assets to try to optimize for these goals and satisfy the constraints. Later, if the operator adds new assets to the microgrid, they don’t need to configure the individual assets or try to rebalance the system. As long as they specify the higher-level goals and constraints, the Heila IQ-based microgrid continues to control the assets appropriately.

      wow, this is possible now?

    1. Smaller data centers—servers stashed in closets or rooms in office buildings under 5,000 square feet—barely apply these efficiency strategies. That’s how small and medium-sized data centers end up consuming 49 percent of the electricity used in U.S. data centers each year, despite owning just 40 percent of the total number of servers, according to a 2014 report by the nonprofit Natural Resources Defence Council (NRDC).

      The other argument for cloud. It's like running your own power station in a closet now, when you can pay for it on a meter

  15. Jan 2018
    1. No more retention scams that allow online signups but demand users phone a call centre to delete their accounts.

      Holy caw, this covers opt-out after subscriptions too? Eeeenteresting...

    1. Douglas  Hofstadterobserved  that,  no  matter  how  much  work  went  into  developing  computer  programs  to  play  chess  against  Grand  Masters,  the  winning  program  always  seemed  to  be  10  years  away

      I didn't know this came from chess games

    2. Slicing  Features  into  separate  functional  parts  helps  us  actively  manage  the  scope  by  creating  different  implementation  options  45that  are  often  implicit  and  non-­negotiable  when  we  have  larger  Features  in  the  backlog

      On a second read through, this appears to be a key thing for this to work - decomposing larger units of work into smaller things, but not diving into the deliver-in-a-day scale of wehat he's referring to as user stories here

    3.  At  the  heart  of  the  rolling  wave  forecast  is  the  acceptance  of  uncertainty.  This,  in  turn,  allows  us  to  keep  our  options  open.  To  be  flexible  and  able  to  respond  to  change  –just  like  the  Agile  Manifesto  says.  

      okay, this is a nice way to present it

    4. what did you say about rolling wave forecast

      Moar new terminilogy for me…

      okay, so it feels a bit like a weird cross between a release plan and a roadmap

    5. By  forecasting  and  showing  progress  (or  the  lack  thereof)  very  early  on,  Carmen  is  bringing  the  scope  discussion  to  the  first  few  days  of  the  project.  

      So basically, acknowledge self-deception both parties played along with to get here as soon as you can, because it will come up either way

    6. Move  to  Story  Points.  Even  if  this  is  just  another  way  of  estimating,  getting  rid  of  ‘hours’  and  ‘days’  has  too  many  benefits  to  ignore  them.  We  already  discussed  previously  in  this  book  the  problems  of  using  time-­based  metrics,  which  are  an  indication  of  cost,  to  measure  project  progress.  Even  if  it’s  just  another  proxy  metric  for  productivity,  Story  Point-­based  estimation  gives  a  better  understanding  of  how  things  like  risk,  complexity,  expected  dependencies  for  each   Story,   etc.   Given   that   a   large   amount   of   time   it   takes   to   deliver   one   Story   is   spent  waiting,  Story  Point  estimation  is  more  likely  to  help  you  assess  the  true  impact  of  one  Story  in  your  project.

      Surely when you have story points it's now really hard to compare across teams and projects though, right? A 3 pointer for one team is not a 3 pointer for another.

    7. Mandating   the   maximum   calendar   duration   for   an   item   is   also   used   for   User   Stories.   In   my  practice  I  advise  teams  to  have  1-­day  User  Stories.  The  reason  is  simple.  If  you  were  wrong  about  the  time  it  takes  to  develop  your  User  Story  you  will  know  it  already  to

      So this is similar to the idea in Reinertsen's book, when he describes the round robin approach if you can't reliably estimate work

    8. Both  these  metrics  will  help  you  forecast  the  progress  for  your  project.  While  the  User  Story  velocity  metric  will  help  you  assess  when  a  certain  Feature  might  be  ready;;  the  Feature  velocity  will  help  you  assess  when  the  project  might  be  ready.

      This seems to assume that Carmen understands all the technology and the problem domain well enough to split a big feature into meaningful stories of more or less uniform size for devs to deliver. This feels like a different skill set to project management

    9. In  my  research  I’ve  normally  used  the  progress  data  from  3  to  5  iterations  (or  weeks  if  you  are  using   Kanban/flow   based   software   development)   in   order   to   define   the   initial   progress   rate.  Many  expect  that  you  need  many  more  data  points  before  you  can  make  a  useful  prediction,  but  that  is  not  the  case.  Three  to  5  iterations  are  typically  enough

      The German tank problem referenced as a justification for this is fascinating

    10. “Absolutely correct! In fact you will not know how long the whole project will take until you have either the whole backlog of INVEST Stories sliced up (a bad idea) or until you have enough historical information that you can infer the cycle time for every backlog item, independently of size,” Herman explained
    11. Early  in  each  project,  your  top  priority  is  not  to  ship  something  meaningful  to  your  customer,  but  to  obtain  information  on  capacity,  throughput,  and  bac

      Okay, this is an interesting, and there's lots around about optimising for learning, but this is the first time I've seen it explicitly phrased like this

    12. Even  if  each  Story  may  not  be  “sellable”,  it  must  be  testable  and  final,  i.e.  the  team  can  make  sure  that  aparticular  User  Story  has  been  successfully  completed  according  to  a  Definition  of  Done.  This  Definition  of  Done  is  a  litmus  test  that  will  allow  you  to  classify  tiny  parts  of  the  whole  project  as  completed,  before  the  whole  project  is  done.
    13. Each  Story  can  be  dropped  from  the  project  without  affecting  the  overall  project  delivery.

