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  1. Last 7 days
    1. Build on narrative that integrates the two approaches, probably building oncircularity (be part of the coming standard) and efficiency of services (e.g. theexample of interface not knowing their impact in services besides havingenvironmental product declarations for all their products).

      Key thing. Inward sustainability focus misses the big picture


  2. Dec 2019
    1. In short, Nordhaus, who is mentioned both in my 2007 and 2012 pieces, tells us not to worry too much about climate change. It will be cheaper to adapt to it than to prevent it or slow it down.

      Oh jeez, so THIS is where that adaptation vs mitigation meme came from. In the context of what research gets funded, why he got the Nobel prize is making more sense now.

    1. Basically, all services in public administration will moveinto the cloud, which means that a huge amount of data will be digitalised. This has huge implications forthe security of the data (which can quickly translate into national security matters). Most of the services are now provided by companies outside Europe, which raises questions aboutdata sovereignty, ownership, transpar-ency, etc. Also, as recently proposed by Germany (GAIA-X project), the European Union should re-gard the cloud as a critical infrastructure which should be developed within Europe.



    1. Giving extra impetus to its new goals, Repsol will link at least 40% of managers’ long-term variable pay to its emissions reduction targets.


    1. Almost a third of UK boards (32%) feel little or no responsibility for the climate crisis, according to a global survey of 640 chairs and non-executive directors by recruitment firm Harvey Nash and London Business School’s Leadership Institute.


  3. Nov 2019
    1. The emissions from onereturn ticket from London to New York are roughly equivalent to that of heating a typical home in the EU for a whole year (European Commission, 2019).

      Holy balls. I've never seen it compared in those terms before.

    1. Those instances of decoupling that can be observed (like the UK or Germany in past years) result mainly from deindustrialisation and the outsourcing of energy-intensive industrial production to other countries.

      I haven't found a good rebuttal to this. I'd love to find one.

    1. energyusage.evaluate(exp, 10)

      So, you work out the figures by passing the function and the params for it.

    1. The questions within this Guide are organized into three relevant impact areasto assist with this evaluation: EnvironmentalPractices and Policiesof the Cloud Service Providers; Data Center Facility Management and Equipment; and Data Center Power Sources.

      So, basically:

      • policy
      • how they provision capacity
      • how they source power
    2. In the Fallof 2017, GECsponsored an Arizona State University(ASU) graduate capstone project that foundthatCloud Service Providers’publicly available sustainability data was limited,and that thesustainabilitymetrics and terminology used by those providers wereinconsistent and confusing. The ASU research findings assisted in thedevelopment of this Guide.

      So, basically every group say it's a trainwreck right now, transparency-wise.

    3. We meet our mission by supporting institutional purchasers in leveraging their purchasing power forsustainableproductsand servicestoadvance the market for those products.

      Procurement as a lever, then.

    1. easyJet’s aircraft carbon emissions in the 2018 financial year were 7.6 million tonnes, compared to 7.1 million tonnes in the 2017 financial year. easyJet’s calculation of emissions is based on fuel burn measurement, which complies with the EU’s Emissions Trading System requirements.

      7.1m in a year in 2018. That's about 3 and a half Googles.

    1. More figures extracted from the EURECA project, 2018. 40% of servers in public sector data centres were over 5 years old. These performed 7% of compute but used 66% of power.

      Wow, that's a stat.

    2. UK Government departments are required to report energy usage and explain how they are reducing their respective carbon footprints and this obligation to understand and report scope 3 emissions is likely to become more widespread, given UK government commitments to climate change targets and increasing observance of UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). It is also a requirement of the Science Based Targets methodology.

      Ah, it's a requirement of the Science Based Targets methodology. So any company signing this will need to ask the questions.


    1. or

      So OR is important. If you're an EU citizen and self employed and working, you have the right to stay.

      Even if you're an EU citizen, and not working, as long as you have enough money to support yourself, you have the right to stay.

    2. The right of residence provided for in paragraph 1 shall extend to family members who are not nationals of a Member State, accompanying or joining the Union citizen in the host Member State, provided that such Union citizen satisfies the conditions referred to in paragraph 1(a), (b) or (c).

      OK, so the folks at the Auslandeborde basically lied to our faces. Jeez, all this stress the last few weeks.

    1. Amazon's carbon intensity metric, measured as grams carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) per dollar of Gross Merchandise Sales (GMS), equals 128.9 g CO2e per dollar (USD).

      My guess is that AWS's emissions per unit of spend will be lower. Reporting only market based emissions makes it hard to tell how much energy is really in use, but for e-commerce companies, more than half the CO2 comes from delivery.

    1. For example, spending on parcel delivery by third-party carriers is mapped to the couriers and messengers sector (i.e., 224 grams of CO₂e per dollar) and shipping boxes are mapped to paperboard container manufacturing (i.e., 807 grams of CO₂e per dollar).

      This makes me think there's a figure for the use of AWS itself too.

    1. However, the table and figure below both use 2012 datapublished in 2014for all three different approaches to reporting emissions.

      Basically, embedded emissions are 10-20% more than the UK environmental account ones

    2. Embedded emissions3”, published by the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra)–these measureemissions on a “consumption” basis, and take account of the emissions embedded within the manufactured goods and services which the UK imports and exports.

      AHhh! this sounds like the thing that would be ideal if it was on a per sector basis.

  4. Oct 2019
    1. If the current de-velopments determined by Borderstep continue, the energy consumption of data centers will double by 2030 compared to today.

      So, doubling from today assumes around 700 kWh in 2030

    2. While Shehabi et al. assume that maximum power consumptionis constant[4], the Borderstep model assumes an increase in maximum power consumption due to a significant increase in the average amount of RAMs and multiprocessor systems.

      Ah! That makes sense - a big load out in a server, with loads of cores and RAM is deffo gonna make it need more juice.

    3. According to a Borderstep Instituteestimate, worldwide energy consumption of server data centers increased by about 30% to 287 billion kWh between 2010 and 2015 [9]. This in-crease accelerated once again in the last two years. A current TEMPRO project estimate concludes that between 2015 and 2017 theenergy consumption of data centers worldwide in-creased by approx. 20% to 350 billion kWh

      By comparison, the IEA figures generally say energy use has stayed around 200 kWh in 2020.

    4. The analyses and results presented in this article were pro-duced as part of the project TEMPRO –"Total Energy Man-agement for professional data centers." TEMPRO is supported through the 6th Energy Research Programme of the German FederalGovernment.