      This seems to contradict the earlier point about E meaning 'essential'. If I can drop a story then surely, it wasn't essential, right?

    14. Essential,  meaning  that  every  story  is  absolutely  required  for  the  product  to  be  viable.  To  be  Essential,  a  story  must  not  only  be  valuable,  but  it’s  removal  must  make  the  product  unusable  or  unsellable.  Earlier  INVEST  definitions  included  ‘Estimatable’  in  the  sense  that  there  would  be  some  understanding  and  specific  definition  of  the  story  that  allowed  us  to  cast  an  estimate  if  we  wanted  to.  #NoEstimates  focuses  on  value  instead.  The  goal  is  to  do  only  what  is  essential  to  the  project’s  success.

      I'm struggling with this, as when you're making trade-offs between stories to work on in a given timebox, you'd be deliberately deciding not to have certain things that you've just deemed essential.

    15. Gedanken  or  Gedankenexperiment.  Ángel  Medinilla,  this  book’s  fantastic  illustrator,  

      Ah, THAT'S where they came from

    16. At  Toyota,  the  production  engineers  would  simultaneously  start  to  design  the  production  line  and  prepare  manufacturing  long  before  the  new  car  designs  were  finished  (hence,  concurrent  engineering),  instead  of  waiting  until  all  decisions  about  the  design  were  closed.  This,  in  the  end,  provided  Japanese  manufacturers  with  an  astonishing  competitive  advantage  that  let  them  design  and  produce  the  Toyota  Prius  in  about  3  years27,  from  idea  to  first  sale!

      Only 3 years? Cripes

    17.  Project  Management  Body  of  Knowledge  (PMBO

      AH, this is the PM Book he was mentioning last night

    18. But   for   complex   environments,   where   estimates   come   mostly   from   personal   experience   and  knowledge,   these   estimates   will   be   different   for   every   person.   Experts   might   estimate   some  work  as  easy  and  fast,  while  novices  might  estimate  the  same  work  as  difficult  and  long  lasting.  Some  team  members  may  see  risks  and  estimate  the  impact  on  the  schedule,  while  others  may  ignore  those  risks.Hence,  in  most  environments  estimates  are  personal.  

      And presumably not comparable across teams then, if you're managing a portfolio of projects or products, and trying to work out where to focus your efforts?

    19. So,  if  h(a)  is  much  larger  than  g(e)  the  cost  of  a  feature  cannot  be  determined  by  relative  estimation.In  turn,this  means  that  the  most  common  estimation  approach,  Story  Point  estimation,  cannot  work  reliably.

      If this is the second 'social' complexity analysis, and it's a much larger factor, then I missed this part in the talk. Then again telling people to factor in how dysfunctional their org is might be a hard sell in an evening

    20. Some  researchers  have  alreadyproposedwhat  a  “good”estimate  should  be.  In  19861,  they  proposed  thata  good  estimation  approach  would  provide  estimates  “within  25%  of  the  actual  result,  75%  of  the  time”.

      Okay, this figure is what we need to beat, with Reinertsen's cost of delay question, tracking the cost of the project being 60 days late



    1. Among the options available are two for missile alerts, according to the Washington Post. One is labelled “test missile alert”, which will test the notification system is working without actually sending an alert to the public.

      Microcopy matters, yo.

  16. inclusive-components.design inclusive-components.design
    1. For a consistent experience between users, we need to be deliberate and focus() an appropriate element

      Deliberate decisions about the next action with focus, provide a nicer UX

    2. <use xlink:href="#bin-icon">

      Ah… so THAT's what the hidden SVG at the beginning of the piece was fore

    3. Many kinds of users often feel the need to scale/zoom interfaces, including the short-sighted and those with motor impairments who are looking to create larger touch or click targets.

      Nice argument for leveling up in SVG

    4. In this example, &times; is used to represent a cross symbol. Were it not for the aria-label overriding it, the label would be announced as “times” or “multiplication” depending on the screen reader in question.

      So aria labels overrule clever submit typography. Userful to know

    5. In my version, I just add a minor enhancement: a line-through style for checked items. This is applied to the <label> via the :checked state using an adjacent sibling combinator.

      Clever CSS tricks abound in this piece

    6. It’s quite valid in HTML to provide an <input> control outside of a <form> element. The <input> will not succeed in providing data to the server without the help of JavaScript, but that’s not a problem in an application using XHR.

      Did not know this.

    7. all the state information we need is actually already in the DOM, meaning all we need in order to switch between showing the list and showing the empty-state is CSS.

      Wow. - never thought of this. It's not as obvious as the approach above though if you were working on the code base - how expensive is a check for todos.length?

    8. If you do use a <section> element, you still need to provide a heading to it, otherwise it is an unlabeled section.

      unexpected accessibility gotcha!

    1. Cierge sends a magic link as well as a magic code that a user can manually enter into the login screen to continue as an alternative to clicking the link. Magic codes are short, volatile, & memorable (eg. 443 863). For example, you can look up the code on your phone then enter it into your browser on desktop.

      This is is the use case for magic codes

    1. This means our problem with 1% of requests, could affect 20% of pageviews (20 requests x 1% = 20% = ⅕). And 60% of users (3 pages x 20 objects x 1% = 60% ≈ ⅔).

      This is one of the counter-intuitive thing about large numbers.

    1. For example, it’s easy to repair, we have a take back program and we’ve researched the best recycling methods. Some time back we also discussed alternative business models for consumers to incentivize take back.

      When you place the incentives here, it's in Fairphone's interest to make it easy to service and fix. This is smart.I like.