      Are there similar studies in other countries?



    1. Online video viewing, which represents 60% of the world’s data traffic, generated more than 300 MtCO2e during 2018, i.e. a carbon footprint comparable to the annual emissions of Spain

      This here is the stat I link in this talk:


      As far as I can tell, it's using the 1bit model from the shift project. Other methodologies give different examples, but it's at least documented.

    1. “The horror of climate change isn’t in the intrinsic violence of hurricanes or heat waves, but in the ways societies choose to deal with and prepare for them.”

      This quote. wow.

    1. Taking into account the global electricity mix, the share of greenhouse gas (GHG)emissions attributable to the Digital era would thereforeincrease from 2.5% in 2013 to 4% in 2020(2.1 Gt)

      This is the figure for Sal.

    1. ⁴ Amazon reports emissions according to the GHG Protocol’s “market-based” method, which accounts for renewable energy Amazon purchases to support its operations.

      Market based then.

    1. MORFBEATS Where art meets sound

      These are the horror music devices

  5. Sep 2019

      ~1.2m with market based adjustments


      4.9 without market based adjustments

    3. Our carbon footprint

      Before offsetting, but after market based emissions, it's about 1.2m tonnes of CO2

    1. It derives emission factors from contractual instruments, which include any type of contract between two parties for the sale and purchase of energy bundled with attributes about the energy generation, or for unbundled attribute claims. Markets differ as to what contractual instruments are commonly available or used by companies to purchase energy or claim specific attributes about it, but they can include energy attribute certificates (RECs, GOs, etc.), direct contracts (for both low-carbon, renewable, or fossil fuel generation), supplier-specific emission rates, and other default emission factors representing the untracked or unclaimed energy and emissions (termed the “residual mix”) if a company does not have other contractual information that meets the Scope 2 Quality Criteria

      Blimey, this could be much more than using RECs.

    2. Not having contractual data for every site will not cause noncompliance with the GHG Protocol Corporate Standardand Scope 2 Guidance

      This is how amazon can still pass the audit. It's not strictly necessary, but it's a bit sneak to not do it. Amazon, after the using instruments to make it look like it uses less electricity, appears have had used a similar amount to google did, before, google applied their own market based methods.

    3. Companies with any operations in markets providing product or supplier-specific data in the form of contractual instruments shall report scope 2 emissions in two ways and label each result according to the method: one based on the location-based method, and one based on the market-based method. This is also termed “dual reporting.”

      So, here's the thing. You really should report both figures, as it gives an idea of the impact of the different instruments in use, like purchasing renewable energy credits, and so on.

      If you report location based, it at least shows how much electricity you might be using, before the market based approach of buying RECs or similar brings the figure right down.

      If you don't know what market based instrument a company is using, you have no idea if they're using some skanly RECs bought in some rando part of the world, to give artificially low figures.

    1. there will also be a smaller event in 2019 as part of the Dutch Design Week programme, a Service Design Challenge for social design based on a real-life challenge on Saturday October 26.

      Okay, this is worth keeping an eye on

    2. Many large organisations have embedded service design standards and methods into their corporate procedures — such as Transport for London — reflecting a significant increase in their internal capacity.

      Oh, I did NOT know this. Cool

    1. In a perfect CE the residence time of a unit of material in thetechnosphere would be indefinite.

      technosphere presumably means, in use?

    2. At the same time, due to the higher specific GHG intensity of alu-minum, the GHG emissions of vehicle manufacturing would increase toenable life cycle savings in future years

      So this is what the chart is showing. lightweighting makes the production phase more carbon intensive, to make the use phase lower

    3. Monitoring and managing the de-velopment of in-use stock is thus central to the transition to a morecircular socioeconomic metabolism, which is why a separate stock ca-tegory is part of the dashboard.

      so it's like limited WIP, but for steel


    1. When we purchase solar and wind energy, we use the GHG Protocol’s market-based method to demonstrate how renewable energy purchases—from Amazon Wind Farm Texas, for example—reduce our consumption of grid electricity.9

      this is new to me.

    2. Amazon Devices: We developed a specialized carbon footprint model to address the complexity of the manufacturing, use, and end-of-life of Amazon devices, including Echo devices, Kindle e-readers, Fire Tablet, Fire TV, Ring, Blink, and all others. This starts at the component level—including where components are sourced and how they are manufactured into products—and extends to customers’ use of the product and the eventual product end-of-life.

      Okay, and these here sound like bespoke models like you might make using AMEE

    3. Financial: We combine data on Amazon’s spending with industry-specific, dollar-based emissions factors (e.g., a standard amount of carbon dioxide pollution associated with every dollar of spending on a particular activity). We use this model to capture carbon emissions from activities like the construction of Amazon buildings, the manufacturing of Amazon’s Private Brands products, equipment used in our warehouses, office supplies, and other purchased goods and services.

      And this here sounds like they're using an input/output based approach like industrial ecologists are doing.

    4. Our approach to quantifying our carbon footprint reflects the complexity of our business. Our team of researchers and scientists have combined cutting-edge life cycle assessment (LCA) science and Amazon Web Services (AWS) big data technology to develop a robust software solution that processes billions of operational and financial records from Amazon’s operations across the world to calculate our carbon footprint. The software estimates carbon emissions for all activities within our system boundary using a dollar-based environmental assessment model, then enhances the accuracy of carbon-intensive activities with detailed, process-based LCA models.

      This sounds a lot like a top down approach as outlined by systems like Ecocost or Trucost, then supplemented with bottom up modelling of specific processes

    1. The Panoply, a Code of Conduct that encompasses environmental and ethical standards.

      This links results in a 404 file not found message right now.

    2. “It’s pretty easy to decarbonise,” says Adams. “We’re just not doing it fast enough right now.”

      Oh wow, without the rest of the sentence, this sounds really out of context.

      It's HARD to decarbonise in general (steel, shipping, aviation for example are all really tough) but tech by comparison has it easy.

      Cloud and IT services are much simpler to decarbonise than the other sectors, partly because our experience of a site doesn't really change depending whether it's running on green power or not.

    1. While in some parts of the world, you can buy power from a company that only sells renewable power, there are other parts of the world where the grid is regulated to the point that you don’t even have choice of supplier – if they burn coal, and you need to run a server in that part of the world, there’s no other option. Elsewhere, there may be places where company A sells renewable power, but also sells the fact that energy has been generated with renewable power separately, so that another company B, can buy this credit, and then say they use green power, even if the supplier they use is relying on fossil fuels to generate electricity for their servers .
    1. I was given new language that helped described my own personal experiences of how care services (for example) are often designed for the individual when in fact they need to be designed for the system, unit or in systems coaching language, ‘the third entity.’ The Third Entity is that which lives outside the individuals in a particular relationship system whether a work team, family, community or society at large.

      the third entitiy is the outer ring

    1. Purchase green power certificates. In July 2017, China launched a pilot program that permits voluntary trade of green power certificates from solar and wind power. Each certificate represents 1 MGh of electricity. Buying green power certificates allows companies to claim environmental benefits associated with renewable energy generation, even if electricity from a renewable power plant does not feed directly into a data center facility.

      Oh, wow, they do RECS too now? I wonder if they publish them too

    2. 196.96

      this forecast is almost the same as the IEA's earlier report for global demand for energy from datacentres

    1. 194

      This basically says that efficiency gains, mainly from cloud, are holding back absolute growth in energy use.

  6. Aug 2019
    1. Much of this will be lost if the quiet time and ability to think independently is taken away, and if, in particular, the discussion portion is lost.

      quiet time is disrupted when people are writing into the same mutually visible section of a google doc, or mural for example.

    2. act and influence

      There's a deliberate decision not to talk about the things you have no control over right now

    3. Everyone can vote all at once. Are the consequences positive, negative, or both?

      Okay, this is useful prompt, rather than just saying "what are the good things, and are the bad things?"

    4. A copy of your company’s vision, mission and values

      This is good to mention, based on an earlier run through we did.


    1. This is where the insight from Web IDL comes in. When you squint at it, Web IDL kind of looks like an IR.

      wow, this is much more ambitious than I first realised

    1. The energy consumption of ICT equipment in times of low utilization is still a big issue, even if the 2019 ecodesign regulation on servers and storage products will lower the idle consumption.

      ecodesign regulation? what is the equiv outside of yurp?

    2. Server utilization has long been an important issue, as many servers are often idle and although they do not do any work, they still consume power

      what is typical utilisation here?

    3. For 5G mobile radio it is already clear that the energy consumption per GB will be considerably lower than in previous generations,

      Why would this be?


    1. While this is absolutely true, if you care about performance, you should be running your own content from a CDN already. With the price of modern hosting solutions being what they are (this site is fronted by Cloudflare which is free), there’s very little excuse for not serving your own assets from one.

      You can run a CDN without needing to have a different origin to download from

    2. In short, although nice in theory, there is no evidence that cross-domain caching is in any way effective.

      Useful to know. Goes against common assumptions

    1. In DynamoDB, tables, items, and attributes are the core components that you work with. A table is a collection of items, and each item is a collection of attributes. DynamoDB uses primary keys to uniquely identify each item in a table and secondary indexes to provide more querying flexibility.

      A-ha! Wow, it's JUST like Redis. I had no idea!

    1. If you’re part of an existing climate campaigning group, think of how you can participate in or help organise around September 20 to keep the momentum going. Link your action explicitly to the school strikes (“We’re doing this because we’re answering the call of the striking students, and taking action”).
    1. Stronge said the reason most people are not aware of these failures is because the whole industry is designed with it in mind. Companies that rely heavily on undersea cables spread their data across multiple routes, so that if one goes down, customers are not cut off.

      okay, so part of the statement, in Maddie's piece about not being exposed by a falling cable is more than bluster

    2. with many in recent years being funded by internet giants such as Facebook, Google, Microsoft and Amazon

      So, does FANG own these too?

    1. At least one telecommunications company is now explicitly planning for future climate disruptions. Earlier this year AT&T partnered with Argonne National Labs to build a “Climate Change Analysis Tool,” which Chief Sustainability Officer Charlene Lake told Gizmodo will allow the company “to visualize the risks of sea-level rise—at the neighborhood level and 30 years into the future—so we can make the adaptations that are necessary today in order to help ensure resilience.” Lake added that AT&T is also piloting the tool for high winds and storm surges, and in the future plans to incorporate other climate impacts, like drought and more severe wildfires.

      Is this public? It seems like a public version of this would bring action more quickly - if you can see your supply chain will be underwater you're gonna want to speak to them

    1. Memory safety is a property of programming languages where all memory access is well defined. Most programming languages in use today are memory-safe because they use some form of garbage collection. However, systems-level languages (i.e., languages used to build the underlying systems other software depends on, like OS kernels, networking stacks, etc.) which cannot afford a heavy runtime like a garbage collector are usually not memory-safe.

      OK, so the garbage collector imposes a large overhead here

    1. The current rise of eco-minded white supremacy follows a direct line from the powerful attorney, conservationist and eugenicist Madison Grant – a friend of trees, Teddy Roosevelt, and the colonial superiority of white land stewardship. Grant, along with the influential naturalist John Muir and other early Anglo-Saxon conservationists, was critical in preserving the country’s wildlands for white enjoyment. Muir, who founded the Sierra Club environmental group in 1892, was disturbed by the “uncleanliness” of the Native Americans, whom he wanted removed from Yosemite. Grant successfully lobbied, in equal measure, for the creation of protected national parks and the restriction of immigration by non-whites.


    1. Control Center for Offset Earth

      Metrics showing how many people are subscribing, and so on.

    1. Unfortunately, as I understand, AWS Event Bridge does not support CloudEvents for the time being. Though of course it may change. For example Azure Event Grid suppports CloudEvents, beside its own proprietary schema.

      Cloud Events as a standard/convention for multi cloud triggers. I didn't know this existed.

    1. InnovationThis ice-making submarine would pop out bergs to help fight climate changeThe proposed vessel would ply polar waters, but scientists have their doubts about its effectiveness.
  7. Jul 2019
    1. If you are an individual working, or planning to work, in this industry, then by signing your declare you won’t work on fossil fuel clients. No one is policing you or checking up, this is a promise to yourself.

      Explicit about the monitoring here.

    2. If you lead an agency, by signing you promise to disclose your turnover by sector, and highlight any climate conflicts. Check the Client Disclosure Reports on this site to see what we mean. Your deadline is end 2019 to disclose.

      Simple, explicit. Disclose turnover by sector, they have an example.

    3. Our the ultimate goal is to divest creative talent from destruction.

      This is some good wordsmithery

    1. The backend data repository is based on MySQL. Therepository contains 16 tables that captures the varioussource information described above. The current size of therepository (excluding the real-time data) is 92 MB.

      100mb for all the data, mapping all that infra?

    2. Provider maps often contain additional information aboutnetwork node resources. This information can range from lo-cation (potentially down to Lat/Lon coordinates), to IP ad-dresses, to resource or service types. Our ability to extractnetwork node information from the discovered resources isdependent on an assembly of scripts that include Flash-based extraction and parsing tools [3], optical characterrecognition parsing tools [7], PDF-based parsing tools [8],in addition to standard text manipulation tools. This li-brary of parsing scripts can extract information and enterit into database automatically. For instances where none ofthe tools or scripts are successful on the provider data, wemanually parse and enter the data.

      This sounds like an meaningful thing you could use OSM to augment, and the argument for doing it makes sense - "you like the internet right? So help map it, before you lose it"

    3. Visualization-centric representations often reveal no in-formation about link paths other than connectivity (e.g.,line-of-sight abstractions are common). For these we en-ter the network adjacency graph by hand into Atlas. How-ever, some maps provide highly detailed geographic layoutsof fiber conduit connectivity (e.g.,Level3 [5]). We transcribethese, maintaining geographic accuracy, into the Atlas us-ing a process and scripts that(i)capture high resolutionsub-images,(ii)patch sub-images into a composite image,(iii)extract a network link image using color masking tech-niques,(iv)project the link-only image into ArcGIS usinggeographic reference points (e.g.,cities), and(v)use linkvectorization in ArcGIS to enable analysis (e.g.,distanceestimation) of the links.

      So, it sounds like they're using some kind of computer viz to pull compare a set of tiles to some other image showing the infrastructure, to work out the rough coords to project onto a map

    4. In addition to Internet search, we appeal to the largenumber of existing Internet systems and publicly availabledata they provide. This includes PeeringDB [9], NetworkTime Protocol (NTP) servers, Domain Name System servers(DNS), listings of Internet Exchange Points (IXPs), Look-ing Glass servers, traceroute servers, Network Access Points,etc.Beyond their intrinsic interest, it is important to rec-ognize that NTP servers [6] often publish their Lat/Lon co-ordinates and are typically co-located with other network-ing/computing equipment. Similarly, DNS servers routinelypublish their location via the LOC record [18]. In total, over4,700 network resources of various types are annotated inthe Internet Atlas database.

      Okay, this is properly smart, and use pretty much all the data sources I would have thought to look at.

    5. Third, the de facto useof IP addresses gathered from TTL-limited probing cam-paigns as the basis for inferring structure has inherent diffi-culties. These include the well known interface disambigua-tion problem [26], widely varying policies on probe blockingamong providers, and difficulties in managing large scalemeasurement infrastructures [24]. We believe that a differ-ent approach to building and maintaining a repository ofInternet maps is required.

      So, this basically says traceroute by itself isn't enough

    1. Given the large number of nodes and miles of fiberconduit that are at risk, the key takeaway is thatdevelopingmitigation strategies should begin soon.

      So, I guess this would be a reasonable question to ask, right?

    2. To localize overlap we develop a Coastal Infrastructure Risk(CIR) metric that highlights the concentration of Internetinfrastructure per geographic location (e.g., city). The CIRmetric will be used to elucidate the impact of sea level riseon Internet assets temporally. Using CIR, we identify the top10 major geographic locations most at risk, and thus in needof action by municipalities and service providers to secureexisting deployments and plan for new deployments.

      Wow, this is equal parts fascinating and horrifying

    3. The firstis the communication fiber conduit and termination pointdata in Internet Atlas

      AH HA! THAT'S Where the data is from.

    4. We also quantify therisks to individual service provider infrastructures and findthat CenturyLink, Inteliquent, and AT&T are at highest risk.

      Would these show up in their SASB or Climate Risk Reporting (i..e Task Force on Climate Risk)

    5. In this paper we consider the risks to Internet infrastructurein the US due to sea level rise. Our study is based on sealevel incursion projections from the National Oceanic andAtmospheric Administration (NOAA) [12] and Internet in-frastructure deployment data from Internet Atlas [24]. Wealign the data formats and assess risks in terms of the amountand type of infrastructure that will be under water in dif-ferent time intervals over the next 100 years. We find that4,067 miles of fiber conduit will be under water and 1,101nodes (e.g.,points of presence and colocation centers) willbe surrounded by water in the next 15 years.
    1. incorporate suppliers with negative impacts on sustainability (identified in level 1) into the audit process as part of risk management.

      This seems to imply suppliers who can't disclose emissions would be seen as a risk in future

    1. Mark Parrington, a senior scientist at the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast, said the amount of CO2 emitted by Arctic wildfires between 1 June and 21 July 2019 is around 100 megatonnes and is approaching the entire 2017 fossil fuel CO2 emissions of Belgium.

      Fuuuuuuuucking hell. The last 20 days of Arctic wildfires is the same as all the fossil fuel emissions from Belgium last year.

    1. provide a regularly refreshed set of minimum ICT sustainability provisions (including energy/carbon reporting)

      OK. Here's what I would ask to see in an FoI. I imagine any other organisation thinking about the emissions from digital services would also benefit from seeing these, as

      a) they're likely covered by the binding legal targets set for the UK b) I've spoken to a few asking me for some myself

    2. quantify and report on its e-waste and energy and carbon footprint of the digital and technology services used and their sustainability impacts

      So, this looks like a pretty explicit commitment to measure the carbon footprint of digital services to me.

      It seems like it might be FOI-able, as Paul suggested. Anyone?

    3. adopt an “e-conferencing facility first” approach/policy to meetings, seeking to positively impact reduction of journeys with a target of 40% reduction

      This is the first time I've seen explicit recommendations from a public sector org on this.

    1. KLM has stated it is against this type of national CO2 aviation tax, because it believes Dutch passengers would travel by car to neighbouring countries, and continue to fly from there. On the company’s website, it says: “A global approach makes more sense. If the tax is implemented, we believe that it should be invested in sustainability of the aviation industry. National taxes will just go into the national coffers and won’t do anything to combat climate change.”

      This sounds like a delaying tactic

    1. Integration with local cloud providers is also being carried out. In addition, unlike Kubernetes, which only allows you to optimize resources within an existing cluster, MELODIC allows you to dynamically add cloud resources as the application needs, as well as delete them when they are not needed

      This is a thing K8s can't do? I though the point was that you can add new nodes to a resource group.

    1. Having determined the most suitable (i.e. ‘greenest’) dat-acentre location, the program sends a request to the cloudKubernetes or IaaS management API to provision a ResourceGroup at that datacentre, then verifies that this was successful.Upon confirming the success of Resource Group creation arequest to provision a Kubernetes cluster is sent. Typically,a new cluster takes around 10 minutes to provision and forthe credentials to be agreed upon9, and often an additionalminute or two for all of Kubernetes’s internal components tobe in a ‘Ready’ status.

      So, this presumably this is the collection of nodes you might drop pods into is they're particularly green when scheduling

    2. Secondly, electric energy is alsoconsumed during transmission over the network of any data(input to or results of computation), labeledEN(energynetwork). This energy consumption is proportional to thevolume of data transferred [49]. Finally, there is a ramp-upoverhead from deploying the Kubernetes service in the targetlocationER.

      Oh wow, so this scheduler takes into account the cost of shunting workloads into more distant but greener areas?

      That's clever.

    3. This,coupled with Kubernetes’s support for extendability and plug-ins makes Kubernetes the most suitable for which to develop aglobal scheduler and bring about the widest adoption, therebyproducing the greatest impact on carbon emission reduction.

      Okay, this IS interesting. Improving this makes in possible to improve ALL the k8s installs

    4. Hasan et al. discuss green cloud computing from a businesscloud user’s perspective: companies may choose to specifya requirement for green energy usage in their Service LevelAgreements (SLAs) with cloud computing providers [28]. Inthe paper they extend the Cloud Service Level Agreement(CSLA) language in order to incorporate two new thresholdparameters that ensure that more environmentally sustainablepolicies are adhered to.

      New language for me - Cloud Service Level Agreement

    5. ‘Green geographic load balancing’ was also used in apaper by Islam et al. [24]; however, this was with the aimof rationing water consumption in datacentres rather thanreducing carbon emissions. This is especially important duringperiods of drought, as experienced in California in recentyears

      Did not expect. Shifting workloads in DC to avoid worsening droughts

    1. The case studies highlight methods for increasing GPP through thorough evaluation of the cost and benefits of sustainable purchases and the engagement of the market in the tendering process. The life-cycle costing (LCC) approach to promote the mass purchase of energy-efficient, compact fluorescent lamps by Indian Railways was accompanied by an awareness campaign to demonstrate the ir economic benefits despite their high upfront cost

      I wonder if this is a vector for the Solar trains idea from @crisortunity...

    2. Given that ÖBB Infra’s annual investment expenditure amounts up to EUR 2 billion (approximately 1% of Austrian gross domestic product), procurement is deemed as an important lever for the development of sustainable economic operations throughout the enterprise, so as to reduce the consumption of energy and resources. A guidance note on sustainable procurement was published in 2011.

      These are the night train peeps

    3. According to the Act of 2005, state agencies should purchase green products and services for which the eco-label criteria exist. In 2012, there were about 870 umbrella organisations comprising about 30 000 subsidiary organisations subject to the Act of 2005. Green procurement can be made in two ways. Each organisation can directly purchase green products and services. If the total amount of purchase exceeds a certain threshold, the purchase is commissioned by the Korea Public Procurement Service (PPS), the central public procurement agency. Otherwise, each organisation can require contractors to purchase green products in delivering their services (e.g.construction, maintenance, repair and operation services) by including special conditions or green specifications in the contract.

      Wait they automatically need to prioritise green products over others? Did not expect.

    1. Argument maps can be structured as text but can also be produced as a specialised form of mindmap

      argument maps exist? wow

    2. Using structured questions (for instance, a series of yes/no questions related to the area of theassembly), software such as pol.is can be used to identify ​different clusters of opinions​ . Thismeans the assembly can be presented with the different kinds of views that are present, without alarge number of people who have been mobilised for one category artificially dominating theagenda.

      so this makes it clear that loads of opinions come from one group rather than it looking like an artificial consenus

    3. Potential uses are divided into three broad areas covering the use of digital tools before, duringand after a Citizen’s Assembly.

      prep - bringing people in internal - facilitating external - sharing products

  8. greening.oecd.org greening.oecd.org
    1. 78% of the total emissions reported in 2017 was linked to air travel.


    1. CHÔRA is a space of intense creative and entrepreneurial activities and effects, and InnoSPACES are different from the standard “garage”-like innovation labs and accelerators on account of the distinctly strategic nature of this context of activities: the level of intelligence, of sollicitations, of contaminations and fertilisations and the febrile intensity with which they are pursued mean that the InnoSPACES enjoy a uniquely privileged context in which to operate and generate value.

      SO my reading here is that this InnoSpace is essentially a well run coworking space, with explicit provision of specialist services to the people in the program

    2. The primary effect of Users accessing the Capability is to design and activate Options and use them to articulate Portfolios

      So, in digital terms, build collections of useful products in there org

    3. It is a design principle of CHÔRA that Founders should not be exclusive owners of the system, but rather that ownership should evolve to adequately represent engagement, which could occur by establishing rights of ownership accrued through terms of usership

      ok, so this interesting, and acknowledges that you need more than founders, if say… you're talking about growing a space of companies, NGOs etc.

    4. The flat image that Platform carries is a semantic legacy of the “grounded” meeting place that markets used to be, a legacy that has recently been reduced into the “motherboardness” of technology platforms and of technology enabled two sided match-making exchanges.


    5. Robust Strategic Arguments articulate and support new intents, determine strategic commitments, allocate resources and effectuate innovation

      Okay, so this is a bit like an investment thesis, or an underlying world view that would inform activity. I think

    6. The core activity that the Capability enables is the design of Strategic Options and the dynamic management of Strategic Portfolios

      Okay, now we're talking. This talk of strategic options reminds me of the black swan chat about options in product management



    1. This requires a molecular approach to the generation of scale and the production of impact effects, and a system capability to generate the internal fastening, a sap that nourishes and holds together the elements, the liquid binding that enables intermolecular bonds to occur and build scale and density.


    2. The deliberate design of cross-fertilising effects, of exchange and integrated outcomes is what ultimately builds up to a core density of assimilated experiences, and it is at this stage that the system will begin to generate scaling and exponentially growing outcomes.

      so far, the key diff seems to having projects talk to each other more, and try to share what they learn so patterns are revealed quickly. this doesn't seem all that new

    3. It is an effect of dynamic accrual, of a pelleting that produces an organic thickening, a coming together around attractors, a scaling up through molecular composition of the forms with which we seek impact effects



    1. And what happened when they started building this line was that the farmers got so upset and once again I mean this is exactly what we saw in Arkansas, felt that they were being taken advantage of, felt that they were being taken for granted, that their land wasn't valuable and he leads a mini revolt. I mean he literally took his tractor and ran over some of the tribox and they surveying equipment and the people came out, chasing people off, was arrested for that. And this protest movement grew and grew and to the point where there was a winter where several of the new lattice steel towers were toppled and hundreds of glass insulators shot out.

      Waaaat. So we've seen people attacking infra before in the states

    1. urkhardt and her colleagues used a computer model of the atmosphere to estimate how much warming contrails caused in 2006 – the latest year for which a detailed air traffic inventory is available – and how much they will cause by 2050, when air traffic is expected to be four times higher.

      I wonder what the radiative forcing figures might be for 2020?

    1. The noise issue remains, and Boom estimates of 1,000 to 2,000 orders (versus 14 Concordes), assume the plane won’t initially be able to operate over land.

      Oh wow, it's still really loud too?

  9. Jun 2019
    1. Recruit enough volunteers to staff all waste stations throughout facility during heavy traffic times; goal of 250 volunteers for waste bins throughout the event

      Wow. Staffing the waste stations?

    2. Use sustainability clauses in all hotel contracts

      What do these look like?

    3. 50% GreenLeader certified hotels

      Presumably this?


      You can't seem to filter a search based on this.

    4. No red meat at any catered event, concession and not available on menu

      So, this was in Atlanta, at a 15k person conference.

    5. 70% GMEGG audit participation for show management

      So, nearly 3/4 of the orgs paying to be there filled out the stats

    6. Collect and dispose of 99% of gaffing tape to avoid recycling stream contamination

      Never really thought of the difficulty of recycling gaffer tape, but…

    7. Increase carbon offset program to $15 and provide backstory in registration of what project we are supporting for a stronger message to attendee

      So they deliberately had it in, or people had control over whether they took part or not?

    8. Emission factors for electricity consumption at venues were obtained from EPA eGRID V1.0 (2010 Data)

      Given the decarbonisation of the energy grid since 2010, these are likely overestimates now, as coal comes off the grid

    9. reported by hauler

      ok. so this would involve getting these stats from the commercial waste provider for the venue

    10. Hotels – based on average hotel water usage per occupied room (L) in Chicago, Illinois (Cornell Hotel Sustainability Benchmarking Index 2016: Energy, Water, Carbon).

      Okay, so if we tracked water we would need some idea of who was in hotels

    11. based on total gallons of water consumed to produce total gallons of gasoline consumed

      Ah, so this is a bit like scope 3 - as in water that was needed to make the gasoline that the cards and vans used.

    12. The exhibitor will not use individual waste containers in exhibit booths. The venue and show management will provide recycling stations throughout the exhibit area for attendee and exhibitor use during show hours. Each exhibitor is responsible for disposing of waste and recyclables at these stations.

      Ah, to capture the waste, and not end up with a case of exhibitors sending their own crap to landfill untracked

    13. COMPUSYSTEMS: Through months of testing badge materialoptions, Greenbuild and CompuSystems found a paper-based badge solution that works for Greenbuild and can be used for any other show looking to eliminate the cost and waste associated with plastic name badge holders

      A way to get rid of these awful plastic lanyard badge holders?

    14. For the first time, a focused event sustainability education session was offered to event organizers, venues, and vendors. The session featured the Greenbuild sustainability team along with our partners, sharing how Greenbuild incorporates sustainability throughout the event as well as offering actions and information on how to include greener practices into any event management strategy.

      So, to the sponsors and venue people and folks involved, they had a training session and webinar shared

    15. By tweaking this objective to “Lead the Event Industry Through the Advancement of Sustainable Event Management Initiatives,” we focused on how Greenbuild could do better for the event industry as a whole.

      This is pretty similar to "work openly and share what works", basically

    16. McCormick Place was located a few miles from most of the hotels in our room block. Knowing this would impact our carbon footprint, Greenbuild partnered with ride-sharing operator Lyft to encourage event participants to share rides to and from the convention center and hotels. Lyft offset all the carbon emissions for rides taken to and from McCormick Place during the dates of the conference. Attendees received a 5% discount off their fare to encourage the use of Lyft. Almost 20% of Greenbuild attendees used our code.

      20% of attendees used Lyft

    17. Field to Table served as the caterer for the Celebration. They are committed to sourcing almost everything locally, finding ingredients from farmers in Illinois and bordering states. They were also a fantastic partner in managing waste. All waste leaving the kitchen was weighed, and they had front of house and back of house recycling and composting stations with volunteers to help us achieve waste diversion goals.

      So, this is how they came up with the figures then.

    18. Greenbuild 2018 Chicago Sustainability Pledges

      Get attendees to consider how they got around while at the event, and where they stay

    19. This year, Greenbuild collaborated with Waste Management to help us engage and train a team of 400+ volunteers about proper materials management. Through back-of-house tours and daily training, they worked together to drive as much material to recycling and compost

      There was a training program needed for the volunteers at the conf

    20. A significant portion of our reduction calculations came from the enforcement of Greenbuild’s 500 piece maximum limit on publications that media partners can bring to the show

      So, they don't try to track it, but they have a maximim limit on swag they can bring.

    21. attendees were asked to indicate if they wanted a printed guide during registration, significantly reducing overages in printing

      Simple. Just ask if it's wanted.

    1. Unlike the Gold Standard or CDM, VCS has no requirement that its carbon offset projecthave additional social benefits, allowing for a wider range of projects.

      Ah, so THAT'S the key difference

    1. We recommend to prioritise battery-electric and hydrogen (pure and/or in the form of ammonia) technologiesfrom sustainable renewablesourcesto decarbonise shipping

      So, hydrogen fuel cells are less energy dense than ammonia fuel cells, but they need extra reformers to turn the ammonia to hydrogen to use for power, and ammonia is toxic. So it's a trade off of energy density versus relative simplicity

    1. Chancellor Merkel was probably also the first world leader to recognize that fighting climate change at its roots in Africa was probably a better way to stem the flow of migrants than to invest in more patrol boats along the Mediterranean coast.

      It's good that she's recognised for this, but oh god, it's depressing that this is even considered more than a basic level understanding.

    1. This said global greenhouse gas emissions should reach net-zero by 2070 to limit warming to 1.5C, with CO2 at net-zero by 2050.

      Presumably this is because other non CO2 gases don't hang around for as long, I think

    2. “This is a whole economy target…and we intend for it to apply to international aviation and shipping.”


  10. May 2019
    1. MIT professor Eric Von Hippel’s research into user-driven innovation shows that when the user is given direct access to the means for creating a solution, potentially at least, tremendous innovation can result. The "sticky information" that otherwise must be rendered into requirements documents or transferred from user to builder is difficult and never complete. When this step doesn’t have to take place because user and builder are the same person or same team, the outcome is much better. Amazon’s Away Team model embraces this concept and allows teams to create building blocks that have ideal fit to purpose.

      This feels a bit like the system of theft from Simon Wardley's stuff

    1. Every technology worker that leaves a company does so at a cost of £30,000.1 The cost of not addressing workers’ concerns is bad for business — especially when the market for skilled workers is so competitive.

      30k per employee. What's the typical turnover in a given company per year? You lose of your staff 3% per annum?

    2. Although the idea of a ‘hippocratic oath’ for tech has often been discussed as a way to embed ethical practice in the tech industry, only 2% saw a voluntary commitment as the most effective way to mitigate potential harms.

      Useful stats when referring to the pledge

    3. In AI, 59% of people have experience of working on products that they felt might be harmful for society, compared to 28% of tech workers as a whole.

      Cripes :0

    1. Local-first applications keep the primary copy of the data in files in each device’s local filesystem, so the user can read and write this data anytime, even while offline.

      Local first is different to offline-first

    1. Aggregation as 'carbon dioxide equivalent'73 fails to capture this fundamental difference in how emissions of short-lived and long-lived GHGs affect global temperature. However, other constraints such as international comparability (Box 2.4) support the continued use of existing 'CO2 equivalence' metrics for now

      So using CO2e doesn't make total sense here, as the time in the atmosphere means it's not quite compatible

    2. Distribution of risks. The additional increase in climate risk between 1.5°C and 2°C warmingwould affect poor and vulnerable people most of all. Poverty and disadvantage have increasedwith recent warming and are expected to increase for many populations as average globaltemperature increases from 1°C to 1.5°C and higher.

      Does this imply you would have much less climate migration betwee 1.5 and 2 degrees?

    3. Climate change has affected crop yields, with more negative impacts than positive effects. Climate change has been acting to reduce global average yields of wheat and maize by around 1% per decade since 1960, preventing yields increasing as fast as they would otherwise have done due to other factors.

      First case I've seen of it being cited as a factor already

    4. Future climate risks to society are dependent on the interaction of hazard, exposure and vulnerability:

      This is slightly different to Risk = impact X frequency

    5. Around 420 million fewer people would beexposed to extreme heatwaves if warming was kept to 1.5°C than 2°C.

      holy caw. Like the heatwaves that killed 90k people in Western Europe? Those heatwaves?

  11. Apr 2019
    1. Simple, fair, predictable pricing.Deploy your first app in minutes.

      This is the other alternative to Heroku, offering a nice developer experience

    1. The rule, which was decided at the last minute and reportedly pushed by Saudi Arabia, means fuels with a 10% or higher reduction in lifecycle emissions compared to standard “Jet A1” can be counted as “clean oil” and eligible for in-sector offsets.


    2. However, the requirements only apply for operators with international emissions above 10,000tCO2 per year. This means most of the world’s private jets are exempt.

      Private jets, the most egregious of emitters, are exempt. Wow.

    3. International aviation alone is responsible for around 1.3% of global CO2 emissions, according to ICAO.

      So, international aviation is greater than domestic

    4. Significantly, these estimates do not account for the impacts of aircraft emissions other than CO2, such as nitrogen oxides (NOx) and soot. These factors are thought to more than double the global warming impact of aviation.


    1. The solution enables groups from across the company to view emissions data based on group-specific access parameters; on initial rollout, we restricted each group’s view to data that was immediately actionable by them. For example, our data center team has a global view of data center emissions data, whereas oursubsidiaryfacilities teams can access data for facilities in their specific geographical region. By giving them access to just the data that is relevant to their partof the organization (and not the broader organization), we help eliminate distractions and keep the groups focused on opportunities to drive emissions-reducing initiatives within their areas.

      Sacrificing transparency to avoid distractions. Would this also save embarassing some high emitting areas like enterprise sales or exec travel?

    2. Vintagerefers to the year that the green power isgenerated. Carbon accounting specifies that the green power purchases be generated in the reporting inventory yearthat the green power will be credited.

      You can't buy offsets from 2014 to offset emissions in 2018

    1. Across the seven countries surveyed by the CASPI team, a clear link emerged between people’s wellbeing and the extent to which they engaged in low-carbon behaviours: people who were ‘greener’ also tended to be happier, even taking into account their own personal income.50

      oh, wow, not just because they're already rich?

    2. There are plenty of campaigns which have been completely oblivious to the relationship between one pro-environmental behaviour and another. One striking and bizarre initiative saw consumers encouraged by a supermarket marketing campaign to “turn lights into flights” by earning “air miles” through the purchase of energy-efficient lightbulbs.


    3. Many campaigns in the 1990s and 2000s focused on ordinary citizens ‘doing their bit’ through reducing their personal carbon-footprints.8 But there was then a concerted shift away from openly talking about the role of individual behaviours, in part reflecting the failure of most campaigns to bring about meaningful changes in people’s behaviours (and more importantly their carbon footprints


    4. Carbon emissions increase sharply with income: the top 10% of emitters are responsible for close to half of all emissions; and much of this difference is underpinned by household income



    1. ur focus is on creatings systems ofdecision-making, like Citizens’ Assemblies, where ordinary people learn from each other and help usall to take collective decisions.

      This doesn't come across so strongly in the protests yet, but it's an important point

    1. Air pollution contributed to nearly one in every 10 deaths in 2017, making it a bigger killer than malaria and road accidents and comparable to smoking, according to the State of Global Air (SOGA) 2019 study published on Wednesday. In south Asia, children can expect to have their lives cut short by 30 months, and in sub-Saharan Africa by 24 months, because of a combination of outdoor air pollution caused by traffic and industry, and dirty air indoors, largely from cooking fires. In east Asia, air pollution will shorten children’s lives by an estimated 23 months. However, the life expectancy burden is forecast to be less than five months for children in the developed world.

      And we still SUBSIDISE fossil fuels

  12. Mar 2019
    1. The secret sauce to mitigating uninformed opinions is to explicitly state where you are in the decision cycle, and your confidence in the decision at this stage. Add in a dash of the decision’s importance and you’ve got a reliable, repeatable template for how to communicate where you’re at.

      This is a really nice way to frame it.

    1. Despite the existence of these two contradictory trends, even the most optimistic studies express concerns regarding the capacity of technological progress to counter the growth in volumes by 2020.For example, this report from the American Department of Energy and the University of California on the energy consumption of data centers in 2016 in the United States, states:"The key levers for optimizing theenergy efficiency [of data centers] identified in this report, better PUE, better rate of use of servers and more linear consumption all have theoretical and practical limits and the amount of progress already achieved suggests that these limits will be reached in the relatively near future."(Shehabi, A. et al., 2016)

      Okay it was that same paper they referred to.

    2. India plans to launch a massive program to deploy commercial 5G networks in 2020 to boost the performance and capacity of existing mobile networks, taking into account that the 4G networks (which only took off in 2017 due to a price war over data started by the telecommunications operator Reliance Jio)are making big advances towards general coverage.

      Hello, so they do reference the massive increase in data and data plans

    3. Scenario 3 –ideal case, where the exchanges are made exclusively with the platform.

      His number seems super duper high

    4. We have therefore sought to identify levers of action more closely related to the demand and consumption of digital services than on the energy efficiency of supply.

      This is long overdue, I'm ready Glad to see this

    5. Spending 10 minutes watching a high definition video by streamingon a smartphone is equivalent to using a 2,000W electric oven at full power for 5 minutes


  13. Feb 2019
    1. Last year, Google quietly started an oil, gas, and energy division. It hired Darryl Willis, a 25-year veteran of BP, to head up what the Wall Street Journal described as “part of a new group Google has created to court the oil and gas industry.” As the VP of Google Cloud Oil, Gas, and Energy, Willis spent the year pitching energy companies on partnerships and lucrative deals. “If it has to do with heating, lighting or mobility for human beings on this planet, we’re interested in it,” Mr. Willis told the Journal. “Our plan is to be the partner of choice for the energy industry.”

      Jeez. At what point do we grow a spine and take climate change seriously?

    1. Salesforce was the first major internet company that exclusively leased data center space to adopt a 100 percent renewable energy commitment in 2013. Salesforce has multiple data center leases in Data Center Alley, totaling 46 megawatts, including a massive new lease with QTS in its new Manassas data center.[

      How to do green DCs when you don't own DCs

    2. But despite recent creative claims of being “100 Percent Renewable Globally” from surplus supply of renewable credits in other markets,[66] Google has not yet taken steps to add renewable energy to meet the demand of its data centers in Virginia

      Ah! So they do the "RECs in other markets" too!

    3. In 2018, five major IT brands with long-term commitments to renewable energy[52] and who operate data centers or have significant colocation leases in Virginia sent a letter to the Virginia State Corporation Commision (SCC) asking that they not be used by Dominion to justify new fossil fuel growth, asking instead for a greater supply of renewable energy.[53] The SCC ultimately rejected Dominion’s Integrated Resource Plan for the first time in December 2018, providing an important opportunity for additional large corporate customers to tell regulators they need a greater supply of renewables, not more investment in fossil fuel generation assets or pipelines like the ACP.[54]

      Wait, so these things two things are related? The letter forced the SCC to respond?

    4. The rapid deployment of renewable energy and the stagnation of mandatory renewable energy targets in many states has created a large surplus of “naked” or unbundled renewable credits available at the national level for purchase by the voluntary market, driving their price to record lows, less than $1/megawatt hour.

      So, if you're a huge buyer of electricity, and you are opaque about your offsets, it's easy to imagine that you're just loading up on these.

    5. AWS customers seeking to immediately reduce carbon emissions related to their cloud hosting could request to be hosted in Amazon’s California cloud, which is connected to a grid that is 50[33] to 70[34] percent powered by clean sources of electricity

      Not oregon?

    6. Dominion’s projected demand for the pipeline ignores the fact that six of its 20 largest customers, five of which are data center operators, have made commitments to run on 100 percent renewable energy.[

      How can you publicly audit a commitment like this?

    7. However, neither of these options improves the energy mix of Virginia or influences future direction and is therefore not ideal for those companies concerned with meaningfully reducing their operational carbon emissions. Of the 15 companies measured in this report, only Apple has invested in enough renewable energy procurement to match its demand in the region

      Ok, this makes me think that companies are relying on RECs everywhere else, and crediting Apple with specifically investing directly in RE in Virginia.

    8. Company Scorecard

      OK, so this is the table used to create that wild chart above showing DC capacity, compared to renewables capacity in Virginia

    9. If Amazon and other internet companies continue their rapid expansion of data centers in Virginia, but allow Dominion to continue with its strategy to use rising data center demand to justify significant new investment in fossil fuel infrastructure, they will be responsible for driving a massive new investment in fossil fuels that the planet cannot afford.

      So this is interesting. This report seems to be more about Dominion than anything, else, and basically pressuring amazon to get Dominion to step away from fossil fuels

    10. Dominion Energy, Virginia’s largest electricity provider and the primary electric utility for Data Center Alley, has strongly resisted any meaningful transition to renewable sources of electricity, currently representing only 4 percent of its generation mix, with plans to increase to only slightly over 10 percent by 2030.[1]

      Wow, 10% by 2030? That it?

    1. The purpose of spend control is simply to challenge what we’re doing. It’s important to remember that it doesn’t control the budgets. Those budgets belong to other departments or business units. Spend control simply says that if we’re going to spend more than £25K on something then that has to be presented to us and exposed to a bit of challenge.

      Easy enough to explain, and anchor stuff to.

    1. The ultimate guide to remote team meetings

      This was pretty accurate - it covers a lot of useful ground.

    1. Today the decline in deaths from the traditional diseases of density—tuberculosis and diarrheal and intestinal infectious diseases—in many large cities is due less to prevention through infrastructure improvements and public health oversight (see below). Instead the evidence suggests that treatment (e.g., antibiotics, childhood vaccines, oral rehydration solutions), rather than prevention (e.g., clean water, sanitation, and strong urban public health systems), has mattered the most

      Did not expect